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India-Burma relations

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Burma Centre Delhi (BCD)
Description/subject: "Burma Centre Delhi (BCD) is a non-profit organization which was formed with the aim to work for the restoration of peace, justice, democracy and human rights in Burma, India and other parts of the world. BCD strongly believes that India, the world’s largest democracy, can influence Burma and other countries of the world in bringing about peace and democratic transition. BCD also believes that the on-going political crisis in Burma is a clash between the oppressed and the oppressors and that only political dialogue can solve the problems that Burma has faced and continues to face. BCD firmly adheres to non-violent political methods. The Mission of BCD is to: provide update information on Burma's political, social and economic issues to the different levels of Indian people so as to raise the level of consciousness and actions for democracy movement in Burma strengthen relationship and building network between the people of India and Burma for better understanding and solidarity serve as a resource centre providing a platform for Burmese and Indian for sharing knowledge of two countries to know about each other observe Indo-Burma relations and take initiative role for appropriate campaign and lobby to urge the Indian Government to support the aspirations for democracy and human rights"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Centre Delhi (BCD)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 10 March 2012


Title: Burma–India relations
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 October 2010


Title: Center for Justice and Peace in South Asia Cjesa
Description/subject: "...news and discussion forum of CJPsa strives to achieve Justice and Peace to the indigenous and minority groups including women and children in South Asia by bringing diverse interest groups together to facilitate communications, action items, and propagation of pertinent information using the mass media. Our aim is to effect public opinion and thus facilitate political actions which will lead to justice and peace in South Asia..." [this is a very active group of over 300 members. It covers mainly the Indian subcontinent, with lots of postings on the Indian North-East, but also a number of messages about the India-Burma, Bangladesh-Burma borders - DA] INACTIVE (FEB 2009)
Language: English
Subscribe: cjesa-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Centre de Sciences Humaines - Delhi (Search results for "Myanmar")
Language: English
Source/publisher: Centre de Sciences Humaines de New Delhi
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://csh-delhi.com/
Date of entry/update: 29 November 2010


Title: India in the World: The International Relations of a Rising Power
Description/subject: A wealth of online primary (1947-present) and secondary documents on India's foreign relations, including a number dealing with Burma/Myanmar, India's Look East policy etc. Go to http://www.thescotties.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/ for material on China and other parts of the Asia-Pacific
Author/creator: David Scott
Language: English
Source/publisher: David Scott
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.thescotties.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/
Date of entry/update: 02 April 2008


Title: Indian Parliament
Description/subject: Contains email, street address and phone Nos. of parliamentarians
Language: English
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Indo Myanmar page
Language: English
Source/publisher: Indo Myanmar
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


Title: Indo-burma News
Description/subject: "This website provides news and information resources related to Burma and India relations. News and information are being taken out from different sources, independent news agency and websites. India, being a biggest democratic country in the world, has recently changed its policy to support the oppressive Burmese military regime for its national interest and energy needs. The site provides resources and archives to help activists to lobby Indian political parties, civil societiy organizations, NGOs and individuals for the support of democracy movement in Burma and political activities of Burmese exiles in India."... Very sporadic -- some months or even years have no articles, but some periods have a lot.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Indo-burma News
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 April 2008


Title: Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA) Myanmar page
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses
Alternate URLs: http://www.idsa.in/search/node/myanmar (search page for "Myanmar")
http://www.idsa.in/aboutidsa
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


Title: Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses [Delhi]
Description/subject: One of the Delhi think tanks with an interest in Burma-Myanmar...Use the (google) search engine... Strong links with the Indian Ministry of Defence, though it (and its individual researchers) claim independence.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 November 2008


Title: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies [Delhi]
Description/subject: One of the Delhi-based think tanks with the greatest interest in India-Burma/Myanmar relations. A search for "Myanmar" on this site produced 168 articles and 796 news items (November 2008).
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (IDSA)
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 24 November 2008


Title: Mizzima
Description/subject: A most impressive institution, much more than a news service, with an excellent website. Mizzima concentrates on India-Burma relations, events etc. Several Mizzima articles daily in English and Burmese which can be read on the site or delivered to your mailbox. The website has a browsable archive back to 98, which is an important resource. The search function does not work all that well (e.g. searching for "naga", it retrieved 5 documents, whereas there are several hundred accessible to the patient browser). Sections include: the Mizzima News; Mizzima News Archives; News in Burmese; Burma Related News (various sources); Nationalities Questions; Documents (nothing there yet); Debates; About Mizzima; About Burma; Mizzima's Activities; Seminars; Photo Gallery (mainly people sitting round tables); Media in Burma; Network Links; Chat Room; Burmese calendar; Research on Indo-Burma relations; English Language School; Art Exhibitions; Music Album; Mizzima Video Documentary; Affiliated Organizations; Mizzima Team.
Language: English, Burmese.
Source/publisher: Mizzima
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Observer Research Foundation (ORF) [Delhi]
Description/subject: One of the Delhi think-tanks with a Burma/Myanmar interest (it has a Myanmar specialist, K Yhome) ... It has some Burma/Myanmar material, but since the rather eccentric website has no visible search engine this is best accessed via a google site-specific search: myanmar site:observerindia.com ... Even with a (free) subscription, one is often limited to executive summaries.... "OBSERVER RESEARCH FOUNDATION (ORF) is an endeavour to aid and influence formulation of policies for building a strong and prosperous India. The expectations of the global community from India are immense as the country is poised to play a leading role in the knowledge age. The Foundation believes that in the next 25 years India will be one of the great economic powers in the world and contribute to a significant transformation in the quality of life of humanity." .....
Language: English
Source/publisher: Observer Research Foundation
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://orfonline.org
Date of entry/update: 24 November 2008


Title: Search result for " Myanmar" from Institute of Peace & Conflict Studies
Description/subject: Study on India- Myanmar bilateral. Also regional involving Myanmar.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institue of Peace & Conflict Studies
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 05 October 2010


Title: Search results for "Myanmar" in "Tehelka"
Description/subject: 58 results (November 2010)... "Tehelka" - "India's Independent Weekly News"
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Tehelka"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 10 November 2010


Title: Website of Renaud Egreteau
Description/subject: "Welcome to my Site ! Let me introduce myself. As a French researcher in International Relations, I have been working for the last 7 years on geopolitics in Asia, with a special focus on India and Burma (Myanmar). In December 2006, I successfully defended my Ph.D Dissertation (Political Science, Asian Studies) at the Institute of Political Science, Paris, France : "India, China and the Burmese Issue : Sino-Indian Rivalry through Burma/Myanmar and its Limits since 1988" (with distinction). You will find in this website a glimpse of the works I have done so far on those issues (articles, publications, fieldworks) as well as some links and contacts which could be of interest on these matters. Enjoy the visit "... Dr. Renaud EGRETEAU
Language: Francais, French, English
Source/publisher: Renaud Egreteau
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 27 June 2007


Individual Documents

Title: The Strategic Importance of Myanmar for India
Date of publication: 12 August 2014
Description/subject: "...If India is to become an assertive regional player in Asia, it has to work toward developing policies that would improve and strengthen it domestically, which will encourage more confidence in its ability to lead the region and be an important global player. Competition with China should also be considered and taken seriously. China’s growing influence in the region would lead to a more one-sided dynamic in the region. China has asserted itself through its soft power as well as through its trade and economic relations with Myanmar by taking up large infrastructure projects in the country. India on the other hand needs to use its soft power more effectively, and at the same time strengthen itself domestically and regionally. There are several advantages that India has over China with regard to Myanmar. One is the democratic process, which results in different governments at the center and states through free and fair elections. There is also the respect for institutions that are strong enough to hold the country together. Finally, cooperation in different multilateral forums such as ASEAN and BIMSTEC strengthen the relationship between the two countries. Apart from these reasons, India has sent a clear signal that while economic ties are important, it is keen to build a holistic relationship and is prepared to assist in institution building in Myanmar..."
Author/creator: Sridhar Ramaswamy & Tridivesh Singh Maini
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Diplomat"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014


Title: How South Asia Resolves Maritime Disputes
Date of publication: 10 July 2014
Description/subject: "As Ankit noted earlier today, the Hague-based Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) ruled on the maritime dispute between India and Bangladesh in the Bay of Bengal this week. According to news reports, the court awarded 19,467 square kilometers (7,516 square miles) of a total disputed area of 25,602 km to Bangladesh. More importantly, both countries praised the ruling. “It is the victory of friendship and a win-win situation for the peoples of Bangladesh and India,” Bangladesh’s Foreign Minister Abul Hassan Mahmood Ali told a news conference on Tuesday, Reuters reported. He added: “We commend India for its willingness to resolve this matter peacefully by legal means and for its acceptance of the tribunal’s judgment.” India’s Ministry of External Affairs also released a statement hailing the court’s ruling in Bangladesh’s favor. “The settlement of the maritime boundary will further enhance mutual understanding and goodwill between India and Bangladesh by bringing to closure a long-pending issue,” the statement said. “This paves the way for the economic development of this part of the Bay of Bengal, which will be beneficial to both countries.” This is not the first time that India and Bangladesh have peacefully resolved a territorial dispute. Back in 2011, India and Bangladesh reached a bilateral agreement to resolve their disputed land borders This is also not the first time an international tribunal has peacefully resolved a maritime border dispute in South Asia. At the same time it filed the case with India, Bangladesh asked another tribunal to resolve its maritime dispute with Myanmar according to the terms of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Myanmar, like India, agreed to submit the case to the tribunal and abide by its ruling..."
Author/creator: Zachary Keck
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Diplomat"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 July 2014


