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Home > Main Library > Non-Burman and non-Buddhist groups > Ethnic groups in Burma (cultural, political) > Single Groups > Rohingya (cultural, political etc.)

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Rohingya (cultural, political etc.)
See also Discrimination against the Rohingya in the Human Rights section

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Who are the Rohingya Muslims? Why are the more than one million Rohingya in Myanmar considered the 'world's most persecuted minority'?
Date of publication: September 2017
Description/subject: Useful collection of material on the Rohingya and their situation.... "The Rohingya are often described as "the world's most persecuted minority". They are an ethnic Muslim group who have lived for centuries in the majority Buddhist Myanmar. Currently, there are about 1.1 million Rohingya Muslims who live in the Southeast Asian country. The Rohingya speak Rohingya or Ruaingga, a dialect that is distinct to others spoken in Rakhine State and throughout Myanmar. They are not considered one of the country's 135 official ethnic groups and have been denied citizenship in Myanmar since 1982, which has effectively rendered them stateless..."....Analysis/description under several headings interspersed with 11 videos, texts, pictures...: Who are the Rohingya?...Where are the Rohingya from?...How and why are they being persecuted? And why aren't they recognised?...How many Rohingya have fled Myanmar and where have they gone?...Chart showing Rohingya movement since the late '70s...What do Aung San Suu Kyi and the Myanmar government say about the Rohingya?...What does Bangladesh say about the Rohingya?...What does the international community say about the Rohingya?...What is the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army?...
Author/creator: Al Jazeera Staff
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.aljazeera.com/Search/?q=rohingya
http://www.aljazeera.com/topics/country/bangladesh.html
Date of entry/update: 02 September 2017


Title: "Kaladan News" (Kaladan Press Network)
Description/subject: The OBL archive of this publication from May 2002...Mainly about the Rohingyas.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Kaladan News"
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/show.php?cat=1275&lo=d&sl=0
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: "Arakan" Magazine
Description/subject: News and Analysis of the Arakan Rohingya National Organisation (ARNO) - Monthly
Language: English
Source/publisher: Arakan Rohingya National Organisation (ARNO)
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 November 2009


Title: Arakan Rohingya National Organization (ARNO)
Description/subject: "According to the 1947 Constitution, a group of people who entered Burma before 1825 and settled in a defined territory are also indigenous race of Burma. This clause was especially written for Rohingya people, said Dr. Aye Maung, one of the author of the 1947 constitution. Accordingly U Nu government recognized Rohingya as an indigenous race of Burma..." Keywords: Islam, Muslim, stateless. Big, flashy site with lots of content.
Language: English
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Rohingya Blogger (RB)
Description/subject: News and articles about Rohingya, ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာ အေၾကာင္း သတင္းႏွင့္ ေဆာင္းပါးမ်ား
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Rohingya Blogger (RB)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://burmese.rohingyablogger.com/
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2012


Title: Rohingya Language
Description/subject: Language Characters Set; Rohingyalish Book; On Encyclopedia; Language Rules; Learn Rohingyalish; Rohingya Songs; 10,000 Rohingya Words; Rohingya Food; Boson arde Dassan; Cinderella Tales; Rohingya Language in Yahoo Group; Holy Quran; Holy Quran (Yasin); Rohingya Language ISO recognized; Rohingya Language Online; Video Training.
Language: English, Rohingyalish
Source/publisher: Rohingyalish
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 December 2010


Title: Rohingya People
Description/subject: "The Rohingya (Burmese: ရိုဟင်ဂျာ) are a Muslim people who live in the Arakan region. As of 2012, 800,000 Rohingya live in Myanmar. According to the UN, they are one of the most persecuted minorities in the world..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 July 2012


