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Analyses and programmes by international financial institutions etc.

  • All international financial institutions (IFIs) and their watchers

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: FINDING STATISTICAL DATA ON DEVELOPMENT
    Description/subject: Search results on the Eldis site for "statistics"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Eldis
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://search.babylon.com/home?q=statistic+site%3AEldis.org&babsrc=home&s=web
    http://www.eldis.org
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


    Title: IFI-Burma - discussion group
    Description/subject: Updates on development schemes in Burma, with particular focus on bilateral and multilateral assistance; concerns and strategies.
    Language: English
    Subscribe: IFI-Burma-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: IFI-Burma Project
    Description/subject: "The Burma Project conducts research and analysis on issues of development assistance from international financial institutions (IFIs) to Burma, with a particular focus on multilateral development banks (MDBs). The Burma Project also provides current information on these issues to members of civil society who work to protect human rights and the environment in Burma, so that they may be equipped with necessary knowledge, skills and a working network to assist them in ensuring that operations of MDBs in Burma are conducted in a socially and environmentally accountable manner, and truly benefits citizens..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bank Information Center
    Subscribe: IFI-Burma-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
    Format/size: html, Word, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Multilateral Development Bank Investment in Burma (Myanmar) (July – October 2004) -- Burma Country Update #1
    Date of publication: 09 November 2004
    Description/subject: The Burma Country Update provides information about recent developments, civil society concerns, and policy updates related to the World Bank (WB) and Asian Development Bank (ADB).
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bank Information Center
    Format/size: html (26K)
    Date of entry/update: 11 November 2004


