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Shan history

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Shan
Description/subject: Contents: * 1 Ethnicity * 2 Culture * 3 History * 4 Politics o 4.1 Independence and exiled government * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


Individual Documents

Title: Heritage Conservation of Historic Built Environment in Pyin-­Oo-­Lwin Town, Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Pyin-­‐Oo-­‐Lwin has the high quality built environment of the area, with its wealth of historic buildings, conservation areas and historic monuments, represents an important social, cultural, recreational and educational resource as well as helping to make it an appealing place to live, work and visit. This research is focus on conserving of the historic buildings and its surrounding environments in Pyin-­‐Oo-­‐Lwin town. As there is physical degradation because of the impact of urban development, the conservation of these areas will include their development and harmonious adaption to contemporary life‟ (UNESCO 1987). During 19th Century, British made well plan with impeccable signs of urban planning and local architecture and built the many famous buildings in Pyin-­‐Oo-­‐Lwin town. These colonial buildings are standing now as heritage buildings and structures so that targeting conservation resources towards particularly vulnerable group of sites and environments. Because of elevation, situation, climate and verdant environment, it be comes prominent as a famous highland town. In urban areas, increased attention must be paid by the institutions for its conservation; new issues have to be addressed, due to the dramatic changes occurring. It suffers from physical and functional decay and seems to have been seriously affected by inconsistent development. The historic architectural and urban features of Pyin-­‐Oo-­‐Lwin deserve a careful survey and assessment, in order to be protected as a substantial part of Myanmar heritage. It involves actively caring for the heritage, maintaining it in good physical condition, making it readily accessible for study, enjoyment, recreation, and tourism. In this research, it is thoroughly documented the existing conditions of Pyin-­‐Oo-­‐Lwin town and identified the possible heritage areas to be conserved with the development of this town. Then, the study on the principles and methods of conservation and criteria for conservation are presented as literature study to support this research. Finally, this research intends to give general guidelines for existing historic buildings and new buildings built harmoniously in the environment and to create encouragement and promote heritage awareness on historic built form of Pyin-­‐Oo-­‐Lwin Town.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Than Htay Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (3.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2015


Title: Kyaing Tong in Transition (c.1850 -­‐1950)
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: "Kyaing Tong is the largest and oldest state of Trans -­‐ Than Lwin Region. It is known in history with such variety of names as Gon (Khun) (Than Tun, 2004), Kom, Kyaing Tong (Hman-­‐nan, 2008), Khema Vara and Khema Rahta Jayajotitonkarapur (Scott and Hardiman, 1901). The first people who migrated into Kyaing Tong were Wa or La-­‐wa. They also settled in the other areas of eastern Shan States and Lan Na in northern Thailand (Conway, 2006). There were followed by Gon (Khun) and Lu people. The date of the migration of these people is attributed to the early first millennium AD even though local chronicles mentions the date of early settlements to twelfth century AD (Mangrai, 1981). Later the ethnic group from the neighbouring states of Thailand and Laos comprising Tai Hkun; Tai Lu, Tai Lem, Tai Neu, Tai Yuan, Tai Lao and Tai Htai came to settle in the Trans-­‐Thanlwin Region including Kyaing Tong area (Sai Aung Tun, 2009). They established communities which later developed chiefs known as saophas or sawbwas (in Myanmar) which means lord of the sky. A legend says that Kyaing Tong was firstly founded by a hermit named Tong. The state therefore was named after its founder Keng Tong or Kyaing Tong. However Kyaing Tong chronicle mentions that the first two sawbwas of Kyaing Tong; Mang Kom and Mang Yè belonged to Wa Tribe. They were replaced by Khun sawbwas who ruled the region from the mid-­‐thirteenth century A.D to 1959 when sawbwas relinquished their autonomous rule (Than Tun, 2004).".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Soe Aung
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (180K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2015


