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US Geological Survey/Bureau of Mines annual reports on the mineral industry of Burma

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Map and key of mineral deposits in Burma (Myanmar)
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: GIF, html
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/maps/mapkey.html
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


Title: Minerals Yearbook
Description/subject: Online reports on mining and minerals in Burma from 1963 to 1993 can be found in the Bureau of Mines Minerals yearbook area reports: international. As time permits, we will place them in the Library.
Language: English
Source/publisher: [US] Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


Title: US Geological Survey (USGS) - Asia and the Pacific
Description/subject: The USGS "Minerals Yearbook" contains an annual report on the minerals industry of Burma.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


Individual Documents

Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2014)
Date of publication: 16 September 2017
Description/subject: The report contains very little information beyond 2015... "In 2014, Burma (also known as Myanmar) produced a variety of mineral commodities, including antimony, cement, coal, copper, lead, manganese, natural gas, nickel, petroleum, petroleum products, precious and semiprecious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc (table 1). Since 2012, Burma has undergone many political changes, including reforms to law and government policies, that directly affected the country’s economy, social wellbeing, and stability. many changes were a result of the Government starting to implement more democratic reforms following more than 50 years of military rule and the subsequent lifting of sanctions imposed by Western countries. The changes were stimulating interest in foreign direct investment (FDI) in the country, especially in the mining and industry sector. In fiscal year 2015 (which ran from april 1, 2014, to march 30, 2015), FDI in Burma amounted to $8 billion invested in a total of 211 projects compared with $4.1 billion invested in 123 projects in fiscal year 2014 and $1.4 billion invested in 94 projects in fiscal year 2013. Investments in fiscal year 2015 were made by partners from Singapore (43 projects), China (34), Hong Kong (27), and the united Kingdom (12), among others. Burma’s leading investor was Singapore (which invested $4.297 billion) followed by the United Kingdom ($721.9 million), Hong Kong ($624.8 million), and China ($516.9 million) (Central Statistical Organization, 2015). The legal and regulatory framework related to FDI includes the Foreign Investment Law of 2012, the Foreign Investment Rules of 2013, and Notification No. 49/2014 (New Notification) of August 2014 issued by the Myanmar Investment Commission. The New Notification clarifies the type of activities in which foreign investments are prohibited or restricted. according to Burma’s ministry of mines, the set of laws and notifications related to FDI were created to attract interest from investors and included such provisions as exemption from commercial tax on profits that are planned to be reinvested in the country within 1 year, 5 years of tax holiday instead of 3 years, income tax relief of up to 50% on export profits, granting foreign firms the ability to fully own ventures in the country, and the promise from the Government not to nationalize the business while the contract is in place. The ministry of mines also recommended the amendment of the country’s mining Law in the near future to be in accordance with international standards, reform of the banking system, and an increase in the country’s technical knowledge as a means to increase national productivity and self-sufficiency (Aung, 2014; Finch, undated)..."
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS), "Minerals Yearbook" 2014
Format/size: pdf (240K), xls
Alternate URLs: https://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2014/myb3-2014-bm.xls
Date of entry/update: 10 December 2017


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2013)
Date of publication: May 2016
Description/subject: The report carries no information beyond 2015..."From July 2012 to July 2013, the United States lifted many sanctions against Burma (also known as Myanmar) although some sanctions were retained. The lifting of many of the sanctions resulted in U.S. companies being able to invest in some businesses in the country as well as to import goods from Burma. In 2013, Burma produced a variety of mineral commodities, including cement, coal, copper, lead, natural gas, petroleum, petroleum products, precious and semiprecious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc. In August, intense floods affected various states and regions in the country and displaced over 20,000 people. The most affected was Kayin State, which is located in the south of the country (table 1; United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, 2013). In June 2013, a new pipeline was commissioned and began transporting natural gas from Burma to China. The pipeline, which stretches for 794 kilometers (km), connects the Bay of Bengal (located on the southwest coast of Burma) to Yunnan Province of China (located to the northeast of Burma). According to China National Petroleum Corp. (CNPC), the pipeline has an estimated transportation rate of 12 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year. During 2013, a parallel pipeline measuring 771 km in length was under construction; when commissioned, it would transport crude oil from the Middle East, which was originally planned to be shipped from the Indian Ocean. For the construction of the pipelines, CNPC formed a joint venture with Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise and four other companies from India and the Republic of Korea (Watt, 2013). On November 19, the Italian-Thai Development Plc. (ITD), a construction company based in Thailand, announced that it had stopped the construction of the deep-sea port and industrial zone in Dawei, Tanintharyi Division, in southern Burma, which is located about 186 km west of Thailand’s capital city of Bangkok. The 75-year concession granted to ITD remained in place while the participation of foreign investors was arranged. The project was halted due to the lack of progress and delays in construction as well as insufficient economic commitments (DVB Multimedia Group, 2013)..."
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS), "Minerals Yearbook" 2013
Format/size: pdf (268K); xls
Alternate URLs: https://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2013/myb3-2013-bm.xls
Date of entry/update: 10 December 2017


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2012)
Date of publication: 21 November 2014
Description/subject: "In April 2012, Burma (also known as Myanmar) started seeing the easing and, in some cases, the suspension of decades of sanctions imposed by Western countries after more than 50 years of military rule in Burma. The countries that agreed to suspend sanctions were the United States, Australia, Canada, the European Union (EU), and Japan. The decision was made as Burma’s Government started to implement democratic reforms. With the suspension of sanctions, companies from the countries mentioned above were allowed to start investing in Burma. The United States suspended the sanctions in July 2012 (Pawlak and Moffett, 2012; Spetalnick, 2012). In 2012, Burma produced a variety of mineral commodities, including cement, coal, copper, lead, natural gas, petroleum, petroleum products, precious and semiprecious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc. On November 11, 2012, a 6.8-magnitude earthquake struck the country. The epicenter was located in central Burma near the town of Shwebo, 60 kilometers (km) northwest of Burma’s second largest city, Mandalay. Damage to many buildings was reported, including hospitals, monasteries, and schools, mainly in the villages of Male, Mandalay, Mogok, and Shwebo. Reports also indicated that miners were trapped in a gold mine in the Singgu area in Mandalay. On March 24, 2011, a previous earthquake of 6.9 magnitude had struck the eastern part of the country just north of Tachileik town in Shan State close to the border with Laos and Thailand. Production of such commodities as brine salt and some semiprecious stones dipped during the period following the 2011 earthquake, but the mineral industry in general was not affected (table 1; U.S. Geological Survey, 2011, 2012; Tun, 2012b). Bangladesh, Burma, and India were involved in maritime boundary disputes concerning their respective sovereignty in the Bay of Bengal. For many years, these countries had attempted to negotiate and delimit their claims in the disputed area. In December 2009, Bangladesh and Burma accepted the jurisdiction of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) for the settlement of their boundary delimitation. ITLOS is an independent judicial body established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) that has jurisdiction to arbitrate disputes arising out of the interpretation and application of the Law of the Sea. UNCLOS establishes a legal framework to regulate ocean space and its resources and uses (International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, 2010). In September 2011, representatives from Bangladesh and Burma met with the ITLOS in Germany for a final round of pleadings regarding the maritime boundary. The final ITLOS judgment of March 14, 2012, dealt with the delimitation in three parts—the territorial sea, the exclusive economic zones and continental shelf within 200 nautical miles, and the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles. ITLOS rendered its judgment in relation to the territorial sea by drawing an equidistant line from the countries’ baselines. For the exclusive economic zones and continental shelf within 200 nautical miles, the tribunal decided to draw a provisional equidistant line that adjusts to the concavity of the coast of Bangladesh. For the delimitation of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles, the tribunal concluded that it should not differ from that of within the 200 nautical miles and should continue in the same direction beyond the limit of Bangladesh (International Law Observer, 2012; International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, 2012)..."
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS), "Minerals Yearbook" 2012
Format/size: pdf (325K) xls
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2012/myb3-2012-bm.xls
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2011)
Date of publication: July 2013
Description/subject: "In 2011, Burma, also known as Myanmar, produced a variety of mineral commodities, including cement, coal, copper, lead, natural gas, petroleum, petroleum products, precious and semiprecious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc. On March 24, a 6.8-magnitude earthquake struck the eastern part of the country just north of Tachileik town in Shan State close to the border with Laos and Thailand. Production of such commodities as brine salt and some semiprecious stones dipped during the period following the earthquake, but the mineral industry in general was not affected, and mineral production overall increased for the year (table 1; CNN.com, 2011; Huffington Post, 2011). Bangladesh, Burma, and India were involved in maritime boundary disputes concerning their respective sovereignty in the Bay of Bengal. For many years, these countries had attempted to negotiate and delimit their claims in the disputed area. In December 2009, Bangladesh and Burma accepted the jurisdiction of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) for the settlement of the dispute concerning their maritime boundary delimitation. at the time, although accepting ITLOS jurisdiction, the countries had not agreed on a bilateral solution regarding the delimitation principle to be used, and negotiations continued between the countries. ITLOS is an independent judicial body established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) that has jurisdiction to arbitrate disputes arising out of the interpretation and application of the Law of the Sea. UNCLOS establishes a legal framework to regulate ocean space and its resources and uses. In meetings held in January 2010, Bangladesh and Burma agreed to delimit the area by combining the equidistance and equity demarcation principles. In October, Burma and India reached an informal understanding to cooperate with each other on the settlement of their maritime dispute with Bangladesh (Durham University, 2010; International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, 2010; Priyo.com, 2010). In September 2011, representatives from Bangladesh and Burma met with the ITLOS in Germany for a final round of pleadings regarding the delimitation of the maritime boundary between the two countries. ITLOS determined that a final judgment would be delivered by March 14, 2012. Burma’s border-dispute points with neighboring Bangladesh meet at Rakhine State (Xinhuanet.com, 2011b). although Bangladesh and Burma’s maritime border dispute had gone on for several years, bilateral trade between the countries has remained at an estimated $140 million per year. The boundary delimitation dispute affected the ability of either country to grant exploration permits for oil and gas in the disputed area, however (Xinhuanet.com, 2011b). In May 2011, Italian-Thai Development Plc. (ITD), which was a construction company based in Thailand, announced that it had started to build a deep-sea port and industrial estate at a cost of $10 billion. The port was to be located in a 40,000-hectare area in Dawei, Tanintharyi Division, in southern Burma, which is located about 186 kilometers (km) west of Thailand’s capital city of Bangkok. The industrial facilities were to include oil and gas pipelines, railways, and roads. The expected commissioning date of the project was not available. In November 2010, the Government of Burma signed a 75-year concession contract with ITD, although no further details were available. The Governments of Burma and Thailand declared the project to be significant for international trade, as it would serve not only countries of Southeast Asia, but also other countries of the Asia and the Pacific region, as well as the countries of Africa, Europe, and the Middle East (BBC News, 2011). By the end of 2011, the Burmese Government announced that it was suspending the construction of the Myitsone Dam, which was originally proposed to be built in Kachin State and was to become part of a network of dams that would have provided power to southern China. The dam had a projected cost of $3.6 billion, which was to be covered by Chinese investors. The suspension of the project was mainly because of environmental concerns and pressure by the communities that would be directly affected by the structure. China had numerous contracts and investments already in place in Burma; however the Government of Burma was concerned that the suspension of the construction of the dam not affect other projects (Irrawaddy, The, 2011b; International Cement Review, 2012, p. 120)..."
