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Home > Main Library > Economy > Economy: general, analytical, statistical > Analyses and programmes by international financial institutions etc. > Asian Development Bank (ADB) and its watchers (Burma/Myanmar)

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Asian Development Bank (ADB) and its watchers (Burma/Myanmar)

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: ADB Myanmar page
Date of publication: 15 September 2003
Description/subject: Many links from this page
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 April 2012


Title: ADB projects in Myanmar
Description/subject: Project records contain Project Data Sheets (summary information on projects or programs), project and evaluation documents, business opportunities and other information. See the Project FAQs.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 November 2012


Title: International Rivers Network Mekong Page
Description/subject: Watches ADB projects in the Mekong region
Language: English
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2010


Title: Myanmar Tourism Master Plan
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB) 46271-001:
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 November 2012


Title: NGO Forum on ADB
Description/subject: Not much specifically on Burma/Myanmar.
Language: English
Source/publisher: NGO Forum on ADB
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Individual Documents

Title: Myanmar: Unlocking the Potential - Country Diagnostic Study
Date of publication: August 2014
Description/subject: "...In his inaugural address, President U Thein Sein rightfully identified a raft of challenges. One of these is an urgent need for investment in physical and social infrastructure. Another is the need for strong, growthoriented development, led initially by agriculture and natural resources, and followed by manufacturing for domestic and export markets. The President also emphasized the importance of transparency, accountability, good governance and the rule of law; resolute action against corruption; and addressing the widening income gap between rich and poor. To overcome the obstacles, the government will need to accelerate reforms. Doing so requires a clear, multipronged development that produces quality jobs and reduces poverty. Myanmar has a historic opportunity to develop integrated, comprehensive long-term policies. Getting them right, by learning from the successes and failures of its neighbors—and adapting those lessons to the country’s specific contexts— carries enormous advantages. This report examines how Myanmar can unlock its full potential. It stresses that charting a successful course will involve considerable care in sequencing policies and programs in the right sectors at the right time. It also details the policy challenges ahead—among them, how to strengthen market institutions, enhance governance and institutional capacity, improve infrastructure, develop human capital, and promote regional integration....A successfully integrated development policy framework will need to consider comprehensive development and reform planning and phasing. It is in this context that the Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) Economics and Research Department presents this report, Myanmar: Unlocking the Potential , which is based on an in- depth country study undertaken in 2013. The report examines the most important and immediate issues that need to be tackled to unlock the potential. These include weak infrastructure, creating modern market and government institutions, human development, stronger regional integration, a clear focus on inclusive growth, and environmental protection..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf (330K)
Date of entry/update: 02 October 2014


Title: New Energy Architecture: Myanmar
Date of publication: June 2013
Description/subject: "...This report is structured as follows. First, the New Energy Architecture methodology is outlined. In Step 1, the performance of the country’s current energy architecture is assessed. Step 2 describes the setting of the objectives of the New Energy Architecture. Step 3 outlines insights to support the development of a New Energy Architecture, and highlights potential risks in achieving this. Step 4 then discusses the need for leadership and multistakeholder partnerships to support the implementation of a New Energy Architecture in Myanmar..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Economic Forum, Asian Development Bank (ADB), Accenture
Format/size: pdf (4.2MB-OBL version; 5.3MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/pub/2013/new-energy-architecture-mya.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 July 2013


Title: Asian Development Outlook 2013 -Asia’s Energy Challenge (Myanmar section)
Date of publication: 09 April 2013
Description/subject: "Policy reforms stimulated economic growth last year and are expected to drive further development during the forecast period. Inflation is projected to remain moderate. Improved economic prospects have sparked a surge of interest from foreign investors. Achieving the country’s potential depends on maintaining momentum on the government’s reform agenda..."...N.B. there is a lot of material on Myanmar, e.g. in the statistics, not included in the Myanmar pages
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf (541K-Myanmar section; 7.9MB-full report)
Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/pub/2013/ado-2013.pdf
Date of entry/update: 10 April 2013


Title: Myanmar’s Trade and its Potential
Date of publication: January 2013
Description/subject: Abstract: "The paper tabulates Myanmar’s merchandise trade as reported by its partner countries, thereby circumventing the data constraints stemming from Myanmar’s patchy trade records. It then estimates Myanmar’s export potential, based on the bilateral export patterns observed for six other countries in Southeast Asia. Against that benchmark and controlling for outliers, Myanmar is found to be trading at about 15% its potential. The bulk of this gap is explained by very low trade with the industrialized countries. Through reintegration with the world economy accompanied by deep economic re forms domestically, Myanmar would be expected to be closing this gap rather swiftly."... Keywords: Myanmar, gravity model, export potential
Author/creator: Benno Ferrarini
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB) ADB Economics Working Paper SeriesNo. 325
Format/size: pdf (1MB-original; 836K-OBL version)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Myanmar%27s%20Trade%20and%20its%20Potential%20-%20ewp-325-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2013