Title: rohingyalanguage · Rohingya Language
Description/subject: "ROHINGYA LANGUAGE Script, a modern writing system for the Rohingyas, the oppressed Muslim people of Arakan (Rakhine) State in the western part of Burma (Myanmar), an Asian country where Burmese is the national language. It follows very simple rules yet it is the most effective and accurate way of writing the spoken language of Rohingyas. You can Learn in Minutes. It uses only Latin alphabets (A to Z) along with two other characters (Ç) and (Ñ) which are necessary for the two most distinguished Asian sounds--the tongue rolling and the nasal--for examples: faça(=grinding rock) and fañs(=five). Also accented vowels (áéíóú) are used to tune the accent which is very important to differentiate very similar words such as bura(=bad), burá(=old) and búra(=stained). What is Rohingya Language? Let us learn, exchange ideas and enhance it! And explore the interesting features of the language, the culture and the differences of Rohingyas."
Language: English
Source/publisher: rohingyalanguage
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 31 December 2005


Individual Documents

Title: Myanmar: "My world is finished". Rohingya targeted in crimes against humanity in Myanmar
Date of publication: 18 October 2017
Description/subject: "Early in the morning of 25 August 2017, members of a Rohingya armed group, the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), attacked approximately 30 security force outposts in northern Rakhine State.1 In its response, the Myanmar Army, rather than targeting ARSA, launched an attack on the Rohingya population in northern Rakhine State as a whole. Often working with Border Guard Police (BGP) and local vigilantes, the military has carried out a campaign of violence that has been systematic, organized, and ruthless. In this briefing, Amnesty International presents evidence that the Myanmar military has killed at least hundreds of Rohingya women, men, and children; raped and perpetrated other forms of sexual violence on Rohingya women and girls; and carried out organized, targeted burning of entire Rohingya villages. This briefing builds on Amnesty International’s published findings since the crisis began, including on the Myanmar military’s use of anti-personnel landmines. In seven weeks, the relentless human rights violations have forced more than 520,000 Rohingya to flee to neighbouring Bangladesh. More cross the border daily. The attack on the Rohingya population has been both systematic and widespread, constituting serious human rights violations and crimes against humanity under international law (see text box below). The violations and crimes have been committed within a context of decades of systematic, state-led discrimination and persecution of the Rohingya population and occasional large-scale outbursts of violence. After ARSA attacks on security force outposts in October 2016, the Myanmar military carried out “clearance operations” marked by widespread and systematic human rights violations, including unlawful killings, sexual violence and other forms of torture, enforced disappearances, and arbitrary arrests, which Amnesty International concluded may have amounted to crimes against humanity. The current campaign is an escalation, with the targeted burning of villages on a massive scale seemingly designed to push the Rohingya population in northern Rakhine State out of the country and make it incredibly difficult for them to return..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/7288/2017)
Format/size: pdf (4.1MB-reduced version; 4.8MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs23/AI-2017-10-18-My_World_is_Finished-en.pdf
https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa16/7288/2017/en/
Date of entry/update: 18 October 2017


Title: Myanmar Statement to the 72nd Session of the UN General Assembly
Date of publication: 20 September 2017
Description/subject: "Henry Van Thio, Vice President of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, addresses the general debate of the 72nd Session of the General Assembly of the UN (New York, 19 - 25 September 2017)."...Mostly dealing with the current situation in Rakhine State and the Government's responses
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 21 September 2017


Title: Fortifying the Union
Date of publication: 16 September 2015
Description/subject: "...But today if Muslims are cut out of the formal political equation then Myanmar faces some really serious challenges. The country’s own history has plenty of sad examples of what happens when disenfranchised minorities have their backs against the wall. Almost everyone involved in Myanmar’s political process deserves blame for this unedifying situation. Often critics are only prepared to target one side or another. In this case it is militarists, democrats, ethno-nationalists and conservatives who must all take responsibility for their decisions. By ensuring that Muslims feel left out of the historic vote, Myanmar’s power-brokers will condemn their 2015 election to unnecessary international ridicule. It did not need to be this way, but such decisions – the culmination of years of ugly anti-Muslim agitation – do not deserve our respect. As the election campaign continues, it is this narrow vision of fortress Myanmar – one that deliberately excludes some of its most valuable citizens – that will further aggravate communal tension."
Author/creator: Nicholas Farrelly
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html and pdf (90K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Farrelly-2015-09-16-Fortifying_the_Union-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 22 September 2015