Title: The importance of Myanmar to Modi
Date of publication: 13 June 2014
Description/subject: "Prime Minister Narendra Modi's decisive victory in India's elections last month has opened a new chapter and emboldened the aspirations of over a billion Indians. There is also hope Modi will develop ties with neighboring countries, especially given his positive gesture of inviting South Asian leaders to his inauguration. Myanmar, India's "gateway" to Southeast Asia and having close cultural and historical ties, may also welcome this rise of a "right-wing" leadership in India. This an opening for both countries to come together, make use of the opportunities available and harness the potential strengths to gain a strategic advantage in the region..."
Author/creator: Sonu Trivedi
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 July 2014


Title: India-China make a Myanmar tryst
Date of publication: 13 August 2013
Description/subject: "As India and China have emerged as major powers in Asia, their interests and concerns have transcended their geographical boundaries. There is particularly the case in Myanmar, where those interests have converged. This is largely due to the fact that Myanmar shares common borders with both the countries. Myanmar shares a 2,185-kilometer border with China, and 1,643-kilometer border with India. It has long been argued that Myanmar has always been a strategic concern for governing the dynamics of India-China relations. Myanmar's strategic location is considered as an important asset for India and China that offers tremendous opportunities for the countries of the region. Therefore, recent developments in Myanmar are a matter of concern for both India and China..."
Author/creator: Sonu Trivedi
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 May 2014


Title: India Marginalized in Myanmar
Date of publication: 20 July 2013
Description/subject: "India has not gained much from Myanmar’s transition from military rule to a fledgling democracy. When Myanmar was ruled by a military junta and shunned by the West, India and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean) were seen as alternatives to Chinese influence. But as Myanmar opens up to the outside world after decades of isolation, it is turning more to the West, especially the United States, to balance China’s growing influence, and not to India. Increasingly, Delhi is seen as a defensive power, unwilling and incapable of contesting Chinese influence in Myanmar, and not central to what has been described as the emerging “Great Game East.”..."
Author/creator: Subir Bhaumik
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 23 July 2013


Title: One cannot step into the same river twice: making the Kaladan Project people-centred
Date of publication: 11 June 2013
Description/subject: "The Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project (hereafter “Kaladan Project”) will see the construction of a combined inland waterway and highway transportation system connecting Mizoram State in Northeast India with a Bay of Bengal deepsea port at Sitetway, Arakan State in Western Burma. The Indian government is entirely financing the Kaladan Project, and these funds are officially classified as development aid to Burma. Once completed, the infrastructure will belong to the Burma government, but the project is unquestionably designed to achieve India’s economic and geostrategic interests. The Kaladan Project - conceived in 2003, formalized in 2008 and slated for completion in 2015 - is a cornerstone of India’s “Look East Policy” aimed at expanding Indian economic and political influence in Southeast and East Asia. The Kaladan Project is being developed in Arakan and Chin States - Burma’s least-developed and most poverty-prone states - where improved infrastructure is badly needed. Yet it remains an open question whether the Kaladan Project will be implemented in a way that ensures the people living along the project route are the main beneficiaries of this large-scale infrastructure development. This report from the Kaladan Movement provides an update on the progress of the Kaladan Project; assesses the potential Project-related benefi ts and negative impacts for people living in the project area; provides an overview of the current on-the-ground impacts, focusing on the hopes and concerns of the local people; and makes a series of recommendations to the Burma and India governments......."Part 1: Introduction to the Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project; 1.1 Specifications of the Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project; 1.2 Context of the Kaladan Project: India-Burma relations; 1.3 Economies of Mizoram, Arakan, and Chin States; 1.4 The natural environment in the Kaladan Project area... Part 2: Potential Impacts of the Kaladan Project: 2.1 Potential beneficial impacts of the Kaladan Project; 2.2 Potential negative impacts of the Kaladan project... Part 3: Current Impacts of the Kaladan Project: 3.1 Lack of consultation; 3.2 Lack of information provided to the community and lack of government transparency; 3.3 Lack of comprehensive and public Environmental, Health and Social Impact Assessments; 3.4 Labour discrimination; 3.5 Land confi scation and forced eviction; 3.6 Destruction of local cultural heritage; 3.7 Riverine ecological destruction from aggregate mining and dredging..... https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/102872850/KM_Report_Eng.pdf
Language: English (main text); Burmese (press release)
Source/publisher: Kaladan Movement
Format/size: pdf (4.8MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Kaladan_Movement-PR-2013-06-11-bu.pdf (Press Release - Burmese)
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Kaladan_Movement-PR-2013-06-11-en.pdf (Press Release - English)
Date of entry/update: 12 June 2013


Title: Myanmar conflict threatens regional stability
Date of publication: 16 August 2012
Description/subject: "AGARTALA and IMPHAL - As a rising number of Rohingya Muslims flee sectarian conflict in Myanmar and take sanctuary in India's northeastern states, the flow of refugees is putting a new strain on bilateral relations. New Delhi has called on Naypyidaw to stem the rising human tide, a diplomatic request that Indian officials say has so far gone unheeded. Ongoing sporadic violence between Rohingya Muslims and Buddhist Rakhines in western Myanmar has left more than 80 dead and displaced tens of thousands. The Myanmar government's inability or unwillingness to stop the persecution of Rohingyas has provoked strong international reaction, raising calls for retribution in radical corners of the Islamic world, including a threat from the Pakistani Taliban to attack Myanmar's diplomatic missions abroad. Fears are now rising that Myanmar-borne instability is spreading to India's northeastern frontier regions, threatening to spiral into a wider regional security dilemma. At the same time that Muslim Rohingyas and Buddhist Rakhines clashed in Myanmar, fighting erupted between Muslims and Hindus in India's northeastern Assam State. As in Myanmar, where the Rohingyas are considered illegal Bangladeshi settlers, the Muslims targeted in Assam are accused of being ethnic Bengalis who have migrated illegally from Bangladesh..."
Author/creator: Subir Bhaumik
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 September 2012


Title: Indian rebels on the move in Myanmar
Date of publication: 10 August 2012
Description/subject: "NEW DELHI and TAMU - Despite India's repeated requests to act, Myanmar's government is still perceived by Indian officials as "going easy" on Indian separatists known to be operating out of Myanmar's northwestern fringes. More than two months after promising tough action against separatist rebels based in its territory during Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's visit to Myanmar, President Thein Sein's quasi-civilian government is yet to commence any sort of crackdown against the rebels, many of whom are known to be based in Myanmar's Sagaing Division and border towns like Tamu. Indian officials raised the issue again during a visit to New Delhi in early August by Myanmar's chief of defense staff, General Ming Aung Hlaing. "We have got the usual assurance of action but we have to wait and see," said a senior Indian military official who requested anonymity..."
Author/creator: Subir Bhaumik
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 September 2012


Title: India-Myanmar-Thailand 3,200km trilateral highway to be completed in 2016
Date of publication: 04 August 2012
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Malaysian Times
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 11 October 2012


Title: Indian intel makes fresh efforts to renew ties with KIO
Date of publication: 25 December 2011
Description/subject: Article on pps1 & 3
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Seven Sisters Post"
Format/size: Adobe Flash
Date of entry/update: 29 December 2011


Title: Myanmar-Indian Joint Statement released
Date of publication: 16 October 2011
Description/subject: NAY PYI TAW, 15 Oct— President of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar U Thein Sein held talks with Indian Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh on matters of mutual interest between the two countries, at the Conference Room of Hyderabad House in New Delhi yesterday noon. After the meeting, the joint statement was released as follows:-
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar" 16 October 2011
Format/size: pdf (355K)
Date of entry/update: 16 October 2011


Title: It Takes Two to Tango: The Delicate Dance between India and Burma
Date of publication: 24 August 2010
Description/subject: "India's decision to welcome Senior General Than Shwe, the head of the Burmese junta, in late July 2010 might have exhibited all the radiance of a reinvigorated relationship, but careful consideration of what exactly New Delhi has fostered with its eastern neighbor will reveal that Indo-Burmese relations remain uneasy. Despite enduring sympathies for Burma's pro-democracy stirrings since 1988, India is now convinced that it must engage Burma for strategic reasons. However, the engagement with Burma's praetorian leaders is simply not as constructive as often claimed. Furthermore, New Delhi seems divided over the issue of how exactly to engage Burma, and as a result has unintentionally abdicated the evolution of bilateral relations to Naypyidaw's whims. If it wants to strengthen its leverage, including its democratizing influence over Burma, India needs to reassess its current policy and emerge with a formidable but actionable vision to obtain that goal. As such, India's new Burma policy must be different from the Western sanctions-led approach, but it should also be better than the predatory arrangements imposed by Asian powers that seek to capture Burma's natural assets but leave behind few tangible benefits for the Burmese people..."
Author/creator: Renaud Egreteau
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Pacific Bulletin (No. 66)
Format/size: pdf (66K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.isn.ethz.ch/isn/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?lng=en&id=120524
Date of entry/update: 19 September 2010