Title: ADB, Norway to Help Myanmar Manage Tourist Boom
Date of publication: 11 October 2012
Description/subject: MANILA, PHILIPPINES – The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Norway will help Myanmar cope with an exploding tourism sector with a $225,000 grant designed to generate a sustainable tourism master plan. “Myanmar is undergoing a period of dramatic change, and the skyrocketing number of tourists visiting the country is already putting existing tourism infrastructure under enormous strain,” said Putu Kamayana, Head of ADB’s Extended Mission in Myanmar. “To ensure benefits of the burgeoning tourism industry are sustainable and extend to more of Myanmar’s people, the country needs a comprehensive plan that respects culture and the environment.”
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 November 2012


Title: Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment
Date of publication: October 2012
Description/subject: Description: In order to have a better understanding of Myanmar’s energy sector, an ADB mission visited Myanmar from 20 through 30 September 2011. The information and findings gathered during the mission served in drafting an initial assessment of the sector. Subsequently, the assessment has been updated to reflect the findings of follow-up ADB missions and consultations with the government... The Report: Clearly, strengthening Myanmar’s energy sector is critical to reducing poverty and enhancing the medium and long-term development prospects of the country. Electrification is an urgent requirement, without which whole areas of the country will be severely hampered in their efforts to advance economically. Social progress also depends on electrification, without which health, education, and other essential services inevitably suffer. There are many dimensions to the sector and they must be addressed comprehensively and systematically so as to ensure efficient and effective use of resources. While electrification, especially of rural areas, is of primary concern, issues of sustainability and protection of the environment must be considered simultaneously... Conclusions: Drawing from this initial assessment of the energy sector, but with the caveat that a comprehensive assessment is needed, Myanmar’s development partners—in consultation with the government—could begin considering support for the sector by focusing on several apparent priorities including:
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf (4.16MB) html (Summary)
Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/documents/myanmar-energy-sector-initial-assessment
Date of entry/update: 27 November 2012


Title: Asian Development Bank Interim Country Partnership Strategy: Myanmar, 2012-2014 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS (SUMMARY)
Date of publication: September 2012
Description/subject: I. INTRODUCTION: 1. "This sector assessment (summary) provides the background to the identification of issues, constraints, and threats to, as well as the government’s priority reforms in support of fiscal sustainability, macroeconomic stability and public finance. It focuses on key cross-cutting strategic issues such as macroeconomic institutions and monetary policy, tax policy and administration, and public financial management. This assessment draws on the sector assessment for Macroeconomic Assessment and ongoing ADB diagnostic work"... II. SECTOR ASSESSMENT: CONTEXT AND STRATEGIC ISSUES - A. Context: Economic growth; Macroeconomic instability; Fiscal policy...B. Strategic Issues - Fiscal Policy; Lifting priority spending through further tax revenue effort - (i) Sources of revenues are limited; (ii) The tax structure is complicated; (iii) Tax administration is weak; 9. Medium-term sustainable priority spending requires improving efficiency in public expenditure management; Public Debt Sustainability; A key medium term policy reform to support fiscal sustainability will be public debt management; Monetary and Exchange Rate Policy...III. GOVERNMENT’S SECTOR POLICY AND PLANNING FRAMEWORK...
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf (49K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/mya-interim-economy.pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 September 2012


