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Children
See also Children's Rights in the Human Rights section and search for child* in OBL

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Migrant children on the Burma-Thailand border - schools, orphanages
Description/subject: Link to the OBL Migrant section
Language: English
Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 23 April 2012


Title: UNICEF
Description/subject: Search for Myanmar. 464 results (November 2001). 819 in May 2005. Lots of pics but some substantial documents.
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations Children's Fund
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: UNICEF Country Statistics
Language: English
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: UNICEF Myanmar Page
Description/subject: The most substantial material on the site is in the Media Centre, and includes: a pdf document in Burmese: "Questions and Answers on HIV and AIDS"... "The State of the World's Children 2005 - Children under threat" in English, (and in the same box a link to what should be a Burmese version, but since this is 56 pages rather than the 164 of the English, I have doubts)... "Progress For Children A Child Survival Report Card" in English, with The Foreword, Child Survival, and the East Asia and Pacific sections in Burmese... a "Myanmar Reporter's Manual" (65 pages)in English and Burmese versions: "This manual provides instruction on international-standard reporting skills, child-focused reporting and ethics for Myanmar journalists in accordance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child." then there is a glossy, 28-page "UNICEF in Myanmar - Protecting Lives, Nurturing Dreams" in English.....In the For Children and Youth section is an illustrated and simplified aticle-by-article version of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and a couple of illustrated online books for young children and their families in English and Burmese. Under Youth Web Links there English language animations (I suppose) called "Top 10 Cartoons for Children's Rights" but I could not get them to work. Also links to several other UNICEF and UN young people's sites. The "Activities" and "Real Lives" sections deal with UNICEF's activities in the country.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNICEF
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Individual Documents

Title: Children for Hire - a portrait of child labor in Mon areas
Date of publication: November 2013
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The growing domestic and international attention being paid to child labor in Burma, also known as Myanmar, signals a vital step in the country’s reform and development process. The advent of new funding to research the scope of the problem, proposed amendments to labor laws, and popularized documentaries exposing the lives of working children have indicated fresh interest in revealing and reducing the incidence of child labor. However, the catalyst for this report was sparked by observations that these proliferating activities and discussions are often largely restricted to urban areas, particularly regarding the well-known prevalence of Burma’s “teashop boys.” While urban forms of child labor warrant immediate and effective interventions, the ambiguity that shrouds less visible forms of the practice, especially occurring in rural ethnic villages and communities tucked against the country’s vast borderline, necessitates targeted illumination. During several interviews conducted for this report, civil society members and child protection officers described child labor in Burma as vastly under-researched, and said that accurate data from the country’s peripheral areas is almost nonexistent. Almost half of the occurrences of child labor documented for this report were found in agricultural practices, primarily on rubber plantations and betel nut farms. An equivalent number of children interviewed were working in furniture factories, waiting tables or washing dishes in small restaurants, or searching garbage for recyclables to redeem. Others still were engaged as day laborers, piecing together daily wages by clearing weeds on plantations, gathering grasses to make brooms, or working as cowhands or woodcutters. Income scarcity and food insecurity were central themes collected in many family narratives, but were also often rooted in other fundamental social issues. Poverty was not necessarily the sole cause of child labor, but rather the two were jointly symptomatic of poor access to education and healthcare, landlessness, migration, and the effects of decades of armed conflict and human rights abuses. Children, and particularly young girls, were also subject to social and gender norms that contributed to their entry into the workforce. The reduced likelihood that working children will complete their education and the increased risks associated with labor performed during children’s early developmental stages were found to feed directly back into these same family burdens that led to child labor. In short, the many interconnecting social issues, economic and labor policies, and community histories surrounding child labor in rural areas are beyond the scope of this report to fully catalogue or evaluate. Instead, the research presented herein telescopes in on a very small but highly underreported area of child labor, and aims to amplify the voices and cast a light on the experiences of rural working children in Mon areas."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Woman and Child Rights Project (WCRP)
Format/size: pdf (2.2MB-reduced version; 3MB-original))
Alternate URLs: http://www.rehmonnya.org/reports/childrenforhire.pdf'>http://www.rehmonnya.org/reports/childrenforhire.pdf
http://www.rehmonnya.org
Date of entry/update: 21 November 2013