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (141K) xls
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2011/myb3-2011-bm.xls
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2010)
Date of publication: August 2012
Description/subject: "In 2010, Burma, also known as Myanmar, produced a variety of mineral commodities, including cement, coal, copper, lead, natural gas, petroleum, petroleum products, precious and semiprecious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc. During 2010, Bangladesh, Burma, and India were involved in maritime boundary disputes over their respective sovereignty in the Bay of Bengal. For many years, these countries had attempted to negotiate and delimit their claims in the disputed area. In December 2009, Bangladesh and Burma accepted the jurisdiction of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) for the settlement of the dispute concerning their maritime boundary delimitation. Although accepting ITLOS jurisdiction, the countries had not agreed on a bilateral solution regarding the delimitation principle to be used, and negotiations continued between the countries. ITLOS is an independent judicial body established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) that has jurisdiction to arbitrate disputes arising out of the interpretation and application of the Law of the Sea. UNCLOS establishes a legal framework to regulate ocean space and its resources and uses. In meetings held in January 2010, Bangladesh and Burma agreed to delimit the area by combining the equidistance and equity demarcation principles. In October, Burma and India reached an informal understanding to cooperate with each other on the settlement of their maritime dispute with Bangladesh (Durham University, 2010; International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, 2010; Priyo.com, 2010)..."
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Format/size: pdf (193K), xls
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2010/myb3-2010-bm.xls
Date of entry/update: 05 December 2012


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma 2009
Date of publication: September 2011
Description/subject: In 2009, Burma, also known as Myanmar, produced a variety of mineral commodities, including cement, coal, copper, lead, natural gas, petroleum, petroleum products, precious and semiprecious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc. In 2009, Bangladesh, Burma, and India were involved in maritime boundary disputes over their respective sovereignty in the Bay of Bengal. In October, Bangladesh claimed its maritime boundary before the United Nations courts, under the arbitration of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) of 1982. The dispute amongst the three countries limits further exploration of resources in the disputed area. At the end of 2008, the situation intensified when Daewoo International Corp. of the Republic of Korea, which has a gas sale and purchase agreement with Burma, started oil and gas exploration in the disputed maritime zone, and Bangladesh and Burma each stationed naval warships and troops along their coastal borders. Daewoo was exploring offshore Burma at Block AD-7 as part of the agreement with Burma in which Daewoo was the main operator of a three-block project (Blocks A-1, A-3, and AD-7) (Burma News International, 2008; Choudhury, 2009). According to UNCLOS, a nation can claim 12 nautical miles of territorial sea, 200 nautical miles of exclusive economic zone, and 200 nautical miles of continental shelf (United Nations, 1982). In the case of Bangladesh, Burma, and India, their coastlines follow a curve, which causes overlaps in their maritime territories and makes it difficult to delimit their maritime boundary. Since 1974, Burma and India had aggressively explored their coasts, which resulted in the discovery of significant petroleum resources, including Burma’s discovery of 7 trillion cubic feet (198 billion cubic meters) of gas and India’s discovery of 100 trillion cubic feet (2 .8 trillion cubic meters) of gas in 2005-06 (Mizzima News, 2008; Choudhury, 2009). In 1974, after Bangladesh declared its jurisdiction with respect to territorial waters, exclusive economic zone, and continental shelf as outlined in the Territorial and Maritime Zones Act of 1974, Burma held negotiation meetings with Bangladesh and India and subsequently with Bangladesh in 1986 but no consensus was reached. In December 1986, Burma and India signed a maritime territory agreement, which was later implemented in September 1987, that established the line of demarcation between the two countries’ territories based on the principal of an equidistant boundary. In 2008, the three countries met again to settle the boundary dispute, but little progress was achieved, and the meetings ended inconclusively. In October 2009, Bangladesh submitted a notification requesting arbitration under the UNCLOS and was due to file a formal objection claim or a resolution claim before the United Nations by July 27, 2011, to contest Burma’s and India’s line of demarcation. Bangladesh demanded that the demarcation of the boundary be based on the equity principle, which results in overlapping maritime areas. Burma also holds maritime boundary agreements with Thailand that were signed in October 1980 and implemented in April 1982, and additional agreements between Burma, India, and Thailand that that were signed in October 1993 and implemented in May 1995 (Mizzima News, 2008; Choudhury, 2009)..."
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (170K), xls
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2009/myb3-2009-bm.xls
Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2008)
Date of publication: August 2010
Description/subject: "In 2008, Burma, also known as Myanmar, produced a variety of mineral commodities, including cement, coal, copper, lead, natural gas, petroleum, petroleum products, precious and semiprecious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc.... Production: On May 2, 2008, tropical storm Nargis caused extensive damage, especially in southwestern Burma, and flooding as much as 50 kilometers (km) inland. The storm was considered the worst natural disaster in the recorded history of the country. During 2008, most of Burma’s mining sector experienced a significant decline in mineral production. Copper production decreased by about 54%; spinel production, by 32%; coal, 12%; crude petroleum, 5%; and petroleum products, 4.6%. On the other hand, significant increases in production were reported for zinc (100%) and sapphire (86%). Other mineral commodities for which production increases were reported were jade (54.5%), ruby (34%), refined lead (22.4%), and cement (11%) (table 1; Thaindian News, 2009). Burma’s sole copper mine (the Monywa copper project) halted operations in April 2008 for undisclosed reasons. Operations were expected to restart in the second quarter of 2009 (Intellasia.net, 2009)..."
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (276K), xls
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2008/myb3-2008-bm.xls
Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2007)
Date of publication: December 2009
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line... OUTLOOK: "During 2007, the mineral production of Burma decreased significantly following a similar decrease in 2006. Mineral production is expected to continue to decrease in 2008 as well. Copper production was to remain at a reduced level as a result of Ivanhoe Mine’s assets in the Monywa Copper Project being transferred to an independent third party for sale."
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (265K), xls
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2007/myb3-2007-bm.xls
Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2006)
Date of publication: April 2009
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line...OUTLOOK: "During 2006, the mineral industry of Burma underwent a significant setback in production, which would be noticeable in early 2007. The copper industry was to be particularly affected given Ivanhoe’s decision to sell its Monywa Copper Project assets, which were transferred to an independent third party while awaiting the sale. Natural gas exploration activities in Burma are expected to continue to increase during 2007, mainly as a result of the many exploration projects that were started and the discoveries that were made in 2005 and 2006."
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (114K), xls
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2006/myb3-2006-bm.xls
Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2005)
Date of publication: June 2007
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line...OUTLOOK: "By 2006, trade between Burma and India is expected to increase as a result of the MOU signed in 2004. Production in the mining sector will likely follow the trend of recent years in which the mining sector was dominated by the copper, natural gas, and petroleum industries. Natural gas exploration activities in Burma are expected to continue to increase during 2006 mainly as the result of the many exploration projects and discoveries that were started in 2005. In 2006, the Indo-Korean consortium that holds interests in offshore natural gas Blocks A1 and A3 plans to start appraisal wells in Block A1 and to begin an exploration drilling program in Block A3 (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) Videsh Ltd., 2005§). Expansion and development plans in the S&K Mine is expected to increase annual copper production capacities within the next few years. In the meantime, a decline in copper production is expected during 2006 owing to decreased copper grades encountered in the Sabetaung deposit in 2005."
