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Human geography

  • Demography

    • Census

      • 2014 Census

        Individual Documents

        Title: Counting the Costs: Myanmar’s Problematic Census
        Date of publication: 15 May 2014
        Description/subject: Overview: "Myanmar’s first census in over 30 years, an ambitious project conducted in April 2014 with technical advice from the UN and significant funding from bilateral donors, has proved to be highly controversial and deeply divisive. A process that was largely blind to the political and conflict risks has inflamed ethnic and religious tensions in this diverse country. The release of the inevitably controversial results in the coming months will have to be handled with great sensitivity if further dangers are to be minimised. The census will provide information vital for Myanmar’s government, development partners and investors in planning their activities. But it has also created political tensions and sparked conflict at a crucial moment in the country’s transition and peace process. Some controversies are inevitable in any census. However, the way that the process has been designed and prepared, insufficiently sensitive to the country’s evolving realities and the major risks that they present, has greatly exacerbated its negative impact. Such problems were not inevitable, nor were they unforeseen. They largely stem from the way data on ethnicity, religion and citizenship status are being collected and classified, and the lack of consultation with key constituencies in the design of the process. The serious risks involved were anticipated and clearly laid out in the political risk assessment that the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) – the lead technical agency involved – commissioned at the beginning of the process, and they were subsequently repeated and amplified by many other stakeholders and observers, including Crisis Group. However, UNFPA rejected such concerns, consistently presented a panglossian perspective on the census and failed to acknowledge specific political or conflict risks. Key census donors failed to recommend fundamental revisions to the process, even when a census pilot had to be cancelled in Rakhine State due to fears of violence and when key ethnic armed groups called for the enumeration to be postponed. Only at the last minute, when a Rakhine census boycott morphed into violent attacks on international aid agencies that sparked a humanitarian crisis, did most push for such changes. The impact of these problems has been far-reaching, exacerbating inter-ethnic and inter-religious tensions. The census has been interrupted in parts of Rakhine State, following a last-minute government decision to prevent the Rohingya population from self-identifying its ethnicity – a move intended to placate Rakhine radicals, who were committed to a boycott and could have unleashed deadly violence. Amid a massive and intimidatory security operation in Rohingya communities, those households who insisted on identifying as such – the great majority in many areas – were left out of the census entirely. In Kachin State, no census has been allowed to take place in areas controlled by the Kachin Independence Organisation armed group, due in part to concerns about how ethnicity data are being collected. The Myanmar military has been used to secure contested areas in Kachin and northern Shan States in order to allow access to census enumerators. In the process, serious clashes have broken out between the two sides, and hundreds of civilians have had to flee. This has put further strain on the peace process at a critical time. Without doubt, the government has been found wanting in its approach to addressing the communal tensions that have proved so threatening to Myanmar’s Muslim community and particularly its Rohingya population. These problems pre-date talk of a census. The authorities, through their public statements, the behaviour of law enforcement personnel and in the laws enacted have to do a lot more to demonstrate that the state’s concern is for the welfare of all. Equally, a census that was more sensitive to political realities, or one conducted at a less volatile time, could have limited or avoided some of the problems now being stoked. Further risks exist in the timing and manner in which census data are released. These will not be easy to mitigate at this point, and UNFPA and the donors will have much less influence now that the most technically demanding and costly aspects of the process have been completed. Rather than accept their share of responsibility for designing and pushing ahead with a flawed process in the face of clear warnings from multiple quarters, UNFPA and key census donors have sought to shift the blame wholly onto the government. They have criticised its last-minute decision to deny Rohingya the right to selfidentify, while failing to acknowledge that by pushing it not to amend or postpone the process earlier on, they left the government in a difficult position with few good options to avoid violence. The narrative that is thereby being presented – that the process was going well until the government’s last-minute volte-face – is inaccurate and in the circumstances unhelpful."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Asia Briefing 144)
        Format/size: pdf (314K-reduced version; 2.5MB-original)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs17/Counting-the-costs-myanmar-s-problematic-census.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 23 May 2014