Title: From Natural Resources to Human Capital: Practical, feasible, immediate resourcing solutions for Myanmar’s children
Date of publication: August 2013
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Myanmar has embarked upon an ambitious reform package characterised by people-centred participation, development and inclusion. The task is ambitious and presents real opportunities for a successful transition from a heavily natural resource-reliant economy to an economy that leverages the skills and expertise of its human capital. As a newcomer to the ‘Asian Century’, Myanmar is geographically well positioned to transition into an ‘Asian Tiger’ economy personified by fast-paced growth and innovation. One of the key lessons learnt globally when transitioning from a lower to middle income country and upwards to an advanced economy is that successful countries do not first become wealthy and then decide to invest in human capital rather they become wealthy by investing in both physical and human capital simultaneously. Equitable access to quality social services is both good for people and for the economy. For mineral-rich countries, investing natural resource revenues in expanded health and education services and social transfers - including pensions, family allowances a nd social assistance – is fundamental. Such investments build human capital and generate e mployment. They reduce distributional conflicts, enhance social cohesion, and lessen gender, ethnic and regional disparities. Myanmar is blessed with an abundance of natural resources which can be turned into meaningful, sustainable, impactful social investments right now, starting with children. At this pivotal moment in the nation’s history, the good news is Myanmar could enjoy a high level of human capital return for a relatively small amount of fiscal spend. For example: * Less than 9 days of natural gas revenues would be n eeded to ensure one teacher per each primary school grade; * A 0.57% increase in the actual tax collected on har dwood extraction would secure the annual salary of 6,000 social workers; * 0.87% of revenues from new natural gas projects wou ld provide for the purchase of all the vaccines needed annually in Myanmar; * One extra dollar in tax collected for each kilogram of jade could have built 14,596 classrooms over the last 9 years; and * Just over one quarter of Myanmar’s 2010 sales from the auction of precious and semi- precious stones could have provided for a universal child benefit of 15,000 Kyat per month for all Myanmar children under 5. UNICEF encourages the Myanmar Government to actively explore such options as part of the next 30 months of socio-economic reform. The time for enhanced social investment is now and if done right, will dramatically propel Myanmar along its transition to becoming the next economic ‘Asian Tiger'..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNICEF
Format/size: pdf (231K-reduced version; 673K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.unicef.org/eapro/From_Natural_Resources_to_Human_Capital.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 July 2014


Title: Accountability Matters in Emergencies - Listening to children and responding to their feedback during Save the Children’s humanitarian response in Myanmar (Burma)
Date of publication: November 2010
Description/subject: "This case study was written to share our experience of setting up information centres in Myanmar (Burma) after Cyclone Nargis struck in May 2008. We wanted to capture the lessons learned, and share practical suggestions with other programme staff and practitioners. Here, we describe what we did, how we did it, and some of the key considerations involved. We also describe what we achieved, and the lessons we learned through our accountability self-assessment. We piloted a number of approaches to making our emergency response more accountable and, ultimately, more effective. First, we set up information centres linked to food distribution points. Then, we set up an information centre that worked closely with peer educators, who used creative ways of promoting children’s participation and finding out their views. Based on our experience with these two pilots, we developed a ‘general information centre’ model. The idea was that children and adults in a given village (whether individuals or representatives from other organisations) could give us feedback about any of our activities, across all sectors: education, child protection, health, nutrition, livelihoods, and disaster risk reduction. We also developed a clear procedure for handling complaints from project beneficiaries. We hope this case study answers some of the key questions about how we become a more accountable organisation. We also hope it inspires others to find the best ways of improving their accountability to children and their communities, whatever the context..."
Author/creator: Kyaw Ko Thet, Ei Ei Khin and Ei Thant Khing
Language: English
Source/publisher: Save the Children
Format/size: pdf (456K)
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


