Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
|Title:|| ||FAO - Myanmar Emergency page
|Date of publication:|| ||27 May 2008|
|Description/subject:|| ||A major collection of maps of Burma/Myanmar, notably agricultural maps... "This web page provides an overview of resources prepared by the Natural Resources Department of FAO about the area, the people, the environment (soils, climate) and the agriculture of Myanmar. Whenever possible, information referring specifically to the area affected by cyclone NARGIS at the beginning of May was included. Since most of the material is not metadata, but actual products, they can be used directly by relief-workers, planners, and those responsible for reconstruction.
House of a farmer/fisherman under floods during the monsoon season; Nyaungdone Island, Ayeyarwady Delta, October 1997, © J. Martinez-Beltran, FAO/NRL
The information is organised in 5 sections (see box on the left): (1) the current page with some general data, tools, maps, etc.; (2) downloadable digital and printed atlases about the agriculture of Myanmar; (3) maps from the GeoNetwork digital library developed and maintained by FAO. Geonetwork transparently points to external as well as internal data sources; (4) agroclimatic charts and crop calendars and; (5) miscellaneous publications in the technical series of the Organisation, covering all the sectors from fisheries, forestry, food security, crops, livestock, and coast management..."|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)|
|Format/size:|| ||html, pdf|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||28 May 2008|
|Title:|| ||FAO Country Information Systems and Country Profiles - Myanmar
|Description/subject:|| ||General Information;
|Date of entry/update:|| ||27 November 2007|
|Title:|| ||FAO/WFP CROP AND FOOD SECURITY ASSESSMENT MISSION TO MYANMAR
|Date of publication:|| ||16 March 2016|
Cyclone Komen made landfall in Myanmar at the end of July 2015
causing extensive flooding to
agricultural land, which remained
in some areas until September. This caused severe
localized losses to the 2015 monsoon season crops, especially p
addy, in Chin, Rakhine,
Ayeyarwaddy, Yangon, Sagaing
and parts of Bago. However, once the water receded, a large portion
of the flooded areas with paddy was replanted. Overall, the amount of irreversible damage was
At 27.5 million tonnes, the
the country’s staple food, in
(monsoon season 2015 and ongoing 2015 secondary season) would be 3 percent below the 2014
crop and 2 percent down
the average of the past
At subnational level, however,
production and livelihood of farming households and
communities in remote areas, in particular Chin and Rakhine, which concentrate highly vulnerable
populations with little resilience and low agricultural productivity, did not recover fully as in other areas
affected by the flooding. These populations may face severe food shortages in the coming months
and require relief assistance.
Livestock and fisheries were affected by the flooding in localized areas with losses of cattle, buffalo,
sheep, goats, pigs and poultry, and damage to fish and shrimp farms, resulting in reduced animal
protein intake in the most affected areas.
The country is a net exporter of rice and the 2015 paddy production, similar to previous years,
exceed domestic requirements, but tighter
supplies in marketing year 2015/16
are expected to
already high rice prices, raising
food access by most vulnerable sections of the population.
Prices of rice reached record levels in August and September
Kyat, increasing rice exports and
concerns about the damage to paddy crop. Domestic rice prices
declined with the harvest
between October and December 2015
but remained at
percent higher than a
For the majority of farming households,
the main impact of the July flooding
related to the
increased costs for replanting and
the delayed harvest.
Households depending primarily upon day
labour, and especially non-skilled day labour, re
main among the most vulnerable. They faced a gap in
wages during August and have difficulties in obtaining credit.
The July flooding was perceived to have moderate impact on children’s nutritional status and little
impact on infant and young children feeding practices.
In view of the
country’s adequate rice availabilities
the Mission recommends that any
in the form of cash
To cover immediate
agricultural needs following the 2015 flooding, the Mission recommends the
distribution of seeds for the next monsoon planting season;
as well as
water and pest-resistant
storage containers to protect farmer’s seeds, along with drying nets and post-harvest
most affected areas. In
and Ayeyarwaddy, recording the highest livestock losses,
of livestock is required to avoid a
fall in animal protein intake; while the
rebuilding of fishing gear and boats
rehabilitation of fish ponds is
in the most
affected Rakhine State."|
|Author/creator:|| ||Swithun Goodbody, Guljahan Kurbanova, Cristina Coslet, Aaron Wise, Nuria Branders and Sophie Goudet|
|Source/publisher:|| ||FAO, WFP|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (1.2MB-reduced version; 2.2MB-original)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=53464#.Vut7ikAp5Kr (UN News Centre article)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||18 March 2016|
|Title:|| ||FAO/WFP CROP AND FOOD SECURITY ASSESSMENT MISSION TO MYANMAR: SPECIAL REPORT
|Date of publication:|| ||22 January 2009|
|Description/subject:|| ||Mission Highlights:
• During the 2008 monsoon season, agricultural production suffered a significant decline in areas
severely affected by Cyclone Nargis, as a result of poor quality seeds, salinity and iron toxicity, lack of
agricultural labour and draught animals. Compared to the previous year, average paddy production is
estimated to have decreased by 32 percent in 7 affected townships in the Ayeyarwady Division and
by 35 percent in 3 affected townships of Yangon Division. At the divisional level, 2008 monsoon
paddy output was down by 13 percent in Ayeyarwady, and 9 percent in Yangon.
