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Prospects of education in Myanmar (r)
- Subject: Prospects of education in Myanmar (r)
- From: hag2@xxxxxxxxxxx
- Date: Thu, 23 Dec 1999 08:20:00
Subject: Re: Prospects of education in Myanmar ( 2 )
Since early stages of history, priority has been given to education. In AD
1700, Nicolo Manucci, a Venetian, arrived in Myanmar and remarked that
Myanmar was a kingdom ruled with the pen. It was because one would not go to
another village unless one brought along a piece of paper or something to
write on. Similarly, travellers from the West were impressed by Myanmar
education. A situation that was non-existent in Europe at that time existed
" Yes I am very proud of it for our past education system. literacy rate
was very high at that time. The British admitted that Burma literacy rate
was higher than the British. But not any more. Schools have been closed
since 1996. Young human resources have been wasted. Under military rule,
we have the worst education system in the world. Teachers were forced to
spy on their own pupils, without bribery it is hard to register at
school. It is the reality of today education system in Burma".
Htun Aung Gyaw
At 05:50 AM 12/23/1999 -0500, Ok kar wrote:
>The New Light of Myanmar
>Thursday, 23 December, 1999
>Prospects of education in Myanmar ( 2 )
>Myanmar tradition in Education
>Efforts are being made not only for quantitative progress but also for
>widening the scope of education and improving its quality. Work is under way
>to head for extending the teaching of technology and applied sciences with a
>view to making the future generations appreciate the value of a family, that
>of Myanmar society and that of the world ' s human society imbued with the
>will to work for peace and safeguard and build the nation.
>A study of Myanmar education programme will show that the nation has regarded
>education as the very 6asis for human resource development. Despite the
>efforts for economic progress and development of human society with emphasis
>placed -individually, it will not be wrong to say that education is integral
>in all developments.
>The emphasis placed on education in Myanmar society may be cited or evaluated
>with reference to history or to international standards.
>Since early stages of history, priority has been given to education. In AD
>1700, Nicolo Manucci, a Venetian, arrived in Myanmar and remarked that
>Myanmar was a kingdom ruled with the pen. It was because one would not go to
>another village unless one brought along a piece of paper or something to
>write on. Similarly, travellers from the West were impressed by Myanmar
>education. A situation that was non-existent in Europe at that time existed
>in Myanmar. The situation was that education was almost compulsory for all
>male youths. It was the way of life of Myanmar society to be organized based
>on a village. The concept of extended family was it's way of life. Each and
>every Myanmar village constituted as a society with sufficient agricultural
>base for-its existence. The monastery of the village also was like the-
>cultural and education centre. It was like a centre where the children were
>taught the three R's. Greater emphasis was placed on obtaining education and
>thought than economy. It was accepted by Myanmar people right from the
>beginning that education was their life. This concept indicates that man is
>not merely a tool of the economy. Ancient educational concept of Myanmar
>people indicates that education is not merely a preparation for life.
>In the Western nations, there has been a gradual decline in individual and
>family values. Only after greater realization of the need to learn more about
>the environment and the world that went back steadily to the concept that
>education in itself is the life, preparation for life is insufficient and
>that even life itself is education.
>In dealing with literacy for everyone, some instances on the fine traditions
>of education of Myanmar have to be cited.
>In Myanmar, with fine traditions in the field of education, national seminars
>were organized in succession in 1998 and 1999 to carry out extensive
>promotion programmes in the basic education and higher education sectors.
>These seminars have already laid down programmes capable of implementing
>education promotion programmes. Every observer of the education field should
>be informed of these programmes.
>Initial Myanma higher education sector
>The initial Myanma higher education sector should be stated in brief before
>the programme of the seminars is presented.
>The university education regarded as higher education was first introduced in
>Myanmar in 1878. The Rangoon College, the first ever college which provided
>university education, was opened in 1884-85. It was affiliated to the
>Calcutta University in India and the students were taught only for the
>examinations held by that university. In 1920, the first Yangon University, a
>combined institution of university college, the name of which was changed
>from Yangon College, and Judson College was established as the first
>university in Myanmar.
>In 1925, Mandalay College was established under Yangon University. In 1930,
>the Teachers Training College and the Medical College, two affiliated
>colleges, were established in Yangon again. The Agriculture College was
>established in Mandalay 1938. In 1942 when the Second World War was going on,
>the five affiliated colleges, namely, the university college, Judson College,
>Medical College, Teachers Training College and Agriculture College plus
>Mandalay College under the control of Yangon University were in existence.
>Education of that period was influenced by the system conducive to
>bureaucracy administration and the percentage of attention given to
>vocational education was very few
>At the Yangon University organized under unitary system, medical department,
>engineering department and education department-were set up in September 1946
>and law department, science department and arts department in May 1947.
>After Myanmar had regained independence, the Yangon University Act was
>amended. Under the Act amending the Rangoon University Act, Yangon University
>became a self-administered university beginning from July 1949. In 1948,
>agriculture department was set up, and in 1958 social science department and
>forestry department were established t hereby totalling nine departments.
>Mandalay College which was set up during the war was reopened in 1947. In
>1958, Mandalay University College affiliated to Yangon University was opened.
>It could confer degrees on the successful candidates. In 1958, it became as
>Mandalay University independently.
>In addition to the two universities, ' the colleges opened were Mawlamyine
>College in 1 953, Kyaukphyu College, Yankin College and Htidan College in
>1954, Magway College in 1955 and Pathein College in 1958.
>Those colleges were affiliated to Yangon University. Intermediate (a) first
>year classes were opened at Yankin and Htidan Colleges. The Officers Training
>School opened at Bahtoo in 1953 was affiliated to the Yangon University. In
>1958, Magway College became affiliated to Mandalay University.
>A study of the university education system after regaining independence will
>show that it was just a revised version of colonial education. Research work
>was weak. Party politics was found to be interfering in universities and
>Author: Ko Yin Aung