Title: Displaced Childhoods
Date of publication: April 2010
Description/subject: Preface: "On 17 January 2010, Burma Army Light Infantry Battalion (LIB) number 367 initiated a fresh round of attacks on several villages in Karen State’s Nyaunglebin District in eastern Burma, killing three villagers, burning down houses, and committing atrocities against civilians. Over a two-day period, the attacks forcibly displaced over 1,000 villagers, including hundreds of children. These children are now living in uncertain conditions, hiding from further military attacks with little more than the clothes on their backs. They are at extreme risk of continued human rights violations, malnourishment, and serious health problems. Such attacks are common in military-ruled Burma. A generation of the country’s children have been scarred by death, destruction, loss, and neglect at the hands of Burma’s military. For over four decades, Burma’s military government has forced children from their homes and villages, subjected them to extreme human rights violations, and largely left them to fend for their survival in displacement settings without access to basic provisions or humanitarian services. Since 2002, Free Burma Rangers (FBR) has independently documented over 180 incidents of displacement, and for the last 14 years both Partners and FBR have provided lifesaving humanitarian service to thousands more. From 2002 to the end of 2009, more than 580,000 civilians, including over 190,000 children, have been forcibly displaced from their homes in Eastern Burma alone. An estimated one to three million people live as internally displaced persons (IDPs) throughout Burma. As many as 330,000 to 990,000 of the displaced are children..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers. Partners Relief & Development
Format/size: pdf (2MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 April 2010


Title: FEELING SMALL IN ANOTHER PERSON’S COUNTRY - The situation of Burmese migrant children in Mae Sot Thailand
Date of publication: February 2009
Description/subject: "...There are an estimated 200,000 Burmese children living in Thailand, many of whom are working, with 20% of the migrant workforce thought to consist of children aged 15 to 17 years of age. It was seen to be a standard practice for parents to send children out to work, especially once they have reached the age of 13 years and seen to be physically capable of bringing in extra income for the family. Children may voluntarily leave or be taken out of school to work alongside their parents in the factory or fields, as domestics or as service workers in shops and restaurants. Researchers have found that children working in Mae Sot factories and the agricultural area are subject to the worst forms of child labour, working long hours and being exposed to hazardous chemicals and conditions that are in direct violation of Thai labour law. The difficulty of obtaining registration and the work permit makes for a tenuous existence. Consequently, young people can be coerced or forced into bad employment situations... As parent’s lives are consumed by the need to work and make money, children can be denied the love, care and guidance essential to their healthy growth and development and may be separated from or even abandoned by parents. Some parents abuse and exploit their children by telling them not to come back home if they cannot earn a fixed amount per day. Consequently these children go out on the streets looking for daily work to survive; this can include begging, collecting recyclable rubbish and carrying heavy loads. This pressure is seen to change the moral character of children with some turning to stealing. Children who are unemployed, neglected, abandoned, or orphaned can end up permanently on the streets. Being out of school and on the streets increases the risk of being trafficked and recruitment by gangs, who physically threaten and may even kill children who try to escape... Statelessness is a real risk for children who are unable to receive identity registration in Burma and for those born in Thailand of migrants, especially unregistered parents. Despite the ratification of conventions, such as the United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 (CRC), and the International Convention of Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) that stipulate birth registration of all children born in Thailand, in reality only registered migrants who hold a work permit can register their child’s birth. A change in the Civil Registration Act, effective from the 23rd August 2008, will allow all children born on Thai soil, regardless of their status, to register their births and obtain a birth certificate; however it remains to be seen how this will be implemented. In the meantime the Committee for Promotion and Protection of Child Rights (Burma) (CPPCR), a Burmese CBO established in 2002, provides a registration service for children from Burma that in some cases, has been recognized by some Thai schools and the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Committee for Promotion and Protection of Child Rights (Burma)
Format/size: pdf (3.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 23 November 2009


Title: Spare the Child
Date of publication: September 2008
Description/subject: "Burma’s military government pays lip service to the rights of children, but still allows child labor and recruits underage soldiers..."
Author/creator: Aung Thet Wine
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 9
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 November 2008