    Title: Opportunities and Pitfalls: Preparing for Burma's Economic Transition
    Date of publication: November 2006
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Each of Burma’s citizens has a stake in the country’s development and should have a say in how it develops its economic potential, including its human and natural resources. In the future, it is likely that Burma’s people will act to exploit their economic potential in conjunction with international economic institutions. To do so most effectively, they will have to deal carefully with the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Asian Development Bank, and other international financial institutions (IFIs). They will also have to develop national institutions, strategies, and mechanisms to manage wisely Burma’s trade relations as well as the revenues generated by exploitation of the country’s natural resources... Burma and the IFIs: IFIs are profit-making organizations. IFIs do not wait for the establishment of democracy, the rule of law, and other good governance practices before they begin operating in a country. IFIs engage in a country when the IFIs decide that they will likely profit from such an engagement and when the country’s government and the international community are ready to accept such an engagement. Instead of helping countries implement national-development and poverty-reduction strategies devised with the participation of their citizens, IFIs often dominate the formation of such strategies to such a degree that the people of these countries lose control of the process. The IFIs see economic growth as the key tool for promoting development and reducing poverty, and they apply a narrow, blanket set of reforms to achieve it. This focus on economic growth and the blanket application of reforms, however, have failed to work in many countries and have had disastrous effects in some. In order to avoid losing control of development and poverty-reduction strategies and to make IFI assistance most effective for its people, Burma must have: a clear set of development objectives; a strategic, comprehensive social and economic policy framework; and good-governance principles and practices. Whether they live in Burma or abroad, Burmese people who favor a democratic government, a free-market economy, rule of law, and the development of sound political and economic institutions must begin as soon as possible to organize themselves; to gather information on Burma’s economy, its economic potential, and the needs of its people; and to devise their own comprehensive, strategic social and economic policy framework as well as good governance principles and practices. The Burmese people should be wary of efforts by the IFIs to re-engage in Burma before the establishment of democracy, rule of law, and other elements of an open society in their country. Burma will have to clear arrears of about $170 million before the IFIs re-engage. Burma’s people should be aware that the IFIs’ lending practices put pressure on countries to borrow and that many countries, often by borrowing for large infrastructure projects that do little to promote growth, incur unsustainable levels of debt that pose serious problems.... Burma and Trade: As a consequence of Burma’s lack of a comprehensive, strategic social and economic policy framework, the country’s commodity-centered trade with China and other nearby countries is providing the Burmese only short-term gains that benefit mostly foreign interests and people associated with Burma’s military regime. Volatility in commodity markets makes dependence upon commodities an unstable basis for sound, long-term economic development. To capture long-term gains from trade, broaden the distribution of these gains, and stimulate development, Burma needs a comprehensive, strategic social and economic policy framework. This framework should take into account trade flows, exchange rates, Instead of helping countries implement national-development and poverty-reduction strategies devised with the participation of their citizens, IFIs often dominate the formation of such strategies to such a degree that the people of these countries lose control of the process. The IFIs see economic growth as the key tool for promoting development and reducing poverty, and they apply a narrow, blanket set of reforms to achieve it. This focus on economic growth and the blanket application of reforms, however, have failed to work in many countries and have had disastrous effects in some. In order to avoid losing control of development and poverty-reduction strategies and to make IFI assistance most effective for its people, Burma must have: a clear set of development objectives; a strategic, comprehensive social and economic policy framework; and good-governance principles and practices. Whether they live in Burma or abroad, Burmese people who favor a democratic government, a free-market economy, rule of law, and the development of sound political and economic institutions must begin as soon as possible to organize themselves; to gather information on Burma’s economy, its economic potential, and the needs of its people; and to devise their own comprehensive, strategic social and economic policy framework as well as good governance principles and practices. The Burmese people should be wary of efforts by the IFIs to re-engage in Burma before the establishment of democracy, rule of law, and other elements of an open society in their country. Burma will have to clear arrears of about $170 million before the IFIs re-engage. Burma’s people should be aware that the IFIs’ lending practices put pressure on countries to borrow and that many countries, often by borrowing for large infrastructure projects that do little to promote growth, incur unsustainable levels of debt that pose serious problems... Burma and Trade: As a consequence of Burma’s lack of a comprehensive, strategic social and economic policy framework, the country’s commodity-centered trade with China and other nearby countries is providing the Burmese only short-term gains that benefit mostly foreign interests and people associated with Burma’s military regime. Volatility in commodity markets makes dependence upon commodities an unstable basis for sound, long-term economic development. To capture long-term gains from trade, broaden the distribution of these gains, and stimulate development, Burma needs a comprehensive, strategic social and economic policy framework. This framework should take into account trade flows, exchange rates,foreign investment, and domestic issues like infrastructure and education improvements, human resources development, and industrial development... Burma and the Resource Curse: Natural-resource-rich countries like Burma are more likely than resource-poor countries to experience flat economic growth, endure greater poverty, incur unwieldy debt, develop authoritarian and repressive governments, and suffer armed conflict. Receiving significant revenues in payment for natural resources can free a country’s government from the need to collect taxes from its citizens; this severs a vital bond between the citizentaxpayer and the government and dampens the government’s incentives to implement sound economic, social, and fiscal policies in a transparent and accountable manner. In many countries, revenues from extraction of natural resources actually trigger a decline in living standards and exacerbate social problems. Revenues generated by exploitation of Burma’s natural resources are helping to sustain the country’s military dictatorship, contributing to human rights abuses and conflict, and failing to alleviate the poverty and poor governance most Burmese suffer. Natural resource extraction in Burma has produced long-term damage to the environment; contributed to a decline in agricultural productivity; aggravated corruption of the government and civil society; exacerbated the illegal drug trade, the exploitation of sex workers, and the spread of HIV/AIDS; and funded warring factions. Burma might consider community-based resource management, rather than a state-controlled system, in the exploitation of its natural resources for the benefit of all its citizens.
    Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: Open Society Institute (OSI)
    Format/size: pdf (1.9MB English; 616K - Burmese)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.soros.org/initiatives/bpsai/articles_publications/publications/opportunitiespitfalls_20061115/oppburmese_20070108.pdf
    http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/opportunities_20061115.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 22 February 2007