    • Ethnic Groups in Burma

      Individual Documents

      Title: 135: Counting Races in Burma
      Date of publication: 25 September 2012
      Description/subject: "...135 ethnic groups put up by the SPDC have 76 ethnic groups that are repeatedly counted or fabricated and only 59 ethnic groups actually exist. However, this does not imply Burma has exactly 59 ethnic groups. There are some ethnic groups left out of SPDC list such as Taman, Tai-Lian, etc. And among those 59 ethnic groups some are nearly extinct or existing only in few hundreds, for example Yabein, Danau and Khamu. Besides, there might be some who wish or do not wish to acquire a separate racial identity. If, for instance, some Tai (Shan) ethnic groups choose a common identity, the above list could get even shorter. Whatever the case, the number of Burma's ethnic groups do not come to 70 or more. Nevertheless, the SPDC would just impose military dictatorship on various excuses even if the number hits less than ten. The SPDC list is merely an evidence of its lack of credibility and incompetence in counting the ethnic groups of the country it is governing"....Originally published in 2005
      Author/creator: Gamanii
      Source/publisher: Shan Herald Agency for News (S.H.A.N.)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 December 2013


    • Population

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Myanmar: historical population statistics
      Description/subject: SEARCH FOR MYANMAR...Growth of the population per country in a historical perspective, including administrative divisions and principal towns: historical demographical data of the whole country; historical demographical data of the administrative divisions; historical demographical data of the urban centers.
      Author/creator: Jan Lahmeyer
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Population (လူဦးေရ)
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 June 2014


  • Land use

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Burma (Myanmar) Maps - Perry-Castañeda Map Collection - UT Library
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The University of Texas at Austin
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 October 2010


    Title: Burma Land Use
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Central Intelligence Agency
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.indexmundi.com/burma/#Geography
    Date of entry/update: 25 October 2010


    Title: Geography of Burma
    Description/subject: Contents: 1 Climate... 2 Mountains - 2.1 Main peaks... 3 Rivers... 4 Maritime claims - 4.1 Islands... 5 Land use and natural resources... 6 Natural hazards... 7 Environment... 7.1 Environment - international agreements... 8 See also... 9 References... 10 External links.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 October 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Control of Land and Life in Burma.
    Date of publication: April 2001
    Description/subject: Abstract: The most significant land problems in Burma remain those associated with landlessness, rural poverty, inequality of access to resources, and a military regime that denies citizen rights and is determined to rule by force and not by law. A framework to ensure the sustainable development of land is needed to address social, legal, economic and technical dimensions of land management. This framework can only be created and implemented within and by a truly democratic nation. Keywords: Agriculture and state -- Burma; Land use, Rural -- Burma; Land use, Rural -- Government policy -- Burma; Agricultural policy -- Burma; Land administration -- Burma.
    Author/creator: Nancy Hudson-Rodd, Myo Nyunt
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin - Madison
    Format/size: PDF (431K)
    Alternate URLs: http://minds.wisconsin.edu/handle/1793/22009
    http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/12817/1/ltctb03.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 01 September 2010


    Title: Land Use /Land Cover Classifications and Monitoring of Myanmar Using by Remote Sensing Data and GIS
    Date of publication: 1997
    Description/subject: Abstract Knowledge of land use and land cover is important for many planning and management activities concerned with the surface of the earth. The term land cover relates to the type of feature present on the surface of the earth and the term land use relates to the human activities associated with a specific piece of land. The study of the land use patterns and the monitoring of changes are very important for economic planning and country development. By using of Remote Sensing methods are becoming increasingly in land use land cover studying that is important for images of large area can be acquired rapidly and low cost. In this paper we would like to present study objectives, study overview and study flow diagram.
    Author/creator: Ko Ko Lwin and Ryosuke Shibasaki
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 October 2010


    Title: Land Use in Myanmar with a Case Study in Southern Shan State
    Date of publication: 2006
    Description/subject: Abstract;General aspects of land use in Myanmar were evaluated according to the statistical data issued from FAO. Following it, features of land use in Southern Shan State situated in the eastern hilly region were described as a case study. Ten types of land use were recognized in Southern Shan State. Major land use type was upland field which occupied about 50% of the cultivated area in Southern Shan State, followed by paddy field. Characteristics of individual land use type were discussed. (author abst.)
    Author/creator: EGASHIRA KAZUHIKO, THAN AYE AYE
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: J Fac Agric Kyushu Univ_VOL.51;NO.2;PAGE.383-387(2006)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 October 2010