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Home > Main Library > History > Historical periods > British colonial rule in Burma [1824-1948] > British colonial period : Commentary (non-official books, academic papers, articles and reports)

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British colonial period : Commentary (non-official books, academic papers, articles and reports)

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: British Colonial Rule (Burmese)
Language: Burmese
Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 December 2013

Title: British rule in Burma
Description/subject: British rule in Burma lasted from 1824 to 1948, from the Anglo-Burmese Wars through the creation of Burma as a province of British India to the establishment of an independently administered colony, and finally independence. Various portions of Burmese territories, including Arakan, Tenasserim were annexed by the British after their victory in the First Anglo-Burmese War; Lower Burma was annexed in 1852 after the Second Anglo-Burmese War. The annexed territories were designated the minor province (a Chief Commissionership), British Burma, of British India in 1862.[1] After the Third Anglo-Burmese War in 1885, Upper Burma was annexed, and the following year, the province of Burma in British India was created, becoming a major province (a Lieutenant-Governorship) in 1897.[1] This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma began to be administered separately by the Burma Office under the Secretary of State for India and Burma. Burma achieved independence from British rule on 4 January 1948....Contents: 1 Divisions of British Burma... 2 Background: 2.1 Burma before British colonization... 3 Arrival of the British in Burma... 4 Early British rule: 4.1 Administration; 4.2 Colonial economy; 4.3 Daily life under British rule... 5 Nationalist movement... 6 Burma separated from India... 7 World War II and Japan... 8 From the Japanese surrender to Aung San's assassination... 9 See also... 10 Notes... 11 Further reading
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012

Individual Documents

Title: Discovery of “Outsiders”: The Expulsion of Undesirable Chinese and Urban Governance of Colonial Rangoon, Burma, c. 1900–1920
Date of publication: 27 December 2014
Description/subject: "Colonial Rangoon society embraced vast floating populations, constantly entering and leaving the territory of Burma, a province of British India until 1937. This situation made it difficult for the authorities to undertake police activities in the capital city of the province. Dealing with undesirable “outsiders” in Rangoon was an issue related to both the governance of the city and the border control of the province. By the 1910s, the Government of Burma and Rangoon Town Police discovered that expulsion of undesirable “outsiders” was helpful for preventing crime in the city. At first, this policy targeted Chinese riot ringleaders, but, during the 1920s, its scope was dramatically widened and the policy changed qualitatively. This paper deals with the early phase of this process. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, overseas Chinese were present in large numbers in the South China Sea region. For the emerging modern states in that region, it was common to utilize the economic resources of the Chinese network as well as to incorporate autonomous local Chinese communities into one unified, ruling state. As previous studies correctly point out, the government of Burma constructed its policy regarding the local Chinese population, especially in Rangoon, by referring to the early experiences of the Straits Settlements. However, the similarity between the two colonies should not be overemphasized. Despite frequent cross-references, each emerging state developed a different system of governing the Chinese to meet its own needs and conditions. Because of a lack of primary sources, previous studies have not explained concretely how the policy was introduced and practiced in Burma. As a result, the chronology and the characteristics of the process remain obscure. Therefore, this paper aims to clarify these by analyzing previously unexamined documents and to locate the process in the wider context of urban governance in colonial Rangoon..."
Author/creator: OSADA Noriyuki
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies, No. 32, 2014... 上智アジア学 第32 号2014 å¹´ 目次 ...Burma Studies in Japan: History, Culture and Religion
Format/size: pdf (706K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Researchers/osada_noriyuki_en.html
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2015