    Title: The politics of the emerging agro-industrial complex in Asia’s ‘final frontier’ - The war on food sovereignty in Burma
    Date of publication: 03 September 2013
    Description/subject: "Burma's dramatic turn-around from 'axis of evil' to western darling in the past year has been imagined as Asia's 'final frontier' for global finance institutions, markets and capital. Burma's agrarian landscape is home to three-fourths of the country's total population which is now being constructed as a potential prime investment sink for domestic and international agribusiness. The Global North's development aid industry and IFIs operating in Burma has consequently repositioned itself to proactively shape a pro-business legal environment to decrease political and economic risks to enable global finance capital to more securely enter Burma's markets, especially in agribusiness. But global capitalisms are made in localized places - places that make and are made from embedded social relations. This paper uncovers how regional political histories that are defined by very particular racial and geographical undertones give shape to Burma's emerging agro-industrial complex. The country's still smoldering ethnic civil war and fragile untested liberal democracy is additionally being overlain with an emerging war on food sovereignty. A discursive and material struggle over land is taking shape to convert subsistence agricultural landscapes and localized food production into modern, mechanized industrial agro-food regimes. This second agrarian transformation is being fought over between a growing alliance among the western development aid and IFI industries, global finance capital, and a solidifying Burmese military-private capitalist class against smallholder farmers who work and live on the country's now most valuable asset - land. Grassroots resistances increasingly confront the elite capitalist class' attempts to corporatize food production through the state's rule of law and police force. Farmers, meanwhile, are actively developing their own shared vision of food sovereignty and pro-poor land reform that desires greater attention.... Food Sovereignty: a critical dialogue, 14 - 15 September, New Haven.
    Author/creator: Kevin Woods
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
    Format/size: pdf (593K)
    Date of entry/update: 04 September 2013


  • Asian Development Bank (ADB) and its watchers (Burma/Myanmar)

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: ADB Myanmar page
    Date of publication: 15 September 2003
    Description/subject: Many links from this page
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 April 2012


    Title: ADB projects in Myanmar
    Description/subject: Project records contain Project Data Sheets (summary information on projects or programs), project and evaluation documents, business opportunities and other information. See the Project FAQs.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 November 2012


    Title: International Rivers Network Mekong Page
    Description/subject: Watches ADB projects in the Mekong region
    Language: English
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2010


    Title: Myanmar Tourism Master Plan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB) 46271-001:
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 November 2012


    Title: NGO Forum on ADB
    Description/subject: Not much specifically on Burma/Myanmar.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: NGO Forum on ADB
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: ADB Annual Report 2002: Myanmar
    Date of publication: 24 June 2003
    Description/subject: "Official data indicate that GDP in Myanmar grew by 11.1% in fiscal year (FY)2001 (ending 31 March 2002) in part because of rapid growth in agriculture, livestock and fisheries, and the processing and manufacturing sectors. Inflation accelerated to 56.8% by the end of 2002. The fiscal deficit narrowed from 8.4% in FY2000 to 6.6% of GDP in FY2001. The deficit was financed largely through central bank credit. The kyat depreciated in FY2001 by about 70% relative to its value at the start of the year. The overall balance-of-payments position was in surplus by kyat 1,733.2 million; the current account was at a deficit by kyat 844.8 million in FY2001. Capital inflows in FY2001 were low, and international reserves covered about 2.3 months of imports. ADB operations..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 June 2003


    Title: ADB's "Myanmar in Transition" Report Offers Fresh, In-Depth Analysis on Myanmar's Growth Potential (video)
    Date of publication: 20 August 2012
    Description/subject: Asian Development Bank's Vice President for East Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific, Stephen P. Groff, explains how Myanmar could become a 'middle-income' country and why the Bank is optimistic about Myanmar's future.
    Author/creator: Stephen P. Groff
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: Adobe Flash (3 minutes)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/pub/2012/myanmar-in-transition.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2012