Title: The Bride Price Negotiation Among Chin Women in Myanmar
Date of publication: 29 July 2015
Description/subject: "In 2012, amidst the communal violence between Royingha and Rakhine, a Chin bride father at Paletwa in southern part of Chin state in Myanmar asked twenty lakhs in kyat (approximately equivalent to 200 US$) to the groom for the bride price which made the public shocking record that a normal price range around 5-­6 lakhs (approximately equivalent to 500-­‐600US$). On the other hand, the other bride’s father asked five thousands kyats for the bride price to the groom in May 2013. These two cases have shocked near and far Chin members in Paletwa. Some Chin young women are even competing for their bride price. Many Chin nationalists have then attained concern for this circumstance as an additional ethnic politics issue from the state’s hegemony nation state building process. Yet, not only the geographical location of Paletwa but its socio-economic setting also much interwoven with Rakhine since in the historical time (see also in Kyin Lam Mang 2014; CHKC 2012; Brown 1960). Many shop owners in Paletwa municipal market have informed me in 2013 (May-­‐July) how much they are affected from the communal violence happening in Rakhine where the flow of major basic goods and medicines are imported from Rakhine is limited. In Paletwa, half of the residence belongs to Rakhine ethnic nationalities with a hundred Muslim populations. The trading disadvantage categorized as; the Muslim on the top, the Chin in middle and the Rakhine on t he bottom due to their socio-­‐economic networks in Sittwe and Kyautdaw in Rakhine state. That is, for example, a trading associated in Rakhine state have much facilitating for Rakhine in Paletwa while many Muslim and the Chin do not much deserve to have such network. The Chin missionary or nationalists have claims that Paletwa is in need of “taking care” otherwise their fellows are under the economic “trapping” of the Rakhine.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Flora Bawi Nei Mawi
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2015


Title: Myanmar’s Muslim mosaic and the politics of belonging
Date of publication: 04 November 2014
Description/subject: "...We need to see this diversity inherent in Myanmar’s population, and this includes within the Muslim communities. How do we begin to capture the diversity and richness of Myanmar’s Muslim mosaic? Central to the politics of belonging is how Muslims define themselves. Let me take the 2014 census as an example of how Muslims are seeking to redefine their identity. International commentary on the census primarily focused on the categories the government would use to mark religion and ethnicity, and specifically whether it would allow individuals to identify as ‘Rohingya’. But there was an absence of coverage of broader Muslim responses to the census. Observers failed to see the fierce discussion and debate within Muslim communities about what categories they wanted to use to define their religious and ethnic status in the census. Many in the Burmese Muslim community were confused: they did not want to list their ethnicity as ‘Burman’, even if they identified as part Burman. This was because they felt that the ethnic category ‘Burman’ may be conflated by the government with ‘Buddhists’, and therefore overestimated the numbers of Buddhists. On the other hand, as Muslims who take pride in their ‘Burmeseness’ – both in terms of their ancestry as well as the use of Burmese language, clothing and culture – wanted recognition that they belong to Myanmar too..."
Author/creator: Melissa Crouch
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 December 2014


Title: Rohingya and national identities in Burma
Date of publication: 22 September 2014
Description/subject: "The most controversial aspect of the census recently held in Burma has been the denial of the large Muslim population in Arakan to identify themselves as Rohingya, the term of their choice. The government ban means as many as one million people remain uncounted in Arakan. That is scarcely surprising, as the Burmese government, Rakhine ultra-nationalists and seemingly a majority of the Burmese population have denied for years the existence of the Rohingya identity. According to them, the Rohingya ethnicity is an invention devised by immigrants from Bangladesh to take over the land in Arakan. Few people have made more effort to deny the claims of ethnicity by the Rohingya than Derek Tonkin, former British ambassador to Thailand and editor of the website Network Myanmar. Mr. Tonkin has reached his conclusions after digging deeply in colonial British archives, where he has not found a single use of the term Rohingya. His command of the British colonial records is nothing less than impressive, but by relying almost solely on these sources he only offers a partial picture, from which I think he draws incorrect conclusions..."
Author/creator: Carlos Sardiña Galache
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 December 2014