Title: Embracing Myanmar: India's Foreign Policy Realism
Date of publication: 02 August 2010
Description/subject: "India's constructive engagement with Myanmar has reached a new intensity with its hosting of Senior. General Than Shwe for five days at the end of July. Delhi's strong imperatives on counter-terror cooperation, border management, resource security, and overland transit routes mean there is no incentive at all for Delhi to elevate ideology above national interest in its policy towards Myanmar. India's decision to embrace Myanmar's Senior General Than Shwe — recently dubbed as one of the world's worst dictators by Washington's "Foreign Policy" magazine — has drawn much criticism from the West. In hosting Gen. Than Shwe for a five-day visit at the end of July, India would seem to have drifted a bit too far even by its new standards of realpolitik..."
Author/creator: C. Raja Mohan
Language: English
Source/publisher: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies Singapore
Format/size: pdf (124K)
Date of entry/update: 08 October 2010


Title: Prostration and Diplomacy
Date of publication: August 2010
Description/subject: Junta chief Snr-Gen Than Shwe made a pilgrimage to India in search of bilateral accords, development aid, legitimacy and atonement. He got at least some of what he was after... "Burmese junta chief Snr-Gen Than Shwe’s five-day visit to India began with a pilgrimage to one of Buddhism’s most sacred shrines and ended with the signing of a wide range of agreements on finance, technology, arms and border issues.... As a result of these meetings, a series of bilateral treaties, memorandums of understanding and other agreements were signed..."
Author/creator: Zarni Mann
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 8
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 31 August 2010


Title: India’s relations with Burma fail to address human rights concerns in run up to elections
Date of publication: 19 June 2010
Description/subject: With Burma’s first elections in two decades approaching, the three freedoms - of expression, association and peaceful assembly - essential for people to freely participate in the political process, are increasingly being denied. Aung San Suu Kyi is one of some 2,200 political prisoners in Burma. None of them will be able to participate in this year’s elections under new election laws - laws that the Indian government has failed to condemn. The Government of India claims to follow a ‘constructive’ approach in promoting human rights improvements in Burma. However, its response to the dire state of human rights in the country has been increasingly inadequate.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International (Australia)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


Title: India-Burma Relations Hitting a Dead End?
Date of publication: 11 March 2010
Description/subject: Over the past two decades, India's approach to Burma has undergone a complete turnaround, from support for the country’s democracy movement following the popular uprising in 1988 to today’s cozy relationship with its military dictators. The shift was motivated by three main goals: a desire to counter China’s growing influence in Burma; a wish to use Burma as a gateway to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean) for trade and investment as part of India’s “Look East” policy; and a hope for assistance from Burma in cracking down on insurgency in the Northeast. But since India began to fundamentally reorient its Burma policy in the mid-1990s, it has had little to show for its closer ties with the Burmese generals.
Author/creator: CAMILLA BUZZI and ÅSHILD KOLÅS
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Irrawaddy
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=18006
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


Title: India and Myanmar Looking East through a Strategic Bridge
Date of publication: March 2010
Description/subject: "How significant is Myanmar to India’s calculations? This paper examines the feasibility of closer India- Myanmar relations, under the larger diagram of India’s Asia-centric Look East Policy (LEP). It delves into the major obstacles, the headway made so far and avenues that hold the potential for the same...India’s LEP has perhaps found its wings as far as building bilateral and multilateral alliances with most ASEAN member states in the commerce, cultural and defense sectors. However, the LEP is not yet on firm footing with its immediate neighbors (Myanmar and China) in the northeast. In this regard it is worth noting that neither of these countries are conventionally liberal market economies or democracies. Perhaps herein lays a rationalization for their natural camaraderie and also India’s inability to make substantial headway, competitively. In order to have an enduring and fruitful relationship with the Southeast Asian countries, India should go beyond the institutionalized avenues of ASEAN summits and partake in shrewd realpolitik. This warrants a competitive streak when it is open season for major commercial and defense agreements, especially with regards to a resource rich and strategically well placed country like Myanmar..."
Author/creator: Harnit Kaur Kang
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (Delhi) (IPCS ISSUE BRIEF 144)
Format/size: pdf (141K)
Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010


Title: Reviving the Stilwell Road Challenges and Opportunities for India
Date of publication: March 2010
Description/subject: There is a growing need to adapt a geostrategic perspective to assess the mutual benefits of linking India's northeast and Southeast Asia. It is a fact that the Northeast India is a resource rich, strategically positioned area which also shares an extensive international boundary of about 5500 km with India's neighbours. The region holds great significance in terms of India's connectivity and infrastructural ventures with Southeast and East Asian nations. Reopening and developing the historical Stilwell, originally known Ledo road, in the Northeast is of strategic importance. This essay is an effort to unravel the rationale, opportunities and challenges and the future of reopening of the Stilwell Road for being a potential gateway to Southeast Asia and East Asia.
Author/creator: Tuli Sinha
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies - Delhi - (IPCS Issue Brief 143)
Format/size: pdf (249K)
Date of entry/update: 29 November 2010


Title: Why is Burma hoodwinking New Delhi on security issues?
Date of publication: 06 February 2010
Description/subject: "...During the last 15 years, New Delhi has been trying to pressurize Burma to cooperate in flushing out the insurgent outfits from northeast India. But, why did Senior-General Than Shwe’s soldiers fail to flush out the northeast insurgents? Or, will Brigadier-General Phone Swe’s recent promise to G.K. Pillai to flush out northeast insurgents be fulfilled? “The Burmese security agencies will never flush out the insurgents,” Lalngheta Sailo, a retired Director-General of Police of Mizoram said, adding that the guerillas from northeast India always pay monthly “protection fee” to a section of officials in the Burmese Army. Sailo said that a section of the Burmese Army officials, who enjoy financial support from the insurgents lead a lavish life. Otherwise, Burmese Army personnel don’t enjoy a large pay package, “So, why will they kill the golden goose?” he said..."
Author/creator: Anirban Roy
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mizzima
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 February 2010


Title: Going Rogue in the Andaman Sea (Review of "Rogue Agent" by Nandita Haksar)
Date of publication: January 2010
Description/subject: How international intrigue led to the deaths of six Burmese freedom fighters and nine years detention without trial for 34 others... "Why did India, once a supporter of democracy for Burma, become a friend of the military regime? This is the question asked repeatedly in “Rogue Agent” by its author, the prominent Indian human rights lawyer Nandita Haksar. Rogue Agent: How India’s Military Intelligence Betrayed the Burmese Resistance, by Nandita Haksar. Penguin Books India, 2009. P 242. While telling the story of the Operation Leech debacle, in which Rakhine and Karen “sea insurgents” were fatally betrayed by an Indian intelligence officer, Haksar never loses sight of the larger context of Indian Ocean geopolitics and the crushing of Burma between two mega-states, India and China..."
Author/creator: Edith Mirante
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 1
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17506
Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


Title: India-Myanmar Relations: A Strategic Perspective
Date of publication: 02 November 2009
Description/subject: Consequent to several months of back channel negotiations, Kurt Campbell, Assistant Secretary of State for East Asia, will lead a US delegation to Myanmar on November 3, 2009. This visit signifies the emerging consensus among Western democracies to review the failed economic sanctions and the arms embargo imposed on Myanmar and a desire to enter into a dialogue with the Generals before elections are held next year. At another level, the intention is clearly to gradually reduce China’s overpowering influence in the country. To discuss these issues, a seminar was held at the Brookings Institution and the School for Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Washington, D.C., on October 29-30, 2009.
Author/creator: Gurmeet Kanwal
Language: English
Source/publisher: Opinion Asia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


Title: India-Myanmar Relations : A Review
Date of publication: 30 October 2009
Description/subject: Relations between India and Myanmar over nearly five decades have been governed by many complex factors. Amongst them are the strategic location of Myanmar, India’s commitment to idealism-driven support to the restoration of democracy in Myanmar, realism-driven need to deal with those actually governing the country, the implications of China’s increasing presence and role in Myanmar etc. China, fortunately for it, has been able to make its foreign policy decisions without having to bother about the nature of the regime in any country. India and Myanmar share a complicated and delicate history, marked as much by mistrust as amity. For those who may be interested, a “Historical Background” is annexed to this paper. POLITICAL: Pro-Democracy Protests in 2007... Aung San Suu Kyi ... Sanctions Regime ... Shifting US Position ... India-Myanmar Bilateral Relations : Realism Influencing Policy ..... ECONOMIC: Economic Cooperation ... Trade ... Border Trade ... Quest for Energy ... Infrastructure Projects ... Kaladan Project ... Cyclone Nargis ..... MILITARY: Insurgencies in Myanmar ... Insurgencies in India ... Defence Relations ... Some Conclusions ..... A N N E X U R E: Historical Background ... Military Rule ...
Language: English
Source/publisher: South Asia Analysis Group
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 October 2010