    Title: ADB, Norway to Help Myanmar Manage Tourist Boom
    Date of publication: 11 October 2012
    Description/subject: MANILA, PHILIPPINES – The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Norway will help Myanmar cope with an exploding tourism sector with a $225,000 grant designed to generate a sustainable tourism master plan. “Myanmar is undergoing a period of dramatic change, and the skyrocketing number of tourists visiting the country is already putting existing tourism infrastructure under enormous strain,” said Putu Kamayana, Head of ADB’s Extended Mission in Myanmar. “To ensure benefits of the burgeoning tourism industry are sustainable and extend to more of Myanmar’s people, the country needs a comprehensive plan that respects culture and the environment.”
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 November 2012


    Title: Asian Development Bank & Myanmar FACT SHEET
    Date of publication: 31 December 2011
    Description/subject: "Myanmar joined the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 1973, but it has not received direct assistance in more than 20 years. ADB’s last loan and technical assistance projects for Myanmar were approved in 1986 and 1987, respectively. ADB continues to monitor economic developments in Myanmar, and will formulate an operational strategy when appropriate. Myanmar is a participating member of the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation Program (GMS Program), the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Myanmar participates in regional meetings and workshops along with other GMS and ASEAN member countries. ADB has maintained close coordination with the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the United Nations Development Programme, with an emphasis on assessing the government’s economic reform program and recommended policy actions. ADB liaises with Myanmar’s major bilateral donors regarding the status of their assistance programs. ADB cooperates with civil society organizations to strengthen the effectiveness, quality, and sustainability of the services it provides. To this end, ADB regularly shares its experiences and expertise with international nongovernment organizations that are undertaking development activities in Myanmar..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: pdf (175K)
    Date of entry/update: 28 November 2012


    Title: Asian Development Bank Economic Update: Myanmar. November 2001
    Date of publication: November 2001
    Description/subject: "...in a context of slowing growth and stiffening sanctions on trade and investment flows, reform efforts began to stall in the second half of the 1990s and some reversals took place. Despite a spurt in economic growth in 1999/2000 , which was largely a consequence of a bumper agricultural crop, Myanmars prospects for growth over the medium term are constrained by growing macroeconomic imbalances and impediments to structural adjustment. However, prospects could be improved if Myanmar were to recommence reforms and undertake needed adjustments. Ultimately, poverty reduction and broader improvements in the quality of life will rest on policy and institutional frameworks that serve to promote durable and equitable growth. Official development assistance could have an important role in serving these objectives and meeting Myanmars still considerable development needs. However, should international financial institutions be in a position to resume assistance to Myanmar, its impact would be greatly enhanced by advanced measures to improve the policy environment..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: PDF (32K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Asian Development Bank Interim Country Partnership Strategy: Myanmar, 2012-2014 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS (SUMMARY)
    Date of publication: September 2012
    Description/subject: I. INTRODUCTION: 1. "This sector assessment (summary) provides the background to the identification of issues, constraints, and threats to, as well as the government’s priority reforms in support of fiscal sustainability, macroeconomic stability and public finance. It focuses on key cross-cutting strategic issues such as macroeconomic institutions and monetary policy, tax policy and administration, and public financial management. This assessment draws on the sector assessment for Macroeconomic Assessment and ongoing ADB diagnostic work"... II. SECTOR ASSESSMENT: CONTEXT AND STRATEGIC ISSUES - A. Context: Economic growth; Macroeconomic instability; Fiscal policy...B. Strategic Issues - Fiscal Policy; Lifting priority spending through further tax revenue effort - (i) Sources of revenues are limited; (ii) The tax structure is complicated; (iii) Tax administration is weak; 9. Medium-term sustainable priority spending requires improving efficiency in public expenditure management; Public Debt Sustainability; A key medium term policy reform to support fiscal sustainability will be public debt management; Monetary and Exchange Rate Policy...III. GOVERNMENT’S SECTOR POLICY AND PLANNING FRAMEWORK...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: pdf (49K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/mya-interim-economy.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 28 September 2012