Title: The Anglo-Burmese in the 1940s: To become Burmese or not
Date of publication: 27 December 2014
Description/subject: "...This article is concerned with the manner in which the Anglo-Burmese identified themselves in the 1940s, through their perception of both the people of the suzerain nation and those of the native Burmese (Burmans), with whom they had to share the same type of livelihood. It also on the other hand concerns the issue as to how the two communities realized the features of the Anglo-Burmese. The 1940s in Burma included the period of the Japanese military occupation (1942-45), which for the Anglo-Burmese community was a traumatic experience. This article seeks to make clear the fact that the community of Anglo-Burmese not only fortified their own identity, but also experienced an increase in their hatred for the native Burmese. This was due to their having experienced the Japanese military administration, since they suffered under the pressure of the Burmese nationalists who had cooperated with Japan. It also seeks to clarify the fact of their dissatisfaction with the postwar British reaction towards Burmese nationalists, since from their own point of view the reaction was too conciliatory. Judging from their perspective, the fact that the post-war British Government had decided to grant full independence to Burma by compromising with the Burmese nationalists represented by Aung San and other pre-war anti-British activists, was something unwelcome. In the final section of this article, some indications will be presented as to how the ordinary Anglo-Burmese now living abroad recall their experiences of the Japanese occupation period and after. This will enable us to clarify their historical understanding of World War II and the independence of Burma..."
Author/creator: Kei NEMOTO
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies, No. 32, 2014... 上智アジア学 第32 号2014 å¹´ 目次 ...Burma Studies in Japan: History, Culture and Religion
Format/size: pdf (725K)
Alternate URLs: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Burmese_people
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2015

Title: Law and Economic Development: The Cautionary Tale of Colonial Burma
Date of publication: January 2014
Description/subject: Abstract: "Burmese colonial history suggests that a legal system cannot operate independently from the felt needs of the people who are supposed to obey the law. Despite a monopoly of force for many decades, the British failed to create a sustainable legal system in Burma. Colonial status shifted Burma’s economic role from subsistence agriculture to the generation of large-scale exports. By undermining the traditional Burmese legal system and substituting Western international standards of property rights, enforceability of contracts, and an independent judiciary — all attributes of what some consider to be the “Rule of Law”— the legal system amplified and channelled destructive economic and social forces rather than containing them. This paper examines traditional Burmese law, the administration of law in British Burma, and the consequences of the new legal system for the country and its own stability. The paper concludes by suggesting lessons for Myanmar today, and for the study of the “Rule of Law." ..... Keywords: Rule of Law, colonial law, law and custom, law and development, colonial administration, Burma, Myanmar
Author/creator: Thomas H. Stanton
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Journal of Law and Society / FirstView Article / January 2014, pp 1 - 1
Format/size: pdf (312K-original; 252K-reduced version)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Stanton-2014-01-Law_and_Economic_Development-Burma-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 14 September 2015

Title: Robert Gordon and the Rubies of Mogok: Industrial Capitalism, Imperialism and Technology in Conjunction
Date of publication: January 2011
Description/subject: Abstract: "Robert Gordon’s trip to the Mogok ruby mines in northern Burma, as reported in his testament to the Royal Geographical Society in 1888, represents one of the most blatant uses of travel as empire building in the Mekong Region. While European explorers and adventurers had been travelling to and along the region for centuries, most had been intent on mapping, surveying and categorizing its contents for purposes of their own profit, in one way or another. Gordon, while of course not unmindful of his own career, represents the traveller aiming to be of service to the greater power. He was strongly motivated by the desire to bring the ruby mines of Mogok into the reach of the British Empire through the building of a railway and the necessary infrastructure to pacify the countryside and its people, thereby enabling the enclosure of another type of commons."... Keywords: Capitalism, Imperialism, British Empire, Burma, Ruby mining
Author/creator: John Walsh
Language: English
Source/publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (CCSE) ("Asian Culture and History" Vol. 2, No.3
Format/size: pdf (91K)
Date of entry/update: 04 March 2012