Title: Indo-Myanmar Relations: Ideology vs Realism
Date of publication: 17 August 2009
Description/subject: "The nature of the alliance between Myanmar and India has been criticized for giving legitimacy to the non democratic rule of the junta and its violation of human rights. The condemnation of pro democracy movement leader, Aung Sang Suu Kyi to an extended term of house arrest is evidence that the junta is not willing to take chances by releasing the popular activist in the run up to the upcoming elections. General Than Shwe and his administration are apprehensive of the magnetic popularity of Suu Kyi and would rather extend her imprisonment than revert to the situation in 1990 when the Suu Kyi led National League for Democracy swept the elections. India has been largely silent on the trial and conviction of Suu Kyi. The Indian government has done little other than issue mild reminders to Yangon to expedite the democratic process. Despite claiming to be the world’s largest democracy, India has consistently given credence to the military regime in Myanmar. The Indian government although normally an advocate of democratic ideals, on the question of Myanmar, has adopted a contrary principle. .."
Author/creator: Sanjeev Pillay
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (Delhi)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 November 2010


Title: INDIA-MYANMAR RELATIONS (1998-2008): A DECADE OF REDEFINING BILATERAL TIES
Date of publication: February 2009
Description/subject: Abstract India-Myanmar rapprochement began in 1991 and gained momentum in the latter part of the decade, as evidenced in the growing political, economic and military cooperation since 1998. This paper argues that it was during the period between 1998 and 2008 that the bilateral relationship withstood the test of critical events. Furthermore, expansion and diversification of these bilateral ties tookplace during the very same period. The paper identifies some issues that could emerge as potential fissures to upset the relationship. In conclusion, the paper suggests that it is high time the leadership of the two countries initiated measures to address these issues. As the stakes increase for both countries, it is imperative for them to ensure the sustenance of the hard earned relationship..
Author/creator: K. Yhome
Language: English
Source/publisher: OBSERVER RESEARCH FOUNDATION
Format/size: pdf (578K)
Date of entry/update: 05 June 2009


Title: INDIA URGED TO PRESS BURMA ON ALLOWING AID TO REACH CYCLONE NARGIS VICTIMS
Date of publication: 06 June 2008
Description/subject: SUMMARY: "A/PolCouns urged MEA Director (Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Burma) I.M. Pandey on June 6 to press Burma harder to allow international aid supplies and workers to reach victims of Cyclone Nargis. Pandey cited India's difficulties in getting aid into Burma, noting that direct access to the Irrawaddy Delta had been denied and that the GOB had not allowed India a role in the distribution of the aid supplies it delivered to Burmese airports. Pandey defended India's decision to honor the strict conditions the GOB has placed on accepting aid, stating that "pressure and sanctions on Burma have never worked" and would only complicate relief efforts. Post expects the Indian government will privately ask the Burmese government to fulfill its promises to cooperate fully with international relief efforts, but will not exert any real pressure." END SUMMARY.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, New Delhi, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: INDIA EXPECTS BURMA TO PROVIDE ACCESS TO ALL VESSELS
Date of publication: 14 May 2008
Description/subject: In a May 14 meeting with Foreign Secretary Shivshankar Menon, the Ambassador thanked him for conveying to the Burmese junta the U.S. concern about the immense difficulty in foreign assistance reaching the cyclone victims. Menon said that while the message seems to have had an impact in the easing of flight landings, it was "not as much as we wanted." He related that the Burmese Foreign Minister had scheduled a May 13 phone call with Indian External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee, which the Burmese postponed to the afternoon of May 14. Menon expected that the Burmese would tell Mukherjee that vessels from all countries could deliver disaster assistance at Burma's ports. The Ambassador requested that, if the Burmese maintained the restrictions on port entry for the U.S., the Indian government consider delivering U.S. aid. Menon said that he had raised this question informally with the Burmese, and would pursue it if the ports remained closed to American vessels.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, New Delhi, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: MENON QUIETLY TAKING GAMBARI MESSAGE TO BURMA
Date of publication: 08 February 2008
Description/subject: SUMMARY: "Ministry of Under Secretary for Burma Pratibha Parkar told Poloff that UN Special Envoy for Burma Ibrahim Gambari asked the Government of India (GOI) for support during his recent visit to India. Gambari asked the GOI to use its influence to encourage the Burmese to allow him to visit Burma sooner than late April 2008, adding that he was willing to meet with them in a third country, Parkar stated. She indicated that Foreign Secretary Menon, currently in Rangoon, would reinforce this message to the Burmese, and that the Indians had already asked Burma to show more flexibility. Parkar confirmed that Menon would discuss the Sittwe Port development deal while in Burma. Though Indian officials indicate that the GOI will step up its rhetoric against the Burmese junta, it has yet to do so visibly." END SUMMARY.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, New Delhi, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: GAMBARI TELLS INDIA TO USE ITS INFLUENCE ON BURMA
Date of publication: 04 February 2008
Description/subject: Summary. "UN Special Envoy for Burma Ibrahim Gambari's late January visit to India delivered the message that India should use its influence to do more to help the democratization and reconciliation process in Burma. Gambari told British and Canadian missions privately that India reiterated its support for the good offices of the UN mission, and mentioned publicly that he believed India will facilitate his next visit to Burma. Indian media speculated that the GOI is feeling pressure to do more than simply offer verbal support to the UN mission." End Summary.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, New Delhi, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: Wer lässt wen im Stich?
Date of publication: 30 January 2008
Description/subject: Die jüngsten Demonstrationen in Burma sind eine erneute Bewährungsprobe für demokratische Werte in einer Welt, die zumindest in politischer Hinsicht größtenteils demokratisch ist. Ebenso wie der Kampf der Werte auf den blutigen Straßen in Teilen Burmas sichtbar war, beschloss die benachbarte "größte Demokratie der Welt", die gleichzeitig ein strategischer Partner des Landes ist, eben jene Werte, die es tendenziell vertritt, aufs Spiel zu setzen. Der Rest der Welt – insbesondere die USA und Europa – tat kaum mehr als diplomatische Statements abzugeben und Indien und China zu drängen, entschieden vorzugehen. Indisch-burmesische Beziehungen, Burma-US Amerikanische Beziehungen, Burma-EU Beziehungen, Sanktionen; Indian-burmese, US-Burmese, EU-Burmese relations; sanctions;
Author/creator: Sachin Joshi
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Südasien
Format/size: Html (41k)
Date of entry/update: 03 February 2008


Title: Es besteht Nachholbedarf
Date of publication: 11 January 2008
Description/subject: Es erhob sich in letzter Zeit der Ruf nach einem energischen Auftreten Indiens gegen das Militärregime in Burma immer lauter. Die Rufer übersahen allerdings, dass die indisch-burmesischen Beziehungen, wie auch die zum Rest Südostasiens, alles andere als eng und damit die Möglichkeiten der Einflussnahme ausgesprochen gering sind. Außenpolitik Indiens; Indisch-chinesische Beziehung; Südostasien; SEATO; India`s foreign policy; Indian-Burmese Relations; Indian-Chinese Relations; Southeast Asia; Uprising 2007
Author/creator: Amit Das Gupta
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Asienhaus
Format/size: Html (47 kb)
Alternate URLs: http://www.asienhaus.de/public/archiv/2007-4-008.pdf
Date of entry/update: 22 January 2008


Title: Myanmar deal right neighborly of India
Date of publication: 11 January 2008
Description/subject: India, in the face of Western criticism, continues to economically engage Myanmar’s ruling generals, providing the junta a much-needed investment lifeline at a time when the US and European Union have imposed new punitive sanctions against the rights-abusing regime. The Indian government earlier this week committed US$120 million to rebuild Myanmar’s western Sittwe port and construct road and water links through the facility, which will connect Myanmar’s western Arakan State to India’s northeastern state of Mizoram.
Author/creator: Brian McCartan
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Times Online
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 October 2010


Title: India-Myanmar Relations – Geopolitics and Energy in Light of the New Balance of Power in Asia
Date of publication: 02 January 2008
Description/subject: Executive Summary of Research Findings: "In light of India’s changing foreign policy over the last decade, Indo-Myanmar relations have also changed radically. The reasons thereof pertain principally to four factors: the economic development of India’s North East, India’s increased interest in trade with ASEAN, India’s search for energy security and increased Chinese involvement in Myanmar. This paper offers an in depth analysis of these issues, drawing on seven weeks of fieldwork during the summer of 2007 and over 50 interviews with officials and academics in both countries. The summary of the fieldwork is listed below. The paper concludes that, although today Indo-Myanmar relations have improved, India has, in essence, been too slow to develop this important relationship and is now loosing out to China."
Author/creator: Dr Marie Lall
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute of South Asian Studies ( ISAS Working Paper No. 29 )
Format/size: pdf (203K - OBL version; 256K - original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.isas.nus.edu.sg/Attachments/PublisherAttachment/ISAS_working%20paper_28_21102009202538.p...
Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