Title: Child Soldiers Global Report 2008 - Myanmar
Date of publication: 20 May 2008
Description/subject: Thousands of children continued to be recruited and used in the Tatmadaw Kyi (army) and in armed political groups, as the army continued its expansion drive and internal armed conflict persisted in some areas of the country. Although the government took some steps to address the issue, a formal disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) program was not in place.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Coalition to Stop the use of Child Soldiers
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,CSCOAL,,MMR,,486cb11dc,0.html
http://www.child-soldiers.org/home
Date of entry/update: 31 October 2008


Title: Stanley Van Tha ist zurück in der Schweiz â�" in Burma geht die Repression weiter.
Date of publication: 18 February 2008
Description/subject: Die allgemeine Lage in Burma hat sich seit den Protesten signifikant verschlechtert. 80 Prozent der Anführer der Mönche und der Studentengruppen, welche die Proteste anführten, sind im Gefängnis, der Rest ist auf der Flucht. Die burmesische Militärdiktatur schreckt vor ausgiebiger Folter nicht zurück, um sich durch das Aktivistennetzwerk zu arbeiten und auf ebenso brutale Art und Weise wurden weitere Proteste auf der Strasse umgehend unterdrückt. Im Januar wurden neue Bemühungen unternommen, den Internetzugang in Burma zu erschweren. Rolle von burmesischen Kindern; schweizer Asylpolitik; Stanley Van Tha; role of burmese children; suisse asylum policy;
Author/creator: Nina Sahdeva
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Fairunterwegs
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


Title: Report of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict in Myanmar
Date of publication: 16 November 2007
Description/subject: Summary: "The present report has been prepared in accordance with the provisions of resolution 1612 (2005). It is presented to the Security Council and its Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict as the first country report pursuant to paragraphs 2, 3 and 10 of that resolution. The report, which covers the period from July 2005 to September 2007, provides information on the current situation regarding the recruitment and use of children and other grave violations being committed against children affected by armed conflict in the Union of Myanmar. While the monitoring and reporting structures as outlined in the mechanism endorsed by the Security Council in its resolution in 1612 (2005) are in place, the modalities of an effective mechanism, including security guarantees, access to affected areas and freedom of movement of monitors without Government escort, are lacking. This first report therefore sets forth the general scope of the situation based on the information available to the United Nations country task force on monitoring and reporting at the present time. Although there has been progress in terms of dialogue with the Government of Myanmar and two non-State actors, the report notes that State and non-State actors continue to be implicated in grave child rights violations. The Government of Myanmar has made a commitment at the highest level that no child under the age of 18 will be recruited. The Government has set up a high-level Committee for the Prevention of Military Recruitment of Underage Children and a working group for monitoring and reporting on the same issue. Further, there are Government policies and directives prohibiting underage recruitment. To date, the Government has not acceded to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict (2000). Two non-State actors (the Karen National Union and the Karenni National Progressive Party) have signed Deeds of Commitment to cease the recruitment and use of children, to declare their adherence to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and have committed themselves to appropriate follow-up action. The Government has committed to bringing its current action plan on the prevention of the recruitment of children into its armed forces, the Tatmadaw Kyi, into line with international standards and to facilitate action plans with the United Wa State Army and other non-State actors. The Government of Myanmar has also recognized the need for the United Nations country task force in Myanmar to engage the Karen National Union and Karenni National Progressive Party in the development of action plans and monitor their compliance in accordance with Security Council resolution 1612 (2005). A principal difficulty with regard to monitoring grave violations of children’s rights remains the lack of access to some locations of concern. Access to conflict-affected areas is severely restricted by the Government, a situation that impacts greatly on monitoring and possible responses to child rights violations."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations Security Council
Format/size: pdf (91K-English.) Avaiulable also in French(107.5K) , Russian(341.7K) , Spanish(102.9K) , Arabic(238.6K) , Chinese(263.2K)
Alternate URLs: http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N07/574/91/PDF/N0757491.pdf?OpenElement
http://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N07/574/91/pdf/N0757491.pdf?OpenElement
Date of entry/update: 26 November 2007