Title: The Uneasy Subordinate Alliance: The Relations between Myanmar and the Shan States in Late Nineteenth Century
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Historical Setting: "The Shan who belong to the Tai ethnic group of Mongoloid family migrated from China into Myanmar before the Christian Era (Scott and Hardiman, 1901a). Although the date of their migration was still controversial, they had already present in Myanmar before the rise of Bagan in central Ayeyarwaddy Basin. In comparison, the area of settlements of Shans was larger than that of Bamar who entered in the Ayeyarwaddy Basin after the collapse of Pyu city-states (Than Tun, 2002). Since they lived in Yunnan Province, Shans established clusters of communities known as Mong, Muang, Keng-state or town which was ruled by a hereditary chief known as Saopha-lord of the sky. The Myanmar word saw-bwa derived from sao-pha (Zeng Peng: 1990). The first kingdom of Shans might be the Mao which located in a strategic place on the Yunnan border, from thence they entered Myanmar by crossing Chindwin and Ayeyarwaddy River. The Shans from Mong Mao area also moved south along the Ayeyarwaddy River. With the help of other groups from Shan States they later founded kingdoms and dynasties in central Myanmar, Upper Sagaing District, Mohnyin, Mong Kwang, Mong Mit and Bhamo. Tai immigrants on the other hand, established p etty states in Hsenwi, Hsi paw, Mong Nai, Mong Pai, Yawng Hwe (Nyaung Shwe), and Kyaing Tong. When Bagan was founded by Aniruddha (1044-77) in the first half of eleventh century A.D, the Shan principalities had already existed in Myanmar. It is attributed that the hegemony of the kings of Bagan could not be extended to the principalities of Shan States, particularly the trans- Than Lwin area (Than Tun, 2004)."......Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Shwe Zin Maw
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (189K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2015


Title: King Naresuan and Shan Saophas Connection
Date of publication: 16 October 2009
Description/subject: Content 1. King Naresuan and Shan Sao Pha Connection. -Hsenwi -Nanda Bayin Period (1581-1599) -Revolts during the reign of Nanda Bayin. -The Domain of Muang Gong in AD 1556. -Muang Mit (Maing Mit) and Nanda Bayin. -King Naresuan and Nanda Bayin. -Hongsawadi’s war with Ava, Shan and Siam. -King Nyaung Yan’s war on the Shans. -King Nyaung Yan and Muang Nai. -King Nyaung Yan and Kham Kai Noi. - Situation of King Naresuan. -The situation of the two routes to cross the Salween. -Conclusion ..... 2. Shan and Ava. -Pinya Dynasty (1312-1365). -Sagaing Dynasty (1315-1363). -The First Ava Dynasty. (1364-1421). -The Second Ava Dynasty. (1364-1421). -The Third and Last Ava Dynasty (1476-1544) ..... 3. Bayint Naung’s War on Ava, Shan and Siam. -Bayint Naung’s war on Ava. -Bayint Naung’s war on Shan and Siam ..... Reference: In Shan, In Burmese
Author/creator: Khur Hsen
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Shan Studies Maha Chulalongkorn University Bangkok, Thailand
Format/size: pdf (2.44MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.shanland.org/images/docs/kingnaresuanandshansaophasconnection.pdf
Date of entry/update: 14 November 2010


Title: A Sweeping Survey of the Shan (Review of Sai Aung Tun' "History of the Shan State: From its Origins to 1962"
Date of publication: February 2009
Description/subject: "The story of Burma’s largest ethnic minority group is finally told—in voluminous detail... History of the Shan State: From its Origins to 1962, by Sai Aung Tun, Silkworm Press, 2009. P 684 IF ever there was a tiger in the room that hardly anyone was talking about, it would have to be the Shan. Burma’s second largest ethnic group—after the majority Burmans—has not had the same domestic or international attention given to their complex history as many smaller ethnic groups. Apart from a handful of Shan, Burmese and Western scholars, Shan State has rarely been studied since the great J.G. Scott wrote his encyclopedic Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States some 100 years ago..."
Author/creator: David Scott Mathieson
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 1
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 February 2009


Title: The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire VII
Date of publication: 24 January 2008
Language: English
Source/publisher: San Oo Aung’s Weblog
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 January 2011