    Title: Asian Development Bank Interim Country Partnership Strategy: Myanmar, 2012-2014 ECONOMIC REFORM (SUMMARY)
    Date of publication: September 2012
    Description/subject: I. INTRODUCTION: "This economic reform assessment (summary) provides the background to the identification of issues, constraints, and threats to, as well as the government’s priority reforms in support of achieving inclusive growth. It focuses on key cross-cutting strategic issues such as business climate reforms, trade policy liberalization, measures to improve trade facilitation, and financial sector development. It also touches on the need to implement structural policy reforms on a sector-by-sector basis."...II. CONTEXT AND STRATEGIC ISSUES: Context; Economic growth performance has been mixed; Structural transformation of the economy has been relatively slow; Long term economic growth has been relatively low; Macroeconomic effects of the resource sector on the non-resource sector; Limited trade integration with global markets; Low investment rate; Underdeveloped financial sector...B. Strategic issues: While the Government has initiated steps towards a more market economy for private sector to grow and develop, much more needs to be done to improve the environment for private sector development. At the macroeconomic level the challenge will be to manage the potentially adverse effects of the resource boom on the competitiveness of the non-resource sector. At the microeconomic level the challenge will be to advance reforms to reduce transaction costs of doing business and creating a level playing field between firms, or a competitive neutral policy environment. This will need to be done through addressing the complex business licensing system, trade liberalization, measures to improve trade facilitation, promoting competition in domestic markets, and SME access to business development services and technology, credit, and skilled labor, and strengthening the institutional framework for SME policy making; Managing the impact of the resource boom on the growth and development of the non-resource sector; Business climate reforms; Institutionalizing regulatory review processes; Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) development; Restrictive trade policy and inefficient trade facilitation; Competition policy; State economic enterprises (SEE) reform; Financial sector development...III. GOVERNMENT’S SECTOR POLICY AND PLANNING FRAMEWORK...IV. ADB’S SECTOR EXPERIENCE AND ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: pdf (60K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/mya-interim-economic_reform.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 28 September 2012