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (120K), xls
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2005/bmmyb05.xls
Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2004)
Date of publication: March 2007
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line... OUTLOOK: "Burma’s economy is expected to grow in 2005 and 2006 at a rate of 6% and 5%, respectively, on the basis of GDP at purchasing power parity. By 2006, trade between Burma and India is expected to increase by 134% following an MOU signed in 2004. Production in the mining sector will likely follow the trend in recent years and continue to be dominated by the copper, natural gas, and petroleum industries. Exploration activity in Burma will have a tendency to continue to increase mainly as the result of the many exploration projects that started in 2004; these included two gold deposits, Modi Taung and Set Ga Done, and the developments that involve natural gas and petroleum, both onshore and offshore. Preliminary exploration that shows high-grade discoveries of nickel and zinc could also open Burma’s doors to new markets within the next few years. Burma could become a leading mineral producer in Asia if ongoing explorations are proven to be feasible and profitable to develop. Expansion and development plans in the S&K Mine and the Lepadaung deposit will increase annual copper production capacities within the next 4 years. The S&K Mine is expected to achieve production of from 50,000 to 80,000 t/yr, and Letpadaung, to reach copper production of from 125,000 to 150,000 t/yr. In addition, the discovery of a potentially significant high-grade copper zone in the Sabetaung area could increase the production of copper even more and transform the Monywa Copper Project into the leading SX-EW copper producer in Asia. The development of interregional gas pipelines, increases in natural gas consumption in Asia and the Pacific region, and the discovery of new gasfields in Burma are circumstances that will place Burma as a key producer in the region. Also, recent gas discoveries in Burma could increase gas exports to Thailand, which is Burma’s main natural gas importer."
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (115K), xls
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2004/bmmyb04.xls
Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2003)
Date of publication: May 2006
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. In 2003, Burma’s gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing power parity was estimated to be $73 billion (International Monetary Fund, 2004§). Burma’s economy is based primarily on agriculture, including fisheries, forestry, and livestock, which accounts for nearly 54% of the GDP. The country’s mineral resources include antimony, coal, copper, gemstones, lead, limestone, marble, natural gas, petroleum, precious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc. Burma’s export market totaled about $2.6 billion during 2003 and included natural gas (23.3%), forest products (14.8%), garments (14.4%), beans (about 11.7%), marine products (6.8%), and other products (27%). Imports totaled about $2.4 billion and included machinery and transport equipment (20.2%), refined mineral oil (12.3%), base metals and manufactures (9.4%), fabrics (about 8.8%), plastic (4.6%), and other products (44.7) (U.S. Department of State, 2004). In 2003, Burma hosted the second annual meeting of the Joint Economic Quadrangle Committee in the capital city of Yangon. The meeting, which was attended by representatives of Burma’s Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry and the counterpart organizations from China, Laos and Thailand, supported increased trade and investment in Burma from the neighboring countries of the Mekong region (Cambodia, China, Laos and Thailand). Thailand, which was the third leading investor in Burma, invested $1.29 billion in Burma in 2002, and China, about $64 million. Burma’s 2002 border trade with China was valued at $276 million, which was an increase of 35% compared with that of 2001. Trade with Thailand totaled $170 million in 2002 (Myint, 2003). Major events in early 2003 that disrupted Burma’s economy included a major banking crisis that shut down 20 private banks in the country, followed by a Japanese freeze on new bilateral economic aid. The decline in foreign investment that had taken place since 1999 continued owing to an unfriendly business climate, political pressure from Western consumers and shareholders, and the effect of U.S. economic sanctions on the country’s economy (U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 2004; U.S. Department of State, 2004).
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (148K), xls
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2003/bmmyb03.xls
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (2002)
Date of publication: December 2004
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. In 2002, the gross domestic product (GDP) for Burma grew by 5.5%, which was about one-half the growth achieved in 2001 (10.5% revised) (International Monetary Fund, 2003§). Flooding during 2002 and agricultural shortages of, for example, fertilizers and pesticides affected the agricultural output, which accounted for more than 40% of the country’s GDP, thus causing a significant decrease in GDP when compared with that of 2001 (Asian Development Bank, 2003§). In 2002, the mining sector represented only 0.8% of the GDP; in 2001, it had represented 2%. The decrease was principally a consequence of a decline in foreign investment for exploration and mining projects (Than Htay, 2002). Price inflation dropped to below 4% in 2001 after an economic slowdown during fiscal year 2000, but it increased rapidly, and by the end of December 2002, inflation had risen to 56.8%. The main reason for the high rate of inflation was the increase in salaries of public sector employees, which was financed by the Central Bank (Asian Development Bank, 2003). According to the Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration (DGSME), which reports to the Ministry of Mines of Burma, only four foreign exploration companies remained in Burma and invested $217,0003 during fiscal years 2001 and 2002. In general, mineral production in 2002 was lower than that of 2001.
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (149K), xls
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2002/bmmyb02.xls
http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/MIB2002.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) - 2001
Date of publication: October 2002
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. According to the Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration (DGSME) under the Ministry of Mines, the output share of the mining sector by the state-owned mining enterprises decreased to 5.5% in 2001 from 11.6% in 1998, and the output share by the privately owned companies increased to 93.4% in 2001 from 85.8% in 1998. In 2001, only one gold mine (the Kyaukpahtoe), three nonferrous metals mines (the Bawdwin, the Bawsaing, and the Yadanatheingi), and two coal mines (the Kalewa and the Namma) were still operated by the state-owned mining enterprises; and only one foreign mining company had committed to invest $6.12 million in 2001 compared with $18.5 million committed by three foreign mining companies in 2000. Of the four active foreign exploration companies in 2000, only two were active in 2001. As a result of decreased exploration and development, export earnings from the mining sector dropped in 2001.
Author/creator: John C. Wu
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (147K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/MIB2001.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2000
Date of publication: November 2001
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. According to the Government’s provisional statistics, the output of the mining sector contributed 1.7% to Myanmar’s gross domestic product (GDP), which was estimated to be $14.2 billion in fiscal year 1999-2000. The country’s GDP was estimated to have grown by 10.9%, and the mining sector, 29.5% in fiscal year 1999-2000. In July, the Deputy Minister of the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, however, revealed that the official data for economic growth had been grossly and deliberately exaggerated. A report that was published by the Asian Development Bank in May also pointed out that Myanmar’s economic growth had slowed down for the third consecutive year since 1996. In fiscal year 1999-2000, Myanmar's total exports were estimated to be $1,132 million, of which export earnings from base metals adn ores were $20.7 million. Myanmar's total exports were estimated to be $2,539 million, of which base metals and babricated products were $275 millions. In the same fiscal year, the state-owned companies produced only 5.6% o the total output of the mining sector; the privately owned companies, 92.8% and the cooperatives, 1.6%. According to the latest available data, the mining industry's work force was about 121,000 in fiscal year 1997-98, which accounted for 0.66% of Myanmar's total employment.
Author/creator: John C. Wu
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (132K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/MIB2000.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1999
Date of publication: August 2001
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. According to Government statistics, the output of the mining sector contributed about 1.6% to Myanmar’s gross domestic product, which was estimated to be $14.2 billion in fiscal year 1998/99. In fiscal year 1998/99, the state-owned companies produced only 10.8% of the total output of the mining sector; the privately owned companies, 88.2%; and the cooperatives, 1%. As a result of substantial private domestic and foreign investment, the output of the mining sector registered an overall growth rate of 17% despite a significant decline in mine output of the state-owned enterprises owing to the lack of spare parts caused by the foreign exchange shortage and other factors. In fiscal year 1998/99, Myanmar’s total exports were estimated to be $1,134 million, of which export earnings from base metals and ores were only $2.5 million. Myanmar’s exports of gemstones were estimated to be $20 million. Exports of major mineral commodities included ores and concentrates of chromium, manganese, tin, tungsten, and zinc; refined metal of copper, lead, silver and tin; and crude and polished precious and semiprecious stones. Myanmar’s total imports were estimated to be $2,480 million, of which 11.6% was base metals and fabricated products; 2.3%, cement; 0.9%, fertilizer materials; and 0.7%, chemical elements and compounds. Additionally, Myanmar imported about 5 million barrels (Mbbl) of crude petroleum and 3.6 Mbbl of refined petroleum products, such as diesel fuel, with a total cost of more than $162 million. Most of Myanmar’s mineral trade was with Asian and European countries. The total number of employees in the mining industry declined from 132,00 in 1998 to 121,00 in 1999, which accounted for about 0.66% of Myanmar's total employment.
Author/creator: John C. Wu
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (118K)
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1999/9306099.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1998
Date of publication: December 2000
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. In 1998, most mineral production remained at low level owing to the lack of spare parts, outdated technology, and declining ore grades. Myanmar became a producer of refined copper in 1998 with the help of foreign capital and technology. According to Government statistics, the output of the mining sector contributed about 1.3% to Myanmar’s gross domestic product. Of the total output of the mining sector, 52% was produced by the state-owned companies; 47%, by privately owned companies; and 1%, by cooperatives (Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, 1997). Mineral commodities exports accounted for about 6% of the total export earnings and mineral commodities imports accounted for about 22% of total imports. Exports of major mineral commodities included ores and concentrates of chromium, copper, manganese, tin, tungsten, and zinc; refined metal of copper, lead, and silver; and crude and polished precious and semiprecious stones. Imports of mineral commodities included cement, refined petroleum products, base metals, and steel mill products. Most of Myanmar’s mineral trade was with Asian and European countries. Mineral trade with the United States was small and limited to imports of various chemical compounds and exports of gemstones to the United States. Myanmar’s exports of gemstones earned about $23 million in 1998.
Author/creator: John C. Wu
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (35K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/MIB1998.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1997
Date of publication: August 1998
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. In 1997, the output of the mining sector contributed about 1.7% to Myanmar's gross domestic product. Exports of mineral commodities accounted for about 5% of the total export earnings and imports of mineral commodities accounted for about 20% of total imports. In 1997, imports of refined petroleum products, cement,and steel mill product were higher than those of 1996 because of a stonger demand for these mineral commodities. The total number of employees in the mining industry was about 120,000, accounting for about 0.8% of Myanmar's total employment.
