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Trafficking

  • Trafficking: specific standards and mechanisms

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Slavery: UNHCHR Page
    Description/subject: * Special Rapporteur on Contemporary forms of slavery * Working Group of the Sub-Commission on Contemporary Forms of Slavery *Voluntary Trust Fund on Contemporary Forms of Slavery
    Language: English, Francais, Espanol
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/slavery/rapporteur/index.htm
    http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/slavery/group.htm
    http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Slavery/Pages/SlaveryFundMain.aspx
    Date of entry/update: 24 December 2010


    Title: Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons , especially in women and children (UNHCHR page)
    Description/subject: "At its sixtieth session, the Commission on Human Rights adopted decision 2004/110, by which it decided to appoint, for a three-year period, a Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children to focus on the human rights aspects of the victims of trafficking in persons. In the same decision, the Commission invited the Special Rapporteur to submit annual reports to the Commission together with recommendations on measures required to uphold and protect the human rights of the victims. The Commission requested the Special Rapporteur to respond effectively to reliable information on possible human rights violations with a view to protecting the human rights of actual or potential victims of trafficking and to cooperate fully with other relevant special rapporteurs, in particular the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, and to take full account of their contributions to the issue. The Commission also requested the Special Rapporteur to cooperate with relevant United Nations bodies, regional organizations and victims and their representatives. The Economic and Social Council, in its decision 2004/228, endorsed Commission on Human Rights’ decision 2004/110... In the discharge of his/her mandate, the Special Rapporteur: a) Takes action on violations committed against trafficked persons and on situations in which there has been a failure to protect their human rights (See Individual complaints)... b) Undertakes country visits in order to study the situation in situ and formulate recommendations to prevent and or combat trafficking and protect the human rights of its victims in specific countries and/or regions... c) Submits annual reports on the activities of the mandate... International standards; Individual complaints; Annual reports; Country visits; Documents; News; Contact.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/trafficking/annual.htm
    Date of entry/update: 24 December 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
    Date of publication: 18 December 1990
    Description/subject: Adopted by General Assembly resolution 45/158 of 18 December 1990; sometimes called the "1990 Convention". Entered into force 1 July 2003. Neither Burma nor the main destination countries for Burmese migrants are party to the Convention (29 States Parties as of May 2005, all sending countries)
    Language: English (French and Spanish available)
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking
    Date of publication: 20 May 2002
    Language: English (Francais, Espanol)
    Source/publisher: United Nations (E/2002/68/Add.1)
    Format/size: pdf (96.36 K)
    Date of entry/update: 20 May 2005


    Title: United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (including the protocols on trafficking and smuggling of persons)
    Date of publication: 15 November 2000
    Description/subject: The Convention entered into force on 29 September 2003... Annex I: United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime... Annex II: Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime...Annex III: Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime...Myanmar accession: 30 March 2004... The UNODC page at http://www.unodc.org/unodc/crime_cicp_convention.html contains the finalized instruments; Signatures/Ratifications; Legislative guides; Background information; Conference of the Parties.
    Language: English (Arabic,Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish available)
    Source/publisher: United Nations (A/RES/55/25)
    Format/size: pdf, html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CTOC/index.html
    Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


  • Trafficking: other relevant standards and mechanisms

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
    Description/subject: " The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) is the body of independent experts that monitors implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights by its States parties. The Committee was established under ECOSOC Resolution 1985/17 of 28 May 1985 to carry out the monitoring functions assigned to the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in Part IV of the Covenant. All States parties are obliged to submit regular reports to the Committee on how the rights are being implemented. States must report initially within two years of accepting the Covenant and thereafter every five years. The Committee examines each report and addresses its concerns and recommendations to the State party in the form of “concluding observations”. The Committee cannot consider individual complaints, although a draft Optional Protocol to the Covenant is under consideration which could give the Committee competence in this regard. The Commission on Human Rights has established a working group to this end. However, it may be possible for another committee with competence to consider individual communications to consider issues related to economic, social and cultural rights in the context of its treaty. [Image: Young women in an adult literacy class in Makthar, Tunisia. (UN Photo #157607)] The Committee meets in Geneva and normally holds two sessions per year, consisting of a three-week plenary and a one-week pre-sessional working group. The Committee also publishes its interpretation of the provisions of the Covenant, known as general comments..."
    Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


    Title: Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
    Description/subject: "The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) is the body of independent experts that monitors implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination by its State parties. All States parties are obliged to submit regular reports to the Committee on how the rights are being implemented. States must report initially one year after acceding to the Convention and then every two years. The Committee examines each report and addresses its concerns and recommendations to the State party in the form of “concluding observations”. In addition to the reporting procedure, the Convention establishes three other mechanisms through which the Committee performs its monitoring functions: the early-warning procedure, the examination of inter-state complaints and the examination of individual complaints. [Image: A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. (UN Photo# 151906C)]The Committee meets in Geneva and normally holds two sessions per year consisting of three weeks each. The Committee also publishes its interpretation of the content of human rights provisions, known as general recommendations (or general comments), on thematic issues and organizes thematic discussions..."
    Language: English (also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


    Title: Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
    Description/subject: Monitors the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Receives and examines State Party reports. Search in OBL for CRC to access the various reports, statements and concluding observations when the CRC examined Myanmar's initial report.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human Rights Committee
    Description/subject: This page provides information on the procedures of the Human Rights Committee, the treaty body which administers the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. It also has a link to the text of the Covenant.
    Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2004


    Title: Special Rapporteur of the Human Rights Council on the human rights of migrants
    Description/subject: "The mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants was created in 1999 by the Commission on Human Rights, pursuant to resolution 1999/44 . The mandate was extended for a further three years by the Commission on Human Rights in 2002, at its 58th session (Res. 2002/62 ). The Commission requested the Special Rapporteur to “examine ways and means to overcome the obstacles existing to the full and effective protection of the human rights of migrants, including obstacles and difficulties for the return of migrants who are undocumented or in an irregular situation”. The main functions of the Special Rapporteur are: (a) To request and receive information from all relevant sources, including migrants themselves, on violations of the human rights of migrants and their families; (b) To formulate appropriate recommendations to prevent and remedy violations of the human rights of migrants, wherever they may occur; (c) To promote the effective application of relevant international norms and standards on the issue; (d) To recommend actions and measures applicable at the national, regional and international levels to eliminate violations of the human rights of migrants; (e) To take into account a gender perspective when requesting and analyzing information, as well as to give special attention to the occurrence of multiple discrimination and violence against migrant women; In the discharge of these functions: (a) The Special Rapporteur acts on information submitted to her regarding alleged violations of the human rights of migrants by sending urgent appeals and communications to concerned Governments to clarify and/or bring to their attention these cases. See Individual Complaints. (b) The Special Rapporteur conducts country visits (also called fact-finding missions) upon the invitation of the Government, in order to examine the state of protection of the human rights of migrants in the given country. The Special Rapporteur submits a report of the visit to the Commission on Human Rights, presenting her findings, conclusions and recommendations. See Country Visits. (c) The Special Rapporteur participates in conferences, seminars and panels on issues relating to the human rights of migrants. (d) Annually, the Special Rapporteur, reports to the Commission on Human Rights about the global state of protection of migrants’ human rights, her main concerns and the good practices she has observed. In her report the Special Rapporteur informs the Commission of all the communications she has sent and the replies received from Governments. Furthermore, the Special Rapporteur formulates specific recommendations with a view to enhancing the protection of the human rights of migrants. Upon request of the Commission on Human Rights the Special Rapporteur may also present reports to the General Assembly."
    Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 May 2005


    Title: Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography
    Description/subject: "On 20 November 1989, the United Nations General Assembly in New York adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child. This international instrument recognizes "that in all countries in the world, there are children living in exceptionally difficult conditions, and that such children need special consideration". By 2000, over ten years after its adoption, almost every country in the world has signed and agreed to be bound by the provisions of the Convention. By 1990, international awareness of the commercial sexual exploitation and the sale of children had grown to such a level that the United Nations Commission on Human Rights created the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. The mandate-holder is required to investigate the exploitation of children around the world and to submit reports on the findings to the General Assembly and the Commission on Human Rights, making recommendations for the protection of the rights of the children concerned. These recommendations are targeted primarily at Governments, other United Nations bodies and non-governmental organizations. In its resolution 1990/68 entitled "Rights of the child", the Commission on Human Rights decided to appoint for a period of one year a Special Rapporteur to consider matters relating to the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. The appointment has been regularly renewed, most recently in 2001, when the Commission on Human Rights in its resolution 2001/75 on the "Rights of the child" decided to renew the Special Rapporteur's mandate for a further three years..."
    Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 December 2010


    Title: Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences
    Description/subject: "The United Nations Commission on Human Rights in resolution 1994/45, adopted on 4 March 1994 , decided to appoint a Special Rapporteur on violence against women, including its causes and consequences. The mandate was extended by the Commission on Human Rights in 2003, at its 59th session in resolution 2003/45 . In the same resolution the Commission on Human Rights: "Strongly condemning all acts of violence against women and girls and in this regard called, in accordance with the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, for the elimination of all forms of gender-based violence in the family, within the general community and where perpetrated or condoned by the State, and emphasized the duty of Governments to refrain from engaging in violence against women and to exercise due diligence to prevent, investigate and, in accordance with national legislation, punish acts of violence against women and to take appropriate and effective action concerning acts of violence against women, whether those acts are perpetrated by the State, by private persons or by armed groups or warring factions, and to provide access to just and effective remedies and specialized, including medical, assistance to victims; Affirmed, in this light, that violence against women constitutes a violation of the human rights and fundamental freedoms of women and that violence against women impairs or nullifies their enjoyment of those rights and freedoms." According to her mandate the Special Rapporteur is requested to: (a) Seek and receive information on violence against women, its causes and consequences from Governments, treaty bodies, specialized agencies, other special rapporteurs responsible for various human rights questions and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, including women's organizations, and to respond effectively to such information; (b) Recommend measures, ways and means, at the national, regional and international levels, to eliminate violence against women and its causes, and to remedy its consequences; (c) Work closely with other special rapporteurs, special representatives, working groups and independent experts of the Commission on Human Rights and the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities and with the treaty bodies, taking into account the Commission's request that they regularly and systematically include in their reports available information on human rights violations affecting women, and cooperate closely with the Commission on the Status of Women in the discharge of its functions. In the discharge of the mandate the Special Rapporteur: Transmits urgent appeals and communications to States regarding alleged cases of violence against women. See Individual Complaints Undertakes fact-finding country visits. See Country Visits Submits annual thematic reports to the Commission on Human Rights. See Annual Reports."
    Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 December 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
    Date of publication: 18 December 1979
    Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 34/180 of 18 December 1979; entry into force 3 September 1981. For the jurisprudence under the Convention, visit the site of CEDAW Committee. Myanmar accession: 22 July 1997.
    Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/text/econvention.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
    Date of publication: 20 November 1989
    Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989; entry into force 2 September 1990. For the jurisprudence of the Convention, visit the site of CRC Committee. Myanmar accession: 15 July 1991.
    Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: ILO Convention 105: The Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957
    Date of publication: 25 June 1957
    Language: English (French and Spanish available)
    Source/publisher: International Labour Office
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