Title: The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire VI
Date of publication: 23 January 2008
Description/subject: Tags: Anawrahta, Blogging, British, British Colony, Burma, Burma Digest, Burmese History, Colony, History, Mon, National day, Politics, Pyu, Pyu kingdom, Rakhine, Rule of Law, Shan, South East Asia, SPDC, SPDC Generals, Thailand, Than Shwe, Tibeto-Burman, To win the Hearts and Minds of the people, UK., UN, UNGA, UNHCR, UNSC, UNSG, War Crimes |
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Digest
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://burmadigest.wordpress.com/2008/01/23/the-golden-days-of-the-great-shan-empire-vi/
Date of entry/update: 06 January 2011


Title: The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire V
Date of publication: 22 January 2008
Description/subject: "...Shans around the world (Tai peoples) The Tai or Tai-Kadai ethnicity The Tai or Tai-Kadai ethnicity refers collectively to the ethnic groups of southern China and Southeast Asia, stretching from_ * Hainan to eastern India * and from southern Sichuan to Laos, * Thailand, and parts of Vietnam, which speak languages in the Tai-Kadai family and share similar traditions and festivals, including Songkran or Thingyan water festival. * Despite never having a unified nation-state of their own, * the peoples also have historically shared a vague idea of a Shan or Tai or “Siam” nation, corrupted to Shan in Burma or Assam in India, and most of them self-identified themselves as “Tai”. ..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Digest
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://burmadigest.wordpress.com/2008/01/22/the-golden-days-of-the-great-shan-empire-v/
Date of entry/update: 06 January 2011


Title: The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire IV
Date of publication: 21 January 2008
Description/subject: "...The date 7th February 1947 is a defining moment in the record of the Shan history as a modern nation. On that day, Shan princes and the people’s representatives of the Shan States demonstrated their newfound unity to declare it a “national day” which were followed by the resolutions of “Shan National Anthem”, “Shan National Flag” and the formation of “Shan State Council” on the 11th and 15th of February, 1947 respectively. The people of Shan States and leaders decided in this very year later at Panglong, on the 12th of February, to join with U Aung San and the AFPFL (Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League) and leaders of other nationalities, to live together under one flag as co-independent and equal nations. This marks the birth of a nation-state now known as “Union of Burma”..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Digest
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 January 2011


Title: The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire II
Date of publication: 17 January 2008
Description/subject: "... Like many other ethnic peoples of Burma, the Shans or Tai once had their homeland in China. Some historians believe that the Tai people originally were from the north of the Yellow River (Huang Ho), occupying the region known as Hebei and Shanxi round about 2515 B.C. The Chinese annals also mention Tai settlements in the middle basin of the Yellow River in 850 B.C. They made their homeland there for a long time, establishing small feudal kingdoms and spreading their “Na” culture to neighboring regions..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Digest
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 November 2010


Title: The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire III
Date of publication: 17 January 2008
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Digest
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 January 2011


Title: The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire I
Date of publication: 15 January 2008
Description/subject: "...Shan is a Burmese rendering of Siam. The Thai call our Shans as Thai-yai or Elder Thai – and Tai or Thai is only a dialectical rendering. The Tai Speaking Peoples stretch from North East India, through Burma, the Kachin and Shan States, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and south and southwest China. Chinese Prime Minister Chou-en-lai of PRC [Communist Mainland China] said in 1957 to Soa Shwe Thaike, who was the first President of the Independent Burma, that in China there were then 100million Tai/Dai Speaking Peoples in China..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Digest
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 January 2011