Title: MEA SILENT REGARDING PUBLIC DECLARATION OF BAN ON ARMS SALES TO BURMA
Date of publication: 07 November 2007
Description/subject: SUMMARY: "MEA Joint Secretary T.S. Tirumurti acknowledged that the Government of India (GOI) denied a Burmese request for military equipment but did not comment on PolCouns' suggestion that the GOI announce the decision publicly. Tirumurti reported that three Burmese recently arrested in Manipur for illegal entry were neither economic migrants nor asylum seekers but traveling to train at a madrassah in Uttar Pradesh. He rejected the need for UNHCR access to asylum seekers, noting that the GOI was ""quite capable of doing it ourselves."" Tirumurti confirmed that the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) is assiduously pursuing various development projects to open up ASEAN trade routes to the northeastern states including: -the Kaladan Multi-Modal Transport Project, which includes the USD 103 million Sittwe project; -a Tri-Lateral Highway in cooperation with Burma and Thailand." END SUMMARY.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, New Delhi, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 March 2011


Title: MERKEL URGES INDIAN ACTION ON BURMA, IRAN, AFGHANISTAN
Date of publication: 07 November 2007
Description/subject: SUMMARY: "German Chancellor Angela Merkel took advantage of her first visit to India to address recent developments and crises in India's neighborhood and beyond. Merkel urged India to publicly condemn Burma for its recent anti-democratic internal crackdowns. Prime Minister Singh sidestepped the request yet promised India was pressuring the Burmese "behind the scenes."..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, New Delhi, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: India can afford an ethical foreign policy
Date of publication: 10 October 2007
Description/subject: "That non-argument is just simple mathematics. Civilization means the use of heart and reasoning over head and crude thoughts. Has 15-year experience of current policy on Burma brought tangible pay-back? Is the northeast stable? Has China been checked? Can India acquire a share of Gas? ... "
Author/creator: Dr. Tint Swe
Language: English
Source/publisher: South Asia Analysis Group
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


Title: Dangerous Liaisons: India’s Not-So-Secret Affair With The Myanmar Junta
Date of publication: 03 October 2007
Description/subject: "We have strategic and economic interests to protect in Myanmar. It is up to the Myanmarese people to struggle for democracy.” - Pranab Mukherjee, in response to the recent pro-democracy protests in Myanmar... "It was a remarkable statement, considering that it came from the foreign minister of a nation that was one of the earliest supporters of the Myanmarese pro-democracy movement before it decided to switch sides. It was echoed by India’s new army chief, General Deepak Kapoor, who at the function to mark his taking over, said, “We have good relations with Myanmar and we should maintain these.” However, mindful of the bad press perhaps, this week Mukherjee issued a more strongly worded statement after his meeting with his Myanmarese counterpart U Nyan Win, saying “bloodshed is “unacceptable” and a probe should be conducted into the violence..."
Author/creator: Sajai Jose
Language: English
Source/publisher: Tehelka
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 10 November 2010


Title: India-Myanmar Relations_ India - SEMINAR REPORT#237
Date of publication: 01 October 2007
Description/subject: India has neglected Myanmar for quite some time and it should reestablish its knowledge of and contacts with this neighbouring country as it was in the past during the era of Pandit Nehru and U Nu. In this context, the most pertinent question is of how to deal with the sociopolitical problems of Myanmar as it concerns India as well. There is also a need to formulate a political and strategic policy towards the country since Myanmar holds enormous importance for India's security.
Author/creator: Amb Eric Gonsalves
Language: English
Source/publisher: INSTITUTE OF PEACE AND CONFLICT STUDIES
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


Title: India Suffering Fallout from Burma Crisis
Date of publication: 28 September 2007
Description/subject: The ongoing political crisis in Burma is putting India in a difficult position. Delhi wants to cozy up to the junta to counter China's influence in the country. But the world's biggest democracy cannot be seen to support a crackdown on pro-democracy activists.
Author/creator: David Gordon Smith
Language: English
Source/publisher: Special Online International
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,druck-508491,00.html
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


Title: India's Burma Silence Says Volumes
Date of publication: 27 September 2007
Description/subject: "We expect China to go easy on thuggish dictatorships such as Burma's because China is a dictatorship itself. But what about Asia's other rising power India, the world's biggest democracy? Surely Delhi has joined the rest of the world in condemning Burma's violent crackdown on anti-government protesters over the past few days. Well, no. Despite pressure from Europe and the U.S. for India to use its influence with Burma to help end the bloodshed, Delhi has taken a softly, softly approach to the current crisis for the same reasons China has: potential trade with and influence over the energy-rich Southeast Asian nation..."
Author/creator: Simon Robinson
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Time" - CNN
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 10 November 2010


Title: U.N. ADVISOR ON BURMA ENCOURAGES INDIA TO PROMOTE DEMOCRACY
Date of publication: 20 July 2007
Description/subject: SUMMARY: "The UN Secretary General's Special Advisor on Burma, Ibrahim Gambari, met with Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) Foreign Secretary Shivshankar Menon during a July 10-12 visit to New Delhi. According to the MEA, Gambari recognized India's ability to influence Burma, and expressed modest optimism for future collaboration, telling Menon that India could "do something" to promote democracy in Burma. Meanwhile, a report issued by European NGOs warned of India's impending sale of attack helicopters to Burma that include components and technology originating from the European Union (EU). NGOs claim such a sale would be a violation in sprit, if not in letter, of end-use agreements for military hardware between India and the EU, given the EU's arms embargo against Burma. India is unlikely to reduce its engagement with Burma due to its realpolitik calculus that such ties reduce the junta's dependence on Beijing, and induce the regime to provide essential support to India's counter-insurgency operations in the North East." END SUMMARY
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, New Delhi, via Wikileaks
Format/size: htmlk, pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: INDIAN OFFICIAL SEES BANGLADESH AT CROSSROADS, SRI LANKA DETERIORATING, BURMA RELATIONS BECOMING UNIDIMENSIONAL
Date of publication: 27 April 2007
Description/subject: "...-- stated Indian influence in Burma is waning, suggesting that U.S. pressure to bring Burma before the UN Security Council was counterproductive; -- denied reports that India had provided Rangoon with T-55 tanks; -- offered to verify whether India will fulfill a request by a Burmese general to provide infantry weapons and ammunition..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, New Delhi, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html,
Date of entry/update: 26 December 2010


Title: Burma. Ein Mosaikstein indischer Ost-Politik. Pragmatismus gegenüber der Militärjunta
Date of publication: 25 April 2007
Description/subject: Seit Beginn der 1990er Jahre arrangierten sich alle indischen Regierungen mit dem östlichen Nachbarn. Die größte Demokratie der Welt zeigte sich sehr zurückhaltend gegenüber der kürzlichen Protestbewegung in Burma. Energieinteressen, die burmesische Hilfe bei der Bekämpfung von Rebellen im indischen Nordosten und die angestrebte Neutralisierung des mächtigen chinesischen Einflusses führten zu einem sichtbaren Appeasement gegenüber der ebident die Menschenrechte verletzenden burmesischen Junta. Es mangelt an einer überzeugenden Initiative der indischen Regionalmacht, das Thema Burma offensiv anzugehen; chinesischer Einfluss in Burma; Geo-Politik Burmas; indische Wirtschaftsinteressen in Burma; indisch-burmesische Militärkooperationen; chinese Influence in Burma; geo-politics of Burma; indian economic interests in Burma; indian-burmese military cooperation
Author/creator: Klaus Julian Voll
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Asienhaus
Format/size: PDF
Date of entry/update: 22 January 2008


Title: Burma-India relations: A betrayal of democracy and human rights
Date of publication: March 2007
Description/subject: A summary of the key issues relating to Burma and India Published by the Burma Campaign UK – March 2007
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Campaign UK
Format/size: pdf (174.08 K)
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


Title: India’s Myanmar Policy A Dilemma between Realism and Idealism
Date of publication: March 2007
Description/subject: "Myanmar is often perceived to be a buffer state between the two Asian giants of India and China. Its strategic location provides Myanmar with an opportunity to play a significant role in the geopolitics of South and Southeast Asia. In addition, the availability of natural gas in Myanmar gives an economic dimension to its strategic significance. Myanmar shares a 1640 km-long land and maritime boundary with India, making it a crucial element of India’s security calculus and ensuring that amicable relations with Myanmar are vital...Be it traditional, non-traditional, or even energy security, Myanmar is definitely an important component of India’s security management system. Engagement with Myanmar is, therefore, logical for India. The problem before India is what should be the nature of engagement with one of the most brutal regimes in the world..." Contents: AN OVERVIEW OF THE INDIA-MYANMAR RELATIONSHIP ... INDIA’S SECURITY CONCERNS VIS-À-VIS MYANMAR ... THE CHINA FACTOR ... INDO-MYANMAR TRADE RELATIONS ... MYANMAR’S ROLE IN INDIA’S ENERGY SECURITY ... MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ... CONCLUSION ...
Author/creator: Yogendra Singh
Language: English
Source/publisher: INSTITUTE OF PEACE AND CONFLICT STUDIES
Format/size: pdf (600 KB)
Date of entry/update: 04 October 2010