Author/creator: John C. Wu
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (32K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/MIB1997.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1996
Date of publication: May 1997
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. Exports of mineral commodities accounted for about 5.4% of the total export earnings, which are estimated at $867 million in 1996. Imports of mineral commodities for about 18% of total imports, which were estimated at $1.5 billion in 1996. The copper ore production averaged about 8,000 metric tons (t) per day and the mill produced about 24,000t of copper concentrate in 1996. State-owned companies, 40% by the privately owned companies, and 1% by the so-called cooperatives in 1996. The total number of employees in the mining industry was about 116,000, accounting for about 0.7% of Burma's total employment in 1996.
Author/creator: John C. Wu
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (38K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/MIB1996.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1995
Date of publication: 1996
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. According to the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Developement, the total work force in the mining sector was about 105,000, accounting for 0.61% of Burma's labor force in 1995. The total output of the mining sector, in 1986 constant producers prices, was estimated at $141 million, or about 1.3% of Burma's gross domestic product, which was estimated at $10.8 billion in 1995.
Author/creator: John C. Wu
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (36K)
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1995/9306095.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1994
Date of publication: June 1995
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. This important document features how Burma expanded its mining industry for both trading and domestic use. The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC),which is now known as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), enacted the Myanmar Mining Law replacing all the existing regulations - The Upper Myanmar Ruby Regulation of 1887, the Mines acts of 1923, and the Union of Myanmar Mines and Mineral Acts of 1961. According to an estimate by the Ministry of Mines, the total work force in the mining sector was about 83,000 of which about 21, 000 were in metallic mining. The total output of the mining sector, in million capacity was rated at 40,000 metric tons per year (mt/a), compared with the designed capacity of 65,000 mt/a. Copper ore was mined from an open pit mine at Sabetaung deposit in the western bank of Chindwin River, about 11 km west of Monywa in Salingyi Township, Sagaing Division. According to the No.1 Mining Enterprise, the metal content of copper and gold in copper concentrate was about 19.2% and 1.5 grams per metric ton (g/mt), respectively. Most exports of copper concentrate went to Japan in 1994. According to Japanese trade statistics, Japan imported from Burma 24,768 metric tons (mt) of copper concentrate, valued at $6.2 million in 1994.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey
Format/size: pdf (35K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/MIB1994.pdf
Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1993
Date of publication: 1994
Description/subject: "This edition of the Minerals Yearbook records the performance of the worldwide minerals industry including Burma’s mineral industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume III, Area Reports contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. The reports also incorporate location maps, industry structure tables, and an outlook section. According to the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, the estimated employment in the mining sector was 83,000 in fiscal year 1993 or about 0.5 % of Burma's estimated total employment of 16.5 million. The total output of the mining sector, in 1986 constant producers' prices, was estimated at $120 million or 1.2% of Burma's gross domestic product (GDP) (the total value of net output and services), which was estimated at $10 billion for fiscal year 1993. Of the total output of the mining sector, about 73 % was produced by the State-owned enterprises, 26 % by the private enterprises, and 1 % by cooperatives. 14 Minerals production in Burma had been declining since the 1960's. In 1989, the Government adopted an open-door policy and a liberal foreign investment law to encourage participation of foreign mining companies in exploration and development of Burma's mineral resources. According to the Burmese Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration, since 1988 no substantial foreign capital had been invested in the Burmese mining industry, especially in the non-fuel minerals sector. According to a local press report, 75 direct foreign investments were made in Burma with a total value of $956.3 million since the Government began implementing the new investment law in 1988. Of this total, only nine investments were in the mining sector. Burma's mining industry suffered a steady decline because no new mines were developed while many of the old mines were left to deteriorate without the much needed renovation in the past years. However, because of increased contribution by the private sector, production of gemstones, gold, jade, tin, and tungsten reportedly showed some improvements in fiscal year 1993. Burma's mineral trade involved mainly exporting jade, gems, and some amounts of copper concentrate, chromates, manganese ores, tin and tungsten concentrates, and importing some amounts of ferrous and nonferrous metals and an increasing amount of crude petroleum..."
Author/creator: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Mineral Yearbook, Mineral Industries of Asia and the Pacific, VIII (1993)
Format/size: pdf (185K)
Alternate URLs: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1992
Date of publication: 1993
Description/subject: This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry including Burma’s Mineral industry during 1992 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume III, Minerals Yearbook International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. Since the 1989 International Review, this volume has been presented as six reports: Mineral Industries of the Middle East, Mineral Industries of Africa, Mineral Industries of Asia and the Pacific, Mineral Industries of Latin America and Canada, Mineral Industries of Europe and Central Eurasia, and Minerals in the World Economy. The total work force of the mining sector was estimated at 83,000 or about 0.5% of Burma's labor force in 1992. According to the Burmese Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, the total output of the mining sector, in 1986 constant producers' prices, was valued at $76 million' or 0.89 % of Burma's gross domestic product (the total value of net output and services), which was valued at $8.5 billion for fiscal year 1992. Of the total output of the mining sector, about 73% was produced by the State-owned enterprises, 26% by the private enterprises, and 1% by cooperatives. In fiscal year 1992, export earnings from jade and gems alone amounted to about $23.5 million and accounted for more than 60% of Burma's minerals exports. Additionally, a considerable amount of high-quality jade and gems reportedly are smuggled annually to China and Thailand. Exports of copper concentrate in 1992 were estimated at $3.5 million and accounted for 10% of total minerals exports.
Author/creator: John C. Wu
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Mineral Yearbook, Mineral Industries of Asia and the Pacific, V III (1992)
Format/size: pdf (203K)
Alternate URLs: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/
Date of entry/update: 09 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1991
Date of publication: 1992
Description/subject: This report on the performance of the mining industry of Burma forms part of the worldwide minerals review in the 1991 edition of Minerals Yearbook of the U.S. Bureau of Mines. This useful report includes information about surveying, mapping, exploration, mineral exports and imports and the operations of mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. Most of Burma's foreign trade is conducted on a barter basis and valued on an inflated currency exchange rate. In September 1991, the black-market exchange rate was Kyat 100 to US$ 1. This compares with an official average rate of Kyat 6.25 to US$1 in 1991. Based on this rate, total exports were valued at $421 million and imports at $649 million, a net trade deficit of $228 million in 1991. Burma is an agrarian-based economy, and naturally its principal exports are agricultural products. The value of base metals and ores exported totaled only $4.2 million in 1991. The most valuable mineral shipment is gemstones, which either are exported officially or are smuggled out of the country. Value data for these exports are not available. Imports are comprised of consumer and capital goods that are not manufactured locally.
Author/creator: Pui-Kwan Tse
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Mineral Yearbook, Mineral Industries of Asian and the Pacific, VIII (1991), p 60-68
Format/size: pdf (313K)
Alternate URLs: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/
Date of entry/update: 10 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1990)
Date of publication: 1990
Description/subject: "The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), indistinguishable from an ordinary military junta, continued to dominate the political scene of Burma. It failed to recognize legitimate national elections during the year, continued its repression of the civil population, and, with one exception, did little to foster the growth and development of Burma’s mineral industry. The exception was the decision by SLORC to open certain areas of the country to petroleum exploration by foreign firms..."
Author/creator: David B. Doan
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (422K-reduced version; 2MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1990v3Asia/reference/econatres....
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1989)
Date of publication: 1989
Description/subject: "Amidst growing political and social turmoil in many parts of the country, Burma’s various mineral industries shrank, weakened or, in some cases, even disappeared as investment capital, technical expertise, equipment replacement, and labor availability all became increasingly scarce. After years of self-imposed isolation from the mainstream of international investment, development, and trade, Burma’s centrally planned economy unraveled to the point of crisis in 1987 when the Government repudiated and demonetized all banknotes over 15 kyat, nominally about $2.34. The real or black-market rate was about $0.30 to $0.35, however, and the citizens of Burma found their savings destroyed. This was the final event in General Ne Win’s “Burmese Way To Socialism,” begun in 1962, which turned a comparatively rich nation into one of the world’s poorest. Amidst intense civil unrest and brutal suppression of demonstrations, Ne Win stepped down in July 1988. By September of that year, after chaos and bloodshed, General Saw Maung emerged as the leader of a military junta that established itself as the Government of Burma. With an economy in shambles, a 30% inflation rate, a foreign debt of $5.3 billion, and a debt-service ratio of nearly 100%, the various ethnic areas such as the Shan State of eastern Burma and the Kachin State of northern Burma took issue with the junta’s attempts to govern and began to behave independently. Karen rebels, for example, announced the prohibition of mining or logging by the Government in Rangoon or its contractors in Karen territory. A provisional alliance of several ethnic and territorial groups has joined forces, such as they are, to resist the Rangoon junta. Meanwhile the Government, after announcing that democratic elections were to be held in May 1990, had not only detained and imprisoned prominent opposition leaders and supporters, but so proscribed the conditions of the election as to probably throw the results into limbo. The single factor for potential redemption of the country was finally invoked by the junta in 1989, more or less as a last-ditch attempt to retain power by abruptly abandoning its isolationist policies. With little or no idea as to how business actually works, the leaders of the junta were reported as believing Burma to be rich on the basis of its natural resources. This belief was without regard to the fact that in the ground such resources produce no wealth, no capital flow, and no prosperity..."
Author/creator: David B. Doan
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (175K-reduced version; 1.5MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1989v3Asia/reference/econatres....