    Title: ILO Convention 143: Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975
    Date of publication: 24 June 1975
    Description/subject: Only 23 ratifications, of which only Sweden, Norway, Italy and Portugal are credible destinations for Burmese migrants.
    Language: English (French and Spanish available)
    Source/publisher: International Labour Office
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


    Title: ILO Convention 29 on Forced Labour (1930)
    Date of publication: 28 June 1930
    Description/subject: Convention concerning Forced or Compulsory Labour. The page also has a link to the list of ratifications. Myanmar ratification, 1955.
    Language: English (French and Spanish available)
    Source/publisher: International Labour Office
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convde.pl?C029
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)
    Date of publication: 21 December 1965
    Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature and ratification by General Assembly resolution 2106 (XX) of 21 December 1965; entry into force 4 January 1969. For the jurisprudence under the Convention, visit the site of CERD Committee at http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cerd/
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cerd/
    Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


    Title: International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
    Date of publication: 16 December 1966
    Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966, entry into force 23 March 1976.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
    Date of publication: 16 December 1966
    Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966; entry into force 3 January 1976.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The rights of non-citizens: Final report
    Date of publication: 23 May 2003
    Description/subject: Final report of the Special Rapporteur, Mr. David Weissbrodt, submitted in accordance with Sub-Commission decision 2000/103, Commission resolution 2000/104 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/283..."Based on a review of international human rights law, the Special Rapporteur has concluded that all persons should by virtue of their essential humanity enjoy all human rights unless exceptional distinctions, for example, between citizens and non-citizens, serve a legitimate State objective and are proportional to the achievement of that objective. For example, non-citizens should enjoy freedom from arbitrary killing, inhuman treatment slavery, forced labour, child labour, arbitrary arrest, unfair trial, invasions of privacy, refoulement and violations of humanitarian law. They also have the right to marry, protection as minors, peaceful association and assembly, equality, freedom of religion and belief, social, cultural, and economic rights in general, labour rights (for example, as to collective bargaining, workers� compensation, social security, appropriate working conditions and environment, etc.) and consular protection..."
    Author/creator: David Weissbrodt
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23)
    Format/size: pdf (83K)
    Date of entry/update: 24 August 2012


    Title: The rights of non-citizens: Final report - Addendum 1, "United Nations activities"
    Date of publication: 26 May 2003
    Description/subject: Final report of the Special Rapporteur, Mr. David Weissbrodt, submitted in accordance with Sub-Commission decision 2000/103, Commission resolution 2000/104 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/283 Addendum United Nations activities*..."This addendum (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23/Add.1) to the final report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights of non-citizens (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23) supplements the 2002 addendum (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2002/25/Add.1) to the progress report of the Special Rapporteur (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2002/25) and the 2001 addendum (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2001/20/Add.1) to the preliminary report of the Special Rapporteur (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2001/20) by providing updated jurisprudence and concluding observations with respect to the rights of non-citizens. This addendum also includes a new section on the relevant jurisprudence of the Committee Against Torture. The jurisprudence and concluding observations in this addendum cover treaty-monitoring body sessions from March 2002 through March 2003..."
    Author/creator: David Weissbrodt
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23/Add.1)
    Format/size: pdf (87K)
    Date of entry/update: 24 August 2012


    Title: The rights of non-citizens: Final report - Addendum 2 - "Regional activities"
    Date of publication: 26 May 2003
    Description/subject: Final report of the Special Rapporteur, Mr. David Weissbrodt, submitted in accordance with Sub-Commission decision 2000/103, Commission resolution 2000/104 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/283 Addendum Regional activities..."This addendum (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23/Add.2) to the final report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights of non-citizens (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23) supplements the 2002 addendum (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2002/25/Add.2) to the progress report of the Special Rapporteur (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2002/25) and the 2001 addendum (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2001/20/Add.1) to the preliminary report of the Special Rapporteur (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2001/20) by updating the expanded examination of the rights of non-citizens within regional human rights bodies. The addendum updates the jurisprudence of those regional bodies that have adopted recent decisions related to the rights of non-citizens, including the European Court of Human Rights and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. It also contains a new section on the European Social Committee. Finally, it again discusses the Framework Convention on National Minorities, adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe, and include recent decision based on that instrument..."
    Author/creator: David Weissbrodt
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23/Add.2)
    Format/size: pdf (88K)
    Date of entry/update: 24 August 2012


    Title: The rights of non-citizens: Final report - Addendum 3, "Examples of practices in regard to non-citizens"
    Date of publication: 26 May 2003
    Description/subject: The rights of non-citizens Final report of the Special Rapporteur, Mr. David Weissbrodt, submitted in accordance with Sub-Commission decision 2000/103, Commission resolution 2000/104 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/283 Addendum Examples of practices in regard to non-citizens..."While the main report (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23) summarizes the norms that protect the rights of non-citizens, in many countries non-citizens do not actually enjoy those rights. One of the most common problems human rights treaty bodies have encountered in reviewing States' reports is that some national constitutions guarantee rights to "citizens" whereas international human rights law would – with the exception of the rights of public participation, of movement,4 and of economic rights in developing countries5 – provide rights to all persons.6 Of the countries responding to the questionnaire, however, most countries extended constitutionally protected human rights to every person7 or specifically to non-citizens.8 Other countries protect the rights of non-citizens, including refugees, by statute9 or by incorporating treaties into national law.10 Constitutions in some countries, however, inappropriately distinguish between the rights granted to persons who obtained their citizenship by birth and other citizens.11 Furthermore, the mere statement of the general principle of non-discrimination in a constitution is not a sufficient response to the requirements of human rights law..."
    Author/creator: David Weissbrodt,
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23/Add.3)
    Format/size: pdf (88K)
    Date of entry/update: 24 August 2012


    Title: The rights of non-citizens: Final report - Addendum 4, "Summary of Comments Received from U.N. Member States to Special Rapporteur's Questionnaire"
    Date of publication: 26 May 2003
    Description/subject: Final report of the Special Rapporteur, Mr. David Weissbrodt, submitted in accordance with Sub-Commission decision 2000/103, Commission resolution 2000/104 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/283 Addendum Summary of Comments Received from U.N. Member States to Special Rapporteur's Questionnaire..."This Addendum IV summarizes1 the comments received from 22 Member States in response to the questionnaire prepared by the Special Rapporteur and disseminated pursuant to Commission decision 2002/107 of 25 April 2002. For reasons of expense and length it was not possible to reproduce the full text of the responses received from all Member States. Hence, this summary was prepared to express particular appreciation for the quite substantial number of responses received and to give others a sense of the substance contained in the replies. The Special Rapporteur also received responses from 7 intergovernmental organizations and 4 nongovernmental organizations, plus the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the rights of migrants.2 The Special Rapporteur on the human rights of non-citizens took into account all of the responses in preparing the final report and other addenda and is extremely grateful for all the assistance afforded in those responses..." Includes replies from Thailand and India.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23/Add.4)
    Format/size: pdf (101K)
    Date of entry/update: 25 May 2005


  • Trafficking: resources, specialist organisations and guides to the mechanisms

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Anti-Slavery International Trafficking page
    Description/subject: What is trafficking in people? Q&A... Introduction to Anti-Slavery International's trafficking programme: Anti-Slavery International's campaign; The UN definition of trafficking ; Trafficking reports; and other web sites links
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Anti-Slavery International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2010


    Title: Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women (GAATW)
    Description/subject: "GAATW's mission is to ensure that the human rights of migrant women are respected and protected by authorities and agencies. We advocate for the incorporation of human rights standards in all anti-trafficking initiatives, including in the implementation of the Trafficking Protocol, Supplementary to the UN Convention on Transnational Organized Crime (2000). GAATW strives to promote and share good practices of anti-trafficking initiatives but also to critique and stop bad practices and harm caused by existing practices. GAATW promotes women migrant workers' rights and believes that ensuring safe migration and protecting rights of migrant workers should be at the core of all anti-trafficking efforts. We advocate for living and working conditions that provide women with more alternatives in their countries of origin, and to develop and disseminate information to women about migration, working conditions and their rights. We support the self-organisation of women migrant workers, ensuring their presence and self-representation in international fora. GAATW aims to build new alliances among various sectors of migrants."
    Language: English, Espanol, Spanish, Russian
    Source/publisher: GAATW
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 May 2005


    Title: Humantrafficking.org - A web resource for combating human trafficking
    Description/subject: Useful Burma/Myanmar section
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Humantrafficking.org
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.humantrafficking.org
    Date of entry/update: 11 July 2013


    Title: ILO action against trafficking in human beings
    Description/subject: "In its many projects and advocacy activities, the ILO addresses trafficking from a labour market perspective. It thereby seeks to eliminate the root causes, such as poverty, lack of employment and inefficient labour migration systems. ILO led responses involve labour market institutions, such as public employment services, labour inspectors and labour ministries. Moreover, as a tripartite organisation, the ILO consults and involves workers’ and employers’ organisations in its work. This paper serves to outline ILO’s major areas of intervention, some lessons learned and further references..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Labour Office
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2010


    Title: Project to Combat Trafficking in Children and Women (Mekong subregion)
    Description/subject: Active site with lots of documents..."As a United Nations specialized agency, and a leader in the fight against the worst forms of child labour and exploitation, the ILO is playing a major role in the fight against human trafficking. In 2003, following a three-year pilot phase, and through the work of the International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC), the ILO launched phase II of a five-year project to prevent trafficking in children and women in the Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS). The Mekong Sub-Regional Project to Combat Trafficking in Children and Women (TICW) works with, and alongside, other UN Agencies, Save the Children UK, other NGOs, Governments, employers' and workers' groups, to help equip Governments and civil society to deal with migration, the growing threat of human trafficking and resulting exploitative labour. Much of the work is carried out at source -- in villages and rural areas where ill-prepared, uninformed migration begins, and at destination -- the towns and cities where most of the exploitation takes place. From small villages in Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR and Viet Nam, to major urban centres like Bangkok, Thailand, the project is mobilizing communities. It is working with and through children to improve their quality of life. "
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Labour Organisation (Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


    Title: The Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW)
    Description/subject: "The Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW) is a non-governmental organization that promotes women's human rights. It works internationally to combat sexual exploitation in all its forms..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 July 2003


    Title: Trafficking Statistics Project
    Description/subject: includes a searchable database.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNESCO
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