    Title: Asian Development Bank, Country Assistance Plan 2001-2003: Myanmar
    Date of publication: December 2000
    Description/subject: Economic Performance Assessment; Assessment of Social Performance. Country operations: "The Asian Development Bank (ADB) undertook the preparation of an operational strategy study for Myanmar in 1987, but discussions with the Government were not completed. As of December 1998, cumulative lending to Myanmar consists of 28 loan projects for a total of $530.9 million and 38 technical assistance projects for a total of $10.7 million. No loan has been provided to Myanmar since 1986 and no technical assistance since 1987. All 32 loans approved prior to 1986 were closed by end-1998. However, Myanmar is involved in the Program of Economic Cooperation in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS Program). In that capacity, Myanmar participates in regional meetings and workshops supported by ADB's regional technical assistance. To keep ADB's institutional knowledge up-to-date with regard to socio-economic developments, ADB has continued to review developments in economic policies and programs to the extent possible, based on the data available. In this regard, the 1995 Economic Report on Myanmar will be updated in 2000. Donor Activities, Aid Coordination and Cofinancing: Since 1988-89, Myanmar has not received any new lending programs from the multilateral institutions. However, it has received loans from the Peoples Republic of China, Thailand, India, Singapore, and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. In addition, Myanmar has received Debt Relief Grant from Japan, especially since 1988. Japan is also extending grants to the agriculture, forestry, and health sectors, grass root projects, and the Yangon International Airport Project. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) continues to conduct its Article IV consultations annually with the last one having been held in June 1999. Although ADB's operations have not yet resumed, ADB has maintained contact with other donors to exchange information on respective activities in Myanmar.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: PDF (253K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Asian Development Outlook 2002
    Date of publication: 09 April 2002
    Description/subject: Economic Trends and prospects in developing Asia. Contains a 2 page section on Burma/Myanmar. "This 14th edition of the Asian Development Outlook provides a comprehensive analysis of 41 economies in Asia and the Pacific, based on the Asian Development Banks in-depth knowledge of the region. For the first time, the Outlook includes a section on Afghanistan. It also provides a broad diagnosis of macroeconomic conditions and growth prospects as they relate to progress in poverty reduction in the economies of the region..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: PDF (629K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2002/mya.asp (Myanmar section, html)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Asian Development Outlook 2002 Update
    Date of publication: 18 September 2002
    Description/subject: "The 2002-2003 economic outlook for developing Asia and the Pacific has not changed significantly since the Asian Development Outlook 2002 was published in April 2002. However, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Central Asia had a stronger than expected performance in the first half of 2002, while South Asia and the Pacific had weaker than expected performance..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank
    Format/size: pdf (2.5MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2002/Update/southeast_asia.pdf (SE Asia section, pdf (500K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Asian Development Outlook 2003: Myanmar
    Date of publication: 2003
    Description/subject: Asian Development Outlook 2003 : II. Economic Trends and Prospects in Developing Asia : Southeast Asia Myanmar... Growth in FY2001 was recorded at 11.1%. However, there are reasons to be concerned about prospects. Macroeconomic imbalances persist, and there are growing signs of problems at a structural level. The country faces a complex development agenda. In the short run, priority should be given to reducing fiscal deficits and realigning expenditure priorities. Agricultural liberalization offers potentially large benefits....Outlook for 2003-2004: The Government has targeted 6% GDP growth over the latest 5-year planning period. However, the immediate prospects for fast economic expansion are uncertain. Widespread flooding in 2002 is likely to have had an adverse impact on agricultural activity, which still accounts for over 40% of GDP. Also, yields of important agricultural crops have fallen recently against a backdrop of shortages of imported fertilizers and other inputs. Political and economic sanctions limit prospects for exports and FDI, and any significant easing of foreign exchange constraints is unlikely in the near future. Over the medium term, the prospects for growth will, of course, depend crucially on policy choices. If macroeconomic imbalances and structural distortions persist, growth will undoubtedly suffer. If, however, a credible and sustained effort at reform were to begin, the prospects for sustainable economic expansion and poverty reduction would be good."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 January 2004


    Title: Asian Development Outlook 2006 -- Myanmar
    Date of publication: 2006
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2006/ (Outlook page)
    Date of entry/update: 25 April 2006


    Title: Asian Development Outlook 2007 -- Myanmar
    Date of publication: March 2007
    Description/subject: "High prices for natural gas exports and a good harvest led to a modest pickup in economic activity. But macroeconomic stability remains elusive with monetized fiscal deficits feeding high inflation. The cushion provided by the gas exports makes now an opportune time to embark on structural reforms, including exchange rate unification, fiscal consolidation, and agricultural liberalization, and to redirect public spending to development of social and physical infrastructure..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bangk (ADB)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 November 2007


    Title: Asian Development Outlook 2008 -- Myanmar
    Date of publication: March 2008
    Description/subject: "Modest rates of growth in recent years have been based on high prices for natural gas exports, heavy public expenditures, and an improving agricultural performance. However, macroeconomic stability is vulnerable to fiscal deficits that are financed through money creation, in turn prompting double-digit inflation. The Government has taken tentative steps toward a more market-oriented system in agriculture and finance, and should build on these reforms."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: pdf (122K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2008/
    Date of entry/update: 02 April 2008