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1988)
Date of publication: 1988
Description/subject: "The Government’s main objectives for the mining sector during the fifth 5-year plan were as follows: to expand mineral surveys and prospecting to increase production of crude oil, natural gas, and major raw materials for the development of heavy industry; to increase production and quality of concentrates that have the highest potential on the export market; to carry out research for the extraction of new minerals; and to emphasize those projects with the potential for the highest rate of return on investment. In addition, various incentives and amenities were to be provided workers with a view to enhancing mine productivity. Toward the above goal, the Government of Burma’s investment in the mining sector during fiscal year (FY) 1987 was $82 million or 6.7% of total public investment, substantially exceeding the originally planned allotment. Approximately 30 minerals or mineral-related commodities were produced during 1988. The most important were barite, cement, copper concentrates, crude oil, gypsum, lead, natural gas, nitrogen fertilizer, silver, steel, and concentrates of tin, tungsten, and zinc. In value, crude oil was by far the most important followed by natural gas, copper concentrates, nitrogen fertilizer, and tin metal and concentrates. The longstanding policy of not importing crude oil was reversed during 1988. The shortage of foreign exchange was surpassed by the economic problems caused by the gradual but continued decline in domestic crude oil production. None of the minerals was produced in large enough quantity to be a major factor in the world market. The usually important tin and tungsten output dropped after midyear, probably losing several places in the world output standing..."
Author/creator: John C. Wu, Gordon L. Kinney, David B. Doan, Travis Q. Lyday, Chin S. Kuo
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (104K-Burma only, reduced, cropped version; 13.2MB-original - whole of SE Asia)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1988v3/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1987)
Date of publication: 1987
Description/subject: "Burma produced at least 30 minerals in commercial amounts during 1987. The most important nonfuel minerals were barite, cement, copper, gem stones, gypsum, lead, silver, steel ingot, tin, tungsten, and zinc. Burma attained world-class production in two minerals. It was 6th in tungsten and 10th in tin output during 1987. Of the minerals, fuels were most important to the Burmese economy. In value, crude oil production was by far the most important mineral, followed by natural gas. An insignificant amount of poor-grade anthracite coal was mined...he mining sector employed 90,000 workers in 1987, which was 0.6% of the active labor force. Of these, 77,000 were employed by Government-owned mining companies. Mining accounted for 1.8% of the country’s net output of goods and services. Public investment in the mining sector totaled $34 million in FY 1986..."
Author/creator: Gordon L. Kinney
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (104K-reduced version; 458K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1987v3/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1986)
Date of publication: 1986
Description/subject: "Burma’s mineral output was small by world standards but important to its domestic economy. Its most important mineral or mineral-related production was cement, copper, natural gas, nitrogen fertilizer, gem stones, lead, crude oil, silver, tin, and tungsten. By far the most valuable was oil and gas, its dollar value being several times the combined value of the other minerals. Burma was one of the few South or East Asian nations that has been self-sufficient in crude oil. That enviable position, however, was in danger of changing as energy needs have increased while crude oil production has at best shown no real gain in the last few years. As such, Burma has had an increasingly severe shortage of petroleum that has affected all segments of the economy. A firm policy of not importing oil, mainly because of a severe shortage of foreign exchange, was exacerbating the problem. The Government has set the highest priority on finding additional onshore crude oil reserves. Burma was a major producer of lead and silver before World War II and in 1986 was still considered to have good potential for developing or expanding the production of antimony, copper, lead, tin, tungsten, and zinc among the metals and barite, fluorite, and several other industrial minerals. About 74,000 persons were employed in state-owned mining activities and another 13,000 by the cooperative and private sectors. In all, 0.6% of the labor force was employed in the mining sector..."
Author/creator: Gordon L. Kinney
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (88K-reduced version; 491K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1986v3/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1985)
Date of publication: 1985
Description/subject: "Burma continued with a mineral development program that was constrained mainly by the country’s paucity of capital funds and the policy of not allowing foreign private investment. Mineral development projects under way for many years, in most cases, have been completed and have resulted in increased production of minerals or in lower unit costs because of the renovation and improved technology. Burma is well endowed with a variety of mineral resources. About 30 different minerals were produced in commercial quantities in 1985. Barite, cement, copper, gem stones, gypsum, lead, silver, steel ingots, tin, tungsten, and zinc were the most important of the nonfuel minerals. The most critical mineral-related problem in the country has been inadequate crude oil production. A modest amount of development drilling has been under way for years by the Government-owned Myanma Oil Corp. (MOC). The level of exploration drilling, however, has increased considerably in recent years. Crude oil production peaked in 1980 and has generally declined slowly since then, giving the exploration drilling a sense of urgency as MOC tries to find new deposits. Also, since 1980, increased industrialization has forced the demand for petroleum to climb steadily. The Government has a policy of not importing crude oil, which has heightened the energy shortage and hindered economic progress..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (120K-reduced version; 621K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1985v3/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1984)
Date of publication: 1984
Description/subject: "Burma continued its development activities in the mineral field with the assistance of foreign loan and aid programs. Overall, the mining sector grew by 24% in fiscal year (FY) 1982, with export earnings rising 45% to $41 million. In FY 1983, copper ore production led in tonnage of metallic minerals, while tin ore was first in value. Ores of lead, silver, tungsten, zinc, and a number of industrial minerals also were produced in amounts economically significant to the Government, which owns and operates all the important mines. In all, about 30 minerals were produced in commercial quantities during 1984. Only the tin and tungsten output, however, could be considered as being of consequence on the world market. Burma continued to allocate about 10% of its capital budget to the mining sector and planned to continue with this policy. The capital budget for FY 1984 was targeted at $137 million including local currency expenditures, but because of a tight foreign exchange situation, expenditures were probably closer to $100 million with foreign exchange requirements of $50 to $60 million..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (99K-reduced version; 791K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1984v3/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1983)
Date of publication: 1983
Description/subject: Read online/page views only. Read and go to next page
Author/creator: Kinney, Gordon L.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1982)
Date of publication: 1982
Description/subject: "Burma was not a major world producer of any mineral commodity in 1982. At least 30 minerals, however, were exploited commercially during the year. Most of these were consumed domestically. The most important minerals or mineral-based commodities to the Burmese economy were crude oil, natural gas, tin, gem stones, tungsten, fertilizer, cement, lead, and silver. Approximately 71,000 persons were employed in the mining industry at the beginning of 1982. Only 2,000 were employed by the private or joint private-government sector; the remaining 69,000 were employed in state-owned mining operations. Mining personnel were 0.5% of the country’s active labor force. They accounted for 2.2% of the net output of goods and services, contributing to one of the most efficient sectors of the economy. The main objectives set by the Government for the mining sector during the third 4-year plan, fiscal year (FY) 1977 through FY 1980, were to exploit mineral resources to the optimum, extend mineral exploratory surveying, prepare to supply the primary raw materials required for establishing a mineral-based heavy industry, boost crude oil and industrial mineral production to save foreign exchange, and minimize losses and waste. The production of crude oil was given top priority. The public investment in the mining sector increased annually during the third 4-year plan from $45 million in the base year to $129 million in the final year. The aggregate investment for the third 4-year plan was $415 million, more than double the planned amount, and constituted 12.4% of the public investment during the period. The planned public investment in the mining sector for FY 1982 was $137 million or 11.5% of total investment. Only the processing-manufacturing sector surpassed that percentage in the Government's plan. Between FY 1975 and FY 1981, Burma’s economy grew at an average annual rate of 7%, after over a decade of economic stagnation. Changes in Government policies since 1975 have been instrumental in that growth..."
Author/creator: Gordon L. Kinney
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (118K-reduced version; 784K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1982v3/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1981)
Date of publication: 1981
Description/subject: "Burma’s most important mineral production during 1981 was crude oil and natural gas. Production was sufficient for Burma to maintain petroleum self-sufficiency albeit at the cost of some consumer shortages. In addition to the mineral fuels, Burma also produced economically important amounts of lead, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, barite, and precious stones. Nineteen other minerals were produced commercially, mostly for domestic consumption. Prior to World War II, Burma was an important supplier of metals and ores to the world economy. Subsequently, Burma’s mineral sector underwent a decline which was only arrested in the last 5 years. Since 1975, Burma’s Ministry of Mines has successfully stimulated a major recovery of the mining sector through new investments and rehabilitation of old facilities. Significant loans from bilateral and multilateral sources have been the chief catalysts in the process. The Burmese plan for fiscal year (FY) 1980-813 called for an allocation of $107 million4 in the mining sector. According to provisional data, however, $161 million was actually spent during the year, exceeding the original allotment by $54 million. The reason for the excess was an increase in expenditure for oil exploration and development, the Monywa copper project, the direct-reduction iron project, and the new Metallurgical Research and Development Center (Ela) of the Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration. The mining expenditure accounted for 15.8% of total public investment in FY 1980-81.5 The FY 1981-82 plan allocated 14% of capital investment for the mining industry. In spite of these very significant investments, the Ministry of Mines was unable to maintain the momentum of the general recovery in FY 1980-81. As a result, the overall production results were mixed. Some of the major mining operations still suffer from inefficiency and energy shortages, particularly since the last quarter of 1980. Some of the mining sector renovation projects were slow to come online and delayed expected production increases. The mining sector employed about 69,000 persons, or 0.5% of the active labor force in 1981. Less than 3% of the total mining work force were employed in private or cooperatively owned mines. The remaining 97% worked in the state-owned mining companies. Mining accounted for just over 2% of the net output of goods and services..."