Title: Asian Development Bank Interim Country Partnership Strategy: Myanmar, 2012-2014 ECONOMIC REFORM (SUMMARY)
Date of publication: September 2012
Description/subject: I. INTRODUCTION: "This economic reform assessment (summary) provides the background to the identification of issues, constraints, and threats to, as well as the government’s priority reforms in support of achieving inclusive growth. It focuses on key cross-cutting strategic issues such as business climate reforms, trade policy liberalization, measures to improve trade facilitation, and financial sector development. It also touches on the need to implement structural policy reforms on a sector-by-sector basis."...II. CONTEXT AND STRATEGIC ISSUES: Context; Economic growth performance has been mixed; Structural transformation of the economy has been relatively slow; Long term economic growth has been relatively low; Macroeconomic effects of the resource sector on the non-resource sector; Limited trade integration with global markets; Low investment rate; Underdeveloped financial sector...B. Strategic issues: While the Government has initiated steps towards a more market economy for private sector to grow and develop, much more needs to be done to improve the environment for private sector development. At the macroeconomic level the challenge will be to manage the potentially adverse effects of the resource boom on the competitiveness of the non-resource sector. At the microeconomic level the challenge will be to advance reforms to reduce transaction costs of doing business and creating a level playing field between firms, or a competitive neutral policy environment. This will need to be done through addressing the complex business licensing system, trade liberalization, measures to improve trade facilitation, promoting competition in domestic markets, and SME access to business development services and technology, credit, and skilled labor, and strengthening the institutional framework for SME policy making; Managing the impact of the resource boom on the growth and development of the non-resource sector; Business climate reforms; Institutionalizing regulatory review processes; Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) development; Restrictive trade policy and inefficient trade facilitation; Competition policy; State economic enterprises (SEE) reform; Financial sector development...III. GOVERNMENT’S SECTOR POLICY AND PLANNING FRAMEWORK...IV. ADB’S SECTOR EXPERIENCE AND ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf (60K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/mya-interim-economic_reform.pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 September 2012


Title: Myanmar: Interim Country Partnership Strategy 2012-2014 (Draft Documents for Consultation)
Date of publication: September 2012
Description/subject: Description: "In response to ongoing major reform moves by the Government of Myanmar, ADB is now preparing a re-engagement strategy (interim country partnership strategy), which will guide our approach towards full resumption of operations. The interim strategy provides the framework for rapid reengagement, while affording the space required for further analytical work, capacity building, policy dialogue, and broad-based consultations with all development stakeholders, leading to a fully-fledged country partnership strategy. The interim strategy, as summarized in the consultation draft, is informed by ADB's initial economic and sector assessments on Myanmar, as well as consultations with the country's government, development partners, civil society, and the business community during the period June to August 2012. The proposed interim strategy envisions a highly consultative process to form the basis of the ensuing full country partnership strategy. The documents provided on this page are drafts for consultation purposes. Comments on the draft are most welcome. Email contact...." Linked Document(s): Sector Assessment (Summary): Agriculture and Natural Resources... Sector Assessment (Summary): Energy... Sector Assessment (Summary): Transport... Sector Assessment (Summary): Urban Development and Water Sector... Economic Analysis (Summary)... Poverty Analysis (Summary)... Gender Analysis (Summary)... Environment Assessment (Summary)... Regional Cooperation and Integration (Summary)... Economic Reform (Summary)... Initial Assessment (Summary): Post-Primary Education.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: html. pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 September 2012


Title: ADB's "Myanmar in Transition" Report Offers Fresh, In-Depth Analysis on Myanmar's Growth Potential (video)
Date of publication: 20 August 2012
Description/subject: Asian Development Bank's Vice President for East Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific, Stephen P. Groff, explains how Myanmar could become a 'middle-income' country and why the Bank is optimistic about Myanmar's future.
Author/creator: Stephen P. Groff
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: Adobe Flash (3 minutes)
Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/pub/2012/myanmar-in-transition.pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2012


Title: Myanmar in Transition: Opportunities and Challenges
Date of publication: 20 August 2012
Description/subject: "Myanmar, which is emerging from decades of isolation, is poised to accelerate its economic growth on the back of its abundant labor force, rich natural resources, and geographical location. But the country faces many development challenges to achieve strong and inclusive growth. To take advantage of its rich potential and endowments, Myanmar can also use its strategic location between the People’s Republic of China and India, and act as a conduit between South and Southeast Asia. In order to sustain its growth momentum in the long run, Myanmar should aim for a growth trajectory that is inclusive, equitable, and environmentally sustainable. This special report assesses the country’s strengths and weaknesses and highlights the challenges and risks. The key lies in prioritizing the actions to surmount the challenges and introducing the requisite reforms."...Executive summary: "...The course of Myanmar’s future growth can be guided by three complementary development strategies: regional integration, inclusiveness, and environmental sustainability. Furthermore, given the myriad challenges the country faces and the limited resources at its disposal, the interventions can be prioritized and reforms sequenced for the maximum benefits.     Key development agendas include the following:  • Provide macroeconomic stability. A stable macro environment provides a foundation for investment and long-term growth. Key elements of sound macroeconomic policy include low and stable inflation; a sustainable fiscal position; and a flexible, market-based exchange rate.... • Mobilize resources for investment. Increased domestic and foreign savings are critical to meeting the enormous requirements of the private and public sectors. In addition, higher government revenues (e.g., taxation] and more efficient financial intermediation will also help to provide sustainable financing for development.... • Improve infrastructure and human capital. The removal of structural impediments in the key areas of education, health, and infrastructure can provide a basis for human capital development and improve connectivity.... • Diversify into industry and services, while improving agriculture. Broadening the economic base beyond primary industries can raise productivity and value addition. Yet agriculture, fisheries, and resource industries are not to be neglected as they contain considerable potential for expansion.... • Reduce the state’s role in production. A further reduction in the government's ownership and control of productive activities can help spur competition and increase investment by creating a level playing field.... • Strengthen government institutions. Economic transformation can be supported by effective government institutions, although building institutions and their capacity may take time. Attention might focus on nurturing administrative and regulatory systems; managing resources; and, most importantly, enhancing the capabilities of government personnel throughout the system.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/myanmar-in-transition.pdf
http://www.adb.org/countries/myanmar/videos/189162 (video)
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2012