Title: Myanmar’s Policies of Persecution
Date of publication: 21 March 2014
Description/subject: "Last month, the government of Myanmar made the shocking decision to evict Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) from Rakhine State, cutting off tens of thousands of mostly-stateless Rohingya Muslims from their last refuge of lifesaving medical care. The decision came on the heels of a new report by Fortify Rights, offering definitive proof that the Myanmar government has targeted the minority Rohingya Muslims of Rakhine State for decades. The 79-page report, Policies of Persecution: Ending Abusive State Policies Against Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar, is based on leaked government documents, witness testimony, and public records, revealing severe violations of human rights of Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar, including restrictions on the freedom of movement, marriage, childbirth, lifesaving medical care, and other aspects of daily life in northern Rakhine State..."
Author/creator: Taylor Landis
Language: English
Source/publisher: Harvard Law Human Rights Program via Fortify Rights
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 May 2014


Title: Burma's Ethnic Persecution is State Policy
Date of publication: 13 March 2014
Description/subject: "Burma has enjoyed a remarkable several years of economic and political opening, but it is now also suffering a far darker development—serious ethnic violence. Coordinated arson attacks and periodic massacres in the remote Rakhine State have flattened entire villages and left hundreds of Rohingya men, women and children dead since June 2012. More than 140,000 are relegated to miserable displacement camps and tens of thousands have fled by sea..."
Author/creator: Matthew Smith
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Wall Street Journal" via Fortify Rights
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 May 2014


Title: MYANMAR: ABOLISH ABUSIVE RESTRICTIONS & PRACTICES AGAINST ROHINGYA MUSLIMS
Date of publication: 25 February 2014
Description/subject: "Leaked Documents Implicate Government Actors in Crimes Against Humanity"... Leaked government documents reveal severe violations of human rights of Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar, including restrictions on the freedom of movement, marriage, childbirth, and other aspects of daily life in northern Rakhine State, Fortify Rights said in a new report released today. The report implicates state and central government officials as perpetrators of the crime against humanity of persecution. Crimes against humanity are among the most serious crimes under international law. “The impacts of these restrictions are severe and have been well-documented for decades, but the official orders have been kept out of the public domain until now,” said Matthew Smith, executive director of Fortify Rights. “This architecture of abuse contributes to political instability and violence and must be lifted immediately.”..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Fortify Rights
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 May 2014


Title: In Maungdaw, a fire still rages
Date of publication: 09 February 2014
Description/subject: "The first sight as you approach Maungdaw along a bumpy dirt road, after taking the daily ferry from Sittwe to Buthidaung, is a “Welcome to Maungdaw” gateway erected in 2000. A devastating blaze and alleged clashes between security forces and Muslims which rights groups say left dozens killed and a policeman missing have once again pitted Maungdaw township’s Rakhine and Rohingya communities against each other. A devastating blaze and alleged clashes between security forces and Muslims which rights groups say left dozens killed and a policeman missing have once again pitted Maungdaw township’s Rakhine and Rohingya communities against each other. There are hints of trouble – the glass in its clock tower was cracked during violence in June 2012 and remains unrepaired; signboards in town carry messages such as “People can be safe if there is rule of law” and “Our town will be developed if there is peace and stability” – but for the most part Maungdaw appears peaceful. In reality, it has for many years been torn between two very different – some would say irreconcilable – societies."
Author/creator: Si Thu Lwin
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 June 2014


Title: Myanmar: End Mass Arrests of Muslim Men and Boys in Rakhine State, Protect At-Risk Communities
Date of publication: 23 January 2014
Description/subject: "Grant Immediate Humanitarian Access, Ensure Accountability for Violations"... "The government of Myanmar should act immediately to bring an end to attacks and abuses against Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine State, Fortify Rights said today. The government should end the mass arrests of Muslim men and boys and ensure due process rights for all those detained in areas surrounding the site of recent mass killings of Rohingya in Du Char Yar Tan village, Maungdaw Township. Unfettered access to the area should be granted to humanitarian organizations, independent observers, and national and international media..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Fortify Rights
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 May 2014