Title: Nirgendwo gibt es so viele Kindersoldaten
Date of publication: November 2007
Description/subject: Was die Ausbeutung Minderjähriger angeht, ist Myanmar die unangefochtene Nummer eins. Ein Gespräch mit Ralf Willinger, Referent für Kinderrechte bei terre des hommes, Rolle der Kindersoldaten bei den Aufständen 2007; Rekrutierung von Kindersoldaten; gesetzliche Regelungen zu Kindersoldaten; Interview with Ralf Willinger; Role of child-soldiers during the uprisings 2007; recruitment of child soldiers; laws and reglementations on child soldiers
Author/creator: Helen Sibum
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Amnesty International / Terre des Hommes
Format/size: Html (20kb)
Date of entry/update: 27 May 2008


Title: Sold to be Soldiers: The Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers in Burma
Date of publication: 31 October 2007
Description/subject: I Summary: The Government of Burma’s Armed Forces: The Tatmadaw; Government Failure to Address Child Recruitment; Non-state Armed Groups; The Local and International Response... II Recommendations 14 To the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) 14 To All Non-state Armed Groups 17 To the Governments of Thailand, Laos, Bangladesh, India, and China 18 To the Government of Thailand 18 To the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 18 To UNICEF 19 To the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict 20 To Member States of the United Nations 20 To the UN Security Council 21 To the International Labour Organization 21 To the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Myanmar 21 III Methodology22 IV Background24 V The Tatmadaw: The State Military 29 The Tatmadaw’s Staffing Crisis29 Recruitment 32 Key Factors in Child Recruitment33 Children as Commodities: The Recruit Market 41 Recruitment of the Very Young 43 The Su Saun Yay Recruit Holding Camps45 Training 50 Deployment and Active Duty 56 Combat 60 Abuses against Civilians62 Desertion, Imprisonment, and Re-recruitment 63 The Future of Tatmadaw Child Recruitment68 The Government of Burma’s Response to the Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers 68 The Committee for the Prevention of Military Recruitment of Underage Children 71 Demobilization73 Reintegration76 Measures for Raising Awareness77 Enforcement of Recruitment Laws and Regulations 81 Government Cooperation with International Agencies 84 VI Child Soldiers in Non-State Armed Groups 94 United Wa State Army 97 Karenni Army 98 Karen National Liberation Army 102 Shan State Army – South 105 Kachin Independence Army 107 Democratic Karen Buddhist Army 109 Kachin Defense Army 111 Mon National Liberation Army 112 Karenni Nationalities People’s Liberation Front 113 Shan Nationalities People’s Liberation Army 115 Rebellion Resistance Force116 KNU-KNLA Peace Council117 VII The International Response120 The United Nations Security Council 120 United Nations Country Team 122 UNICEF 123 ILO 124 Neighboring country and cross-border initiatives 125 VIII Legal Standards 129 Child Recruitment as a War Crime 130 International Standards on Demobilization, Reintegration, and Rehabilitation 131 Acknowledgements 132 Appendices 133 Appendix A: SPDC Plan of Action regarding child soldiers 133 Appendix B: Human Rights Watch letter to the UN Mission of Myanmar, August 22, 2007 137 Appendix C: Reply from the UN Mission of Myanmar, September 12, 2007 139 Appendix D: KNPP Deed of Commitment regarding child soldiers 142 Appendix E: KNLA Deed of Commitment regarding child soldiers 146
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
Format/size: pdf (2.1MB), html
Alternate URLs: http://hrw.org/reports/2007/burma1007/ (Full report, html, English. Link to Summary and Recommendations in Japanese);
http://hrw.org/french/docs/2007/10/31/burma17208.htm (Press release, French, Francais);
http://hrw.org/spanish/docs/2007/10/31/burma17207.htm (Press Release, Spanish, Espanol)
Date of entry/update: 31 October 2007