Title: GOI EXPOUNDS UPON ITS BURMA POLICY AFTER RECEIVING DEMARCHE
Date of publication: 20 February 2007
Description/subject: "... PolCouns delivered reftel demarche to Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) Joint Secretary (Bangladesh, Burma, Sri Lanka and the Maldives) Mohan Kumar. Kumar made the following points regarding the GOI's current Burma policy:..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, New Delhi, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 March 2011


Title: India gains little from courting Myanmar
Date of publication: 20 January 2007
Description/subject: India's decision to woo Myanmar's military rulers to get them to cooperate with its efforts in fighting insurgency in its northeastern states appears not to be working. Outfits such as the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA), which recently carried out a series of deadly attacks on migrants in the state of Assam, continue to thrive thanks to support and sanctuary from Myanmar. Getting Myanmar's generals to cooperate with its efforts to fight insurgency in its strife-torn northeast was among the reasons India decided in the early 1990s to move away from its policy of refusing to engage with the junta to courting it..."
Author/creator: Sudha Ramachandran
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Times Online
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 November 2010


Title: India Woos Burma with Weapons for Gas
Date of publication: January 2007
Description/subject: New Delhi's eagerness to supply Burma with weapons highlights new quid pro quo policies... "Increased contacts between senior military chiefs o­n both sides of the Burma-India border, involving Indian weapons sales, are believed by analysts to have two primary objectives: to help flush out Burma-based Indian insurgents and to counter growing Chinese influence in Naypyidaw. But the sale of arms and related technical equipment is also likely to be linked to New Delhi"Look East" economic policy, including ambitions to buy huge quantities of Burma's offshore gas in the Bay of Bengal. If the gas bid—against rivals China and Thailand—is successful, it will also involve building a costly pipeline through rebel-infested areas of northwest Burma and northeast India..."
Author/creator: Aung Lwin Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 1
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 July 2008


Title: INDO-MYANMAR RELATIONS – A Review
Date of publication: 30 November 2006
Description/subject: The Indo-Myanmar relations since 1948 (when Myanmar became independent) can be considered as cordial and friendly (from 1948 to 1962), frozen or strained (from 1962 to 1988) and flourishing from 1988 till date. The reasons for these radical changes in the ties can be attributed to both Myanmar for its isolationist policy adopted by the military regime and to India for its shift from an idealist or moralistic to realistic or pragmatic policy adopted. India’s Look-East policy has been the main driving force for improvement in the bilateral relations.
Author/creator: C. S. Kuppuswamy
Language: English
Source/publisher: South Asia Analysis Group
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


Title: INDIA STRONGLY DENIES HOWITZER SALES TO BURMA, BUT OTHERS CONFIRM
Date of publication: 02 November 2006
Description/subject: Summary. "Embassy contacts have confirmed press reports that India has supplied Burma 105 mm Howitzers and associated equipment. However, the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) denied that any such deals had transpired. India's rationale for supplying weapons to the junta is ostensibly to support joint counter-insurgency operations aimed at Indian separatist groups based within Burmese borders." End Summary.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, New Delhi, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: India's Balancing Act
Date of publication: April 2006
Description/subject: Business interests compete with human rights concerns in forging Burma policies... Burma has shot back to the top of India's foreign policy agenda following Indian President APJ Abdul Kalama's visit last month, and battle lines are now being drawn in New Delhi over the contentious question of how to deal with the military junta. The military establishment in India and its business community have started fresh lobbying in New Delhi to keep the country's Burma policy of dealing with the generals on course. But human rights groups in the country and many smaller political parties want the government to come out in direct support of Burma's pro-democracy movement..."
Author/creator: Subir Bhaumik
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 14, No. 4
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.indoburmanews.net/documents/act
Date of entry/update: 28 December 2006


Title: India-Myanmar relations infused new momentum: Analysis on India's foregin policy on Burma (Myanmar)
Date of publication: 20 January 2006
Description/subject: The real shift in India Myanmar relations came when the BJP led government assumed power in 1998. Since then a new momentum was infused in the dormant Indo-Myanmar relations.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Indo-Burma News
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


Title: A Naga Ultimatum - An Interview with Thuingaleng Muivah
Date of publication: 17 January 2006
Description/subject: Separatist leader sets terms for peace with India... "Thuingaleng Muivah, head of the separatist group National Socialist Council of Nagaland, has given New Delhi an ultimatum. Eight years of negotiations with the Indian government have yielded no results. If no acceptable settlement is reached by January 31, 2006—the date that existing ceasefire agreements will expire—he will suspend all negotiations and return to the jungles of northeastern India, along the border with Burma, to resume an armed opposition movement that began nearly 50 years ago. The ranks of the NSCN have swelled to some 6,000 soldiers since the group signed a ceasefire agreement in 1997. A fellow opposition group, the United Liberation Front of Assam, has now promised to back the NSCN in the event of a final breakdown in peace talks, making the Naga contingent an even more potent threat. In an interview with The Irrawaddy’s correspondent Subir Bhaumik, Muivah explains the conditions for a lasting peace between India and Nagaland..."
Author/creator: Thuingaleng Muivah
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 1
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=5373
Date of entry/update: 04 October 2010


Title: INSTABILITY AT THE GATE: India’s Troubled Northeast and its External Connections
Date of publication: January 2006
Description/subject: Abstract: "India’s Northeast has long been described as a remote and sensitive area, racially and culturally disconnected to mainland India but strategically attached to it. Expressions of ethnic identities since India’s independence have been very blunt in the whole region and many sub-nationalists developed a strong separatist stream from the late 1940s. Rapidly, the ethnic struggle became a well-organised and multidimensional militancy which took up arms and launched various enduring insurgencies against India’s central government. Facing a harsher repression orchestrated by New Delhi, the few separatist groups that had burgeoned in the region turned rapidly radical. Moreover, most of them had found in the local population their main back-up : the “Robin Hood syndrome” they had created enabled them to benefit from a wide popular support. This paper intends first to give a brief overview of the rise and growth of some of those separatist groups, with a special focus on the Nagas, the Mizos and the Assam movement. Insurgency took different forms in the Northeast as ethnic leaders chose different paths, means and patrons to pursue their struggle for recognition and/or separatism. Indeed, most of the armed ultras soon criminalised their activities in order to sustain their struggle. An analysis of the degeneration of these sub-nationalist movements into mere criminal groups has been proposed in this paper. With the Indian Armed Forces having more and more capacities and discretionary power of action, insurgency has radicalised its forms and activities. The criminalisation process will be broached by focusing the study on few separatist groups that have dropped their original revolutionary and lofty ideals to concentrate their struggle on easy money and underground activities, in spite of the fact that individualised interests, internecine rivalries and indiscriminate violence have often turned the population against those outfits. Finally, how has the externality of the insurgency influenced this phenomenon? The third part of the paper will propose an overview of the rapid externalisation of all the insurgent groups. The linkages they have established across borders enabled them to obtain friendly support (Pakistan), funding (China, LTTE) and strategic shelter (Burma, Bangladesh). We will attempt to demonstrate how these external connections fuelled the instability in the Northeast and conceptualised their struggle and survival. However, in the meantime, the external factor could also be the solution to the problem: by opening up the Northeast and developing it as a result of a more globalised local economy, the stalemate could possibly be overcome."
Author/creator: Renaud Egreteau
Language: English
Source/publisher: French Research Institutes in India (CSH Occasional Paper No. 16, 2006)
Format/size: pdf (587K) 167 pages
Date of entry/update: 11 June 2007


Title: Indo-Myanmar Relations in the Era of Pipeline Diplomacy
Date of publication: 2006
Description/subject: Over decades India and Myanmar had hardly any relations. To a large degree this was due to India’s outdated model of Nehruvian ideals in its foreign policy formulation. Recent research, however, has pointed towards a shift in Indo-Burmese relations. This article analysse the reasons for such a shift, placing them in the larger context of the reframing of India’s foreign policy objectives under the BJP-led NDA government in the late 1990s. These new priorities have been upheld by the Congress led government since the elections in 2004. The article argues that the primary aim for such a shift was economic, as India reassessed its position globally and regionally, putting economic relations at the centre of its foreign policy formulation and engendering India’s “pipeline diplomacy”. It looks in detail at the geo-politics of energy and how energy security is now playing a major role in international relations in South Asia. It then describes India’s energy needs, focusing in particular on gas, which is at the origin of the pipeline diplomacy and its increasing interest in relations with nations rich in gas and oil. It ends by assessing what impact India’s pipeline diplomacy could have on the wider Southeast Asian region, with special regard to ASEAN. _Keywords: India, Myanmar, India’s new foreign policy, pipeline diplomacy, geopolitics of energy, Myanmar gas reserves, India’s Northeast.
Author/creator: Marie Lall
Language: English
Source/publisher: Contemporary Southeast Asia Vol. 28, No. 3 (2006)
Format/size: pdf (581.17 K)
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