Title: Tour of shame for Thein Sein
Date of publication: 16 July 2013
Description/subject: "Myanmar's President Thein Sein travels to London and Paris this week, where he will meet British Prime Minister David Cameron and French President Francois Hollande. Now that decades-long European Union economic sanctions against Myanmar have been lifted - with the exception of an arms embargo - trade and investment are expected to dominate the agenda. But the focus should not be on trade and investment alone. Western leaders have a responsibility to address ongoing human rights violations in Myanmar. For a start, they should pressure Thein Sein to bring an immediate end to abuses against Muslims..." in Rakhine State and call separately for an independent, international investigation into ongoing abuses occurring there.
Author/creator: Matthew Smith
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online" via Fortify Rights
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 May 2014


Title: State complicity in Myanmar pogroms
Date of publication: 01 July 2013
Description/subject: "The government of Myanmar's President Thein Sein, so active in its efforts to assure Western governments and investors that the new Myanmar will never return to the dark days of the previous ruling military junta, has so far wholly failed to prevent the contagious spiral of brutal attacks on Muslim communities carried out in town after town by suspiciously well-organized Buddhist gangs. Thein Sein's periodic appeals for ''an end to communal violence" are less than convincing given the absence of any government measures or plan to stem the anti-Muslim tide and prevent the next outbreak. Leaflets and magazines denigrating Muslims are being churned out every day across the country. Extremist Buddhist monks, meanwhile, continue to spread a perniciously xenophobic version of Theravada Buddhism through inflammatory sermons directed against a Muslim minority that comprises only 5% of the population in this predominantly Buddhist nation of 60 million..."
Author/creator: Tom Fawthrop
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 May 2014


Title: Crimes against Humanity in Western Burma: The Situation of the Rohingyas
Date of publication: 16 June 2010
Description/subject: "In August 2008 the Irish Centre for Human Rights received funding from Irish Aid to launch a project on the human rights situation of the Rohingyas/Muslims of Rakhine State in Western Burma/Myanmar. As part of the project a research unit was established at the Irish Centre for Human Rights to carry an open source research and take part in a fact-finding mission and the drafting of a report under the supervision of Prof. William Schabas. In 2009, Nancie Prudhomme (project manager and researcher) and Joseph Powderly (project researcher) undertook a 4-week fact-finding mission to gather more detailed, first-hand and new information about the situation of the Rohingyas in Western Burma. As part of their mission Nancie and Joseph visited Burma and Thailand. In Thailand, they had meetings on the situation of the Rohingya "boat people" pushed back to sea at the beginning of 2009 and on the status of the Rohingya issue within Asia generally and more specifically at the ASEAN level. As part of the fact-finding mission the researchers also spent two weeks in Bangladesh visiting refugee camps and interviewing Rohingya refugees and human rights and humanitarian workers. The researchers were joined in Bangladesh by Mr. John Ralston, Executive Director of the International Institution for Criminal Investigation and former Chief of Investigations at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and for the UN Independent Commission of Inquiry for Darfur. The team interviewed Rohingya victims in and around refugee camps in Bangladesh. The mission in Bangladesh provided detailed information on the causes for flight to Bangladesh and the current situation in Western Burma. The report of the Rohingya project was officially launched on June 16 th, 2010 by Micheál Martin, the Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs, at Iveagh House"..... EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The plight of the Rohingyas has become better known since the start of 2009, in particular because of world-wide media coverage of the case of the so-called “boat people”, consisting of hundreds of Rohingyas who attempted to reach Thailand by boat and were subsequently mistreated there. Despite this new interest in the Rohingya community, very little work has been done to examine the root causes behind their continuous suffering. The Rohingyas are a Muslim minority group residing in North Arakan State in Western Burma. It is estimated that there are approximately 800,000 Rohingyas in Arakan State, and many hundreds of thousands of Rohingya refugees in other countries. There are disputes over the historical records, and whether the Rohingyas are an indigenous group or whether in fact they began entering Burma in the late 19th century. Even the very name ‘Rohingya’ has been disputed. Whatever position is taken on these questions, it is undeniable that the Rohingyas exist, and have done so for decades, as a significant minority group in North Arakan State. For many years, the Rohingyas have been enduring human rights abuses. These violations are on-going and in urgent need of attention and redress. Irish Aid provided funding for independent research to be conducted by the Irish Centre for Human Rights on the situation of the Rohingyas. The content and views expressed in the resulting Report by the Irish Centre for Human Rights are entirely those of the authors. This Report is based on a fact-finding mission to the region, including Burma, as well as on extensive open-source research, and confidential meetings with organisations working in the region. Much of the most important information came from the many interviews conducted with Rohingya individuals in and around refugee camps in Bangladesh, where they were able to speak more freely than they can in Burma itself about the violations they had endured and which had caused them to flee their homes. The Report examines the situation of the Rohingyas through the lens of crimes against humanity. The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and international criminal law jurisprudence, especially that of the ad hoc International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, are used to provide detailed and clear legal foundations for the examination. As becomes evident in the individual chapters, there is a strong prima facie case for determining that crimes against humanity are being committed against the Rohingyas of North Arakan State in Burma..."
Author/creator: Nancie Prudhomme, Joseph Powderly, John Ralston...Supervised by Prof. William Schabas (
Language: English
Source/publisher: Irish Centre for Human Rights
Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.nuigalway.ie/human_rights/documents/ichr_rohingya_report_2010.pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 June 2010