Title: Terror
Date of publication: 14 July 2007
Description/subject: Am Montag, dem 24. Januar 2000 besetzen zehn burmesische Terroristen das Zentralkrankenhaus im thailändischen Ratchaburi unweit der Grenze und nehmen Belegschaft und Patienten als Geiseln. Schnell ist in der Presse ausgemacht, dass es sich um die ‘God’s Army’ Rebellen der Zwillinge Johnny und Luther Htoo handeln muß. In einer Kommandoaktion thailändischer Spezialeinheiten werden in der Nacht zum Dienstag alle Geiselnehmer erschossen. KNLA; God`s Army; Kindersoldaten, Child Soldiers
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Burma Riders
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2007


Title: The Mekong Challence - Working Day and Night: The Plight of Migrant Child Workers in Mae Sot, Thailand
Date of publication: 2006
Description/subject: "Migrant children in Mae Sot are faced with excessive working hours, lack of time off, and unhealthy proximity to dangerous machines and chemicals. They also endure the practice of debt bondage and the systematic seizure of their identification documents. Indeed many of these children in Mae Sot can most accurately be described as enduring the "worst forms of child labour, prohibited by the International Labour Organization's Convention No. 182 - a Convention that the Royal Thai Government ratified in February, 2001. These child workers reported that they were virtually forced to remain at the factory due to restrictions placed on their movements by factory owners, and by threats of arrest and harassment by police and other officials if they were stopped outside the factory gates. Put succinctly, Mae Sot has perfected a system where children are literally working day and night, week after week, for wages that are far below the legal minimum wage, to the point of absolute exhaustion..."
Author/creator: Philip S. Robertson Jr., Editor
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation
Format/size: pdf (4.45MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/child/trafficking/downloads/workingdayandnigh...
Date of entry/update: 04 April 2007


Title: End the use of children as soldiers in Burma
Date of publication: June 2004
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Human Rights Education Institute of Burma (HREIB)
Format/size: pdf (2.97 MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs19/HREIB-2004-End_the_use_of%20child_soldiers_in_Burma.pdf
Date of entry/update: 16 February 2005


Title: Zwischen den Fronten. Unterricht für Flüchtlingskinder aus Burma
Date of publication: March 2004
Description/subject: Eine Schule insbesondere für Shan-Kinder in einem Tempel in Nordthailand, Interview mit einer Lehrerin über ihre Erfahrungen als Kindersoldatin bei den Shan-Rebellen und dem Abt des Tempels. education for Shan children, childsoldiers, Shan refugees in Thailand
Author/creator: Ralf Willinger
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Terre des Hommes
Date of entry/update: 19 May 2005


Title: ISSUES TO BE RAISED CONCERNING THE SITUATION OF ROHINGYA CHILDREN IN MYANMAR (BURMA)
Date of publication: November 2003
Description/subject: SUBMISSION TO THE COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD For the Examination of the 2nd periodic State Party Report of Myanmar... Conclusion: "Rohingya children bear the full brunt of the military regime’s policies of exclusion and discrimination towards the Muslim population of Rakhine State. The combination of the factors listed above, which deny them fundamental human rights, gravely damage their childhood development and will affect the future of the Rohingya community. With regard to Rohingya children, the State Peace and Development Council has failed to implement most of the rights enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which Myanmar ratified in 1991. The Government has also ignored the suggestions and recommendations provided by the Committee in 1997, in particular, paragraph 28 in which “The Committee recommends that the Citizenship Act be repealed” and paragraph 34 which stated: “In the field of the right to citizenship, the Committee is of the view that the State Party should, in light of articles 2 (non-discrimination) and 3 (best interests of the child), abolish the categorization of citizens …” and that “all possibility of stigmatisation and denial of rights recognized by the Convention should be avoided”"
Author/creator: Chris Lewa
Language: English
Source/publisher: Forum Asia
Format/size: pdf (151.35 KB) html (280K) , Word (224K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.crin.org/docs/resources/treaties/crc.36/myanmar_ForumAsia_ngo_report.pdf
http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Lewa-CRC2004.doc
Date of entry/update: 17 July 2010