• Overall, aggretate food production in Myanmar is satisfactory, with positive outputs expected in most
states/divisions, reflecting favourable weather and increasing use of F1 and HYV rice seeds. The
Mission forecasts a 2008/09 (2008 monsoon and 2009 summer) cereal output of 21 million tonnes
(rice at 19.8 million tonnes, maize at 1.11 million tonnes, and wheat at 0.147 million tonnes),
3.2 percent below the previous year, but approximately 10 percent above the five-year average.
Cereal exports are expected to be high, with estimated rice exports of 477 000 tonnes and maize
exports of 159 000 tonnes conversely, up to 64 000 tonnes of wheat are expected to be imported.
• The cyclone-related damage to the livestock and fishing sectors in the Ayeyarwady Delta will continue
to affect food supply and income generation in 2008/09.
• Rats have damaged 685 hectares of rice and 400 hectares of maize in 121 villages of Chin
State;localized food insecurity in these villages is expected.
• Despite the increase in international rice prices, paddy prices in Myanmar remained low in 2008 due
to domestic market and trade barriers. These low prices, combined with the rising cost of fertilizer and
other major inputs, have significantly reduced farmers’ incentives profits, and may have negatively
impacted agricultural productivity and the country’s agricultural exports.
• The Mission received reports of high levels of malnutrition in northern Rakhine State and
recommends that a joint UNICEF and WFP food security and nutrition survey be conducted to verify
these reports and to plan appropriate interventions, if needed.
• In areas with high percentages of food insecure and vulnerable populations, defined as people living
below the food poverty line, baseline surveys are required to measure food security, vulnerability, and
nutrition, and plan appropriate interventions. Chin and Rakhine States are of the highest priority for
• There are more than 5 million people below the food poverty line in Myanmar. States/divisions which
the Mission found to be a priority for emergency food assistance are: cyclone-affected areas of
Ayeyarwady Division (85 000 tonnes); Chin State (23 000 tonnes), particularly those areas affected
by the rat infestation; Rakhine State (15 000 tonnes), particularly the north of the State; Kachin State
(8 300 tonnes); north Shan State (20 200 tonnes); east Shan State (7 000 tonnes); and Magwe
Division (27 500 tonnes). Most of the food commodities can be procured locally, with only a limited
requirement for imported food aid.
• The Mission recommends the following agricultural assistance in cyclone-affected Ayeyarwady and
Yangon Divisions: distribution of seeds for the coming summer and next monsoon planting seasons;
distribution of draught animals adapted to local climatic conditions; distribution of other livestock for
increased meat availability; distribution of hand tractors with training on their usage and maintenance;
distribution of fishing equipment; re-establishment of ice production plants; and training in
boat-building, net-making and on drafting of fishery laws.
• The Mission recommends the following actions in regard to national food policies: set up a market
information and food security warning system; develop balanced food production and trade policies
for both producers and consumers; remove domestic market/trade barriers; and improve market
|Author/creator:|| ||Cheng Fang, Maung Mar, Aye Mon, Thanda Kyi, Bernard Cartella, Jan Delbaere, Michael Sheinkman, Nang Seng Aye, Aaron Charlop-Powers, Siddharth Krishnaswamy, Raul Varela|
|Source/publisher:|| ||FAO, WFP|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (437K)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||22 September 2010|
|Title:|| ||MYANMAR: AGRICULTURAL SECTOR REVIEW INVESTMENT STRATEGY VOLUME 1 – SECTOR REVIEW
|Date of publication:|| ||2004|
|Description/subject:|| ||CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:
The Government of Myanmar has made it clear that it recognises the crucial importance of a dynamic, liberalised agricultural sector to the country, describing it as the base’ for national economic growth and calling for the evolution of a market-oriented economic system’ as a key economic objective, while the first policy declaration of the MOAI is to allow freedom of choice in agricultural production’. Yet more than a decade after the commencement of the transition from the previous Socialist regime, many aspects of the agricultural and rural economy remain substantially under Government control or influence, including the choice of crops to be planted, priorities for agricultural research and extension, access to inputs, processing and international trade...