  • Trafficking: global, regional and national reports

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: US Department of State Trafficking in Persons Reports
    Description/subject: This page links to the US DOS reports from 2001...Browse to Country Narratives then to the alphabetical list. Burma is listed as Tier 3 -- the most serious cases
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Department of State
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 May 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: Combating Trafficking in South-East Asia: A Review of Policy and Programme Responses
    Date of publication: 2000
    Description/subject: "During the past decade, trafficking has become an issue of growing concern in South-East Asia. It has been conservatively estimated that at least 200-225,000 women and children from South-East Asia are trafficked annually, a figure representing nearly one-third of the global trafficking trade. Of the estimated 45-50,000 women and children estimated to be trafficked into the US each year, 30,000 are believed to come from South-East Asia. However, most trafficking occurs within South-East Asia, and only a minority of women from the region are trafficked to other parts of the world. Trafficking is not a new problem for South-East Asia, and many initiatives have been developed to combat the problem by NGOs, inter-governmental organizations, government ministries, national and international bodies, human rights organizations and lobby networks. This study provides an overview of these various initiatives and the different actors involved in the fight against trafficking in the region and an inventory of current anti-trafficking programmes and measures. Although previous efforts have been made to compile information on a national, regional or subregional basis on counter-trafficking measures, these compilation reports do not provide a systematic overview of the variety of responses that have been developed within the region. This study aims to provide such an overview as well as to be a tool for information exchange and for further development of counter-trafficking initiatives, as intended by the Bangkok Declaration on Irregular Migration. The study is divided into four parts. The first part describes the historical development of the trafficking debate and gives an analysis of the various approaches to trafficking. Part Two focuses on trafficking patterns and responses in the South-East Asian region. It briefly describes the trafficking situation in South-East Asia and then lists the various trafficking responses that have been developed at the regional, sub-regional and bilateral levels. Some attention is paid to policy responses in receiving countries outside the region. Part Three forms the main part of the study and describes the responses that have been developed within the South-East Asian countries. Attention is paid to the different actors, including governments, NGOs, international organizations and international networks, and their policies in relation to counter-trafficking measures. The counter-trafficking measures are, where possible, broadly divided into four categories: juridical,1 prevention, protection and return. Part Four reviews some of the problems most often mentioned in the fight against trafficking and discusses priority areas for the development and strengthening of counter-trafficking programmes and initiatives..."
    Author/creator: Annuska Derks
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
    Format/size: pdf (233.41 K)
    Date of entry/update: 10 December 2010


    Title: Comparative Analysis of Bilateral Memoranda on Anti-human Trafficking Cooperation between Thailand and Three Neighboring Countries: What Do the Origin and the Destination States Agree Upon?
    Date of publication: March 2012
    Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "In order to prevent, suppress and punish human trafficking, bilateral agreements between origin of victim countries and destination countries are crucial, because their cooperation involves cross-border activities such as repatriation of victims, extradition of criminals and information-sharing. This article analyzes three bilateral legal instruments between The Government of The Kingdom of Thailand and her three neighboring countries, namely The Royal Government of Cambodia, The Government of Lao People’s Democratic Republic and The Government of The Union of Myanmar. The analysis will examine the legal status of the victim, the victim as witness in criminal proceedings, the victim protection programs, the recovery and restitution of damages, the process of repatriating the victim, and the prosecution of the criminal. .... Keywords: Human Trafficking, Memorandum of Understanding, Origin country, Destination country, Bilateral Cooperation PDF pdf (249KB)
    Author/creator: Miwa YAMADA
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IDE-JETRO Discussion paper No. 349
    Format/size: pdf (249K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Dp/349.html
    Date of entry/update: 01 December 2012


    Title: COUNTERACTING HUMAN TRAFFICKING: PROTECTING THE VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING
    Date of publication: 20 September 2002
    Description/subject: "The purpose of this paper is to point out the necessity to address trafficking in human beings in a larger context of migration. The development of an overall European Union concept relating to migration in Europe is being mapped out by the European Commission, which sees the handling of migration issues in the context of the political objectives of European integration and in particular the establishment of an "Area of Freedom, Security and Justice" in the EU (COM 2000, 0757 final). The Commission is not, however, in a position autonomously to shape the legislative agenda on migration as, notwithstanding the Treaty changes introduced at Amsterdam, the Member States remain in the driving seat and their initiatives have tended to concentrate on reacting to immediate migration "pressures" rather than on building an overall strategy. Legal basis questions are beginning to arise when criminal law measures are contemplated in relation to the combating of trafficking. The very need for the approximation of laws, though foreseen in the Treaty on European Union, is questioned by some states, and - especially in the context of such a sensitive issue as migration - national legal approaches can be difficult to reconcile. Consensus within the Council on legislative measures is not easily achieved..."
    Author/creator: Joanna Apap, Peter Cullen and Felicita Medved
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: European Conference on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 28 May 2005


    Title: European Conference on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings
    Date of publication: 20 September 2002
    Description/subject: A large number of papers and contributions on trafficking plus the "Brussels Declaration"... "The International Organization for Migration (IOM), in co-operation with the European Commission (EC), European Parliament (EP) and EU Member States and Candidate Countries, will jointly organize a Conference addressing the issues of Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings with Particular Focus on Enhancing Co-operation in the Process to Enlarge the European Union. This Conference is organized in the framework of the European Commission DG Justice and Home Affairs's STOP Program, and under the responsibility of Commissioner Antonio Vitorino.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Organisation for MIgration, European Commission (EC), European Parliament (EP) and EU Member States and Candidate Countries,
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.belgium.iom.int/STOPConference/
    Date of entry/update: 28 May 2005


    Title: Human Traffic, Human Rights: Redefining victim protection -- Thailand section
    Date of publication: 2002
    Description/subject: I Legislation; II General analysis and implementation in cases; III Conclusions and Recommendations..."Despite the efforts of NGOs working with the Government to achieve effective changes such as the MOU, the difficulty remains in implementation. Acknowledgement of trafficking by government officials is limited. Efforts have been made to create a comprehensive definition of trafficking in persons that encompasses purposes of trafficking other than for prostitution. Yet officials still consider trafficking to be equal to prostitution, and people trafficked for other purposes are treated as illegal migrants and are generally deported without any assistance. The cases in this chapter are not 'typical', in the sense that they are the cases where NGOs could intervene and some progress was made. Barriers in providing assistance to them are not only the language, but also the attitudes towards foreign migrants and neglecting their rights. However in the vast majority of cases, there is no NGO to inform trafficked persons of their rights nor to intervene and ensure their protection. The support of NGOs is important to empower the trafficked victim person and help them decide whether to participate in the prosecution. Trafficked persons deserve to have enough information so that they can participate in decision-making concerning their rights and their lives. It is crucial to improve the practice of all agencies involved to treat a trafficked person as an individual who can make a decision about his or her own fate, not simply as a tool for prosecuting traffickers. It is important to provide protection when they are treated as witnesses. For migrants who are permitted to stay in Thailand for judicial proceedings, such as Win Win and the Laotian women, they should be able to work legally as these trials take up to a year. This is not only in order to earn money, but also to ensure the women are active and feel empowered. It is a challenge for agencies involved or working on this issue to make use of limited resources to ensure protection and safety of trafficked persons and also to meet their needs..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Anti-Slavery International
    Format/size: pdf (61.04 K), full report (733.42K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.antislavery.org/includes/documents/cm_docs/2009/h/hum_traff_hum_rights_redef_vic_protec_... (full report)
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2010


    Title: Migrant Workers: Report of the Special Rapporteur, Ms. Gabriela Rodríguez Pizarro,
    Date of publication: 12 January 2004
    Description/subject: Executive summary: The present report is submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2003/46. During the period under review the Special Rapporteur continued to receive information on the human rights of migrants and to exchange communications with Governments. A summary of the communications sent and responses received is contained in annex 1 to this report. The Special Rapporteur visited Spain and Morocco. Reports on those visits are contained in annexes 3 and 4 respectively. A summary of all the meetings and events attended by the Special Rapporteur since January 2003 is contained in her report to the General Assembly (A/58/275). During the period not covered by that report, the Special Rapporteur participated in other such activities. On 6 June 2003, the Special Rapporteur requested information on the situation of migrants employed in domestic service (hereinafter “migrant domestic workers”, the term including persons of both sexes) by means of a questionnaire distributed to all the permanent missions in Geneva, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), United Nations and other pertinent agencies and programmes and international experts in this area of work.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/2004/76)
    Format/size: pdf (91.73 K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/0032d58d2667f0b9c1256e700050f77f/$FILE/G0410237.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2010


    Title: Programme Consultation Meeting on the Protection of Domestic Workers Against the Threat of Forced Labour and Trafficking - Discussion paper
    Date of publication: January 2003
    Description/subject: "...What are the specific vulnerabilities of workers in domestic work? What are the differences in the nature of the situation and conditions facing women and men, boys and girls, and those of differing ethnic origins? What are the similarities and differences in the situations of domestic workers moving internally and those migrating internationally? ! To what extent have countries recognized domestic work as work, acknowledging that domestic workers deserve equal protection? Is there a need for sector-specific legislation? What level of forced labour/and or trafficking is involved in domestic work and how is it manifested? To what extent have migration policies reinforced dependency on employers and intermediaries and increased vulnerability to abuse? What, if any, effects have recent migration policies had on recruitment systems? How could the forced labour/trafficking standards be useful in relation to the domestic worker issue? How do domestic workers themselves see forced labour and trafficking in relation to domestic work? What are the responsibilities of governments, trade union and worker organisations and civil society at national and local levels in origin and destination countries/communities? What can domestic workers and/or their organisations do to ensure these responsibilities are fulfilled? What should be the main elements of a regional action programme to improve recruitment and working conditions of domestic workers?... This paper provides background information to facilitate discussion of the questions listed above, with particular focus on the applicability of the trafficking/ forced labour framework in addressing domestic work..."
    Author/creator: Lin Chew,
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Anti-Slavery International
    Format/size: pdf (194.85 K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.antislavery.org/english/resources/reports/download_antislavery_publications/trafficking_...
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2010


    Title: Report of the Experts Group on Trafficking in Human Beings (Brussels, 22 December 2004)
    Date of publication: 22 December 2004
    Description/subject: Substantial and wide-ranging document. "The report aims to indicate ways to strengthen EU action against trafficking in human beings and, where appropriate, to launch new initiatives, programmes and activities..." PREAMBLE: This report is the result of a year’s work of the Experts Group on Trafficking in Human Beings. The main assignment of the Experts Group is to contribute to the translation of the Brussels Declaration into practice, in particular by submitting a report to the European Commission with concrete proposals on the implementation of the recommendations of the Brussels Declaration. The report aims to indicate ways to strengthen EU action against trafficking in human beings and, where appropriate, to launch new initiatives, programmes and activities. The Brussels Declaration, however, has been understood as a “platform” and not as a “fence”. We have also taken into account other sources in order to benefit from new developments and findings in particular areas....."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: European Commission via Coat net
    Format/size: pdf (2.04MB) 239 pages
    Date of entry/update: 28 May 2005