Title: ROHINGYA IN BANGLADESH & THEIR ISSUES
Date of publication: 06 October 2009
Description/subject: Who are the Rohingya: "The Rohingya are genetically related to Bengalis, Indians, Arabs and Moors, reflectedin their darker skin and south Asian appearance of recognized national groups in Burma.The Rohingya are one of the two major indigenous people of Rakhine state (Historicallyknown as Arakan; other ethnic community is Rakhine Buddhists), the western provinceof Burma. The North Rakhine state is situated in the south and south East Asian junction..."
Author/creator: Ibrahim Dubashi
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf
Alternate URLs: http://www.rohingyablogger.com/p/rate.html
Date of entry/update: 01 October 2015


Title: The Row over the Rohingya
Date of publication: April 2009
Description/subject: Irrawaddy readers weigh in on a contentious issue..."...Some readers based their arguments on historical evidence, while others emphasized human rights considerations. But judging from the bulk of the comments we received, it was clear that race, religion and ethnicity were the major factors animating the debate over whether the Rohingya "belong" in Burma. Few readers stooped to the blatant racism of the Burmese consul in Hong Kong, who infamously described the Rohingya as ugly, dark-skinned "ogres." Some, however, evidently viewed the matter chiefly through the lens of race..."
Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 2
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 April 2009


Title: THE ROHINGYAS Bengali Muslims or Arakan Rohingyas?
Date of publication: 26 March 2009
Description/subject: "In recent months, the Rohingyas have been making headlines again. Who are they? It was reported1 recently that Myanmar Foreign Minister U Nyan Win had told his ASEAN2 counterparts in Hua Hin, Thailand, prior to the ASEAN Summit, that the SPDC is "willing to accept the return of refugees from Myanmar if they are listed as Bengali Muslim minorities but not if they are Rohingyas, because Rohingyas are not Myanmar citizens". What does this signify? To the uninitiated, what difference does it make if they are Bengalis or Rohingyas? Are they not from Burma? In Burmese politics, however, it makes a world of difference..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Euro-Burma Office (EBO Briefing Paper No. 2
Format/size: pdf (48K)
Date of entry/update: 02 April 2009


Title: Les Rohingya de Birmanie Arakanais, musulmans et apatrides
Date of publication: 2007
Description/subject: "Les Rohingya, population musulmane du nord de la province birmane d'Arakan, situé à  la frontière du Bangladesh, sont exclus de la liste officielle recensant les 135 minorités nationales, interdits de déplacement et privés de la plupart des droits civiques. Cet ouvrage se penche sur l'identité des Rohingya et sur l'histoire du bassin bengalo-arakanien avant d'analyser la situation contemporaine." ...Mots-Clés -- Rohingya -- Birmanie -- Myanmar -- Arakan -- Rakhine -- Musulmans -- Identité -- Ethnicité -- minorités -- Etat-Nation -- Asie du Sud-Est
Author/creator: Gabriel Defert
Language: Francais, French
Source/publisher: Editions Aux lieux d’être
Format/size: pdf (3.1 - OBL version; 13.9MB - original version) 300 pages
Alternate URLs: http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00409512/fr/
Date of entry/update: 30 May 2010