The enormous potentials inherent in the agricultural and rural economy of Myanmar outlined in this document will continue to go unrealised unless the liberalisation process started in the late 1980s is encouraged to fully evolve. Although moves such as the liberalisation of rice marketing in 2003 should be welcomed, their impact is often reduced by a subsequent tightening of state controls – as indeed has been the case with the reintroduction of the prohibition on private sector exports of rice just a few months later. This study has identified a number of important technical issues that need to be addressed in order to facilitate the growth of the sector1, however, it must be understood that the impact of investment in the rural sector will be greatly lessened in the absence of continued liberalisation measures...
The three policy areas which are exerting the greatest influence on sector development at this time are those relating to rural financial services, international trade and directed production. The liberalisation of rural finances is critical because state-controlled structures (e.g. MADB) are currently unable to provide farmers and other rural entrepreneurs with access to the financing they need to increase productivity. This lack of financing reduces the use of inputs, limits the adoption of new technologies, constrains the development of unutilised land and encourages low cost/low output production. Furthermore, by forcing rural populations to use much higher cost credit from informal sources it is, without doubt, a major factor in increasing rural indebtedness and poverty. Limitations on access to international markets are almost equally important, as they prevent the sector from identifying, and responding to, those opportunities which will provide the greatest returns, both for their families and for the country as a whole. The result has been to distort production patterns towards perceived national priorities, at the expense of economic growth. Finally, the continued use of directed production for perceived strategic crops limits the ability of the agricultural sector to seek out and adopt the most productive and profitable activities, effectively preventing its evolution in a rapidly changing world...
The temptation to solve economic problems through direct intervention is an age old one, and it is not surprising that the Government sees intervention as an effective instrument for achieving short-term goals, such as maintaining low consumer prices, guaranteeing supplies, or reducing expenditure of scarce foreign currency – even when this is in conflict with its own broader national policies. Nevertheless, action in one area has inevitable consequences elsewhere, many of which may not be anticipated. As many countries have discovered, one intervention often requires another intervention to resolve an unintended side-effect. Consequently, such intervention should be used very sparingly, if at all, and alternative approaches, which do not conflict with basic national policies should be sought instead...
With ASEAN integration now a likely prospect in the medium term, growing pressures from international globalisation, and strong indications of increasing poverty in rural areas, a continuation of the partial liberalization regime effectively in place at the moment will prove difficult to maintain and is likely to further constrain economic growth and development. Myanmar may ultimately have to choose between broad choices: To return to the socialist model of the 1970s and 1980s, and in so doing effectively disconnect the country from the international and regional economic system; or to push forward with existing national policies of economic liberalisation and realize the great potential of Myanmar as an agricultural producer and exporter. While the second choice will bring with it many challenges, few doubt that the agricultural sector in Myanmar can be a competitive force in the world economy, and the growth that such
competitiveness would bring could both reduce rural poverty and catalyse the development of the rest of the economy.
14.95 Finally, it is worth noting that experience across a broad spectrum of developing countries has shown that food security is most prevalent when national policies influencing the productive sectors of the economy have a marked pro-poor orientation. In a predominantly rural economy such as that of Myanmar, agricultural growth provides the most opportunities for pro-poor development, as long as the poor are central to the process. This requires not only access to appropriate technical, financial and physical resources for production, as well as associated services such as health, sanitation, water supply and education, but also an economic and policy environment which enables rural households to respond to market demand and benefit from their contribution to national growth.|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (2.1MB)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||27 November 2007|
|Title:|| ||The Dry zone project, Myanmar
|Description/subject:|| ||Keywords: Community participation, Poverty alleviation, Awareness, Integrating stakeholders, Sustainabiltiy Location: Myanmar. FAO/UNDP project(?) "Awareness and visions: The Dry Zone project follows a conservation-based approach to rural development requiring the close integration of the agriculture, forestry and livestock sectors. The vulnerability of the environment and the intricate cause and effect relationships presume the need for balanced ecosystem development.
Integrating stakeholders: The Dry Zone Project emphasizes on involvement of communities in project management to increase their capabilities in self management in which results from the programme has shown that communities are becoming more involved in the design, implementation and monitoring of their own initiatives.
|Source/publisher:|| ||UN ESCAP|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||03 June 2003|