Title: Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2012 + Myanmar statistics
Date of publication: August 2012
Description/subject: The Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2012 (Key Indicators), the 43rd edition of this series, includes the latest available economic, financial, social, and environmental indicators for the 48 regional members of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). This publication aims to present the latest key statistics on development issues concerning the economies of Asia and the Pacific to a wide audience, including policy makers, development practitioners, government officials, researchers, students, and the general public. Part I of this issue of the Key Indicators is a special chapter—Green Urbanization in Asia. Parts II and III comprise of brief, non-technical analyses and statistical tables on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and seven other themes. This year, the second edition of the Framework of Inclusive Growth Indicators, a special supplement to Key Indicators is also included. The statistical tables in this issue of the Key Indicators may also be downloaded in MS Excel format from this website or in user-specified format at SDBS Online.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf, Xcel
Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/ki/2012/pdf/MYA.pdf (Myanmar statistics)
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


Title: Asian Development Outlook 2012 - Myanmar section
Date of publication: 11 April 2012
Description/subject: "Economic growth picked up in FY2011, based largely on foreign investment in energy and exports of commodities and natural gas. That trend is forecast to continue, assisted by policy reforms and higher gas exports in 2013. Inflation is expected to quicken, after receding in 2011. The government has taken steps to revitalize the economy, but the agenda of required reforms is long..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf (109K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/publications/asian-development-outlook-2012-confronting-rising-inequality-asia
Date of entry/update: 12 April 2012


Title: Myanmar's Economic Outlook Improving but Broad Reforms Still Needed
Date of publication: 11 April 2012
Description/subject: ADB administration and governance; Economics...MANILA, PHILIPPINES – "Myanmar is poised for a period of rising economic growth, but the country needs to embark on a comprehensive program of reforms to realize its potential and reduce widespread poverty, according to a forecast of the country’s growth, contained in a new report from the Asian Development Bank (ADB)..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 April 2012


Title: Asian Development Bank & Myanmar FACT SHEET
Date of publication: 31 December 2011
Description/subject: "Myanmar joined the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 1973, but it has not received direct assistance in more than 20 years. ADB’s last loan and technical assistance projects for Myanmar were approved in 1986 and 1987, respectively. ADB continues to monitor economic developments in Myanmar, and will formulate an operational strategy when appropriate. Myanmar is a participating member of the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation Program (GMS Program), the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Myanmar participates in regional meetings and workshops along with other GMS and ASEAN member countries. ADB has maintained close coordination with the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the United Nations Development Programme, with an emphasis on assessing the government’s economic reform program and recommended policy actions. ADB liaises with Myanmar’s major bilateral donors regarding the status of their assistance programs. ADB cooperates with civil society organizations to strengthen the effectiveness, quality, and sustainability of the services it provides. To this end, ADB regularly shares its experiences and expertise with international nongovernment organizations that are undertaking development activities in Myanmar..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf (175K)
Date of entry/update: 28 November 2012


Title: Asian Development Outlook 2011 - Myanmar section
Date of publication: April 2011
Description/subject: "Economic growth edged up over the past 2 years, accompanied by relatively modest inflation. The economy is expected to grow moderately over the forecast period, supported by foreign investment in construction and higher levels of credit to agriculture. The government that took office in March 2011 faces an extensive agenda of reforms if the country is to reach its potential..."
Author/creator: Alfredo Perdiguero
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf (323K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/publications/asian-development-outlook-2011-south-south-economic-links
Date of entry/update: 12 April 2012