Title: "MY GUN WAS AS TALL AS ME" - Child Soldiers in Burma
Date of publication: 16 October 2002
Description/subject: "Burma is believed to have more child soldiers than any other country in the world. The overwhelming majority of Burma's child soldiers are found in Burma's national army, the Tatmadaw Kyi, which forcibly recruits children as young as eleven. These children are subject to beatings and systematic humiliation during training. Once deployed, they must engage in combat, participate in human rights abuses against civilians, and are frequently beaten and abused by their commanders and cheated of their wages. Refused contact with their families and facing severe reprisals if they try to escape, these children endure a harsh and isolated existence. Children are also present in Burma's myriad opposition groups, although in far smaller numbers. Some children join opposition groups to avenge past abuses by Burmese forces against members of their families or community, while others are forcibly conscripted. Many participate in armed conflict, sometimes with little or no training, and after years of being a soldier are unable to envision a future for themselves apart from military service. Burma's military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), claims that all of its soldiers are volunteers, and that the minimum recruitment age is eighteen.4 However, testimonies of former soldiers interviewed for this report suggest that the vast majority of new recruits are forcibly conscripted, and that 35 to 45 percent may be children. Although there is no way to establish precise figures, data taken from the observations of former child soldiers who have served in diverse parts of Burma suggests that 70,000 or more of the Burma army's estimated 350,000 soldiers may be children..."
Author/creator: Kevin Heppner
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
Format/size: html (in sections); pdf (570K) 214 pages
Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/reports/2002/burma/Burma0902.pdf
http://www.hrw.org/press/2002/10/burma-1016.htm (press release and other links)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: MYANMAR: Statement by His Excellency Major-General Sein Htwa Minister for Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement and Leader of the Myanmar Delegation to The Twenty-seventh Special Session of the General Assembly on Children
Date of publication: 10 May 2002
Description/subject: "...The rights of the child have been given top priority in the global agenda since the World Summit for Children. The same is true with our national agenda. The Government of Myanmar is giving top priority to the children traditionally as well as legally. Since our accession to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, we have laid down and implemented programmes at the national level for the well-being and interests of children. On 14 July 1993, two years after the accession, we promulgated the Child Law. In September 1993, we formed a National Committee on the Rights of the Child to effectively and successfully implement the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Child Law..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: SPDC
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 September 2003


Title: Burmese Children in Thailand: Legal Aspects
Date of publication: December 2001
Description/subject: "People from Burma have become the major group of displaced persons in Thailand. Most of them are currently being sheltered along the Thai-Burma border, particularly in the Thai provinces of Mae Hong Son, Tak, Kanchanaburi and Ranong. It is estimated that there are some 40,000 children from Burma under the age of 15 accompanying their parents. In addition, thousands of unaccompanied children are driven across the border by the desperate circumstances in Burma. ..."
Author/creator: Nyo Nyo
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 10 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Breaking Through the Clouds: A Participatory Action Research (PAR) Project with Migrant Children and Youth Along the Borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand
Date of publication: May 2001
Description/subject: 1. Introduction; 1.1. Background; 1.2. Project Profile; 1.3. Project Objectives; 2. The Participatory Action Research (PAR) Process; 2.1. Methods of Working with Migrant Children and Youth; 2.2. Implementation Strategy; 2.3. Ethical Considerations; 2.4. Research Team; 2.5. Sites and Participants; 2.6. Establishing Research Guidelines; 2.7. Data Collection Tools; 2.8. Documentation; 2.9. Translation; 2.10Country and Regional Workshops; 2.11Analysis, Methods of Reporting Findings and Dissemination Strategy; 2.12. Obstacles and Limitations; 3. PAR Interventions; 3.1. Strengthening Social Structures; 3.2. Awareness Raising; 3.3. Capacity Building; 3.4. Life Skills Development; 3.5. Outreach Services; 3.6. Networking and Advocacy; 4. The Participatory Review; 4.1. Aims of the Review; 4.2. Review Guidelines; 4.3. Review Approach and Tools; 4.4. Summary of Review Outcomes; 4.4.1. Myanmar; 4.4.2. Thailand; 4.4.3. China; 5. Conclusion and Recommendations; 6. Bibliography of Resources.
Author/creator: Therese Caouette et al
Language: English
Source/publisher: Save the Children (UK)
Format/size: pdf (191K) 75 pages
Date of entry/update: May 2003