    Title: The Mekong Challenge - Underpaid, Overworked and Overlooked : The realities of young migrant workers in Thailand (Volume 1)
    Date of publication: 13 December 2006
    Description/subject: "...Thailand has emerged as the number one destination in cross-border trafficking of children and women. Many children and young women from Myanmar, Cambodia and Lao PDR migrate to Thailand in search of better life. Often their journey leads them to a life of exploitation. A significant percent of these young migrants work in four employment sectors; agriculture, fishing boats and fish processing, manufacturing and domestic work. While they become an integral part of the economy, they remain invisible and face exploitation. Exploitation is widespread and ranges from non-payment or underpayment of wages, a requirement to work excessive hours sometimes involving the use of hazardous equipment - to even more serious violations of forced labour and trafficking..."
    Author/creator: Elaine Pearson, Sureeporn Punpuing, Aree Jampaklay, Sirinan Kittisuksathit, Aree Prohmmo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Mekong Sub-regional Project to Combat Trafficking in Women and Children, ILO
    Format/size: pdf (English - 2.5MB, 5.23 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.humantrafficking.org/uploads/publications/underpaid-eng-volume1.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 April 2008


  • Trafficking: Burma-specific material

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Central Body for Suppression of Trafficking in Persons (CBTIP)
    Description/subject: "...Human Trafficking, commonly referred to as a modern form of slavery, is widely spread across in almost all countries around the world. It is estimated that 1.2 million People are forced and trafficked into prostitution, entertainment sector, production sector, fishing industry and agricultural sector. In Asia, South East Asia is identified as a sub-region with the highest prevalence of human trafficking. It is learned that in the six countries of the Greater Mekong Sub-region about three hundred thousands of women and children are being trafficked each year. This problem is being combated regionally as well as nationally with plans and programs that enjoy priority. However, we learnt that this problem is still thriving and growing. Myanmar considers the problem of human trafficking as a national concern and has strived to prevent at all cause since 1997. We have not only cooperated with regional organizations and projects such as ASEAN, BIMSTEC, COMMIT and ARTIP but had also signed bilateral agreements with neighboring countries like China and Thailand for cooperation in combating trafficking. In 2004, Myanmar became a member of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocols. The Anti Trafficking in Persons Law was promulgated in 2005, and the Anti Trafficking bodies were established at all levels and vested authorities to act accordingly. Myanmar laid down a Five-Year National Plan of Action to Combat Human Trafficking (2007 - 2011) to undertake preventive interventions and has increased measures, step by step, in taking legal action, protecting trafficked victims and in building the capacities of key actors..."..... News Article... Initiatives... Resources (no content)... Events... FAQs... Contact Us.....Since there is no Burmese version visible, one wonders who the target audience is.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: (Myanmar) Ministry of Home Affairs
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 February 2012


    Title: Human Trafficking.org's Burma page
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Trafficking.org
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 28 May 2005


    Individual Documents

    Title: "MIGRATING WITH HOPE": Burmese Women Working in Thailand and The Sex Industry
    Date of publication: July 1997
    Description/subject: "...This report, "Migrating With Hope: Burmese Women Working In Thailand and The Sex Industry" attempts to present and highlight the needs, interests, and realities of undocumented migrant women from Burma working as sex-workers in Thailand. We look at the lives of women in Burma, the migration processes, processes of entry into the sex-industry, and factors which govern women's wellbeing or suffering during the time of migration in Thailand. The authors hope that the documentation presented will provide useful information to prospective migrants from Burma. We also hope that it can be used to instigate programmes to protect the rights of and to provide the necessary services for undocumented migrant workers, and by doing this, prevent more Burmese women from being exploited. This report is written in the knowledge that women can become empowered to make informed choices about their lives. It is also hoped that this report will provide the general public with information not only about Burmese migrant women, but also about the situation of undocumented migrant workers who flee from Burma, a country ruled by a military regime..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Images Asia
    Format/size: pdf (284K)
    Date of entry/update: 19 May 2005


    Title: A MODERN FORM OF SLAVERY:
    Date of publication: August 1993
    Description/subject: A substantial and important report. ""Lin Lin" was thirteen years old when she was recruited by an agent for work in Thailand. Her father took $480 from the agent with the understanding that his daughter would pay the loan back out of her earnings. The agent took "Lin Lin" to Bangkok, and three days later she was taken to the Ran Dee Prom brothel. "Lin Lin" did not know what was going on until a man came into her room and started touching her breasts and body and then forced her to have sex. For the next two years, "Lin Lin" worked in various parts of Thailand in four different brothels, all but one owned by the same family. The owners told her she would have to keep prostituting herself until she paid off her father's debt. Her clients, who often included police, paid the owner $4 each time. If she refused a client's demands, she was slapped and threatened by the owner. She worked every day except for the two days off each month she was allowed for her menstrual period. Once she had to borrow money to pay for medicine to treat a painful vaginal infection. This amount was added to her debt. On January 18, 1993 the Crime Suppression Division of the Thai police raided the brothel in which "Lin Lin" worked, and she was taken to a shelter run by a local non-governmental organization. She was fifteen years old, had spent over two years of her young life in compulsory prostitution, and tested positive for the human immunodeficiency virus or HIV. "Lin Lin" is just one of thousands of Burmese women and girls who have been trafficked and sold into what amounts to female sexual slavery in Thailand. In the last two years, Thai NGOs estimate that at a minimum, some twenty thousand Burmese women and girls are suffering Lee's fate, or worse, and that ten thousand new recruits come in every year. They are moved from one brothel to another as the demand for new faces dictates, and often end up being sent back to Burma after a year or two to recruit their own successors..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Watch and the Women's Rights Project (Human Rights Watch)
    Format/size: html (394K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Beyond Trafficking Jams (Japanese)
    Date of publication: February 2001
    Description/subject: Trafficking in women stems from society's failure to recognize the valueof certain forms of labor, leaving women engaged in them open to every imaginable form of exploitation. Trafficked women need more than pity, argues Jackie Pollock: They need room to find their own solutions to the problems facing their respective professions.
    Author/creator: Jackie Pollock (Tr. Tetz Hakoda)
    Language: Japanese
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2010


    Title: Beyond Trafficking Jams: Creating a Space for Trafficked Women
    Date of publication: February 2001
    Description/subject: Trafficking in women stems from society's failure to recognize the valueof certain forms of labor, leaving women engaged in them open to every imaginable form of exploitation. Trafficked women need more than pity, argues Jackie Pollock: They need room to find their own solutions to the problems facing their respective professions.
    Author/creator: Jackie Pollock
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy, Vol. 9. No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Breaking Through the Clouds: A Participatory Action Research (PAR) Project with Migrant Children and Youth Along the Borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand
    Date of publication: May 2001
    Description/subject: 1. Introduction; 1.1. Background; 1.2. Project Profile; 1.3. Project Objectives; 2. The Participatory Action Research (PAR) Process; 2.1. Methods of Working with Migrant Children and Youth; 2.2. Implementation Strategy; 2.3. Ethical Considerations; 2.4. Research Team; 2.5. Sites and Participants; 2.6. Establishing Research Guidelines; 2.7. Data Collection Tools; 2.8. Documentation; 2.9. Translation; 2.10Country and Regional Workshops; 2.11Analysis, Methods of Reporting Findings and Dissemination Strategy; 2.12. Obstacles and Limitations; 3. PAR Interventions; 3.1. Strengthening Social Structures; 3.2. Awareness Raising; 3.3. Capacity Building; 3.4. Life Skills Development; 3.5. Outreach Services; 3.6. Networking and Advocacy; 4. The Participatory Review; 4.1. Aims of the Review; 4.2. Review Guidelines; 4.3. Review Approach and Tools; 4.4. Summary of Review Outcomes; 4.4.1. Myanmar; 4.4.2. Thailand; 4.4.3. China; 5. Conclusion and Recommendations; 6. Bibliography of Resources.
    Author/creator: Therese Caouette et al
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Save the Children (UK)
    Format/size: pdf (191K) 75 pages
    Date of entry/update: May 2003


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2008 - Chapter 6: Trafficking and Smuggling
    Date of publication: 23 November 2009
    Description/subject: The increase in the rates of trafficking and smuggling from Burma in 2008 is testament to the seriousness of the economic crisis that threatens to destabilize the country. More importantly perhaps, it is also indicative of a country in which corruption is widespread and lawlessness is pervasive. Lawlessness is especially apparent in ethnic rural areas suffering from conflict and in remote mountainous areas. Transnational crime is estimated to be a multi-billion dollar industry; however, Burma’s “extra-legal economy, both black market and illicit border trade, is reportedly so large that an accurate assessment of the size and structure of the country’s economy is unavailable.” Live animals, commodities, drugs, arms, and people, particularly women and children, were all trafficked or smuggled within and from Burma in 2008. Known trafficking and smuggling destinations included: Thailand, China, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Macau, South Korea, Pakistan, India, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Brunei Darussalam, and Japan.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Docmentation Unit (HRDU)
    Format/size: pdf (793K)
    Date of entry/update: 05 December 2009


    Title: Driven Away: Trafficking of Kachin women on the China-Burma border
    Date of publication: 15 May 2005
    Description/subject: "An alarming trend is developing in ethnic Kachin communities of Burma. Growing poverty, caused by failed state policies, is driving increasing numbers of young people to migrate in search of work. As a result, young women and girls are disappearing without trace, being sold as wives in China, and tricked into the Chinese and Burmese sex industries. Local Kachin researchers conducted interviews in Burma from May-August 2004 in order to document this trend. "Driven Away: Trafficking of Kachin women on the China-Burma border", produced by the Kachin Women's Association Thailand (KWAT), is based on 63 verified and suspected trafficking cases that occurred primarily during 2000-2004. The cases involve 85 women and girls, mostly between the ages of 14 and 20. Testimony comes primarily from women and girls who escaped after being trafficked, as well as relatives, persons who helped escapees, and others. About two-thirds of the women trafficked were from the townships of Myitkyina and Bhamo in Kachin State. About one third were from villages in northern Shan State. In 36 of the cases, women were specifically offered safe work opportunities and followed recruiters to border towns. Many were seeking part-time work to make enough money for school fees during the annual three-month school holiday. Others simply needed to support their families. Those not offered work were taken while looking for work, tricked, or outright abducted. Women taken to China were most often passed on to traffickers at the border to be transported farther by car, bus and/or train for journeys of up to one week in length. Traffickers used deceit, threats, and drugs to confuse and control women en route..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Kachin Women's Association, Thailand (KWAT)
    Format/size: pdf (3.3MB), 2.2MB
    Alternate URLs: http://www.womenofburma.org/Report/Driven_Away.pdf (original, authoritative)
    Date of entry/update: 17 May 2005