Title: The ADB in Burma: Behind the Scenes
Date of publication: April 2011
Description/subject: CONCLUSION: Burma still lacks sound economic policy, and the state is unwilling to reconcile with ethnic armed groups. Foreign direct investment in Burma is concentrated in energy and extractive sectors and often results in militarization, displacement and human rights abuses in ethnic areas. The facilitation and mobilization of private investment is having and will continue to have a major impact on the environment and communities, particularly in ethnic areas where the majority of natural resources remain. Current foreign investment is not reducing poverty but reinforcing the current power structures, and the vast majority of citizens in Burma are excluded from the benefits of development. Until the people of Burma can meaningfully participate in development decisions, preconditions for responsible investment are in place, and adverse impacts can be mitigated, then the ADB should refrain from any form of new engagement with Burma. If they do engage (i.e., fund, facilitate, administer) in Burma, the ADB must follow the International Financial Corporation’s ‘Sustainability Framework,’ and adhere to their own environmental and social safeguard policies, including safeguards on Involuntary Resettlement, Environment and Indigenous People, as well as the ADB’s Accountability Mechanism and Public Communications Policy... RECOMMENDATIONS: Until the people of Burma can meaningfully participate in development decisions, preconditions for responsible investment are in place, and adverse impacts can be mitigated, then the ADB should refrain from any form of new engagement with Burma. If they do engage (i.e., fund, facilitate, administer) in Burma, the ADB must follow the International Financial Corporation’s ‘Sustainability Framework,’, and adhere to apply their own environmental and social safeguard policies, when they do engage, including safeguards on Involuntary Resettlement, Environment and Indigenous People, as well as the ADB’s Accountability Mechanism and Public Communications Policy. If the ADB is involved in any future national development planning for Burma, they must make sure it is based on proper needs assessments and a participatory consultation process which ensures that it furthers the interest of the people.
Author/creator: S. Bourne
Language: English
Source/publisher: NGO Forum on ADB
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB-OBL version; 1.52MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.forum-adb.org/docs/ADB-and-Burma.pdf
Date of entry/update: 12 June 2012


Title: Critical Approaches to Risk Under Authoritarian Regimes: The Asian Development Bank and the Greater Mekong Subregion
Date of publication: 2011
Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "Multilateral development banks and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in particular, have not provided direct assistance to Myanmar (Burma) since the mid-­1980s, largely as a concession to global disapprobation of its ruling military regime. Through its Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) project, however, the ADB still provides indirect assistance to Myanmar and direct assistance to the authoritarian single party states of Laos and Vietnam. The aim of the GMS East-­West Economic Corridor (EWEC) is to facilitate trade and investment across the GMS but the Myanmar leg of the road corridor, from Mawlamyine (Moulmein) to the Thai border at Myawaddy, traverses Karen State, which has been fraught with civil conflict since 1948. The ruling military regime along with its allies, the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA), nominally controls this route but in mid-­2010 there were serious defections from the DKBA to the opposition Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) over the military regime’s Border Guard Force (BGF) leading to increased tension in the area. The regime then closed the border at Myawaddy, ostensibly over a dispute with Thailand but more likely due to domestic political concerns, resulting in a large build-­up of goods on both sides of the border. The risks of greater civil conflict in this region are exacerbated by the revenue raising opportunities that various competing groups can derive from increased border trade while the risks of forced labour are ubiquitous for major development projects in Myanmar. The ADB acknowledges that the early stages of the EWEC will be funded by public sources but it clearly sees its role as guarantor of long-­term stability for the project to minimise the risks faced by private investment. The very nature of the project itself, however, which ignores domestic political issues, is likely to result in heightened risks of insecurity for the oppressed ethnic minorities who inhabit the region."
Author/creator: Dr Adam Simpson
Language: English
Source/publisher: Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore.
Format/size: pdf (2.74MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/NATBMA_WP1103.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 July 2011


Title: Asian Development Outlook 2009 (Myanmar)
Date of publication: 17 April 2009
Description/subject: "High prices for natural gas exports continued to support modest rates of growth in FY2007. Inflation remained at around 30%, largely the result of money creation to finance fiscal deficits. Recovery and reconstruction after Cyclone Nargis, which inflicted severe human loss and economic damage in May 2008, will take at least 3 years. Economic growth will be diminished this year by weaker performance of Myanmar’s major trading partners..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf (711K - Myanmar section; 26.5MB-full report)
Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2009/ado2009.pdf (full report, 26.5MB)
http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2009/default.asp (TOC of full report)
http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2009/appendix.pdf (statistical appendix for full report)
Date of entry/update: 17 April 2009