Title: Conflict, discrimination and humanitarian challenges
Date of publication: 08 October 2003
Description/subject: Delivered at the EU – Burma Day 2003 Conference..."In contrast to the Thai-Burma border, very little international attention has been given to conditions on the Bangladesh-Burma border. Consequently, Arakan State has remained a largely ignored region of Burma. Awareness is generally limited to the cycle of exodus and repatriation of Rohingya refugees. But Arakan is no less than a microcosm of Burma with its ethnic conflicts and religious antagonisms, and is by far the most tense and explosive region of the country. The refugee outflow to Bangladesh does not result from counter-insurgency strategies to undermine ethnic armed resistance, as it is the case for the Shan, Karen and Karenni along the Thai-Burma border, but is the outcome of policies of exclusion against the Rohingya community..."
Author/creator: Chris Lewa
Language: English
Source/publisher: Forum Asia
Format/size: html (100K), Word
Date of entry/update: 23 October 2003


Title: Burma’s Muslims: Caught in the Crossfire
Date of publication: September 2003
Description/subject: "Burma’s Muslims are gaining the attention of Western observers... Burma’s importance in world affairs has long derived from its critical geo-strategic position. Now, however, it is the country’s large Muslim population and its possible links with pan-Islamist extremist organizations that is attracting the interest of Western scholars and officials. While usually overlooked in surveys of Islam in the Asia-Pacific region, Burma is home to at least two million Muslims, or four percent of the population. Some estimates of their numbers range as high as 16 percent, or eight million people. All statistics on Burma are unreliable, but the difference between these two estimates arises from the fact that a large proportion of the country’s Muslims are denied full citizenship, and therefore not included in official surveys. Also, the latter figure usually includes a large expatriate population, possibly of 1.5 million Burmese Muslims, who are currently living in Bangladesh, Pakistan and the Middle East..."
Author/creator: Andrew Selth
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No 7
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=3047
http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=3047
Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


Title: "The exodus has not stopped: Why Rohingyas continue to leave Myanmar”
Date of publication: 01 April 2002
Description/subject: Delivered at the Medecins Sans Frontieres Conference: “10 Years for the Rohingya Refugees: Past, Present and Future” Dhaka – 1 April 2002. "As long as the situation in Rakhine State does not show any fundamental improvement, Rohingya people will continue to enter and seek shelter in Bangladesh. The refugees in the two remaining camps are only the visible side of an outflow that has never ceased. Indeed, the exodus of Rohingya to Bangladesh has never stopped. Every day, new Rohingya individuals and families continue to cross the border illegally and seek sanctuary in Bangladesh. It is no longer a mass exodus, but a constant trickle. This influx seems to be encouraged and at the same time strictly controlled by the Myanmar authorities, and concurrently it is rendered invisible by the Bangladesh administration. New arrivals are denied access to the refugee camps, and these undocumented Rohingya have no other option than to survive among the local population outside the camps. Their exact number is unknown. An estimate of 100,000 has regularly been cited for several years now, which does not take into account the constant increase. According to the local press, there may be as many as 200,000 living in the Cox’s Bazar-Teknaf-Bandarban area and this amount appears to be more realistic. They are not referred to as refugees but labelled as “economic migrants”..."
Author/creator: Chris Lewa
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Terror in America, Backlash in Burma. The Rohingya: A Muslim Menace?
Date of publication: November 2001
Description/subject: "While Muslims around the world protest against airstrikes in Afghanistan, Burma’s Muslims are keeping silent, as the latest wave of communal violence continues..."
Author/creator: Maung Maung Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 9. No. 8, October-November 2001
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Muslims of Burma - A Study of a Minority Group
Date of publication: 1972
Description/subject: CONTENTS: I. Muslims in Burma in the Days of the Kings... The Beginnings of Muslim Settlement in the Irrawaddy Valley... Muslim Settlement in Arakan... Why Burma Did Not Become Muslim ...... II. Muslims in Burma During British Rule: Immigration from India... Organizations of Muslim Immigrants from India.. Organizations of Burmese Muslims.... The Burma Moslem Society... The General Council of Burma Moslem Associations... The Renaissance Movement... The Japanese Occupation...... III. Muslims in Burma Since Independence: Structural Changes in the Muslim Community... The General Council of Burman Moslem Associations... The Burma Muslim Congress... The Burma Muslim Organization... The Indian Muslims after World War II... Religious Activities... The Arakanese Muslims...... IV. Conclusion: Major Aspects of Muslim Community Life...... Appendices: A. How Many Muslims Are There in Burma?... B. Legislation on Islamic Subjects ... C. Various Documents of the General Council of Burman Moslem Associations ... D. Muslim Press ... E. Persons Interviewed ... F. Burma Newspapers Consulted... Bibliography... Indices... Personal Names... Geographical Names... Institutions... Groups.
Author/creator: Moshe Yegar
Language: English
Source/publisher: NetIPR
Format/size: pdf (4.66MB)
Date of entry/update: 26 September 2014