Title: Constructing an intelligence state: the development of the colonial security services in Burma 1930–1942.
Date of publication: January 2010
Description/subject: Abstract: "My doctoral research focuses on the development and operation of the intelligence services in British colonial Burma during the years 1930 to 1942. This involves an examination of the causes of intelligence development, its progress throughout 1930-1942, its rationale and modus operandi, and the pressures it faced. This time period permits us to assess how intelligence development was a product of the colonial government's response to the 1930 peasant uprising which came as such a shock to colonial security and how thereafter intelligence helped prevent popular hostility to the government from taking the form of an uprising. As a result, intelligence information was increasingly used to secure colonial power during the period of parliamentary reform in Burma in 1937. The thesis further examines the stresses that riots and strikes placed on colonial security in 1938, the so-called ‘year of revolution’ in Burma. The thesis then proceeds to consider how intelligence operated in the final years of colonial rule before the Japanese occupation of Burma in 1942. This study is significant not only because very little work on the colonial security services in Burma exists for the period under review, but also because it reveals that intelligence was crucial to colonial rule, underpinning the stability of the colonial state and informing its relationship with the indigenous population in what remained, in relative terms at least, a colonial backwater like Burma. The argument that intelligence was pivotal to colonial governmental stability in Burma because of its centrality to strategies of population control departs from conventional histories of Burma which have considered the colonial army to have been the predominant instrument of political control and the most significant factor in the relationship between the state and society in colonial Burma. Rather it will be argued here that the colonial state in Burma relied on a functioning intelligence bureau which collected information from local indigenous officials and informers and employed secret agents to work on its behalf. This information was collated into reports for the government which then became integral to policy formulation. The primary source base for this work includes British colonial material from government and private collections predominantly in the British library as well as government papers in the National Archives in Kew."
Author/creator: Edmund Bede Clipson
Language: English
Source/publisher: University of Exeter (doctoral dissertation)
Format/size: pdf (2MB-OBL version; 12MB-original))
Alternate URLs: https://eric.exeter.ac.uk/repository/bitstream/handle/10036/98382/ClipsonE.pdf?sequence=1
Date of entry/update: 01 July 2012

Title: Independence Lost
Date of publication: January 2008
Description/subject: Sixty years after shedding the yoke of the British Empire, Burma is still colonized—by its own military generals. The fight for true independence is not over
Author/creator: Aung Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 1
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008

Title: Robbie and the Poet
Date of publication: March 2006
Description/subject: "...I consider the various coincidences outlined above to be fairly convincing support of my theory that ‘the Poet’ was the future George Orwell, but there may well be a scholar somewhere who can prove me wrong..."
Author/creator: Gerry Abbott
Language: English
Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 4.1 (Spring 2006)
Format/size: pdf (117K)
Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612023842/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/4_1.htm
Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010

Date of publication: March 2006
Description/subject: "...In examining the British government’s frequently half-hearted and sometimes even contradictory attempts to convince the indigenous population to accept vaccination, Burma does begin to appear in some ways as a neglected corner of British India. However, Burma may not really have been an exception as other literature has found similar problems in British India in general..."
Author/creator: Atsuko Naono
Language: English
Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 4.1 (Spring 2006)
Format/size: pdf (225K - reduced version; 458K- original)
Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612023842/http://web.soas.ac.uk/burma/4.1files/4.1naono.pdf
Date of entry/update: 09 November 2008

Title: Colonial Burma’s prison: continuity with its pre-colonial past?
Date of publication: December 2005
Description/subject: The practice of confining convicted criminals in prison for a stipulated period of time – to punish or reform – is a modern western innovation. Pentonville in north London, opened in 1842 and said to be the first modern prison, had four wings radiating from a central hub from which guards could observe every cell, each holding a single prisoner. The ‘modern’ prison then became one of many western innovations (including the railway, scientific medicine and the filing cabinet) transported to the colonial world from the mid-19th century.
Author/creator: Thet Thet Wintin and Ian Brown
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS) (Newsletter 39)
Format/size: pdf (302K)
Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009

Title: The Coming of the 'Future King" -- Burmese Minlaung Expectations Before and During the Second World War
Date of publication: 2003
Description/subject: Throughout the history of Burma we come across rebellions often led by so-called 'future kings,' minlaungs. In western historiography, minlaung-movements are usually attributed to the pre-colonial past, whereas rebellions and movements occurring during the British colonial period are conceived of as proto-nationalist in character and thus an indication of the westernizing process. In this article, the notion of minlaung and concomitant ideas about rebellion and the magical-spiritual forces involved are explained against the backdrop of Burmese-Buddhist culture. It is further shown how these ideas persisted and gained momentum before and during World War II and how they affected the western educated nationalists, especially Aung San whose political actions fit into the cultural pattern of the career of a minlaung.
Author/creator: Susanne Prager
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 8, 2003
Format/size: pdf (601K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol8/Abstract2_ClymerOpt.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009