Title: Asian Development Outlook 2008 -- Myanmar
Date of publication: March 2008
Description/subject: "Modest rates of growth in recent years have been based on high prices for natural gas exports, heavy public expenditures, and an improving agricultural performance. However, macroeconomic stability is vulnerable to fiscal deficits that are financed through money creation, in turn prompting double-digit inflation. The Government has taken tentative steps toward a more market-oriented system in agriculture and finance, and should build on these reforms."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf (122K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2008/
Date of entry/update: 02 April 2008


Title: Asian Development Outlook 2007 -- Myanmar
Date of publication: March 2007
Description/subject: "High prices for natural gas exports and a good harvest led to a modest pickup in economic activity. But macroeconomic stability remains elusive with monetized fiscal deficits feeding high inflation. The cushion provided by the gas exports makes now an opportune time to embark on structural reforms, including exchange rate unification, fiscal consolidation, and agricultural liberalization, and to redirect public spending to development of social and physical infrastructure..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bangk (ADB)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 November 2007


Title: Asian Development Outlook 2006 -- Myanmar
Date of publication: 2006
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf
Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2006/ (Outlook page)
Date of entry/update: 25 April 2006


Title: Regional technical assistance projects that include Burma (approved July 2004 – April 2005)
Date of publication: April 2005
Description/subject: "As the table below indicates, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) continues to provide grants for regional technical assistance (TA) projects in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) that include Burma. The grants for the projects below amount to US$5.74 million. For all of the projects in the table below, the amount of the grant extended by the ADB was US$1 million or smaller. This allows the projects to be approved by the ADB President, not by the Board of Directors."
Language: English
Source/publisher: IFI-Burma
Format/size: html, (42K), Word (47K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/ADB_grants_for_GMS_projects_including_Burma.doc
Date of entry/update: 13 April 2005


Title: Key indicators of developing Asian and Pacific countries: Myanmar
Date of publication: November 2004
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 16 November 2004


Title: POSITION PAPER ON THE INCLUSION OF BURMA IN ADB’S GMS PROJECTS
Date of publication: 26 July 2004
Description/subject: "The NCUB’s position is that the ADB should exclude Burma from all GMS projects until Burma is ruled by a government that is committed to the principles of transparency, accountability, public participation in decision-making processes, and independent monitoring. Briefly, NCUB’s position is based on the following grounds:..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: National Council of the Union of Burma (NCUB)
Format/size: html (65K)
Date of entry/update: 05 October 2004


Title: The Multilateral Banks and Burma
Date of publication: April 2004
Description/subject: "The Asian Development Bank has quietly started providing modest assistance to Rangoon. Is more to follow?... On April 8, 2004 Mitch McConnell, a prominent American senator from Kentucky with an interest in the Burma debate, expressed concerns over multilateral assistance to Burma and threatened to cut US funding to institutions that might provide such assistance. At a hearing of the Senate Subcommittee on Foreign Operations, he stated: “Unfortunately, I am hearing that international financial institutions—particularly the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank—are keen on re-engaging Burma. They do so at their own risks, and should begin finding other funding sources for the upcoming fiscal year because none will be forthcoming from this Subcommittee.” Senator McConnell’s statement reflects the unease shared by many in the Burma democracy movement about multilateral assistance going to Rangoon, which has a poor track record regarding transparency and public participation in development projects and has been accused of a range of human rights abuses. So what exactly are the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, or ADB, doing with respect to Burma? As yet the numbers are small, but imply an effort to renew assistance..."
Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 4, April 2004
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 July 2004