Title: An Account of Indians in the 1931 Census, Chapter XII
Date of publication: 1931
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: An Account of Indians in the 1931 Census, Chapter XII
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB-reduced version; 2.67MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF16/1931-...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Tables on Race and Language in the 1931 Census
Date of publication: 1931
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Tables on Race and Language in the 1931 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (392K)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF16/1931-...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Chapter 11 on Race and Caste from the 1921 Census
Date of publication: 1921
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Chapter 11 on Race and Caste from the 1921 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (5.7MB-reduced version; 8.79MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF18/Censu...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Extract on Indian, including seasonal migration, from the 1911 Census
Date of publication: 1911
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Extract on Indian, including seasonal migration, from the 1911 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.5MB-reduced version; 3.85MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF17/Extra...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Extract on Race from the 1911 Census
Date of publication: 1911
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Extract on Race from the 1911 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-reduced version; 2.85MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF17/1911-...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Extract on Race from the 1901 Census
Date of publication: 1901
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Extract on Race from the 1901 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (579K-reduced version; 873K-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF17/1901-...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Extract on Religion from the 1891 Census
Date of publication: 1891
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Extract on Religion from the 1891 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (366K-reduced version; 645K-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF19/Extra...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Extracts from the 1881 Census
Date of publication: 1881
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Extracts from the 1881 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB-reduced version; 1.95MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF19/Extra...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Extract on Arakan from the 1872 Census
Date of publication: 1872
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Extract on Arakan from the 1872 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.1MB-reduced version; 4.7MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF20/1872-...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the Languages Spoken in the Burma Empire
Date of publication: 1799
Description/subject: The paper contains references to the Rohingyas and their language: "...I shall now add three dialects, spoken in the Burma Empire, but evidently derived from the language of the Hindu nation. The first is that spoken by the Mohammedans, who have long settled in Arakan, and who call themselves Rooinga, or natives of Arakan..."
Author/creator: Francis Buchanan, M. D.
Language: English
Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No., 1, Spring 2003, ISSN 1479-8484
Format/size: pdf (117K)
Date of entry/update: 25 July 2012


Title: Repatration of Rohingya refugees
Description/subject: The Context: "In 1978 and 1991 Bangladesh was faced with influx of Rohingya refugees from Myanmar. In 1978 about 200,000 refugees crossed into Bangladesh to flee persecution by the Myanmarese army in the Arakan region. Their stay in Bangladesh at that time was short lived as the problem was resolved through diplomatic initiatives in sixteen months. The situation is somewhat different this time when about a quarter of a million of refugees took shelter in the Teknaf-Cox's Bazar region. Following the successful completion of the Cambodian operation the Rohingya repatriation constitutes the single largest UNHCR operation in Asia. In spite of the Bangladesh Government's agreement with the Myanmar authorities and UNHCR's Memorandum of Understanding with both the governments on repatriation, initial steps in the repatriation has been rather slow. Currently the repatriation process has virtually stagnated. The presence of such a large number of refugees, which at one stage appeared to be for an indefinite period, has created tensions in the host communities and impacted adversely the economy and environment of the region. It is in this setting that a study on the Rohingya refugees is being undertaken..."
Author/creator: Chowdhury R. Abrar
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (184K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Abrar-NM-Repatriation_of_Rohingya_refugees-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 04 October 2015