Title: INDIA JOINS ASEAN'S TOUGHER LINE ON BURMA
Date of publication: 15 December 2005
Description/subject: Summary: "After many months of wishy-washy Indian posturing on Burma, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh called publicly for the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and encouraged the GOB to move towards democracy on his return from the East Asia Summit. Speaking after a meeting with Burmese PM Soe Win in Kuala Lumpur on December 14, PM Singh also stated that the GOI ""favors national reconciliation and the movement towards democracy, respect for fundamental human rights and allowing political activities to flourish."" This is a strong departure from New Delhi's recent tactic of downplaying democracy concerns with the GOB in return for greater cooperation in energy and counter-insurgency operations near the shared border, and signals a greater Indian willingness to put public pressure on Burma's military junta. India's increased willingness to advocate for democracy even at the risk of its own security and energy interests in Burma is a welcome development." End Summary.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, New Delhi, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 March 2011


Title: GOI "CONSTRUCTIVELY ENGAGED" IN BURMA, UPBEAT ON BANGLADESH
Date of publication: 01 December 2005
Description/subject: Summary: "MEA J/S (Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Myanmar) Mohan Kumar was candid about India's need to continue engaging in Burma and optimistic that PM Singh had begun to "clear the air" during his bilateral meeting with President Zia in Bangladesh. Acknowledging Indian competition with the Chinese presence in Burma, Kumar characterized the evolving relationship as "constructive engagement." Kumar was equally puzzled about the recent relocation of Burma's capital, but offered Indian theories on the move, including fears of intelligence penetration in Rangoon or a power battle between State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) Chairman Than Shwe and Vice-Chairman Maung Aye. Regarding the November 12 bilateral meeting between PM Singh and President Zia on the sidelines of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Summit, Kumar told us that most important result of the meeting was to "clear the air" between the heads of state. The two leaders did not cover much substantive ground, he reported, but the Indian PM had stressed that he and Zia should "cut through the red tape" together when problems between Delhi and Dhaka arise." End Summary.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, New Delhi, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: Strategic Memory Lane
Date of publication: November 2005
Description/subject: It is known as the “Road to Nowhere” or “Ghost Road,” but there are hopes that political and strategic problems can be sidetracked to resurrect the World War II-era Ledo Road, running between India and China through Burma..."...India and China have sometimes made calls to reopen the Ledo Road. They have come from a visiting delegation from the Yunnan Provincial Chamber of Commerce at an international trade fair in Guwahati, the capital of Assam; from the Federation of Indian Export Organizations in Calcutta; and increasingly from a number of individual politicians and members of state governments in India’s northeast, especially from Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. Academics have also raised the issue. A handful of people are upbeat about the tourism prospects—of driving air-con jeeps across the mountains and through jungles and exotic places from India to China. China appears to be the most prepared. It has already greatly upgraded its section of the Burma Road, built in 1937-38, into a modern, partly six-lane mountain highway..."
Author/creator: Karin Dean
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 11
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


Title: DEMARCHE DELIVERED: BRINGING BURMA BEFORE THE UNSC
Date of publication: 13 October 2005
Description/subject: "Deputy PolCouns and Poloff delivered reftel demarche to MEA Director (UN Political) Sangeeta Mann on October 13, who said she would provide a response after consulting with her regional office. Post will continue to follow up with GOI officials..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, New Delhi, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: GATEWAY TO THE EAST
Date of publication: June 2005
Description/subject: a symposium on Northeast India and the look east policy... The Problem: Posed by Sanjib Baruah, Visiting Professor, Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi... NORTHEAST INDIA IN A NEW ASIA: Jairam Ramesh, Member of Parliament (Rajya Sabha)... ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES OR CONTINUING STAGNATION: Sushil Khanna, Professor of Economics and Strategic Management, Indian Institute of Management, Kolkata... WATERS OF DESPAIR, WATERS OF HOPE: Sanjoy Hazarika, Managing Trustee, Centre for Northeast Studies and Policy Research, New Delhi and Guwahati... PROSPECTS FOR TOURISM: M.P. Bezbaruah, Former Secretary, Ministry of Tourism, Government of India... OPERATION HORNBILL FESTIVAL 2004: Dolly Kikon, Member, Working Group, Northeast Peoples' Initiative, Guwahati... GUNS, DRUGS AND REBELS: Subir Bhaumik, East India Correspondent, BBC, Kolkata... A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE: Jayeeta Sharma, Assistant Professor of History, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA... TERRITORIALITIES YET UNACCOUNTED: Karin Dean, Asia Correspondent, 'Postimees', Bangkok... COMMUNITY, CULTURE, NATION: Mrinal Miri, Vice Chancellor, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong... THE TAI-AHOM CONNECTION: Yasmin Saikia, Assistant Professor of History, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA... THE ETHNIC DIMENSION: Samir Kumar Das, Reader, Department of Political Science, Calcutta University... BOOKS: Reviewed by Nandana Datta, Dulali Nag, Bodhisattva Kar, Nimmi Kurian and M.S. Prabhakara... FURTHER READING: Compiled by Sukanya Sharma, Fellow, Centre for Northeast India, South and Southeast Asia Studies, Guwahati... COMMUNICATION: Received from C.P. Bhambhri and B.K. Banerji.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Seminar magazine
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


Title: India Wants More from Burma
Date of publication: April 2005
Description/subject: Curb the anti-India militants, Rangoon is told... "New Delhi isn't satisfied. It wants more out of Rangoon. The March visit by India's External Affairs Minister, Natwar Singh, to Burma was a clear signal that not enough is being done by Rangoon to satisfy its concern about anti-India militants operating from Burmese territory. The official assessment in the corridors of power is that "something" is being done by Rangoon, but it's not enough to deal with the anti-India militant groups, who are active in several provinces in India's Northeast. Natwar Singh is received in Rangoon by Foreign Minister Nyan Win Placing New Delhi"It was agreed that dialogue and concrete cooperation to counter terrorist activities in the border region would be further strengthened." From the context of these lines, it's apparent that more dialogue and concrete cooperation between India and Burma are essential as far as New Delhi is concerned..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 4
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


Title: ALL SMILES: INDIAN FOREIGN MINISTER'S VISIT TO BURMA
Date of publication: 30 March 2005
Description/subject: Summary: "The latest in a string of high-profile regional visitors to Rangoon (ref C), Indian Foreign Minister Natwar Singh conducted a bilateral trip to Burma March 24-27. Although the visit was characterized as ""not substantive,"" Singh achieved dual objectives of maintaining dialogue with Burma at the political level and pushing for certain development projects. His meetings with top GOB officials, including SPDC Chairman Than Shwe, were perfunctory and consisted of standard SPDC lectures on regime achievements and progress. FM Singh knows Aung San Suu Kyi personally and, according to the Indian Embassy, ""holds her in high esteem."" However, Singh made no reference to her or the democratic opposition during his four-day visit, an Indian pattern of engagement with the regime that sticks to platitudes and doesn't rock the boat."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, Rangoon, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 March 2011


Title: MEA DEFENDS RECORD ON BURMA AHEAD OF FM SINGH TRIP
Date of publication: 22 March 2005
Description/subject: Summary: "Joint Secretary (SE Asia I) Mitra Vashishta defended India's policies in Burma in a March 17 meeting with PolCouns and Poloff, suggesting that progress on democratic reforms was dependent on engagement with the Burmese body politic, and warning that the USG focus on Aung San Suu Kyi (ASSK) could backfire. Foreign Minister Natwar Singh leaves for a four-day visit to Burma on March 24, but MEA contacts tell us not to expect significant new developments, despite press reports speculating about the reopening of the "Stilwell Road." Vashishta did not believe Bangladesh would cooperate on a potential gas pipeline from Burma to India, suggesting that the project will remain hypothetical." End Summary.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, New Delhi, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: INDIA ENCOURAGES DEMOCRACY IN BURMA
Date of publication: 02 November 2004
Description/subject: Summary: "India underlined its concerns about the lack of democracy in Burma during the recent visit of Rangoon’s military leader Than Shwe, with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh himself delivering the message, MEA Joint Secretary (South East Asia - I) Mitra Vashishta told us on SIPDIS November 1. The decision to encourage democracy in Rangoon reflects the GOI belief that India is best placed to help Burma reform, that Aung San Sui ’s “time has come and gone,” and that democracy will take root in Burma only through greater engagement and people-to-people ties. Vashishta cited the October 29-31 visit to New Delhi of UN Special Envoy for Burma Razali Ismail as evidence of India’s resolve to stay engaged on democracy in Burma. The GOI would welcome US suggestions on how to best to promote democracy there, and has agreed to provide grants and limited military equipment to Rangoon in an attempt to encourage cooperation against anti-India insurgents located along the Indo-Burma border. However, there are no Indian plans to conduct joint military operations with the junta. PolCouns stressed our concerns about the safety and treatment of ASSK and the democratic opposition under Burma’s new Prime Minister (ref A), and urged India to continue to press for democratic reform in Rangoon." End Summary.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, New Delhi, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 December 2010