Title: Marketing the Mekong: the Asian Development Bank and the Greater Mekong Sub-region Economic Cooperation Program
Date of publication: 12 December 2003
Description/subject: Shortcomings of economic cooperation in the Greater Mekong...The Greater Mekong Subregion: A Regional Fantasy... The document critically examines the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation (GMS) Programme, which was initiated by the Asian Development Bank in 1992 to boost economic development in the resource rich region. It outlines the main features of the programme and highlights the shortcomings and problem of the GMS: * the centrality of natural resource exploitation (water, land, forests, energy, minerals, fisheries) results in the large-scale expropriation of resources crucial to daily sustenance * the distribution of benefits is uneven since participating countries have differing levels of development and capacity (i.e. what does the Lao PDR gain from the East-West Corridor?) * internal disparities within participating countries are widened because of pockets of high capital and infrastructure investment in specific parts of countries, which can result in tensions and conflicts between national and local government, and between the government and the people * the vision of development promoted through the GMS serves regional investment, and not national or local development priorities: projects are formulated based on their potential for profits for investors rather than on their potential to respond to social, economic, ecological or institutional needs among local and national communities * GMS projects have already resulted in negative impacts on local communities through road and hydropower projects, impacts include displacement of families, loss of livelihood sources, loss of lands, among others * in the GMS framework, the rights of investors are protected, but the rights of local people and communities are not * local-national communities outside of governments and private sector have not been involved in drawing up GMS plans * the financing of GMS projects have tremendous debt implications for participating countries: new forms of project financing are creating new forms of debt and financial liabilities * governments play conflicting roles as owners, investors and regulators in public-private partnerships in infrastructure projects * GMS projects facilitate the transfer of local-national wealth to private actors external to the Mekong region.
Author/creator: Shalmali Guttal
Language: English
Source/publisher: Focus on the Global South
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 January 2005


Title: Verbrannte Erde und Überflutungen: Staudammprojekte am Salween in Burma
Date of publication: October 2003
Description/subject: Ein Artikel über die Aktivitäten der ADB in Burma, Staudammprojekte am Salween, Umweltkatastrophen, ölkologische Folgen der Staudammprojekte. activities of the ADB concerning Burma; environmental, ecological and sicial consequences of dam-projects
Author/creator: Daniel Apolinarski
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Burma Initiative Asienhaus
Format/size: pdf (99K)
Date of entry/update: 05 December 2003


Title: Status of Burma at the MDBs (Multilateral Development Banks)
Date of publication: 15 July 2003
Description/subject: Burma in the Asian Development Bank; Burma in the World Bank Group; Non-accrual status; Burma in the International Monetary Fund; U.S. and E.U. sanctions on Burma - provisions on MDB assistance; Resources, Links etc... Background: "Most foreign aid to Burma, both bilateral and multilateral, ceased in the wake of the violent crackdown on the popular democracy movement in 1988. The United States and the European Union impose economic sanctions, which prohibit most bilateral aid from the U.S. and Europe, as well as support for multilateral development assistance to Burma (see box "U.S. and E.U. sanctions on Burma"). Burma also has not been involved in any new lending programs from the multilateral development banks since 1988-89...
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Project,, Bank Information Center
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 July 2003


Title: ADB Annual Report 2002: Myanmar
Date of publication: 24 June 2003
Description/subject: "Official data indicate that GDP in Myanmar grew by 11.1% in fiscal year (FY)2001 (ending 31 March 2002) in part because of rapid growth in agriculture, livestock and fisheries, and the processing and manufacturing sectors. Inflation accelerated to 56.8% by the end of 2002. The fiscal deficit narrowed from 8.4% in FY2000 to 6.6% of GDP in FY2001. The deficit was financed largely through central bank credit. The kyat depreciated in FY2001 by about 70% relative to its value at the start of the year. The overall balance-of-payments position was in surplus by kyat 1,733.2 million; the current account was at a deficit by kyat 844.8 million in FY2001. Capital inflows in FY2001 were low, and international reserves covered about 2.3 months of imports. ADB operations..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 June 2003


Title: Asian Development Outlook 2003: Myanmar
Date of publication: 2003
Description/subject: Asian Development Outlook 2003 : II. Economic Trends and Prospects in Developing Asia : Southeast Asia Myanmar... Growth in FY2001 was recorded at 11.1%. However, there are reasons to be concerned about prospects. Macroeconomic imbalances persist, and there are growing signs of problems at a structural level. The country faces a complex development agenda. In the short run, priority should be given to reducing fiscal deficits and realigning expenditure priorities. Agricultural liberalization offers potentially large benefits....Outlook for 2003-2004: The Government has targeted 6% GDP growth over the latest 5-year planning period. However, the immediate prospects for fast economic expansion are uncertain. Widespread flooding in 2002 is likely to have had an adverse impact on agricultural activity, which still accounts for over 40% of GDP. Also, yields of important agricultural crops have fallen recently against a backdrop of shortages of imported fertilizers and other inputs. Political and economic sanctions limit prospects for exports and FDI, and any significant easing of foreign exchange constraints is unlikely in the near future. Over the medium term, the prospects for growth will, of course, depend crucially on policy choices. If macroeconomic imbalances and structural distortions persist, growth will undoubtedly suffer. If, however, a credible and sustained effort at reform were to begin, the prospects for sustainable economic expansion and poverty reduction would be good."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 January 2004