Title: The Self-Conscious Censor: Censorship in Burma under the British, 1900_1939
Date of publication: 2003
Description/subject: It is often assumed that censorship was not used to any great degree by British authorities in Burma. Yet, by looking at the way the British colonial government reacted to a variety of media including traditional Burmese drama, western blockbuster movies, and Burmese political pamphlets agitating against colonial rule, it is possible to see that censorship was very much a part of the British administration. British authorities censored pamphlets, books, dramas, and movies not only to contain political thought contrary to colonialism, but also to control the image of British officials as seen in the eyes of the Burmese.
Author/creator: Emma Larkin
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 8, 2003
Format/size: pdf (627K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol8/Abstract2_ClymerOpt.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009

Title: Myanmar's Long-distance Cannon (1)
Date of publication: March 1994
Description/subject: The author visited England in 1993 to see the Myanmar cannon on Calton Hill in Edinburgh. It was originally placed in Danhawaddy (Yakhine) in 1784 during King Bodawpaya's reign (1782 - 1819). After the Third Anglo - Burmese War, this cannon was shipped with other Burmese guns to England as a present to Queen Victoria's Court from General Pendergast.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar army- cannon... 2. Myanmar- history
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Kanaung Sethmu Sipwa Journal", Vol. 1, No. 3, pp29-30, 1994-03, via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (207K-reduced version; 865K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0018.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 December 2014

Title: Five kyats for marrige
Date of publication: March 1987
Description/subject: After the Second Anglo-Burmese War, the British government ruled Lower Myanmar. The public paid many taxes one of which was the poll tax, which required a married man to pay a larger tax than a single man....Subject Terms: 1. Taxation - Myanmar...2. Poll tax.....Key Words: 1. Poll tax... 2. Taxes
Author/creator: KYAN , Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Myawaddy" Vol. 35 , No. 5, pp76-80, via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (442K-reduced version; 1.3MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0020.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 November 2014

Title: Gwe Chaung Fort
Date of publication: February 1987
Description/subject: After the Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852-53) Lower Burma became a British possession and the security of the Myanmar nation was threatened. King Mindon ordered construction of forts along the Ayeyawady River, one of which was Gwe Chaung Fortress. In 1881 Major Douglas Mcneil, a military intelligence officer in the Indian Army, travelled incognito up the Ayeyawady. He gathered detailed information and sketched the forts he passed through. This intelligence was of great help to General Prendergast in his attack on Gwe Chaung......Subject Terms: 1. Gwe Chaung Fortress..... Key Words: 1. Fortresses... 2. Forts.
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Sit-pran" (No. 101) pp29-146, via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (345K-reduced version; 1.1MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0006.pdf
Date of entry/update: 22 November 2014

Title: Thapyedan Kan Fortress
Date of publication: November 1986
Description/subject: About the Thapyedan Khan Myo or Fortress, near Mandalay, and the Thapyedan Fort on the bank of the Ayeyawady River near its confluence with Myitnge River. This fort was known as "Greater Fort Royal" or "Shwekyetyet Fort". The Myanmar kings prepared for war and built three fortresses on the Ayeyawady to protect their capital. These forts are Thapyedan Fortress, Sagaing Fortress and Ava or Innwa Fortress.....Subject Terms: Thapyedan Fort... Key Words: 1. Fortresses... 2. Forts
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Sit-pran", No. 98, pp29-33, 1986-11, via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (226K-reduced version; 982K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0005.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 December 2014

