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Natural Resource Use, Burma/Myanmar - reports, articles etc.

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: *Youtube search for Burma OR Myanmar - natural resources* (video)
Description/subject: About 4,500 results (August 2017)
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Various sources via Youtube
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2017


Title: Agricultural land confiscation/grabbing, Agribusiness
Description/subject: Link to a sub-section of Agriculture
Language: English
Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 December 2014


Title: Link to the Extractive Industries area of OBL
Description/subject: This sub-section is under Economy and currently contains material on mining, oil and gas and timber extraction
Language: English
Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


Title: Link to the OBL section on Forests and Forest Peoples
Language: English
Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 December 2014


Title: Link to the OBL section on Land
Language: English and Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 December 2014


Title: Link to the OBL section on the Environment
Language: English
Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 04 December 2014


Title: Link to the OBL section on Water
Language: English
Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 04 December 2014


Title: Link to the OBL section on Wetlands
Language: English
Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 04 December 2014


Individual Documents

Title: The Generation to Enjoy Peace? English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 17 March 2016
Description/subject: "We are at a critical juncture in our history, more promising than at any time in recent memory. The country will have a civilian-majority government that came to office through the votes of a multitude of smaller nationality groups for a pan-national party promising political change. If this political transition is to succeed, poverty must be alleviated, corruption curtailed, drug abuse radically reduced, and a host of other social crises addressed that have long blighted our country. At the beginning of the year my son came to the Kachin state with his newly-wed bride to receive our blessings for his marriage. For the first time I began to think about becoming a grandmother, holding a tiny grandchild and then actually thinking that, at some time in the future, I would welcome a granddaughter or grandson to our home for another happy wedding. What can I pass on to this future generation? What will unfold before their eyes? Snow-capped mountains and orchids hidden in deep forests? Streams rushing downhill to join the great Irrawaddy? Flourishing farmlands? I had a vision of reforested hills in Hpakant, travellers gathering pleasure from the peaceful countryside where camps for internally-displaced persons now dot the hills. I saw organic farmers, where today great swathes of monocultures for export have now displaced the original owners. And I could imagine thriving universities, where drug-addicted young people presently waste away their lives. These reflections are not simply personal, but concerns that every parent has in our country today. We are now at a critical juncture in our history, more promising than at any time in recent memory. For the first time since the 1950s, the country will have a civilian-majority government that came to office through the votes of a multitude of smaller nationality groups for a pan-national party promising political change. For non-Burman peoples, however, an underlying question remains, as it has in every political era since independence in 1948: can a multi-ethnic country of such cultural vibrancy and diversity be governed by a party that appears to be led by one majority group?..."
Author/creator: Lahpai Seng Raw
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://www.tni.org/en/node/22933
Date of entry/update: 18 March 2016