Author/creator: Gordon L. Kinney
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (107K-reduced version; 919K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1981v3/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1980)
Date of publication: 1980
Description/subject: "Burma’s most significant mineral production included lead, zinc, tin, tungsten, barite, jadeite, and petroleum. By far the most valuable product was petroleum, its dollar worth being several times the combined value of all of the nonfuel minerals produced during the year. The petroleum production had the added advantage of making Burma one of the few Southeast Asian countries that was self-sufficient in energy needs. Burma’s current mineral output is small by world standards, although it was a major producer of lead before World War II. It is still considered to have a good potential for expansion. Detailed geologic exploration is needed in several areas believed favorable for mineral occurrences. The unstable security situation, however, has been a detrimental factor for a number of years. Detailed ground surveys and drilling needed for deposit evaluations have been delayed or canceled in some remote areas. About 68,000 persons, or 0.5% of the active labor force, were employed in mining activities during 1979. During 1980, the mining sector probably accounted for about 2% of the net output of goods and services. Burma’s mineral industry was managed primarily by four government-owned corporations. The No. 1 Mining Corp. controlled the lead, zinc, and silver output, which came mostly from the historic Bawdwin mining operations. The No. 1 Mining Corp. will also run the Monywa copper enterprise. The No. 2 Mining Corp. ran all the major tin and tungsten operations and the Heinze dredging project. The No. 3 Mining Corp. mainly was in charge of the Kalewa and Namma coal mines, the Moulmein and Loikaw antimony mines, and the planned direct-reduction steel plant. Industrial minerals such as barite, limestone, and gypsum were managed by the No. 4 Mining Corp. The Burmese press reported that the fiscal year 1980-81 State budget showed that of a total planned investment of $832 million, $95 million, or 11.0% was allocated to the mining sector. In addition, $270 million was to go to the industrial sector, some of which would involve mineral-related projects. The $56 million earmarked for the electric power sector would also indirectly benefit some of the mineral sectors..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (107K-reduced version; 667K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1980v3/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1978-79)
Date of publication: 1979
Description/subject: "Burma’s current mineral output was small by world standards, although Burma was a producer of some consequence before World War II and still is considered to have a good potential for expansion. Burma’s major minerals included lead and zinc, which came mostly from the famed Bawd-win mine, once the richest lead-zinc lode mine in the world but now mining much lower grade material. Tin and tungsten production was important and came from a variety of small-scale placer and lode mines and few larger Government-owned mines. Burma was one of the few Southeast Asian countries to produce sufficient petroleum and natural gas to meet its domestic needs, and there was a small amount of crude oil exported in 1979. Burma also produced excellent quality jade and other gem minerals. About 67,000 persons, or 0.5% of the active labor force, were employed in mining activities at the beginning of 1978, and 68,000 during 1979. These miners accounted for approximately 1.8% of the net output of goods and services. Burma’s mineral industry was managed primarily by four state-owned corporations. The No. 1 Mining Corp. controlled the lead, zinc, and silver output, which came mostly from its Bawdwin mining operation. It will also run the Monywa copper enterprise. The No. 2 Mining Corp. ran all the major tin and tungsten operations and the Heinze dredging project. The No. 3 Mining Corp. mainly was in charge of the Kalewa and Namma coal mines and the Moulmein and Loikaw antimony mines. The industrial minerals such as barite, limestone, and gypsum were managed by the No. 4 Mining Corp. The No. 3 Corp. was given the responsibility for the planned direct-reduction steel plant in 1979. The Government’s policy in running these mines was that no foreign investment was accepted, and the mines would have no special marketing arrangements with foreign corporations or governments. As a result, very little foreign capital has been available for developing new mines or for modernizing or expanding old ones..."
Author/creator: Gordon L. Kinney
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (110K-reduced version; 760K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB197879v3/reference/econatres.mi...
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1977)
Date of publication: 1977
Description/subject: "The gross domestic product (GDP) of Burma for 19772 was estimated at just over $4.0 billion at current prices. Revised GDP figures for 1975-76 were $3,510 million for 1975 and $3,996 million for 1976. The GDP at constant 1969 prices was $1,839 million in 1976 and estimated at $1,842 million in 1977. One encouraging sign was the taming of the chronically high inflation rate. The revised Rangoon consumer price index (1972=100) increased about 14% during the year to 256, a smaller increase than in previous years. The balance-of-payments deficit was again held to a very manageable level—$29 million (revised) in 1976 and $22 million in 1977. Exports totaled an estimated $240 million, and imports increased to an estimated $312 million during 1977. The latest figures show that the population increased 2.2% in 1977 to 31.5 million. The total active labor force was 12.4 million, with 66,000, or 0.53%, engaged in mining activities. These miners produced about 1.7% of the net 1977 output of goods and services. The value of the output of the mineral sector for 1976 was $69 million at current prices, a 31% increase over the 1975 figure. Value figures for 1977 were not available but will probably be between the 1975 and 1976 levels at constant prices and could show a modest increase at current prices. The overall physical output of mineral products during 1977 was only slightly greater than in 1976, but the long-term trend is one of gradual decline, primarily owing to lack of new investment and failure to bring any significant new mines into production. Although its current output is small, Burma was a mineral producer of some consequence before World War II and still is considered to have a good potential for expansion. At present, however, no foreign investment is allowed in mining. All important mining operations are conducted by the Government-owned mining corporations. Foreign participation has been limited to technical assistance and financial aid. Small-scale, family-operated mines are still privately owned, with most of the output being sold to the Government. The major aim of the Government’s mining policy at present is to modernize or reopen existing mines that were in production before World War II but are now operating at reduced production levels or have closed because of deteriorated equipment and/or a lack of investment capital. Despite Burma’s favorable mineral potential, many of the most promising areas for exploration have not been mapped or prospected in any detail because of security problems..."
Author/creator: Gordon L. Kinney
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (146K-reduced version; 874K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1977v3/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1976)
Date of publication: 1976
Description/subject: "Burma’s economic situation showed a modest but encouraging upswing in fiscal 1976. The gross domestic product (GDP) in 1976 was estimated at $3.7 billion in current dollars. At constant 1969 prices the GDP rose an estimated 5.6% to $1.8 billion. This was a considerable improvement over Burma’s 10-year average growth rate of less than 3%, which had barely exceeded the population growth, leaving per capita GDP growth negligible during the decade. Per capita income at current prices rose an estimated 15% during 1976 to about $118, over twice the 1975 gain of 7%. The balance of payments showed a $28 million deficit in 1975, and estimates for 1976 indicated a slight increase in the deficit to around $30 million. Inflation was still the main economic problem as the amount of currency in circulation continued to increase and bottlenecks in production, transportation, and distribution kept the supply of goods low. Speculators, hoarders, smugglers, and black marketeers added to inflation. In recent years, the inflation rate has been well over 20%. The consumer price index in Rangoon (1972 = 100) was at 222 in 1975, an increase of nearly 35% over that of the previous year. In 1976, however, consumer prices were held to a 20% increase, closing the year at about 266. Similarly, the wholesale agricultural price index climbed 20% in 1976. The major bright spot in the economic picture was the vital agricultural sector, which had an increase in output of about 7% over that of 1975, the largest increase in the past 15 years. Production of all major crops except jute rose for the 1975-76 crop season, mainly because of excellent climatic conditions during the year. These favorable conditions continued throughout the 1976-77 crop season, and Burma was expected to have a record harvest for the second consecutive year. Rice production in 1976 could be over 9 million tons and again contribute the major portion of Burma’s export income. Burma’s mineral production was mixed during the year, with some products making modest gains. These included antimony, copper, mixed tin-tungsten concentrates, gypsum, limestone, and crude petroleum. A number of the minerals most important to the economy, however, showed declines in production. Foremost among these were the products from the famed Bawdwin mine—lead, zinc, and silver. Silver was particularly disappointing, with production falling 73% to 211,000 troy ounces..."
Author/creator: Gordon L. Kinney
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (150K-reduced version; 908K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1976v3/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1975)
Date of publication: 1975
Description/subject: "Burma’s 1975 mineral production remained essentially unchanged from that of 1974. Lack of modem equipment, prohibition of foreign investment, student unrest, and insurgent activity combined to prevent any really significant improvements in the mining sector. The high rate of inflation continued, with 1975 prices more than 300% above the 1969-70 level. The inflation was fueled by an expanded money supply, which was used to finance successive years of large budget deficits. The Ministry of Mines was reorganized in April 1975. The new organization comprised the Minister’s Office, Planning and Inspection Department, Geological Survey and Exploration Department, and five state-owned mineral corporations. The major producing mines were under these corporations, but the Myanma Oil Corporation Refinery and Petroleum Products Sales Corporation were moved to the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Industry. Small-scale, family-operated mines are still privately owned, with most of the output being sold to the Government. The Government intends to step up production of minerals during the second 4-year plan (to start in 1975-76) and envisions an annual 4% growth. During this period, Burma also hopes to achieve self-sufficiency in crude oil production and to begin exporting small amounts. Overall economic growth in 1975 was slow, the gross domestic product (GDP) increased 3.5% for the year at constant 1969-70 prices. Although this was well short of the targeted 6+% growth rate, and a little below the previous year’s 4%, it was more than the 2.7% average annual growth rate for the past decade. Considering that Burma had an estimated population growth of 2.2% per annum, real gains in the per capita GDP were not encouraging. Gross national product (GNP) was reported at about $3 billion. Metallic ores production in 1975 remained little changed from that of 1974. Industrial minerals increased in most cases in 1975, but as their unit values were generally low, the increases did little to bolster the overall economy..."
Author/creator: Gordon L. Kinney
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (147K-reduced version; 793K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1975v3/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1974)
Date of publication: 1974
Description/subject: "Burma’s mineral industry again stagnated, mainly because of the lack of modern equipment and insurgent activity. Exports of base metals and ores were approximately the same as in 1973. Burma will continue to .export as much of its mineral output as possible to earn foreign exchange. With technical and financial assistance from U.S. and other bilateral sources, Burma moved to renovate existing mines and explore for new mineral resources. An important agreement was signed with the Federal Republic of Germany to modernize the Bawdwin-lead-zinc mines. Capital allocations for the project were $11 million for open pit improvements, $19 million for the flotation mill, and $4 million for support facilities which include a 5,000-kilowatt hydroelectric plant. However, a West German mining technician was kidnapped near the Bawdwin mine in March. As a result, the Ministry of Mines recalled all foreign mineral experts under its jurisdiction to Rangoon and foreign assistance for Burma’s mineral industry came to a virtual standstill..."