Title: Asian Development Outlook 2002 Update
Date of publication: 18 September 2002
Description/subject: "The 2002-2003 economic outlook for developing Asia and the Pacific has not changed significantly since the Asian Development Outlook 2002 was published in April 2002. However, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Central Asia had a stronger than expected performance in the first half of 2002, while South Asia and the Pacific had weaker than expected performance..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank
Format/size: pdf (2.5MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2002/Update/southeast_asia.pdf (SE Asia section, pdf (500K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Asian Development Outlook 2002
Date of publication: 09 April 2002
Description/subject: Economic Trends and prospects in developing Asia. Contains a 2 page section on Burma/Myanmar. "This 14th edition of the Asian Development Outlook provides a comprehensive analysis of 41 economies in Asia and the Pacific, based on the Asian Development Banks in-depth knowledge of the region. For the first time, the Outlook includes a section on Afghanistan. It also provides a broad diagnosis of macroeconomic conditions and growth prospects as they relate to progress in poverty reduction in the economies of the region..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: PDF (629K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2002/mya.asp (Myanmar section, html)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Asian Development Bank Economic Update: Myanmar. November 2001
Date of publication: November 2001
Description/subject: "...in a context of slowing growth and stiffening sanctions on trade and investment flows, reform efforts began to stall in the second half of the 1990s and some reversals took place. Despite a spurt in economic growth in 1999/2000 , which was largely a consequence of a bumper agricultural crop, Myanmars prospects for growth over the medium term are constrained by growing macroeconomic imbalances and impediments to structural adjustment. However, prospects could be improved if Myanmar were to recommence reforms and undertake needed adjustments. Ultimately, poverty reduction and broader improvements in the quality of life will rest on policy and institutional frameworks that serve to promote durable and equitable growth. Official development assistance could have an important role in serving these objectives and meeting Myanmars still considerable development needs. However, should international financial institutions be in a position to resume assistance to Myanmar, its impact would be greatly enhanced by advanced measures to improve the policy environment..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: PDF (32K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Key Indicators of Developing Asian and Pacific Countries 2001, Volume 32: Myanmar
Date of publication: 2001
Description/subject: "In 38 country tables and 40 regional tables, it presents long time series data on economic, financial, environmental and social development, providing a comprehensive statistical portrait of ADB's 40 developing member countries (DMCs). This 32nd edition differs from previous editions. It includes an analysis of major economic and social trends and attempt to capture the diversity of our DMCs highlight the different development paths followed.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: The Excel version is more legible that the PDF but needs more paper and sticky tape
Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/Key_Indicators/2001/mya.pdf
http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/Key_Indicators/2001/default.asp
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Asian Development Bank, Country Assistance Plan 2001-2003: Myanmar
Date of publication: December 2000
Description/subject: Economic Performance Assessment; Assessment of Social Performance. Country operations: "The Asian Development Bank (ADB) undertook the preparation of an operational strategy study for Myanmar in 1987, but discussions with the Government were not completed. As of December 1998, cumulative lending to Myanmar consists of 28 loan projects for a total of $530.9 million and 38 technical assistance projects for a total of $10.7 million. No loan has been provided to Myanmar since 1986 and no technical assistance since 1987. All 32 loans approved prior to 1986 were closed by end-1998. However, Myanmar is involved in the Program of Economic Cooperation in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS Program). In that capacity, Myanmar participates in regional meetings and workshops supported by ADB's regional technical assistance. To keep ADB's institutional knowledge up-to-date with regard to socio-economic developments, ADB has continued to review developments in economic policies and programs to the extent possible, based on the data available. In this regard, the 1995 Economic Report on Myanmar will be updated in 2000. Donor Activities, Aid Coordination and Cofinancing: Since 1988-89, Myanmar has not received any new lending programs from the multilateral institutions. However, it has received loans from the Peoples Republic of China, Thailand, India, Singapore, and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. In addition, Myanmar has received Debt Relief Grant from Japan, especially since 1988. Japan is also extending grants to the agriculture, forestry, and health sectors, grass root projects, and the Yangon International Airport Project. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) continues to conduct its Article IV consultations annually with the last one having been held in June 1999. Although ADB's operations have not yet resumed, ADB has maintained contact with other donors to exchange information on respective activities in Myanmar.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: PDF (253K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003