    Title: Eastward Bound
    Date of publication: 05 August 2008
    Description/subject: Summary of key findings: The report documents 133 verified and suspected trafficking cases, involving 163 women and girls, which occurred between 2004 and mid-2007 . As political and economic conditions inside Burma continue to deteriorate, more and more Kachin women are migrating to China in search of work, and are ending up as forced brides of Chinese men. . Most of the forced brides were transported across China to marry men in the eastern provinces, particularly Shandong Province. Women described being shown to many men, sometimes in marketplaces, before being chosen. The husbands, predominantly farmers, paid an average of US$1,900 for their brides. . About a quarter of those trafficked were under 18, with girls as young as 14 forced to be brides. Several cases involved traffickers attempting to buy babies. . The continuing high incidence of trafficking indicates that the regime's new anti-trafficking law, passed in September 2005, is failing to have any impact in curbing the problem. Provisions in the regime's new law to protect the rights of trafficking victims are not being adhered to. Women are also being falsely accused of trafficking under the new law. . Women report that Chinese police have been helpful in assisting them to return to Burma, but have sometimes demanded compensation from Burma border officials for repatriating trafficking victims...... Growing numbers of Kachin women trafficked as brides across China Forced by deteriorating political and economic conditions in Burma to migrate to China, ethnic Kachin women are increasingly ending up as forced brides, according to a new report by an indigenous women¹s group. ³Eastward Bound² by the Kachin Women¹s Association Thailand (KWAT), documents the trafficking of 163 women and girls between 2004 and mid-2007, almost all to China. While 40% of the women have simply disappeared, most of the rest were forced to marry men in provinces across eastern China. About a quarter of those trafficked were under 18. Most of these girls, as young as 14, were sold as brides for an average of about USD 2,000, usually to farmers. The report highlights how the Burmese regime¹s new anti-trafficking law, passed in September 2005, is failing not only to curb trafficking, but also to protect the rights of trafficked women. Victims have been refused assistance by the Burmese Embassy in Beijing, denied entry back to Burma, and falsely accused of trafficking themselves. One woman accused of trafficking was raped in detention by a local official. ³Anti-trafficking laws are meaningless under a regime that systematically violates people¹s rights, and whose policies are driving citizens to migrate,² said Gum Khong, a researcher for the report. While international agencies have raised the alert about increased trafficking in Burma following Cyclone Nargis, KWAT cautions against indirectly endorsing the regime¹s heavy-handed attempts to control migration. ³International agencies must look holistically at the trafficking problem, and not be complicit in any efforts by the regime to further abuse people¹s rights under the guise of preventing trafficking² said KWAT spokesperson Shirley Seng. KWAT first exposed the trafficking of Kachin women on the China-Burma border in their 2005 report ³Driven Away.² The new report can be viewed at http://www.womenofburma.org For hard copies of the report, please contact: kwat@loxinfo.co.th For further information contact: Gum Khong +66 84 616 5245 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting              +66 84 616 5245      end_of_the_skype_highlighting Shirley Seng +66 84 485 7252
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Kachin Women's Association, Thailand (KWAT)
    Format/size: pdf (1.7MB, 2MB - Alt. URL))
    Alternate URLs: http://www.womenofburma.org/Report/EastwardBound.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 04 August 2008


    Title: Factbook on Global Sexual Exploitation of Women: Burma/Myanmar
    Date of publication: 1999
    Description/subject: "...The military and political situations in Burma, has led to an increase in migration, which has made women extremely vulnerable to trafficking for prostitution... Girls from Burma, aged 12-18, are in more demand for the sex industry in Thailand since traffickers are luring fewer girls from Northern Thailand..."
    Author/creator: Donna M. Hughes, Laura Joy Sporcic, Nadine Z. Mendelsohn, Vanessa Chirgwin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Coalition Against Trafficking in Women
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/factbook.htm
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2010


    Title: Hostages and Slaves
    Date of publication: July 2009
    Description/subject: "The underground world of human trafficking on the Malaysian-Thai border is one of corruption and broken dreams... ALOR SETAR, Malaysia — “Malaysian migration officers sold me to a human trafficking gang located near the Thai-Malaysian border,” said Lwin Ko, one of thousands of victims of human trafficking in Malaysia. Like many other Burmese migrant workers and refugees in Malaysia, he was arrested for illegal entry into the country. After processing in an immigration detention center, he said, immigration officers transferred him directly to a gang of human traffickers, who treated him as a “hostage,” or slave, to be held for a lucrative ransom. Migrant workers are apprehended and led to an open area by civilian security volunteers to have their documents inspected during an immigration raid in Kuala Lumpur in 2005. (Photo: AFP) If no ransom was forthcoming after a few weeks, Lwin Ko would be passed on like many others to work as a crewman on a fishing boat or, for women, to work as household servants or as prostitutes in brothels..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2009


    Title: Is the Anti-Trafficking Framework Really for the ‘Victims’? –Reflections on Burmese victims of human trafficking and non-trafficked migrants in Thailand
    Date of publication: March 2011
    Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "Since the year 2000 when the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, human trafficking has been regarded as one of the egregious violations of human rights, and global efforts have been made to eradicate it. The anti-trafficking framework has multiple dimensions, and the way the anti-trafficking framework is constructed influences its impact on the victims and non-trafficked migrants. This paper will analyze the impact of the anti-trafficking framework on the experiences of Burmese victims and non-trafficked migrants in Thailand. I will question the conventional framework of anti-trafficking, and seek to construct a framework more appropriate for addressing victims’ actual needs. In conclusion, the anti-trafficking framework should serve the best interest of the victim; still, it should not be one which might adversely affect the interest of the would-be victim who is not identified as a victim according to the law."... Keywords: Human trafficking, Anti-trafficking, Framework, Law, Thailand
    Author/creator: YAMADA Miwa
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute for Developing Economies (IDE) Jetro (IDE DISCUSSION PAPER No.No.289)
    Format/size: pdf (84K)
    Date of entry/update: 17 October 2011


    Title: MIGRATION & TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN & GIRLS (Chapter from "Gathering Strength")
    Date of publication: January 2002
    Description/subject: OVERVIEW; RESTRICTION ON WOMEN'S FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT; REGIONAL MIGRATION; TRAFFICKING; SEX WORK; DEPORTATION; ACTIONS TO COMBAT TRAFFICKING; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS.
    Author/creator: Brenda Belak
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Images Asia
    Format/size: PDF (567K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Migration and trafficking: putting human rights into action
    Date of publication: 22 April 2008
    Description/subject: Across Myanmar people are on the move, both inside the country and across its borders, either pushed by necessity or pulled by the prospect of a brighter future. For many, these hopes are at least partially fulfilled. For some, however, this migration brings them face-to-face with exploitation, abuse, disease and even death.
    Author/creator: Nikolas Win Myint
    Language: Burmese, English
    Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
    Format/size: pdf (English, 390K; Burmese, 225K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/38-39.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


    Title: Nightmare island where traffickers imprison Burma's Rohingya
    Date of publication: 08 August 2013
    Description/subject: "Beaten, imprisoned and sold into slavery - Channel 4 News reveals the fate of Burma's Muslim Rohingya refugees, who flee conflict only to end up in the clutches of brutal human traffickers..." On Tarutao Island which is a Thai national park.
    Author/creator: John Sparks
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Channel 4 News
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 August 2013


    Title: NO STATUS: MIGRATION, TRAFFICKING & EXPLOITATION OF WOMEN IN THAILAND
    Date of publication: 14 July 2004
    Description/subject: I. Executive Summary; II. Introduction; III. Thailand: Background. IV. Burma: Background. V. Project Methodology; VI. Findings: Hill Tribe Women and Girls in Thailand; Burmese Migrant Women and Girls in Thailand; VII. Law and Policy – Thailand; VIII. Applicable International Human Rights Law; IX. Law and Policy – United States X. Conclusion and Expanded Recommendations..."This study was designed to provide critical insight and remedial recommendations on the manner in which human rights violations committed against Burmese migrant and hill tribe women and girls in Thailand render them vulnerable to trafficking,2 unsafe migration, exploitative labor, and sexual exploitation and, consequently, through these additional violations, to HIV/AIDS. This report describes the policy failures of the government of Thailand, despite a program widely hailed as a model of HIV prevention for the region. Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) findings show that the Thai government's abdication of responsibility for uncorrupted and nondiscriminatory law enforcement and human rights protection has permitted ongoing violations of human rights, including those by authorities themselves, which have caused great harm to Burmese and hill tribe women and girls..."
    Author/creator: Karen Leiter, Ingrid Tamm, Chris Beyrer, Moh Wit, Vincent Iacopino,. Holly Burkhalter, Chen Reis.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Physicians for Human Rights
    Format/size: pdf (853K)
    Date of entry/update: 19 July 2004


    Title: NOWHERE ELSE TO GO: An examination of sexual trafficking and related human rights abuses in Southern Burma
    Date of publication: August 2009
    Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "This report documents sexual trafficking and human rights abuses committed against Burmese women and children from 19 Townships in Mon State, Karen State, Tenasserim Division, Pegu Division, Rangoon Division and Mandalay Division. From 2004 to July 2009 the (Mon) Woman and Child Rights Project (WCRP)—Southern Burma documentation program compiled 40 separate incidents totaling 71 victims. This number represents only a small percentage of the instances of sexual trafficking from Burma to Thailand and other bordering nations, though the case studies of this report provide an important lens through which to view the present-day situation. Sexual trafficking and related human rights abuses are pervasive and arguably growing problems systematized by a harsh economic reality under the military rule of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). Whereas the illegitimate junta has become a signatory of anti-trafficking protocols from the United Nations and founded internal regulatory committees to deal with such issues, the last decade has seen flagrant corruption along the border of Burma and Thailand. Government-organized NGOs dedicated to defending the ‘rights’ of its people serve more as roadblocks than as catalysts for social advancement and equitable access to state resources. Facing a broken educational system most likely to betray them, women and girls inside Burma are left with few employable skills and must seek money in any way they can. A reeling marketplace stunted by the government’s economic mismanagement, increased militarization in rural and especially border areas, and the ear-ringing echoes of Cyclone Nargis and price fluctuations from a global economic downturn leave the women of the mainly-agrarian regions of Southern Burma with a glaring ultimatum: migrate or starve. The draw of being able to send money back to their home country in the form of remittances often cannot be tempered even by stories of corrupt traffickers, arrests, or dangerous and abusive living conditions upon arrival. Most of the incidents detailed in this report point to violent sexual abuses that took place during the trafficking process or upon arrival in Thailand, Malaysia, and other destinations. The interview subjects often narrate the types of factory and domestic jobs they were promised to contrast the illegal sex work and other exploitive labor they were forced to perform."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Women and Child Rights Project (WCRP); Human Rights Foundation of Monland (HURFOM)
    Format/size: pdf (1.4MB - reduced version; 3MB - original version)
    Alternate URLs: http://rehmonnya.org/data/nowhereelsetogo.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 31 August 2009