Title: Lord Dufferin's visit to Mandalay, 1886
Date of publication: 1979
Description/subject: King Thibaw was dethroned on 29 Nov. 1885. The proclamation of 1 Jan. 1886 declared Upper Burma to be an integral part of the British Empire. Diffferent kinds of administration for Upper Burma were contemplated: a buffer state, a protected state, a semi-protected state, and a regency were considered, but all were found impracticable. While the people expected a Myanmar Prince appointed by the British to succeed Thibaw, the Chambers of Commerce strongly advocated outright annexation. When Lord Dufferin visited Mandalay to see things for himself, he declined to receive the memorials submitted by the ex-Ministers. He recommended direct administration as the best course, so the Hluttaw was abolished and Upper Burma incorporated in British India, becoming a Scheduled District.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar- History- Begining of British administration in Upper Burma 1886... 2. Myanmar- Politics and government ( 1886- 1942 )..... Key Words: 1. Dufferin, Lord... 2. Mandalay
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Research in Burmese History", No. 4, pp161-167, 1979, Historical Research Department, via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB-combined)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0016a.pdf (2.5MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0016b.pdf (2.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 02 December 2014

Title: Village administration in Upper Burma during 1886-1887
Date of publication: 1979
Description/subject: First published in JBRS, Vol. II , Part II, ( December 1969 ). Describes how the British dethroned and deported King Thibaw on Sunday, 29 November 1885. In January 1886 Upper Burma, excluding the Shan States, was transformed to a directly administered 'scheduled district 'of India. Accordingly, the Hluttaw (Myanmar Privy Council) was abolished on 31st March 1886 and the Chief Commissioner, Sir Charles Bernard, took charge of the civil administration in Upper Burma. An account of the village administration of Upper Burma during 1886 - 1887. At that time most of villages in Upper Burma were rebelling, while both criminal and fiscal administration of the country was conducted by the Myothugyi's and Thugyis. During the year 1886 Upper Burma, excluding the Shan States, was parcelled out into (4) divisions comprising (17) districts. With the development of the territorial system a territorial hierarchy was adopted, with Divisional Commissioners, District Commissioners, Subdivisions officers and Township officers in charge of the divisions, districts, subdivisions and townships respectively. In 1886 - 1887 British government forcibly introduced the Upper Burma Village Regulation and the Thugyi system was swept away. The idea of one village one headman was rejected.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - Politics and government, 2. Villages - administration, 3. Cities and towns - Myanmar...Key Words: 1. Upper Burma...Annotation: "
Author/creator: KYAN , Daw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Researches in Burmese History", Vol. 2, 1979 pp175-186, Historical Research Department, via Univeristy of Washington
Format/size: pdf (340K-reduced version; 2MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0024.pdf
Date of entry/update: 22 October 2014

Title: Administrative terms of British Period - 1
Date of publication: 1978
Description/subject: The British ruled Myanmar for nearly 100 years and during that period they issued circulars and vernacular acts which were publish in the Burma Gazette. These old documents were found in 1978 in the Ayeyawady Division. The Peoples' Council transferred many rare documents to Myanmar Historical Research Department. From these documents the author selected administrative circulars, acts and vernacular acts as references for Myanmar historians. The article includes the authorized Myanmar equivalents of official designations for public administration....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - History - British Rule, 2. Myanmar - Politics and government, 3. Myanmar - Administrative terms.....Key Words: 1. Administrative Terms, 2. Burma Gazette
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: English and Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Researches in Burmese History", Vol. 2, 1978, pp123-129, Historical Research Dept., Via Univeristy of Washington
Format/size: pdf (171K-reduced version; 811K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0008.pdf
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2014

Title: Administrative terms of British Period - 2
Date of publication: 1978
Description/subject: The British ruled Myanmar for nearly 100 years and during that period they issued circulars and vernacular acts which were publish in the Burma Gazette. These old documents were found in 1978 Ayeyawady Division. The Peoples' Council transferred many rare documents to Myanmar Historical Research Department. From these documents the author selected administrative circulars, acts and vernacular acts as references for Myanmar historians. The article includes the authorized Myanmar equivalents of official designations for public administration.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - History - British Rule... 2. Myanmar-Politics and government... 3. Myanmar-Administrative terms..... Key Words: 1. Administrative Terms... 2. Burma Gazette
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Researches in Burmese History", Vol. 3, pp25-77, Historical Research Department via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0009a.pdf (3.5MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0009b.pdf (2.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 22 November 2014