Title: Migrant Children in Difficult Circumstances in Thailand
Date of publication: 1999
Description/subject: * Summary of report; * Chapter 1: Migrant Children in Thailand - a Result of Globalisation... * Chapter 2: Migrant Child Labor in Thailand... * Chapter 3: Migrant Children in Prostitution in Thailand... * Chapter 4: Migrant Street Children in Thailand: * Indicators of Migrant Children in Thailand; * Links to organisations working with Migrant Children in Thailand.
Author/creator: Premjai Vungsiriphisal, Siwaporn Auasalung, Supang Chantavanich
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Asian Research Center For Migration (ARCM), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Format/size: pdf (147.99 KB)
Alternate URLs: http://books168.com/migrant-children-in-mae-sot-pdf.html
Date of entry/update: 17 July 2010


Title: No Childhood at All - Child Soldiers in Burma
Date of publication: June 1997
Description/subject: "...The phenomenon of child soldiers in Burma can only be understood within the context of militarization of the society as a whole. War in Burma has affected every segment of society, its fallout having severest repercussions for the most disadvantaged groups. The political instability engendered by civil war has left the country in economic crisis and has isolated rural conflict areas from receiving badly-needed development assistance. NGO activities have been severely curtailed, mitigating most attempts to correct the situation. Consequently, many children in Burma are living in grinding poverty, uneducated and in poor health, with under-age labour one of their few choices to make ends meet. The everpresent reality of armed conflict is also deeply embedded in the consciousness of all Burma's peoples. With 36% of all Burma's inhabitants under the age of l5,1 most of the country's population have grown up under the shadow of civil war. The rapid expansion of the armed forces since 1988 has both forced and encouraged recruitment of minors into the ranks. Army entrance is sometimes perceived by children, especially orphans, as offering a protective haven from hunger and abuse. Many children therefore see joining the armed forces of any of the warring parties as their only means of survival. Unfortunately, research suggests that they are likely to find it just the opposite. While Burma has acceded to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, as yet there is little indication that its provisions are being followed in good faith, or that recruitment of children into the Tatmadaw has decreased..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Images Asia, Thailand
Format/size: pdf (513K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Child Law - SLORC Law No. 9/93 (English)
Date of publication: 14 July 1993
Description/subject: The State Law and Order Restoration Council... The Child Law... (The State Law and Order Restoration Council Law No. 9/93)- The 11th Waning Day of 1st Waso, 1355 ME (14 July, 1993)
Language: English
Source/publisher: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
Format/size: pdf (285K, 110K) 21 pages
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/1993-SLORC_Law1993-09-The_Child_Law-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Jumping Rope on the Front LIne
Date of publication: September 1991
Description/subject: Children and teenagers of the Kachin State, Northern Burma. 36 interviews with children and teenagers of Kachin State.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Project Maje
Format/size: PDF (737K) 30 pages
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: When Hard Times Hit, Some Children Go to Factories
Description/subject: RANGOON, Feb 16, 2010 (IPS) - Fifteen-year-old Cho Cho Thet knows little about the world outside of the garments factory where she works. Thet works 14 hours each day – from 7 a.m. to 9 p.m. – seven days a week, but receives a salary of only 35,000 kyat (35 U.S. dollars) a month. The factory owner provides free accommodation and meals that include rice and vegetables. "Working under a roof is better than working in the rice field under the sun or the rain. I don’t feel tired at all here," Thet told IPS. The girl was recently promoted from helper to operator after two years.
Author/creator: Mon Mon Myat
Language: English
Source/publisher: IPS
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://ipsnews.net/print.asp?idnews=50346
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010