    Title: Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) Thailand-Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Thailand-Myanmar Border Areas Trafficking in Children into the Worst Forms of Child Labour: A Rapid Assessment
    Date of publication: November 2001
    Description/subject: Executive Summary" Chapter I: Introduction 5 1.1 Definitions 5 1.1.1 The Convention on the Worst Forms of Child Labour 5 1.1.2 Trafficking 6 1.1.3 Target Groups 6 1.2 Background 6 1.3 Structure of this Report 7 Chapter II: Background Information from the Literature – Child Labour in Thailand 9 2.1 Decreasing Numbers of Ethnic Thai Child Workers 9 2.2 Minors From Lao PDR Working in Thailand 9 2.3 Minors from Myanmar Working in Thailand 10 2.4 Sectors of Child Labour 10 2.5 Foreign and Ethnic Minority Child Workers 11 Chapter III: Methodology 13 3.1 Rapid Assessment 13 3.2 Child Respondents 13 3.3 Gender, Ethnicity and Legal Status 14 3.4 Key and Other Informants 15 3.5 Research Approaches 15 3.6 This Research and its Limitations 16 3.6.1 Strength of the Methodology 16 3.6.2 To What Extent Can We Draw General Conclusions from this Study? 16 3.6.3 Where does this Study Shows Specific and Not General Results 16 3.6.4 Recruitment and Transportation Systems 17 3.6.5 Source Communities 17 3.6.6 Change Over Time 17 3.7 Possibilities for Future Research 17 Chapter IV: Origins of Trafficking and Risk Groups 19 4.1 Why Do Minors Leave Their Village to Work in Thailand? 19 4.1.1 Financial Motivation 19 4.1.2 Lack of Purchasing Power 19 4.1.3 Lack of Job Opportunities and Educational Attainments 20 4.1.4 Parents’ Role in the Decision to Leave 20 4.1.5 Trafficking and Household Decisions 21 4.1.6 Following Others, Seeing the World and Experiencing Life 23 4.1.7 Personal Problems and Difficulties in the Community 24 4.1.8 Oppressed Communities 25 4.2 Risk Groups 25 4.2.1 Hill Tribes From Thailand 25 4.2.2 Refugees and Displaced Persons 26 4.2.3 Stateless Persons 26 4.2.4 Laotians 26 4.2.5 Minors From Myanmar 27 Chapter V: Transportation into Thailand 29 5.1 Information About Work 29 5.2 Initiative and Decision to Seek Work 29 5.3 Organizers of Transportation into Thailand 30 5.4 Means of Transport 31 5.5 Entry into Thailand 31 5.6 The Special Border Zones 32 5.7 Immigration Policies and the Movement of Minors 32 Chapter VI: Recruitment into the Worst Forms of Child Labour 37 6.1.1 Immediate Entry into the Worst Forms of Child Labour 37 6.1.2 Delayed Entry into the Worst Forms of Child Labour 37 6.1.3 Information Obtained in Thailand About Work 38 6.1.4 Getting into Work 38 6.2 Profit Made From the Recruitment Process 38 6.3 Awareness and Deception 40 6.4 Networking and the Danger of Trafficking 41 6.5 Ethnic Minorities and Burmans 43 6.6 Gender 44 Chapter VII: Conditions of Child Labour 47 7.1 Industries 47 7.2 Extent of Child Labour at the Border Sites 48 7.2.1 Factories Employing Minors in Mae Sai 48 7.2.2 The Sex Industry 50 7.2.2.1 Muk Dahan 50 7.2.2.2 Mae Sot 51 7.2.2.3 Nong Khai Province 52 7.2.2.4 Mae Sai 53 7.3 The Worst Forms of Child Labour 54 7.3.1 Slavery and Practices Similar to Slavery 54 7.3.2 Prostitution and Pornography 54 7.3.3 Illicit Activities 54 7.3.4 Work Endangering the Health, Safety or Morals of Children 55 7.3.4.1 Physical, Psychological Abuse 55 7.3.4.2 Work Underground, Under Water, at Dangerous Heights and in Confined Space 55 7.3.4.3 Work With Dangerous Machinery, Equipment and Tools 56 7.3.4.4 Manual Handling or Transport of Heavy Loads 56 7.3.4.5 Unhealthy Environment, Hazardous Substances 56 7.3.4.6 Work in Difficult Circumstances, Including Long Hours and During the Night 56 7.4 Payment 57 7.5 Assessment of the Worst Forms of Child Labour from the Minors’ Perspective 57 Chapter VIII: Prospects after Trafficking into the Worst Forms of Child Labour 59 8.1 Continuation in Exploitative Industries 59 8.2 Ways of Leaving Employment 59 8.3 Aspirations for the Future 60 8.4 Young Adults who Consider Themselves Successful 60 Chapter IX: Conclusion 63 Annexes 67 Annex I: Findings at a Glance 67 Annex II: Questionnaire 75 Bibliography 81.
    Author/creator: Christina Wille
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ILO (IPEC)
    Format/size: pdf (1.54MB)
    Date of entry/update: 08 May 2004


    Title: Pushed to the Brink - Conflict and human trafficking on the Kachin-China border
    Date of publication: 05 June 2013
    Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The Burmese government’s renewed war against the Kachin has exponentially increased the risk of human trafficking along the China-Burma border. New documentation by KWAT indicates that large-scale displacement, lack of refugee protection and shortages of humanitarian aid have become significant new push factors fuelling the trafficking problem. Burma Army offensives against the Kachin Independence Army since June 2011 and widespread human rights abuses have driven over 100,000 villagers from their homes, mainly in eastern Kachin State. The majority of these refugees have fled to crowded IDP camps along the China border, which receive virtually no international aid. Desperate to earn an income, but with little or no legal option to pursue migrant work in China, many cross the border illegally. Their lack of legal status renders them extremely vulnerable to exploitation by traffickers, who use well-trodden routes to transport and sell people into bonded labor or forced marriage as far as eastern provinces of China. Although ongoing attacks and massive social upheaval since the start of the conflict have hampered systematic data collection, KWAT has documented 24 trafficking cases from Kachin border areas since June 2011, mostly involving young women and girls displaced by the war, who have been tricked, drugged, raped, and sold to Chinese men or families as brides or bonded laborers. The sale of women and children is a lucrative source of income for traffickers, who can make as much as 40,000 Yuan (approximately $6,500 USD) per person. While some manage to escape, and may be assisted by Chinese authorities in returning home, others disappear without a trace. Kachin authorities and community-based groups have played a key role in providing help with trafficking cases, and assisting women to be reunited with their families. No trafficked women or their families sought help from Burmese authorities. The Burmese government lists an anti-trafficking border liaison office at Loije on the Kachin-China border, but it is unknown to the community and thought to be non-functional. Far from seeking to provide protection to the internally displaced persons (IDPs) and mitigate trafficking risks, the Burmese government has continued to fuel the war, block humanitarian aid to IDPs in Kachin controlled areas, and even attack and destroy IDP camps, driving refugees into China. It has also closed some of the immigration offices on the Kachin-China border which could provide border passes for refugees to legally seek work in China. It is thus ironic that in 2012, Burma was recognized in the U.S. State Department’s Annual Trafficking in Persons Report as increasing its efforts in combating human trafficking, resulting in a rise from its bottomlevel ranking for the first time in the history of the report, and a corresponding increase in financial support to Burma’s quasi-civilian government. It is urgently needed to address the structural problems that have led to mass migration and trafficking in the past and also spurred the recent conflict. The Burmese military’s gross mismanagement of resource revenues from Kachin State over the past few decades, and ongoing land confiscation, forced relocation, and human rights abuses, have pushed countless Kachin civilians across the Chinese border in search of peace and the fulfillment of basic needs. These problems led to the breakdown of the 17-year ceasefire between the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and the military-dominated government in 2011. Refusing to engage in dialogue to address Kachin demands for equality and equitable development, the government launched attacks to seize total control over the wealth of resources in Kachin State. Resolving the current conflict via genuine political dialogue would not only be a step towards peace, but also a concrete move towards curbing human trafficking from Kachin areas. Launching a range of reforms dealing with the political and economic factors driving people beyond Burma’s borders is critical to addressing trafficking. Therefore, KWAT recommends the following:..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Kachin Women’s Association Thailand (KWAT)
    Format/size: pdf (1.1MB-OBL version; 1.37MB-original...Press release: Chinese, 90K; Burmese, 40K; English, html)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.kachinwomen.com
    http://www.kachinwomen.com/images/stories/pressrelease/pushed_chinese.pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/KWAT-pushed_to_the_brink-PR-bu-ocr.pdf
    http://www.kachinwomen.com/advocacy/press-release.html
    http://www.kachinwomen.com/images/stories/publication/pushed_to_the_brink.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 05 June 2013