Title: Myanmar and the Indian Press 1886-87
Date of publication: 1977
Description/subject: Political conditions of Myanmar immediately after the annexation (1886-87) as seen through the Indian press. The people were governed by a new master. Rebels were branded as dacoits by a critical Indian press which ridiculed and attacked Lord Dufferin's direct administration. They called His Excellency a quack politician, not a farseeing statesman. The press favoured a native prince on the Myanmar throne, a practice common in India. The press argued that the English were suppressing the so-called dacoits at the expense of Indian tax-payers.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - Political conditions, 1886-87; 2. Myanmar - History - British rule, 1886 - 1942..... Key Words: 1. Indian Newspapers; 2. Annexation of Myanmar
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Research in Burmese History", No.1, 1979, pp133-171, Myanmar Historical Research Department via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB-combined version;)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0010a.pdf (2.9MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0010b.pdf (2.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 12 October 2014

Title: The General Condition of the People of British Burma at the time of the Deposition of King Thibaw
Date of publication: May 1969
Description/subject: The author describes the condition of people in British Burma at annexation. British Burma comprised Arakan, Tenasserim and Pegu in 1862 and was administered by a Chief Commissioner. The British annexed Upper Burma in Jan. 1886 and this paper deals with the general condition of the Myanmar people whose traditions were still very strong, and barely tinged with Western influences. The new administrative and economic systems brought about major changes in the social order. The author emphasizes economic conditions-- revenues and taxes--and colonial education at that time.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - History - British rule (1885-1886), 2. Myanmar - Economic condition, 3. Myanmar - Politics and government, 4. Education - Myanmar...Key Words: 1. Revenues, 2. Taxes.
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Burma Journal of Literary and Social Sciences", Vol. 2, No. 2, May 1969 via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (692K-combined texts)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0021a.pdf (2.69MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0021b.pdf (1.99)
Date of entry/update: 22 October 2014

Title: Maids of honour in Madras
Date of publication: November 1968
Description/subject: King Thibaw was deposed and deported to Madras on 10th Dec. 1885. Among those who accompanied the ex-Royal family were seven young maids-of-honour. Some of them were said to be Kachin girls. They were unhappy in India and became disobedient and troublesome. After four months they were sent back on the S.S. Asia. After their return the British administration granted each a pension of Rs. 10 a month, as long as they remained unmarried.....Subject Terms: Myanmar- History- King Thibaw, 1878- 1885..... Key Words: Maids-of-honour
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Myawaddy",Vol. 17, No. 1, pp188-120, 1968-11, via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (159K-reduced version; 667K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0002.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 December 2014

Title: The Governance of Modern Burma
Date of publication: 1960
Description/subject: CHAPTER I - THE BACKGROUND: 1. Form and Function... 2. Geographical Background... 3. The Historical Background... 4. Administrative Background: (a) Territorial administration; (b) Departmental machinery; (c) Local government; (d) The Hill Tribes; e) The Judiciary; f) The Secretariat; g) The Legislature... 5. The Japanese Interregnum... 6. The British Restoration... 7. Effects of Foreign Rule... 8. Problems of Public Administration... 9. The Constitution..... CHAPTER II - THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT: 1. The President (Sections 45 – 64)... 2. Parliament: a) in the Constitution; b) in operation... 3. The'Executive Government: a) in the Constitution; b) The Cabinet and Ministries; c) Planning; (d) Parties and pressure groups... 4. The Administrative Machinery: (a) The Secretariat; (b) The executive services; (cj Autonomous agencies; (d) The judiciary..... CHAPTER III - LOCAL GOVERNMENT: (a) Local Bodies; (b) The village court; (c) Township and District Councils..... CHAPTER IV - REGIONAL GOVERNMENT: 1. Preliminary Negotiations... 2. The Panglong Agreement... 3. The Hill Peoples’ Council... 4. The Rees-Williams Committee... 5. Federation in the Assembly... 6. Federation in the Constitution: general provision... 7. The Shan States... 8. The Kachin State (Section 166-179) ... 9. The Karen state (Section 180 - l8l) ... 10. The Kayah state (Section 182 - 195) ... 11. The Chin Special Division (Section 196 – 198)... CHAPTER V - POST MORTEM..... SUPPLEMENT. THE NE WIN ADMINISTRATION AND AFTER by John Seabury Thompson
Author/creator: J. S. Furnivall
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute of Pacific Relations
Format/size: pdf (6.4MB-primary link); text (512K) etc., read online,
Alternate URLs: http://archive.org/details/governanceofmode00furn
Date of entry/update: 05 September 2012