Author/creator: Timothy Adams
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (141K-reduced version; 801K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1974v3/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1973)
Date of publication: 1973
Description/subject: "Burma’s mineral industry had a disappointing year during 1973. Oxe production from the Bawdwin non ferrous metal mine near Lashio recorded a substantial increase over 1972 output; however, production of refined lead and silver from this mine again declined owing to the continuing decline in the ore grade. Production of tin and tungsten increased over that of 1972. A 53% increase in output from the Mawshi tin-tungsten mine accounted for much of the increase. The Burmese Government’s decision to invite foreign participation in offshore oil exploration, on a profit-sharing basis, was the highlight of 1973. At yearend, a decision was expected shortly on which firms would be awarded contracts. Meanwhile Myanma Oil Corp. (MOC) continued its own exploratory drilling program, drilling four more holes offshore without any finds. In July, new commodity and project agreements were signed with Japan. The project agreement provided for a long-term loan of $26.9 million to finance construction of a new oil refinery at Syriam with a throughput capacity of about 1 million tons per year. This would roughly double existing Burmese refining capacity. The Government reorganization of April 1972 provided for six agencies under the Ministry of Mines as follows: Myanma Oil Corp. (MOC); Myanma Bawdwin Corp. (MBC), to operate Bawdwin and other mines producing lead, zinc, and silver; Myanma Tin and Wolfram Corp.; Myanma Mineral Development Corp. (MDC), to supervise production of copper, antimony, and other minerals not falling under the previous two agencies; Mineral Industrial Raw Materials Corp., to produce limestone, barite, industrial clays, and related items; and the Geological Survey and Exploration Department. These agencies are responsible for general control and supervision of the mining sector, as well as direct operation of the larger and more productive mines. Smaller, mainly tin, mines operate on a tribute system, with miners, registered by the Government, working largely by hand and delivering their output to government purchase depots at fixed prices. In practice, however, much of the output is probably smuggled into Thailand, where it can be sold more conveniently and usually at higher prices. Minerals occupy a prominent place in Burmese economic planning. However, the mineral sector has not received a corresponding share of capital investment. In fiscal year 1972-73 (October through the following September) 6.1% of the Government capital expenditure was designated for the mining sector as follows: MOC, S14.7 million; MBC, $3.5 million; and MDC and others, $5.4 million..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (99K-reduced version; 540K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1973v3/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1972)
Date of publication: 1972
Description/subject: "Burma’s mineral industry showed moderate improvement during 1972. Production from the Bawdwin nonferrous metal mine near Lashio recorded a slight increase over 1971 output; however, production of refined lead and silver from this mine declined owing to the continuing decline in the grade of the ore. Production of tin and tungsten recorded a substantial increase in 1972. However, output from the Mawchi tin-tungsten mine declined during the year. The U.N. Development Program has provided $2 million to Burma to help reopen other tin and tungsten mines in southern Burma. Offshore exploratory drilling was begun during the year but was interrupted in September by a blowout in which the drilling rig was destroyed. External govern-ment-to-govemment assistance continued to be provided to the Burmese petroleum sector by Japan and West Germany, and by the Export-Import Bank (Eximbank). The mineral industry of Burma has become very much a government business. In fiscal 1971-72 (October through the following September), 11.5% of the Government capital expenditure was designated for the mining sector as follows: Myanma Oil Corp. (MOC), $17.9 million; 2 Myanma Bawdwin Corp. (MBC), $1.9 million; and Mineral Development Corp. (MDC), $5.7 million..."
Author/creator: Donald C. Wininger
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (148K-reduced version; 770K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1972v3/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1971)
Date of publication: 1971
Description/subject: "Burma’s "hard rock” part of the mineral industry showed only moderate improvement during 1971. Production from the Bawdwin mine near Lashio and the Chinese border increased, but the grade of the ore continued to decline. Production of tin and tungsten recorded a substantial increase in 1971, which indicated that the overall rehabilitation program was making significant progress, although output from the Mawchi tin-tungsten mine achieved only modest gains. In February a cooperative agreement was signed with the West German Government regarding general exploration for mineral resources in Burma. An untied loan of $10 million 2 was negotiated with Japan to finance exploratory drilling for oil in the Gulf of Martaban. The drilling, scheduled to begin early in 1972, will be conducted by a U.S. contractor, which will be the first foreign firm to engage in drilling operations in Burma since nationalization of the oil industry in 1963. A loan was also received from the Export-Import Bank (Eximbank) to help finance the purchase of six more oil drilling rigs. The fertilizer plant being constructed by the West Germans to utilize local natural gas to make urea was nearing completion at year end. The mineral industry of Burma has become very much a government business. Various government corporations are assigned to manage the different mining sectors. In fiscal 1970-71,3 the national budget showed the following estimated capital expenditures: Myanma Oil Corp. (MOC), $14.6 million; Myanma Bawdwin Corp. (MBC), $2.3 million; and Mineral Development Corp. (MDC), $4.6 million..."
Author/creator: Donald C. Wininger
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (136K-reduced version; 831K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1971v3/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1968)
Date of publication: 1970
Description/subject: "From the viewpoint of economics and industry, 1968 was another disappointing year for Burma. Production was low, prices soared, and exports continued their downward trend causing a worsening of the balance of payments position. The Government assumed control of more of the nation’s industry, the level of insurgency remained high, and managerial and technical talent continued to emigrate. During the year, the Government took over 169 additional industrial concerns, including 16 in “metals” and nine in “engineering.” Burma no longer produces quantitiwise any mineral of world consequence. Production from the historically famous Bawdwin mine near Lashio and the Chinese border dropped to the lowest level in a decade, partly because of conversion of operations to extract more low-grade ores. Tin and tungsten production was down slightly; some of these mines in Tavoy and Mergui may be closed. However, oil production increased, with discovery of new fields and completion of additional wells. In fact, the country claimed self-sufficiency for petroleum at yearend 1968. Cement output also increased. According to official Burma national budget estimates, total “mining” output in fiscal 1967-68 was $28.9 million. This figure includes crude oil and limestone, but not salt and value added from mineral and metal processing. Burma’s gross national product (GNP) for 1967-68 was reported at $2.06 billion at current prices. Targets for mineral output and GNP covering fiscal 1968-69 were $37.7 million and $2.24 billion, respectively. In recent years, targets have seldom been fulfilled, and value figures have been exaggerated because of inflation and free market rates. Only about 54,000 workers out of a labor force of 10 million and a population of some 26.4 million were said to be engage! in mining during 1968. Installed electric power capacity was only 196,300 kilowatts at yearend 1968; far from sufficient to supporting extensive mineral, and industrial development. Under the 4-year national economic plan ending 1969—70, special attention was to be given to mineral development. Financing was to come predominantly from domestic sources, since foreign aid is limited and foreign investment almost nonexistent. Outlays for mineral development by the Government of Burma have been modest, with expenditures approximating receipts. The national budget showed the following anticipated expenditures for fiscal 1967-68: People’s Oil Industry, $71.4 million; People’s Bawdwin Industry (PBI), $7.8 million; Mineral Development Corporation (MDC), $3.7 million; Ywama Steel Mill, $5.9 million; and Thayet Cement Factory, $3.3 million..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (75K-reduced version; 483K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1968v4/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1970)
Date of publication: 1970
Description/subject: "Burma’s "hard rock” part of the mineral industry had another lackluster year in 1970. Production from the Bawdwin enterprise near Lashio and the Chinese border remained at its lowest level within a decade, with the modernization program behind schedule. Tin and tungsten output also showed little i£ any improvement. Nothing was done on the Monywa copper deposit. A Soviet technical assistance team arrived in July to rehabilitate the Mawchi tin-tungsten mine and a West German team was assigned to help develop tin mines in the Heinda district. Antimony mining was resumed. Near yearend, a special technical aid agreement was being negotiated with the West German Government regarding exploitation of mineral resources in Burma in general. The West Germans were also active in oil and fertilizers. An agreement was signed to conduct seismic surveys for oil in the Gulf of Martaban. The Germans, who are to assist in onshore exploration as well, were negotiating for a production-sharing contract. The Japanese tried to negotiate a similar contract for the Arakan coast, which they have surveyed on a preliminary basis, with no success as yet. Meanwhile, the Burmese made some headway themselves in exploration and exploitation. The Mann oilfield near Minbu was discovered and brought into production. New oil rigs were purchased. However, the overall Burmese effort was small, because of limitations in domestic capital and technical capability. On a related front, one fertilizer plant had been completed by the Japanese and another (virtually the same size) was being constructed by the West Germans, both to utilize local natural gas to make urea. The mineral industry of Burma has become very much a government business. About 5 percent of the national budget in 1969, or $109 million, was allocated to the Ministry of Mines, which also runs the petroleum industry. Various government corporations are assigned to manage the different mining sectors. In fiscal 1969-70,3 the budget for national development showed the following anticipated capital expenditures: People’s Oil Industry (POI), $11.8 million; People’s Bawdwin Industry (PBI) , $2-1 million; and Mineral Development Corporation (MDC) , $1.7 million. In February 1970, the Myanma Oil Corporation (MOC) took over the duties of POI and the Myanma Bawdin Corporation (MBC) took over the duties of PBI and other organizations. The power of MDC had been reduced, although it still supervises tin, tungsten, coal, and certain nonmetallics. Even the precious stone industries have been nationalized."