Title: Policies for Shared Prosperity in Myanmar (English, Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 23 February 2016
Description/subject: INTRODUCTION: "The November 8, 2015 elections in Myanmar marked a historic milestone in the country’s political and economic transition that began in 2011. Incoming policy makers are preparing to pick up the baton and deliver on the people’s strong aspirations for a harmonious and prosperous Myanmar. In this series of policy notes, the World Bank Group seeks to promote dialogue on critical development challenges and on options for policies and reforms that can contribute to shared prosperity for the people of Myanmar. Myanmar has strong medium-term growth potential. Efforts to open up and liberalize the economy over the past 4 years have revealed pent up demand, brought in new investments, and increased productivity from a very low base. Between 2011 and 2014 Myanmar’s economy grew at an average real rate of 7 percent per year, which is among the fastest in East Asia, and comparable to other high performing countries in their initial phase of liberalization. In the coming years, further removal of economic controls could help Myanmar to maintain a strong pace of growth. Myanmar has a real opportunity in ensuring that growth is also inclusive. This not only means sustaining a strong pace of growth, but doing so through a diversified economy that can absorb the labor force into higher productivity sectors. The agriculture sector, which suffers from low productivity, contributing on average only 10-15 percent to annual real GDP growth over the past 4 years, employs over half of the country’s labor force. The manufacturing and construction sectors on the other hand, which have the highest value added per unit of labor, employ only 10-15 percent of the labor force. Policies that can enable a structural shift to more productive and labor intensive activities could make a big dent on poverty and inequality in Myanmar. These would include expanding access to essential public services. This could enable a bigger share of the population to benefit from the agglomeration of economic activities around Myanmar’s growth poles, namely Yangon and Mandalay, which account for roughly 35 percent of national GDP. The sound governance and use of Myanmar’s natural resource wealth are also critical to inclusive growth. Around 10 percent of Myanmar’s official GDP is derived from natural resources, though some estimate unofficial trade in natural resources at more than 20 percent of official GDP. This not only concentrates wealth from non-renewable national assets in the hands of a few, but also finances conflicts, which have created vicious cycles of poverty that are geographically and ethnically concentrated. Policy reforms since 2011 have started to promote inclusion so that a growing share of Myanmar’s people can take advantage of new opportunities and benefit from economic growth. Higher tax collections from non-agriculture sectors and rising natural resource rents have enabled Myanmar to reprioritize public spending towards critical economic and social service needs. Foreign exchange, trade and investment liberalization have opened up economic opportunities and the space for investment beyond a small group of highly protected sectors. Increased public sector transparency and decentralization have started to gradually bring the state closer to the people. Given this context, how can Myanmar advance reforms to close the disparities across its geography, ethnic communities, and income groups; and to promote productivity and competitiveness? This is the question that this series of policy notes, “All aboard! Policies for shared prosperity in Myanmar,” aims to generate debate and ideas. The theme “All aboard” is meant to reflect inclusivity and imminent departure on a positive journey. The policy notes focus on six interconnected areas that are likely to be high priorities for shared prosperity (figure 1). The first is on closing the gap in access to social services for improving Myanmar’s human development outcomes. This could help to strengthen the productivity and employability of Myanmar’s current and future labor force, which is the critical input to inclusive growth and a precondition to success in all the other areas. The second policy note is on growing together by reducing poverty in rural areas. Policies to boost agriculture productivity and accelerate the delivery of essential services in rural areas, where they lag the most, could help to supply the much needed labor and food for the rapidly expanding industrial, manufacturing and service sectors. Investment in higher productivity sectors is also likely to require breaking business as usual to foster competitiveness and a dynamic environment for private sector growth across the country, which are discussed in the third policy note. These include policies that are targeted at reducing the costs of doing business and engaging in international trade. The relative impact of these could be enormous in terms of incentivizing private sector investments, expanding access to economic opportunities for rural and urban populations, and diversifying the sources of growth. Enabling these to drive major structural transformations in the economy is likely to require policy reforms in two important areas. The fourth policy note therefore looks at options to expand Myanmar’s ability for financing the future through an open, modern, and inclusive financial system. This is important not only for channeling savings to large private investments, but also to finance public sector operations and service delivery, facilitate the expansion of international trade, and enable the transfer of increased remittances to rural areas. The fifth policy note is on energizing Myanmar by enhancing access to sustainable energy for all. Myanmar’s growing economy will need more energy than is currently supplied – not only for productive sectors, but also for the delivery of public services across the country."
Author/creator: Habib Rab + team
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: html, pdf (English, 1.4MB-reduced version; 1.5MB-original...Burmese, 1.6MB-reduced version; 2.1MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-en.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-bu.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-en-red.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-bu-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 March 2016


Title: Sharing the Wealth: A Roadmap for Distributing Myanmar’s Natural Resource Revenues
Date of publication: 15 February 2016
Description/subject: "Myanmar's Union government collects much of the trillions of kyat generated by oil, gas, gemstones and other minerals each year, primarily through its state-owned economic enterprises (SEEs). In the face of such centralized control over revenue, many ethnic groups have long asserted their right to make decisions over resource management in their states. Combatants in areas of active conflict and leaders from several ethnic minority parties—particularly those associated with Kachin, Rakhine and Shan states—have openly called for greater resource revenue sharing. (See map below for more on Myanmar’s extractive geography.) In response, the newly elected National League for Democracy (NLD) has committed to "work to ensure a fair distribution across the country of the profits from natural resource extraction, in accordance with the principles of a federal union." As such, a resource revenue sharing system will undoubtedly be on the table in the upcoming discussion on federalism. However, as we have seen in other countries, these systems come with considerable risks. In the most extreme cases, such as Peru, they can actually exacerbate conflict, encouraging local leaders to use violence to compel greater transfers from the central government or gain control over mine sites. While these experiences are atypical, natural resource revenue sharing often leads to financial waste, local inflation, boom-bust cycles and poor public investment decisions. However, if well designed, resource revenue sharing can: improve development outcomes and the quality of public investment; attract high quality private investors to the sector; and help secure a lasting peace. Sharing the Wealth: A Roadmap for Distributing Myanmar's Natural Resource Revenues outlines options available under the current legal structure to help the new leadership fulfill its commitment to decentralize natural resource revenues. It is also meant to inform Myanmar's broader discourse on how best to distribute these revenues. First, it outlines the current state of fiscal decentralization in Myanmar. Second, it describes the size and location of extractive activities given the limited information currently available. Third, it aims to share good practices for revenue distribution and international experiences. Fourth, it outlines policy options and considerations for policymakers on intergovernmental transfers and addresses the debate on tax assignments..."
Author/creator: Andrew Bauer, Paul Shortell and Lorenzo Delesgues
Language: English
Source/publisher: Natural Resource Governance Institute
Format/size: pdf (2.4MB-reduced version; 12MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.resourcegovernance.org/sites/default/files/documents/nrgi_sharing_myanmar_revenue-sharin...
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/nrgi_sharing_myanmar_revenue-sharing.pdf
Date of entry/update: 06 April 2016