Title: Shan-Myanmar Relations As Found in the Hsipaw Chronicle
Date of publication: 12 December 2001
Author/creator: Sai Aung Tun
Language: English
Source/publisher: Texts and Contexts Conference, Rangoon, 12-14 December 2001
Format/size: PDF (3800K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.archaeology.usyd.edu.au/~hudson/sai_aung_tun_hsipaw.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Sao Weng - A Shan Patriot of Lawksawk
Date of publication: 2000
Description/subject: The Sao Hpa (or) Sawbwa of the State of LAWKSAWK was without doubt the first Shan leader of SHAN STATE to clash with the advancing British Column. It was January 1887. The annexation of Upper Burma was accomplished in 1885. The Sao Hpas of Southern Shan States formed a confederacy and installed the Limbin Prince as Sovereign. First, in the Shan States, and their aim was Burma itself. With unity and solidarity they firmly believed they could drive the British back to the sea. The final aim was to establish a country with Limbin Prince as King of Burma. During that period the whole of Shan States, South as well as North was in turmoil and discontent existed.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shan State Magazine
Format/size: pdf (278K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.shanyoma.org/yoma/Sao-Weng%28Patriot-of-Lawk-Sawk%29.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Founding of the Union of Burma Through the Hill Peoples Efforts
Date of publication: 01 March 1993
Description/subject: The Memoirs of Khun Kya Bu of Hsipaw, signatory to the Panglong Agreement
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shanland
Format/size: pdf (228K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.shanyoma.org/index.php/other/99-history-shan/845-the-founding-of-the-union-of-burma-thro...
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Shan Case: Rooting Out the Myth of the Golden Triangle
Date of publication: 01 December 1992
Description/subject: "This is one of the few attempts made by the Shans to introduce themselves to the world at large. I sincerely hope that this brochure helps clear up at least some of the gravest misconceptions about the Shans and our homeland"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shan Human Rights Foundation, 1994
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2015


Title: Tea Production On the Periphery of the British Empire
Date of publication: September 1991
Description/subject: The political economy of Shan tea under British colonial rule. "...Tawngpeng State, the major tea-producing area in the Federated Shan States, contained an area of 938 square miles. As of 1939 the population of Tawngpeng was 59,398 and it had a revenue of Rs. 645,634. The State was divided into 16 circles which corresponded as closely as possible to clan-divisions. Geographic features were characterised by hills ranging from five to seven thousand feet in height interspersed with valleys that averaged approximately ten miles in length and from a few hundred yards to a few miles in width. Maurice Collis, a former Burma civil servant, noted that upon approaching Namhsan, the capital of Tawngpeng which lies at the centre of the State at a height of six thousand feet, 'there is a vale and in the midst, ten miles away, is a ridge, on one end of which stands the town of Nam Hsan with the palace over it on a circular hill....The vale is one vast tea garden'. On the lower levels of the hillsides, Palaungs and Shans grow tea whilst higher up Kachins and Lisus practice shifting agriculture. Shans predominate in the valleys where rice is the staple crop..."
Author/creator: Robert Maule Department of History, University of Toronto
Language: English
Source/publisher: Thai-Yunnan Project Newsletter No. 14, September 1991
Alternate URLs: http://www.thedarjeelingtealady.com/tea/?p=17
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Report of the Government Advisory Committee on the Amendment of the Constitution as Proposed by the Shan State Government and its People, 1962
Date of publication: 08 January 1962
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shanland
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.shanland.org/oldversion/index-3142.htm
Date of entry/update: 13 December 2010


Title: Shan Federal Proposal (Federal Amendment Proposal)
Date of publication: 25 February 1961
Description/subject: Document containing proposals For the REVISION of the CONSTITUTION OF THE UNION OF BURMA submitted by THE SHAN STATE, translated by Sao Singha. This document was ratified by the Convention, attended by delegates from the entire Shan State, which was held in Taunggyi on Saturday, 25th of February, 1961.
Author/creator: Trans. Sao Singha
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shan State Steering Committee
Format/size: pdf (506K)
Date of entry/update: 06 May 2017


Title: Politics in the Shan State
Description/subject: Secession from the Union of Burma..."...The fourth of January 1958 was significant in Burma for two reasons: it marked the tenth anniversary of the nation’s independence and it also denoted the end of the constitutional limitation on the right of a state to secede from the Union1. While the anniversary of independence caused rejoicing throughout the country, the right of secession caused many of the leaders to worry and wonder whether or not this date would become significant as the beginning of the breakup of the Union. Since the right of secession is a unique right, not found in any other modern federal constitution save that of the U.S.S.R.,2 it is useful to examine the background and the contemporary situation in order to see what opportunities there are for a state to secede from the Union of Burma, and what limitations exist to keep it from exercising its right..."
Author/creator: Josef Silverstein, date?
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shanland.org
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003