    Title: Sacrifice: the Story of Child Prostitutes from Burma
    Description/subject: 2 minute 37 second extract from a film by Ellen Bruno. "Screened at Sundance, the film examines the social, cultural and economic forces at work in the trafficking of Burmese girls into prostitution in Thailand. The site also has linked resources - organisations, films, publications, calls to action etc.
    Author/creator: Ellen Bruno
    Language: English, Thai
    Source/publisher: .brunofilms
    Format/size: Adobe Flash
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Sex for Export
    Date of publication: February 2001
    Description/subject: The flesh trade is flourishing along the Thai-Burma border, where the wages of cheap sex are adding to the toll taken by decades of poverty and military conflict. Tachilek, a border town in the Burmese sector of the Golden Triangle, has a reputation for many things, few of them good. Most recently in the media spotlight as the center of a pitched battle between Thai, Burmese and ethnic insurgent forces that has claimed lives on both sides of the border, Tachilek is best known as a major conduit for opium and methamphetamines flowing out of Burma. It also has a Thai-owned casino and a thriving black market in everything from pirated VCDs to tiger skins and Burmese antiques. But stroll across the Friendship Bridge from Mae Sai, Thailand, and would-be guides will waste no time making sure you don’t miss the main attraction. "Phuying, phuying," they whisper in Thai, clutching photos of Tachilek’s very own Shwedagon pagoda and other local sights. "Phuying, suay maak," they repeat: "Girls, very beautiful."
    Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Small Dreams Beyond Reach: The Lives of Migrant Children and Youth Along the Borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: A Participatory Action Research Project of Save the Children(UK)... 1. Introduction; 2. Background; 2.1. Population; 2.2. Geography; 2.3. Political Dimensions; 2.4. Economic Dimensions; 2.5. Social Dimensions; 2.6. Vulnerability of Children and Youth; 3. Research Design; 3.1. Project Objectives; 3.2. Ethical Considerations; 3.3. Research Team; 3.4. Research Sites and Participants; 3.5. Data Collection Tools; 3.6. Data Analysis Strategy; 3.7. Obstacles and Limitations; 4. Preliminary Research Findings; 4.1. The Migrants; 4.2. Reasons for migrating; 4.3. Channels of Migration; 4.4. Occupations; 4.5. Working and Living Conditions; 4.6. Health; 4.7. Education; 4.8. Drugs; 4.9. Child Labour; 4.10. Trafficking of Persons; 4.11. Vulnerabilities of Children; 4.12. Return and Reintegration; 4.13. Community Responses; 5. Conclusion and Recommendations... Recommendations to empower migrant children and youth in the Mekong sub-region... "This report provides an awareness of the realities and perspectives among migrant children, youth and their communities, as a means of building respect and partnerships to address their vulnerabilities to exploitation and abusive environments. The needs and concerns of migrants along the borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand are highlighted and recommendations to address these are made. The main findings of the participatory action research include: * those most impacted by migration are the peoples along the mountainous border areas between China, Myanmar and Thailand, who represent a variety of ethnic groups * both the countries of origin and countries of destination find that those migrating are largely young people and often include children * there is little awareness as to young migrants' concerns and needs, with extremely few interventions undertaken to reach out to them * the majority of the cross-border migrants were young, came from rural areas and had little or no formal education * the decision to migrate is complex and usually involves numerous overlapping factors * migrants travelled a number of routes that changed frequently according to their political and economic situations. The vast majority are identified as illegal immigrants * generally, migrants leave their homes not knowing for certain what kind of job they will actually find abroad. The actual jobs available to migrants were very gender specific * though the living and working conditions of cross-border migrants vary according to the place, job and employer, nearly all the participants noted their vulnerability to exploitation and abuse without protection or redress * for all illnesses, most of the participants explained that it was difficult to access public health services due to distance, cost and/or their illegal status * along all the borders, most of the children did not attend school and among those who did only a very few had finished primary level education * drug production, trafficking and addiction were critical issues identified by the communities at all of the research sites along the borders * child labour was found in all three countries * trafficking of persons, predominantly children and youth, was common at all the study sites * orphaned children along the border areas were found to be the most vulnerable * Migrants frequently considered their options and opportunities to return home Based on the project’s findings, recommendations are made at the conclusion of this report to address the critical issues faced by migrant children and youth along the borders. These recommendations include: methods of working with migrant youth, effective interventions, strategies for advocacy, identification of vulnerable populations and critical issues requiring further research. The following interventions were identified as most effective in empowering migrant children and youth in the Mekong sub-region: life skills training and literacy education, strengthening protection efforts, securing channels for safe return and providing support for reintegration to home countries. These efforts need to be initiated in tandem with advocacy efforts to influence policies and practices that will better protect and serve migrant children and youth."
    Author/creator: Therese M. Caouette
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Save the Children (UK)
    Format/size: pdf (343K) 145 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/54_5205.htm
    http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/docs/small_dreams.pdf
    Date of entry/update: May 2003


    Title: Snap Shot Stories from Invisible Victims of Trafficking in Thailand (English)
    Date of publication: October 2011
    Description/subject: "Thailand is well-known for its pristine beaches and spicy food. But this is not what attracts low skilled migrants from neighboring countries into the country. Prospects of work and security, higher wages than they can earn at home and an opportunity to explore new places and people instead pull migrants from Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam and even China into Thailand. Thailand’s rapid economic growth has created wealth and opportunities. Development has resulted in increased demand for labour, or to be more precise, cheap low skilled foreign labour to do dirty, dangerous and difficult work that Thais often will not themselves do. To sustain a growing economy and in order to compete in international markets for low cost export of goods, Thailand continues to be dependent on a cheap migrant workforce of more than 2 million people. However for more than two decades since the early 1990s, policy makers in Thailand have not, at least until more recently, been willing or able to effectively regularise migration flows into the country. As a result, and left without legal and official means to enter Thailand, migrant workers, employers and industries employing migrants turn to smugglers to get workers into the country to fill significant gaps in the labour market. These smugglers, usually referred to as ‘brokers,’ may be complete strangers to the migrant workers themselves. But sometimes they are closely linked to friends and relatives. Links with officials on both sides of Thailand’s borders is an undeniable reality. The push factors in migrant home countries that bring them to Thailand include poverty, a lack of opportunities for work and earning money and repressive political environments - sometimes even physical repression from their own governments. When migrants hear stories from friends and relatives about well-paid jobs in Thailand, their decision to migrate is inevitable. Yet without legal documents, knowledge about Thailand’s employment system and an inability to read and speak the Thai language, migrants rely on brokers not only to smuggle them into the country but also, unless they already have strong networks in Thailand, to find them work, accommodation and a new life. For too many, this position of vulnerability means that before they even realise it, migrants have been sold into a situation where they are working long hours without rest or pay on a fishing boat, their freedom of movement is restricted on a Snap Shot Stories from Invisible Victims of Trafficking in Thailand 7 construction site, they have been turned into a virtual slave or, in the most extreme cases, forced to provide sexual services against their will. Migrant workers who find themselves in such situations of exploitation often report fear in approaching the police or other Thai government officials for assistance as they are undocumented and fear they will be arrested, extorted, abused or deported. All of these outcomes lessen a migrant’s opportunity to earn money for their families back home, burden them with more debt or even, in some cases, increase their risk of human rights abuses further. For others, seeking assistance from the police sees them sent back to their employers where severe punishment or even death awaits them. Workers who are victims of exploitation report that police appear as a key enemy and perceive many officials as deeply involved in systems of exploitation of which they have become victims..."
    Author/creator: Andy Hall (editor)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Mahidol Migration Center (MMC)
    Format/size: pdf (861K)
    Date of entry/update: 11 October 2011


    Title: Snap Shot Stories from Invisible Victims of Trafficking in Thailand (Thai)
    Date of publication: October 2011
    Description/subject: "Thailand is well-known for its pristine beaches and spicy food. But this is not what attracts low skilled migrants from neighboring countries into the country. Prospects of work and security, higher wages than they can earn at home and an opportunity to explore new places and people instead pull migrants from Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam and even China into Thailand. Thailand’s rapid economic growth has created wealth and opportunities. Development has resulted in increased demand for labour, or to be more precise, cheap low skilled foreign labour to do dirty, dangerous and difficult work that Thais often will not themselves do. To sustain a growing economy and in order to compete in international markets for low cost export of goods, Thailand continues to be dependent on a cheap migrant workforce of more than 2 million people. However for more than two decades since the early 1990s, policy makers in Thailand have not, at least until more recently, been willing or able to effectively regularise migration flows into the country. As a result, and left without legal and official means to enter Thailand, migrant workers, employers and industries employing migrants turn to smugglers to get workers into the country to fill significant gaps in the labour market. These smugglers, usually referred to as ‘brokers,’ may be complete strangers to the migrant workers themselves. But sometimes they are closely linked to friends and relatives. Links with officials on both sides of Thailand’s borders is an undeniable reality. The push factors in migrant home countries that bring them to Thailand include poverty, a lack of opportunities for work and earning money and repressive political environments - sometimes even physical repression from their own governments. When migrants hear stories from friends and relatives about well-paid jobs in Thailand, their decision to migrate is inevitable. Yet without legal documents, knowledge about Thailand’s employment system and an inability to read and speak the Thai language, migrants rely on brokers not only to smuggle them into the country but also, unless they already have strong networks in Thailand, to find them work, accommodation and a new life. For too many, this position of vulnerability means that before they even realise it, migrants have been sold into a situation where they are working long hours without rest or pay on a fishing boat, their freedom of movement is restricted on a Snap Shot Stories from Invisible Victims of Trafficking in Thailand
    Author/creator: Andy Hall (editor)
    Language: Thai
    Source/publisher: Mahidol Migration Center (MMC)
    Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
    Date of entry/update: 03 January 2012


    Title: Statement released by Central Body for Suppression of Trafficking in Persons, Ministry of Home Affairs, The Union of the Republic of Myanmar on allegations of US State Department in its Trafficking in Persons Report 2011
    Date of publication: 04 August 2011
    Description/subject: "The US Department of State issued 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report on 27 June 2011. The report placed Myanmar in Tier 3 as a country thai does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so by using the standards of US's Trafficked Victim Protection Act 2000 (TVPA). The tier placement is made without recognizing the efforts and progress made in combating human trafficking. Myanmar has been placed in Tier 3 for 11 years, continuously...the Central Body for Suppression of Trafficking in Persons, the Union Ministry of Home Affairs strongly rejects the allegations and statements mentioned in 2011 US Trafficking in Persons Report that do not reflect and recognize the significant efforts made in elimination of trafficking..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Union Government
    Format/size: pdf (110K)
    Alternate URLs: http://missions.itu.int/~myanmar/statement&speech/traffickingreport.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 16 August 2011


    Title: Stolen Lives: Human trafficking from Palaung areas of Burma to China
    Date of publication: 14 June 2011
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The Palaung Women’s Organization (PWO) has documented 72 cases of actual or suspected trafficking involving 110 people, which took place along the China-Burma border, mostly during the past six years. The majority of those trafficked were young Palaung women from tea farming communities in Namkham, Namhsan and Mantong townships. PWO surveys in villages from which women have been trafficked show that up to 41% of the population have migrated to work elsewhere. Large scale migration began after the surrender in 2005 of the Palaung State Liberation Army, which had controlled Palaung areas under a ceasefire agreement since 1991. There has been a surge of Burma Army troops and proxy militia into the area since the surrender, who have imposed increased controls and taxes on agriculture and trading. Together with rising prices of food commodities from Central Burma, and increasing costs of health and education, this has meant that tea farmers can no longer earn a living and young people have to leave home to survive. This has led to an alarming increase in the incidence of trafficking of women, men and children, mainly to China. Most of those trafficked were tricked into travelling to China by being offered well-paid jobs on farms or in factories. In 25% of the cases, women were forced to marry Chinese men, with brokers receiving up to 25,000 Yuan (approx 3,800 USD) for the transaction. 10% were forced into the sex trade. Some ended up being used as live feed for leeches. Known destinations were mainly in Yunnan province, but some ended up as far east as Shandong. A disturbing trend is that eleven of the cases were children under ten, fi ve of whom were under one year old. Most were boys. Some of these children were simply kidnapped from their homes, but others were sold by parents who were alcohol or drug users. As highlighted by PWO in earlier reports, opium cultivation in Palaung areas has skyrocketed in recent years due to the profi ts being made by the Burma Army and its militia from the drug trade. This has led to increasing addiction among Palaung men, who not only sell off all their possessions to buy drugs but also their children. In only eleven cases were the traffi cked persons able to escape, some after years of forced marriage to Chinese men. Family members seeking to trace traffi cked persons sought help in vain from local Burmese authorities and social organizations. In some cases perpetrators were arrested and jailed, but several paid bribes or fines and were then released. The Burmese military regime has passed anti-trafficking legislation since 2005 and set up special anti-trafficking units, including at Muse on the China-Burma border. However, these measures appear to have had little effect, due to failure to address the structural root causes driving human trafficking. The situation looks set to worsen following the November 2010 elections. Burma’s military rulers ensured that their cronies won in the Palaung areas, including well-known druglord Kyaw Myint, who is now an MP for Namkham. Militarization has continued unabated, and new military offensives by the regime against ethnic ceasefi re groups have ignited fighting once again in northern Shan State. Even before the new parliament was convened, a new national budget was approved which continued to prioritize military spending far above education and health. Radical structural political changes are thus urgently needed to address the problem of human trafficking and migration in Burma. PWO therefore makes the following recommendations:..."
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: Palaung Women's Organization
    Format/size: pdf ( English); 2.3MB - OBL version; 4.26 - originaL Burmese: 2.5MB - OBL version; 3.4MB - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.palaungwomen.com/Report/StolenLives-final%20Eng.pdf
    http://www.palaungwomen.com/Report/Stolen%20Lives_Burmese_For%20Web2.pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/StolenLivesl(bu)-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 15 June 2011