Title: We Will Manage Our Own Natural Resources
Date of publication: 2016
Description/subject: "... This piece of community initiated action research reveals a number of lessons we can learn. The authors try to reflect the challenges of and opportunities for community based natural resources management in a seemingly forgotten Karen controlled area of southern Myanmar. The paper examines a number of case studies including the construction of a local water supply system, the establishment of fish conservation zones and community-driven forest conservation. An evolutionary development of community based networks such as CSLD (Community Sustainable Livelihood and Development), IRIP-NET (Tenasserim River and Indigenous People Network) and RKIP (Rays of Kamoethway Indigenous People and Nature) and their collaborative action to address emerging Natural Resources Management issues in their land are well illustrated in the paper..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Tenasserim River & Indigenous People Networks (TRIP NET), Rays of Kamoethway Indigenous People and Nature (RKIPN)
Format/size: pdf (3.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 18 April 2016


Title: Tin Mining in Myanmar: Production and Potential
Date of publication: 05 October 2015
Description/subject: "... In 2014, Myanmar(Burma)confounded industry analysts by emerging to become the World's third biggest tin producer, experiencing a 5-year tin production increase of ca.4900%. This surprise emergence of Myanmar as a major tin producer is a possible Black Swan event that potentially has significant re-percussions both for the future of global tin production, and for the economic development of Myanmar. This is a disruptive event that has likely contributed to a substantial drop in tin prices in 2015. The Myanmar production increase came from a new minesite in Wa State, and not from the traditional tin-producing areas in the South. We discuss tin mining and potential in Myanmar and consider whether it could provide a foundation for the economic rehabilitation of the country..."
Author/creator: Nicholas J. Gardiner, JohnP.Sykes, AllanTrench, LaurenceJ.Robb
Language: English
Source/publisher: Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford
Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 15 April 2016


Title: Considerations for Natural Resource Revenue Sharing in Myanmar: Executive Summary
Date of publication: July 2015
Description/subject: "Oil, gas and mineral revenues are generated in nearly every state and region in Myanmar, with the most important interests lying in Bago, Kachin, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Shan and Tanintharyi. In these and other regions, petroleum and mining activities have had significant impacts on livelihoods in affected communities, and on the local environment. There is also a perceived lack of benefits from extraction accruing to local populations. Therefore, several parliamentarians and ethnic armed groups have raised natural resource revenue sharing between national and subnational authorities as a key component in national reform, fiscal decentralization, and peace processes. Depending on how any prospective system is designed, resource revenue-sharing can help address three separate issues: improving development outcomes and the quality of public investment; attracting high quality investors to the sector; and securing a lasting peace..."
Author/creator: Andrew Bauer and Lorenzo Delesgues
Language: English
Source/publisher: Natural Resource Governance Institute
Format/size: pdf (199K)
Date of entry/update: 15 September 2015