Title: In Farthest Burma
Date of publication: 1921
Description/subject: "The record of an arduous journey of exploration and research through the unknown frontier territory of Burma and Tibet"
Author/creator: Captain F. KINGDON WARD
Language: English
Source/publisher: Seeley, Service & Co. (Publ.)
Format/size: pdf (4.9MB-reduced version; 17.8MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://ia801602.us.archive.org/29/items/infarthestburmar00ward/infarthestburmar00ward.pdf
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2016

Title: The Pacification of Burma
Date of publication: 1912
Description/subject: PREFACE: "Upper Burma was invaded and annexed in the year 1885. The work hardly occupied a month. In the following year the subjugation of the people by the destruction of all formidable armed resistance was effected; lastly, the pacification of the country, including the establishment of an orderly government with peace and security, occupied four years. As head of the civil administration, I was mainly concerned with this last phase. It would be a difficult task to give a continuous history of the military operations by which the country was subjugated. The resistance opposed to our troops was desultory, spasmodic, and without definite plan or purpose. The measures taken to overcome it necessarily were affected by these characteristics, although they were framed on definite principles. A history of them would resolve itself into a number of more or less unconnected narratives. A similar difficulty, but less in degree, meets the attempt to record the measures which I have included in the term “pacification.” Certain definite objects were always before us. The policy to be followed for their attainment was fixed, and the measures and instruments by which it was to be carried out were selected and prepared. But I have found it best not to attempt to follow any order, either chronological or other, in writing this narrative. My purpose in writing has been to give an intelligible narrative of the work done in Burma in the years following the annexation. It was certainly arduous work done under great difficulties of all kinds, and, from the nature of the case, with less chance of recognition or distinction than of disease or death. The work was, I believe, well done, and has proved itself to be good. My narrative may not attract many who have no connection with Burma. But for those who served in Burma during the period covered by it, whether soldiers or civilians, it may have an interest, and especially for those still in the Burma Commission and their successors. I hope that Field-Marshal Sir George White, V.C., to whom, and to all the officers and men of the Burma Field Force, I owe so much, may find my pages not without interest. I have endeavoured to show how the conduct of the soldiers of the Queen, British and Indian, helped the civil administration to establish peace. I believe, as I have said, that our work has been successful. The credit, let us remember, is due quite as much to India as to Britain. How long would it have taken to subjugate and pacify Burma if we had not been able to get the help of the fighting-men from India, and what would have been the cost in men and money? For the Burmans themselves I, in common with all who have been associated with them, have a sincere affection. Many of them assisted us from the first, and from the Upper Burmans many loyal and capable gentlemen are now helping to govern their country justly and efficiently. It has been brought home to me in making this rough record how many of those who took part in this campaign against disorder have laid down their lives. I hope I may have helped to do honour to their memories. I have to thank all the kind friends who have sent me photographs to illustrate this book, and especially Sir Harvey Adamson, the present Lieutenant-Governor, for his kindness in making my wants known." C. H. C. February, 1912......[A page or so is missing from the Index]
Author/creator: Sir Charles Crosthwaite
Language: English
Source/publisher: Edward Arnold
Format/size: pdf (3.2MB)
Alternate URLs: http://archive.org/details/pacificationofbu00crosrich
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2012