    Title: TRAFFICKED FROM HELL TO HADES
    Date of publication: November 1999
    Description/subject: The plight of Rohingya women from Burma trafficked in Pakistan “We have come all the way here, not just because we were trying to escape poverty and find a way to earn a better living like the Bangladeshis, but because it was our only option to save our lives.”(Interview with a Rohingya woman in Karachi on 22.11.99)...Rohingya women from Burma are trapped. In Burma they are deprived of citizenship, and face wide-scale atrocities committed by the military regime. In Bangladesh they are unwanted refugees, threatened with repatriation or deportation, and unable to meet their most basic needs. For many, the only option left to them in order to survive is being trafficked to Pakistan to face an uncertain future that often holds further abuses. During the journey across the subcontinent they can be caught in the web of ruthless traffickers. At every stage of the trip they are vulnerable to sexual violence, physical abuse, as well as other forms of exploitation, whether in the hands of the trafficker, the police, border guards, or while in detention. In Pakistan, some have been sold into slavery and prostitution, while many more survive as illegal immigrants in extreme poverty in the squalor of the Karachi slums. Others have spent many years in jail, detained under the Pakistan Foreigners Act or under the Zina section of the Hudood Ordinance. Wherever they are, Rohingya women are denied protection as well as assistance, and suffer the worst human rights abuses..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Images Asia
    Format/size: html (300K)
    Date of entry/update: 01 June 2005


    Title: TRAFFICKING AND EXTORTION OF BURMESE MIGRANTS IN MALAYSIA AND SOUTHERN THAILAND
    Date of publication: 03 April 2009
    Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "In 2007, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee began receiving disturbing reports alleging the trafficking and extortion of Burmese and other migrants in Malaysia and from Malaysia into Thailand, for personal profit by some Malaysian Government officials, among others. Committee staff conducted a year-long review of the trafficking and extortion allegations. The committee has an active interest in the treatment of Burmese migrants in Malaysia. Many of the approximately 40,000 Burmese refugees who have resettled in the United States since 1995, have come via Malaysia. Malaysia does not officially recognize refugees, due in part to concern by the Government that official recognition of refugees would encourage more people to enter Malaysia, primarily for economic reasons. Also, Malaysian officials view migrants as a threat to Malaysia’s national security... Many Burmese migrants travel to Malaysia to register with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), for resettlement to a third country. Typically they profess fear of persecution by the repressive Burmese military junta. Once in Malaysia, Burmese migrants are often arrested by Malaysian authorities, whether or not they have registered with the UNHCR and have identification papers. Personal belongings confiscated at the time of arrest are usually kept by Malaysian officials. Burmese migrants are reportedly taken by Malaysian Government personnel from detention facilities to the Malaysia-Thailand border for deportation. Allegations received by the committee from migrants, spanning years of personal experience, are similar to reports issued by NGOs and human rights activists. Upon arrival at the Malaysia-Thailand border, human traffickers reportedly take possession of the migrants and issue ransom demands on an individual basis. Migrants state that freedom is possible only once money demands are met. Specific payment procedures are outlined, which reportedly include bank accounts in Kuala Lumpur to which money should be transferred. The committee was informed that on some occasions, the ‘‘attendance’’ list reviewed by traffickers along the border was identical to the attendance list read prior to departure from the Malaysian detention facilities. Migrants state that those unable to pay are turned over to human peddlers in Thailand, representing a variety of business interests ranging from fishing boats to brothels. The committee has received numerous reports of sexual assaults against Burmese women by human traffickers along the border. One NGO official states that ‘‘Most young women deported to the Thai border are sexually abused, even in front of their husbands, by the syndicates, since no one dares to intervene as they would be shot or stabbed to death in the jungle.’’... Statements are continuing to come to the committee from Burmese and other migrants who were taken to the Thailand-Malaysia border and threatened with violence, or being handed over to human traffickers unless extortion demands were met... The allegations of mistreatment by Malaysian Government officials and human trafficking syndicates in southern Thailand are not restricted to Burmese migrants, including refugees. However, the preponderance of complaints received by the committee are from ethnic minority migrants who fled Burma..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: [US] Senate Committee on Foreign Relations – 111th Congress
    Format/size: pdf (115K)
    Alternate URLs: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_senate_committee_prints&docid=f:...
    Date of entry/update: 24 April 2009


    Title: Trafficking in Burmese women
    Date of publication: 19 November 1999
    Description/subject: Interview by Samuel Grumiau, ICFTU Online..., 214/991116/SG, 18 November 1999 "Every year, thousands of Burmese women fall into the hands of mafias who force them into prostitution in Thailand. How is this traffic organised? Hseng Noung Lintner, an activist in the "Shan Women Action Network", an NGO that assists women from the Shan ethnic group, explains..."
    Author/creator: Samuel Grumiau
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ICFTU
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 July 2003


    Title: Trafficking In Persons Report 2011 (section on Burma)
    Date of publication: 27 June 2011
    Description/subject: "Burma is a source country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and for women and children subjected to sex trafficking in other countries. Burmese children are forced to labor as hawkers and beggars in Thailand. Many Burmese men, women, and children who migrate for work in Thailand, Malaysia, China, Bangladesh, India, and South Korea are subjected to conditions of forced labor or sex trafficking in these countries. Poor economic conditions within Burma have led to increased legal and illegal migration of Burmese men, women, and children throughout East Asia and to destinations as far as the Middle East, where they are subject to forced labor and sex trafficking. For example, men are subjected to forced labor in the fishing and construction industries abroad. Some Bangladeshi trafficking victims transit Burma en route to Malaysia, while Chinese victims transit Burma en route to Thailand. The government has yet to address the systemic political and economic factors that cause many Burmese to seek employment through both legal and illegal means in neighboring countries, where some become victims of trafficking...".....Along with Cuba, North Korea and Sudan, Burma has remained in Tier 3 since 2004.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Department of State
    Format/size: pdf (325K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2011/index.htm
    Date of entry/update: 15 August 2011


    Title: Trafficking Report Says Burma's Military Uses Forced Labor. Also cites sexual exploitation
    Date of publication: 12 June 2003
    Description/subject: "The State Department designated Burma as a Tier 3 government in its third annual Trafficking in Persons Report due to the Burmese government's lack of significant efforts to meet congressionally set standards for combating human trafficking. The report, released June 11, faults Burma's military rulers for continued extensive use of internal forced labor. "The military is directly involved in forced labor trafficking," the report says. The report acknowledges that the military junta ruling Burma has taken steps to combat trafficking in persons for sexual exploitation, but it describes Burma's record as "inadequate." "The Government of Burma does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so," the report says. The State Department is required to report to Congress annually whether foreign governments fully meet the minimum standards set for the elimination of trafficking as detailed in the U.S. Trafficking Victims Protection Act of October 2000. Governments that are not making significant efforts to meet the standards are placed on the Tier 3 list.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: U.S. Dept of State
    Format/size: html, pdf (4.52 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2003/
    http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2003/21273.htm
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2010


    Title: Trafficking: The Realities for Burmese Women
    Date of publication: November 2003
    Description/subject: "...In 1993 Human Rights Watch published a report, ‘A Modern Form of Slavery – Trafficking of Burmese Women and Girls into Brothels in Thailand’. The report was compiled through interviews with 30 Burmese women working in brothels in Thailand. Most were from remote rural villages in Shan state, entering Thailand via the Tachilek/Mae Sai border in Northern Thailand, and most were from peasant or agricultural labourer backgrounds. They ranged in age from 12 to 22, with the average age being 17. All but one had been lured to Thailand by the prospect of improving their economic situation. Only four knew they would be working as prostitutes and even those four had no idea what the actual work would be like. With no reliable sources available from the information-repressed vacuum that Burmese media operates in, the realities of life in Thailand are never seen. Individual laws applicable to migration and other valuable information that would allow women to make an informed choice are simply not available. The situation of deception, coercion and abuse detailed in the 1993 report appears to have changed little in the last ten years. Kidnappings of young women at the Tachilek/Mae Sai border who are then taken to work in brothels in Chiang Mai are not uncommon and the phenomenon of young women and girls being sold by relatives and forced to work as sex workers continues to this day. But what of adult women who choose to come to Thailand as sex workers? Women who choose to work as sex-workers need to be distinguished from women who are trafficked – as not all women working as sex-workers have been trafficked. What then defines trafficking? – for one definition there is the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially women and Children, supplementing the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime. This protocol covers recruitment, transportation and harbouring of trafficked persons. It also includes the various means of acquiring the trafficked person and describes various forms of exploitation..."
    Author/creator: Jam Juree
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Burma Issues" Newsletter Volume 13 , Number 11
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 November 2003


    Title: Victims Or Players?
    Date of publication: February 2001
    Description/subject: "Are young Burmese girls working in the brothels of Thailand victims or players in the lucrative sex trade? Perhaps a look at two typical cases can shed light on this question..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw in Mae Sai, Chiang Mai & Min Zin in Ranong
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: WOMEN SOLD LIKE ANIMALS
    Date of publication: 06 July 2000
    Description/subject: "...Human traffickers bring destitute Bangladeshi and Burmese women into Pakistan on the promise of getting them decent jobs, but once here they are sold to third parties, mostly for the purpose of prostitution. These women are escorted all the way through India, some distances on foot, to reach Pakistan..."
    Author/creator: Ahmar Mustikhan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Frontier Post, Peshawar, Pakistan, via World Net Daily
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 January 2011