Title: OPEN FOR BUSINESS? CORPORATE CRIME AND ABUSES AT MYANMAR COPPER MINE
Date of publication: 10 February 2015
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report is the culmination of a one year investigation by Amnesty International into alleged human rights abuses by companies, including multinational companies, operating in Myanmar. The report focuses on the Monywa copper mine project and highlights forced evictions, substantial environmental and social impacts, and the repression, sometimes brutal, of those who try to protest. It also raises serious questions about opaque corporate dealings and possible infringements of economic sanctions on Myanmar. The report calls on the Government of Myanmar to urgently introduce strong measures for the protection of human rights, and on multinational companies and the home governments of those companies to ensure that due diligence is carried out to international standards for all investment in Myanmar...This report examines the issues in relation to one major mining operation - the Monywa project - made up of the Sabetaung and Kyisintaung (S&K) and the Letpadaung copper mines. During an extensive one-year investigation, Amnesty International examined incidents that are specific to the Monywa project as well as some of the wider structural issues – such as the processes for acquisition of land and environmental protection – that will affect other extractive projects in Myanmar. The organization found that, since its inception and throughout its various changes in ownership, the Monywa project has been characterised by serious human rights abuses and a lack of transparency. Thousands of people have been forcibly evicted by the government with the knowledge, and in some cases the participation, of foreign companies. Environmental impacts have been poorly assessed and managed, with grave long-term implications for the health and livelihoods of people living near the mine. Protests by communities have been met with excessive force by police...".....CONCLUSION: The Government of Myanmar is responsible for the serious human rights violations that have taken place at the Monywa project over many years. It has forcibly evicted people and has failed to put in place safeguards to protect mine-affected communities from environmental pollution which can im- pact their rights to water and health, amongst other rights. It has shown an unwillingness to monitor corporate activity or to hold companies accountable for the harm their operations cause. The companies involved also bear responsibility. Despite a history of human rights violations sur- rounding the mine, a Canadian company, and subsequently a Chinese company, have invested without undertaking appropriate due diligence to ensure that past abuses were remediated and future abuses prevented. They have profited from abuses that they knew or should have known were happening, and have, in certain cases, themselves abused rights by participating in forced evictions or failing to remediate environmental pollution. The system that enabled the transfer of the Monywa project to a business venture that involved My- anmar military interests, without any transparency as to how such a sale occurred, is emblematic of the lack of accountability that exists around allocations of concessions and contracts in the extractive industry in Myanmar. The people of Myanmar must not see a resource curse unfold as it has done in so many other countries where powerful economic interests profit from a context in which regulation is weak, the government is unwilling to hold powerful political interests accountable and there is little or no transparency. The home states of multinational corporations must ensure that these corporations do not unjustly enrich themselves at the expense of Myanmar’s poorest people. The home states of companies involved in the Monywa project – Canada and China – have failed to do this...".....The report also contains critical analyses of Myanmar's land legislation.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International
Format/size: pdf (3.1MB-reduced version; 3.8MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/003/2015/en/12a4143a-ee84-4ce1-8d32-a72a916e29f7/asa1...
Date of entry/update: 11 February 2015


Title: Natural Resources and Subnational Governments in Myanmar: Key considerations for wealth sharing (English)
Date of publication: 16 June 2014
Description/subject: "...The research presented in this discussion paper by Thet Aung Lynn and Mari Oye provides an overview of the current role of subnational government in natural resource management and revenue collection in Myanmar. Natural resources provide a large share of government revenue, and there is potential for growth in these sectors in coming years. The government under President Thein Sein has made reform of the natural resource management system a priority, and the topic remains the subject of great interest among the wider public and civil society. In addition, natural resource management and revenue collection has long been a contentious issue in the country’s numerous ethnic conflicts and will need to be fully considered in the political dialogue. As discussion of potential future reforms takes place, an overview of the current laws, systems, and practices surrounding these areas is intended to lay the groundwork for future research and inform policy debate..."
Author/creator: Thet Aung Lynn and Mari Oye
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB-reduced version; 2.66MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/NaturalResourcesandSubnationalGovernmentsinMyanmar.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 July 2014


Title: Natural Resources and Subnational Governments in Myanmar: Key considerations for wealth sharing ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံ၏သဘာ၀သယံဇာတအရင္းအျမစ္မ်ားႏွင့္ ေဒသဆုိင္ရ
Date of publication: 16 June 2014
Description/subject: "The Myanmar Development Resource Institute's Centre for Economic and Social Development (MDRI-CESD) and The Asia Foundation are pleased to present this fourth volume in the Subnational Governance in Myanmar Discussion Paper Series. Myanmar's government has announced a commitment to both greater transparency in natural resource sectors and to further fiscal decentralization. There has also been increasing discussion of sharing natural resource revenues in the contexts of economic restructuring, constitutional reform, and the peace process. However, there is not yet consensus on what is to be shared, between which entities, how, or why. This discussion paper is intended to provide an overview of the current unknown and known elements of the resource governance system in Myanmar in order to inform future analysis of the potential risks and benefits of changes to the role of subnational governments."
Author/creator: Thet Aung Lynn and Mari Oye
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation, MDRI-CESD
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-reduced version; 2.92MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/NaturalResouresandSubnationalGovernmentsMyanmarBurmese...
Date of entry/update: 04 July 2014


Title: Extractive industries (link to OBL sub-section)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2014


Title: Natural Resources (MYLAFF folder)
Description/subject: Aquatic Resources - 6 files... Energy - 20 files... Environment and Biodiversity - 42 files... Forest Management - 52 files Governance and Sector Development/Assessment - 5 files ... Mining. .....To access some files, users may have to take out a (free) subscription to MYLAFF at https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/mylaff
Language: English
Source/publisher: MYLAFF
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://groups.google.com/forum
Date of entry/update: 04 July 2016