Title: TAKING A RE-LOOK AT INDIA-MYANMAR RELATIONS
Date of publication: 11 October 2004
Description/subject: The recent upsurge in violent insurgent activities in the Northeast has made it urgent for India to take action to clear Indian insurgent groups camps across the borders of Bangladesh and Burma. Bangladesh had been denying their existence and refuted such information in every forum. Myanmar's attitude has been more positive. It is in this context the visit of Myanmar’s head of state Gen. Than Shwe’s visit to Delhi on October 25, 2004 assumes significance. Than Shwe also heads the ruling military junta’s State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). No doubt discussions on joint or coordinated military operation between the two countries to eliminate Indian insurgents’ hideouts in Northern Myanmar will figure high on the agenda of Myanmar’s head of state. According to media reports this issue had already figured in the discussions of Home Secretary Dhirendra Singh and the visiting Myanmar Deputy Home Minister Brigadier General Bhon Swe on October 5, 2004.
Author/creator: Col R Hariharan
Language: English
Source/publisher: South Asia Analysis Group
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


Title: Great Research, Pity About the Conclusion - a review of Renauad Egreteau’s "Wooing the Generals: India’s New Burma Policy."
Date of publication: February 2004
Description/subject: "Renaud Egreteau provides a sober, comprehensive record of how India’s relations with Burma changed over 1990s. But his analysis falls short..."
Author/creator: Satya Sivaraman
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 2
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 June 2004


Title: INDIAN VP VISIT TO BURMA: DEMOCRACY AND HUMAN RIGHTS TAKE A BACK SEAT
Date of publication: 14 November 2003
Description/subject: Summary: Indian Vice President Shekhawat's November 2-5 visit to Burma was the most senior mission by an Indian leader in 16 years and the latest in a string of high-profile visits from India and other neighboring countries. The Burmese regime pulled out all the stops for the visit, though concrete results were limited. However, from a public relations perspective, the SPDC scored a major victory and demonstrated its ability to draw in regional leaders who are keen to pursue bilateral objectives, but willing to overlook Burma's deplorable political situation. Notably absent from Shekhawat's proceedings was a human rights agenda and anything more than a passing reference to democratization. End Summary.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, Rangoon, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 March 2011


Title: India and Burma/ Myanmar Relations: From Idealism to Realism
Date of publication: 11 September 2003
Description/subject: Paper draft without footnotes. Not to be quoted.
Language: English
Format/size: pdf (168.74 K)
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


Title: Burma and superpower rivalries in the Asia-Pacific
Date of publication: April 2002
Description/subject: "The Western democracies have declared that their strong stances against the current military regime in Burma reflect principled stands against the 1988 massacres of pro-democracy demonstrators, the failure of the regime to recognize the results of the 1990 general elections (which resulted in a landslide victory for the main opposition parties), and the regime?s continuing human rights abuses. Yet it can be argued that such a strong and sustained position would have been less likely had the Cold War not ended and Burma?s importance in the global competition between the superpowers not significantly waned. Lacking any pressing strategic or military reason to cultivate Burma, and with few direct political or economic interests at stake, countries like the United States and the United Kingdom can afford to isolate the Rangoon regime and impose upon it pariah status. If this was indeed the calculation made in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it is possible that the changes that have occurred in the strategic environment since then may prompt a reconsideration of these policies. Burma lies where South, Southeast, and East Asia meet; there the dominant cultures of these three subregions compete for influence. It lies also across the ?fault lines? between three major civilisations?Hindu, Buddhist, and Confucian.1 At critical times in the past, Burma has been a cockpit for rivalry between superpowers. Today, in the fluid strategic environment of the early twenty-first century, its important position is once again attracting attention from analysts, officials, and military planners. Already, Burma?s close relationship with China and the development of the Burmese armed forces have reminded South and Southeast Asian countries, at least, of Burma?s geostrategic importance and prompted a markedly different approach from that of the West..." The PDF version (222K) has a map and a 4-page presentation of Burma's geostrategic position not contained in the html version.
Author/creator: Andrew Selth
Language: English
Source/publisher: Naval War College Review, Spring 2002, Vol. LV, No. 2
Format/size: html (Google cache), pdf (226K)
Alternate URLs: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0JIW/is_2_55/ai_88174228
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Challenges to democratization in Burma: Perspectives on multilateral and bilateral responses. Chapter 4 - India–Burma relations
Date of publication: 14 December 2001
Description/subject: I Introduction; II Historical background; III India’s policies towards Burma; IV Major factors contributing to the relationship between India and Burma; V Indo-Burmese trade relationship; VI Indo-Burmese military cooperation; VII India’s support to the Burma democracy movement; VIII Suggestions for Burma pro-democracy activists; IX Conclusions. "India and Burma have a historical connection that goes back to the fifth century and since then have enjoyed mutual contact in the realm of trade, commerce, religion, law, political philosophy and culture. Both countries came under British colonial rule, and Burmese leaders associated with Indian leaders during the struggle for national independence. Nehru and U Nu built up a personal friendship that formed the basis of good Indo-Burmese relations, which with ups and downs have lasted 50 years The two countries have not once reached a point of diplomatic stand-off or conflict since independence. The lowest point came after the 1988 people’s uprising when India was the first neighbouring country to criticize the Burmese military government. The Indian Embassy in Rangoon actively supported the pro-democracy student activists and many entered India for shelter after the military coup in 1988.143 From 1988 to 1990, India followed a policy committed to open support of the forces of democracy and “complete disengagement” with the ruling military junta in Burma. However, in the 1990s, relations between India and Burma thawed again. Now India and Burma are cooperating in many fields, including countering insurgency on the border, checking narcotics smuggling across the border, sharing intelligence on a real-time basis, promoting trade and investment. India has also extended economic aid to India. In this research paper, an attempt is made to map out the policies of India towards Burma from the post-independence era to the present time and to analyse the major factors behind these policies. The authors also look at the implications of these policies with regard to democraticization in Burma; and they put forward some suggestions for Burmese pro-democracy groups on how to get political support from India..."
Author/creator: Thin Thin Aung, Soe Myint
Language: English
Source/publisher: International IDEA
Format/size: pdf (316K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.mizzima.com/mizzima-works/researchs/2001/index.htm
http://www.idea.int/asia_pacific/burma/upload/challenges_to_democratization_in_burma.pdf
Date of entry/update: 27 September 2010


Title: India's confrontation with Chinese interests in Myanmar
Date of publication: March 2001
Description/subject: "That India has never been immune to political developments in Myanmar (Burma before 1989) rests, first of all, on the hard facts of geographical continuity: the frontier between the two countries extends over 1,643 km and borders four strategically sensitive Indian states: Arunachal Pradesh (520 km), Nagaland (215 km), Manipur (398 km), Mizoram (510 km). Furthermore, India?s maritime south-eastern trade routes border Myanmar?s territorial waters, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands where India has naval and air facilities - are much closer to the Burmese shore than to the coastal states of eastern India 1. Myanmar is a land bridge between South and South-East Asia and can only be marginalised at India?s own peril. These considerations would ensure the necessity for India to maintain at the very least cordial relations with the government in power in Yangon (formerly Rangoon), lest a potential enemy stand at the gates of eastern India...". The paper appears as a chapter in "India's Confrontation with Chinese Interests in Myanmar" in India and ASEAN: The Politics of India's Look East Policy, Fr�deric Grare & Amitabh Mattoo (eds), Manohar/CSH, New Delhi, 2001, pp. 161.189.
Author/creator: Gilles Boquerat
Language: English
Source/publisher: Centre de Sciences Humaines, New Delhi
Format/size: PDF (80K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.csh-delhi.com/
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Myanmar shows India the road to Southeast Asia
Date of publication: 21 February 2001
Description/subject: # 1. Overview # 2. China's influence # 3. India looks east # 4. Drug trafficking # 5. The Ganga-Mekong initiative
Author/creator: Tony Allison
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Times Online
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 10 November 2010


Title: INDO-MYANMAR RELATIONS - a volte face
Date of publication: 24 November 2000
Description/subject: The recent visit of the Vice Chairman of Myanmars ruling State Peace and Development Council, Gen Maung Aye to India from Nov 14, 2000 as head of a high level delegation had evoked a mixture of responses. The Government of India had virtually rolled out a red carpet and the General had met the President, Vice President and the PM. He had visited Bangalore, Agra. Udaipur and Bodh Gaya. In this connection a columnist in Asian Age had posed the following questions: Why this disturbing shift in even the basic principles on which our foreign policy is based? Are the long term interests of India protected? Is the sovereignty and integrity of India being protected ? Will this shift strengthen the standing of India in the world?
Author/creator: C.S.Kuppuswamy
Language: English
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


Title: India and Burma: Working on Their Relationship
Date of publication: March 1999
Description/subject: Soe Myint examines the evolution of Indo-Burmese relations since the pro-democracy uprisings of 1988, and considers what the push for a "working relationship" may mean for activists in exile.
Author/creator: Soe Myint
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 3
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=1170
Date of entry/update: 04 October 2010


Title: INDIA-MYANMAR RELATIONS
Description/subject: “Although the shift in India’s policy towards Myanmar is often justified in the name of “non-intervention” in the internal affairs of other nations, it was not principal but realpolitik that guided New Delhi’s changing attitudes towards Yangon since the mid 1990’s”. Professor C. Rajan Mohan Contents: Introduction ... Relations: Three Phases ... Factors Influencing Change in Indian Policy ... Proactive Engagement ... Conclusion
Author/creator: Fahmida Ashraf
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 October 2010