Author/creator: K. P. Wang
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (89K-reduced version; 648K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1970v3/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1967)
Date of publication: 1969
Description/subject: "Burma’s mineral industry in 1967 showed but little growth despite potentially significant resources of some commodities and government plans for development of the industry. Recent statistics on production, trade, and reserves of mineral commodities have been sketchy. However, there was an increase in output of crude oil, one of the more important mineral activities although it fell short of the planned target, and imports of crude oil as well as some products were necessary to meet domestic demand. The Bawdwin lead-silver-zinc enterprise was undergoing mine and plant modifications during 1966— 67 with a view towards increasing production and improving operations; meanwhile, output was at reduced levels. As a result of neglect of mining properties, tin and tungsten production continued to decline. Overall mineral output in 1967 contributed about 1.5 percent to Burma’s Gross National Product (GNP), compared with about 33 percent for agriculture. During fiscal 1966—67, the country’s GNP was estimated at $1,700 million.2 Tax returns from minerals have been small; for minerals, the annual sum has been consistently less than $1 million in recent years. Approximately 52,000 workers out of a labor force of 10 million and a population of 25.8 million were reportedly engaged in mining during 1967. Burma has little power to support mineral industry activities; installed capacity at yearend 1966 reportedly was only 191,000 kilowatts. Under the new 4-year national economic plan for 1966—67 to 1969—70, special attention was to be given to mineral developments, such efforts to be financed entirely from domestic sources. The outlook appeared uncertain, however, for any significant achievement in view of recent performance. The fiscal 1966—67 budget for national mineral development showed increased outlays by the Government: Expenditures planned for the People’s Oil Industry were estimated at $16.85 million in 1966-67 compared with $9.56 million in 1965—66; for People’s Bawdwin Industry Mines $2.48 million in 1966—67 compared with $270,000 in 1965—66; and for Mineral Development Corporation (MDC) $2.3 million compared with $1.18 million in 1965—66. A large proportion of Burma’s business sector is nationalized and only a little private foreign capital has been flowing into the country for industrial development. Nevertheless, the Government has shown a desire for foreign assistance, preferably multilateral aid under the Colombo Plan and/or from international organizations such as the United Nations, rather than bilateral aid. Total loans arranged for fiscal 1967—68 were reported at $11.6 million, compared with $6.66 million in 1966— 67; while grants were $1.85 million for 1967—68 compared with $1.88 million in 1966—67. In 1967—68, the principal loans were expected to come from mainland China, East Germany, West Germany, and United States, and grants, from international organizations and the United States. The Ministry of Mines formed a Geology, Petroleum, and Mining Advisory Council to last 2 years beginning January 2, 1967. Made up of the leading minerals men in Burma and headed by the Secretary of the Ministry of Mines, its primary functions are to advise the Minister of Mines on technical matters, submit long-and short-term plans for prospecting and extraction of oil, minerals and other resources, in accordance with available manpower, capital, and equipment..."
Author/creator: Taber de Polo and John M. West
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (99K-reduced version; 696K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1967v4/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1969)
Date of publication: 1969
Description/subject: "Burma’s mineral industry had another lackluster year in 1969. Production from the historically famous Bawdwin lead-silver-zinc enterprise near Lashio and the Chinese border remained at its lowest level within a decade. Tin and tungsten output also remained at low levels. Development of the Monywa district’s copper deposits, with estimated reserves of 14 million tons of 0.5 to 1.0 percent copper ore, progressed very slowly. Although crude oil production increased, the planned self-sufficiency goal was not reached, and crude oil as well as some refinery products were imported to meet domestic demand. Onshore oil exploration activities were to be increased in 1969-70 and, for the first time, offshore activities were planned. The Burmese approached the West Germans for help in exploring areas off the Arakan coast. This was the first sign that Burma might be considering opening its oil industry to foreign participation, closed since the nationalization of the oil industry in 1963. Under the current 4-year national economic plan ending in 1969-70, special attention was given to mineral development, which was to be financed entirely from domestic sources. The fiscal 1969-702 budget for national development showed the following anticipated capital expenditures: People’s Oil Industry (POI), $11.8 million; People’s Bawdwin Industry (PBI), $2.1 million; and Mineral Development Corporation (MDC), $1.7 million. Although Burma no longer produces any mineral in quantities of world consequence, significant resources possibly exist. Little progress has been made toward their development, however, due to the shortage of managerial and technical talent in the country, lack of capital funds to purchase the required equipment, and Government policy against foreign private investment in the mineral industry. As a result, the Government in recent years has concentrated much of its efforts on less capital consuming ventures such as geological surveys and exploration work."
Author/creator: Ta Li
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (60K-reduced version; 344K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1969v4/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1965)
Date of publication: 1967
Description/subject: "Burma has an agricultural economy, but has long been considered a potentially mineral rich region, with its oil, gas, lead, zinc, silver, tin, and tungsten resources in 1965 less than fully developed. Mineral output had fallen behind that of neighboring Thailand, whose production in 1964 was of about the same order of value. Production of crude oil, the major item, failed to keep pace and output declined in 1965, and petroleum refinery output, which was partly from imported crude oil, strained to supply domestic demand. At the same time, greater efforts went into increasing crude oil supplies by exploration and secondary recovery experiments. Cement and salt production continued at a steady level, but metallic output appeared to be declining. In trade, payments for some imports were withheld, which led to temporary constraints by suppliers, even though the Government’s Central Deposit financial reserves position appeared quite sound. Following completion of Japanese war reparations in April, Japan initiated a 12-year $140 million economic assistance program. Mainland China assisted Burma with the construction of bridges over the Salween River at Ta-Kaw, at Kunhing, and at Kunlong. The U.S.S.R. offered assistance in mining, was interested in a dam to be built on the Baluchaung River, near Mobye, Kayah State, and helped with the construction of the Kyetmauktaung dam. This assistance moved the anticipated completion date to August 1966. Burma’s gross national product was probably even lower in 1965 than the $1.63 billion reported in 1963-64, its mineral industry contributed an estimated 3 percent of the overall product. For this country of about 25 million people, only metallic lead and silver had international significance and the country’s output of each of these was less than 1 percent of world demand..."
Author/creator: J. M. West
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (67K-reduced version; 424K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1965v4/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1966)
Date of publication: 1967
Description/subject: Only Table 1.—Burma: Production of mineral commodities
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (19K-reduced version; 89K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1966v1and2/reference/econatres....
Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1964)
Date of publication: 1966
Description/subject: "Although long considered a rich mineral region, Burma re-mained only a small producer in 1964, with its mineral industry output worth on the order of $45 million, slightly less than that of neighboring Thailand. Oil was the mainstay, but even that fell short of supplying domestic energy demands. Oil production, dropping in 1964, could not keep pace with consumption, and the lack of new discoveries made the outlook discouraging. The future for base metals and tin-tungsten mining was somewhat poorer, because efficient extraction had been abandoned for highgrading practices, thus hastening early depletion. Compared with agriculture, minerals had a small place m the economy, but contributed about 3.5 percent to the gross national product. Several thousand of the country’s 24 million people were involved in mineral extraction, with facilities concentrated at only a few sites. Oil exploration was stepped up in 1964, largely with Rumanian help; expanded operations at the Syriam refinery made crude imports necessary, indicating the shortcomings in domestic supply. Burma Railways’ dieselization was nearly complete, reducing demand for imported coal but increasing diesel oil requirements. A tender was issued for construction of a Government fertilizer plant; meanwhile drilling to find adequate natural gas for the proposed plant proceeded in the Chauk area. Burma Corp., the big nonferrous metal producer, was seeking exemptions from taxation and stringent Government controls. Surveys at the company’s Bawdwin mines had disclosed large tonnages of lower grade multimetal ores, and plans were being made to expand output. The Mawchi tin-tungsten mines and Kalewa coal mines were small-scale developments in progress, and a large iron deposit near Pangpet was being studied. Gem mining was hard hit by insurgency. To stimulate the gem trade, the Government tried to take the traditional role of Hong Kong dealers in jade purchases but with little success. Offerings under Government supervised sales at the Rangoon Gem Fair in December fell short as producers balked at the new controls..."
Author/creator: J. M. West
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (67K-reduced version; 711K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1964v4/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (1963)
Date of publication: 1964
Description/subject: "BURMA, long believed to be a rich mineral province, has been only a minor producer in recent decades, even by Far East standards. Its 1963 mineral output value of roughly US$45 million was fax smaller than that of Thailand, Taiwan, and South Korea, countries not considered prominent in mining. The mineral industry is not of great consequence to Burma’s predominantly agricultural economy; the value or minerals in 1963 was 3.5 percent of the gross national product. However, under British rule before World War II, mineral products were extracted at several times the present level and constituted a significant item in the county’s export trade. Burma’s mineral industry has been concentrated in a few enterprises and mining districts. The leading mineral product, petroleum, came under control of the government enterprise People’s Oil Industry, which took over the Burma Oil Company in 1963. A specific development during the year was the completion of a new oil refinery at Syriam near Rangoon. The Burma Corp. (1951) , Ltd., producing lead, zinc, silver, and other metals at levels less than one-fourth of the historic peaks, was on the verge of becoming nationalized by yearend. The Government’s Petroleum and Mineral Development Corporation (PMDC) planned in 1963 to reopen the Mawchi tin-tungsten mine, idle for many years except for small-scale tributary operations. The small Ywama steel mill in Insein near Rangoon continued to have problems with scrap shortages and high operating costs. The Thayetmyo cement plant increased production substantially without plant expansion, in order to take up the slack caused by import reductions. Plans were made to develop and nationalize the jade industry..."
Author/creator: K. P. Wang
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau of Mines via University of Wisconsin
Format/size: pdf (121K-reduced version; 674K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://images.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/EFacs2/MineralsYearBk/MinYB1963v4/reference/econatres.miny...
Date of entry/update: 23 December 2014