    Title: Asian Development Outlook 2009 (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 17 April 2009
    Description/subject: "High prices for natural gas exports continued to support modest rates of growth in FY2007. Inflation remained at around 30%, largely the result of money creation to finance fiscal deficits. Recovery and reconstruction after Cyclone Nargis, which inflicted severe human loss and economic damage in May 2008, will take at least 3 years. Economic growth will be diminished this year by weaker performance of Myanmar’s major trading partners..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: pdf (711K - Myanmar section; 26.5MB-full report)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2009/ado2009.pdf (full report, 26.5MB)
    http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2009/default.asp (TOC of full report)
    http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2009/appendix.pdf (statistical appendix for full report)
    Date of entry/update: 17 April 2009


    Title: Asian Development Outlook 2011 - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: April 2011
    Description/subject: "Economic growth edged up over the past 2 years, accompanied by relatively modest inflation. The economy is expected to grow moderately over the forecast period, supported by foreign investment in construction and higher levels of credit to agriculture. The government that took office in March 2011 faces an extensive agenda of reforms if the country is to reach its potential..."
    Author/creator: Alfredo Perdiguero
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: pdf (323K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/publications/asian-development-outlook-2011-south-south-economic-links
    Date of entry/update: 12 April 2012


    Title: Asian Development Outlook 2012 - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: 11 April 2012
    Description/subject: "Economic growth picked up in FY2011, based largely on foreign investment in energy and exports of commodities and natural gas. That trend is forecast to continue, assisted by policy reforms and higher gas exports in 2013. Inflation is expected to quicken, after receding in 2011. The government has taken steps to revitalize the economy, but the agenda of required reforms is long..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: pdf (109K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/publications/asian-development-outlook-2012-confronting-rising-inequality-asia
    Date of entry/update: 12 April 2012


    Title: Asian Development Outlook 2013 -Asia’s Energy Challenge (Myanmar section)
    Date of publication: 09 April 2013
    Description/subject: "Policy reforms stimulated economic growth last year and are expected to drive further development during the forecast period. Inflation is projected to remain moderate. Improved economic prospects have sparked a surge of interest from foreign investors. Achieving the country’s potential depends on maintaining momentum on the government’s reform agenda..."...N.B. there is a lot of material on Myanmar, e.g. in the statistics, not included in the Myanmar pages
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: pdf (541K-Myanmar section; 7.9MB-full report)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/pub/2013/ado-2013.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 10 April 2013


    Title: Critical Approaches to Risk Under Authoritarian Regimes: The Asian Development Bank and the Greater Mekong Subregion
    Date of publication: 2011
    Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "Multilateral development banks and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in particular, have not provided direct assistance to Myanmar (Burma) since the mid-­1980s, largely as a concession to global disapprobation of its ruling military regime. Through its Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) project, however, the ADB still provides indirect assistance to Myanmar and direct assistance to the authoritarian single party states of Laos and Vietnam. The aim of the GMS East-­West Economic Corridor (EWEC) is to facilitate trade and investment across the GMS but the Myanmar leg of the road corridor, from Mawlamyine (Moulmein) to the Thai border at Myawaddy, traverses Karen State, which has been fraught with civil conflict since 1948. The ruling military regime along with its allies, the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA), nominally controls this route but in mid-­2010 there were serious defections from the DKBA to the opposition Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) over the military regime’s Border Guard Force (BGF) leading to increased tension in the area. The regime then closed the border at Myawaddy, ostensibly over a dispute with Thailand but more likely due to domestic political concerns, resulting in a large build-­up of goods on both sides of the border. The risks of greater civil conflict in this region are exacerbated by the revenue raising opportunities that various competing groups can derive from increased border trade while the risks of forced labour are ubiquitous for major development projects in Myanmar. The ADB acknowledges that the early stages of the EWEC will be funded by public sources but it clearly sees its role as guarantor of long-­term stability for the project to minimise the risks faced by private investment. The very nature of the project itself, however, which ignores domestic political issues, is likely to result in heightened risks of insecurity for the oppressed ethnic minorities who inhabit the region."
    Author/creator: Dr Adam Simpson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore.
    Format/size: pdf (2.74MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/NATBMA_WP1103.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 July 2011


    Title: Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2012 + Myanmar statistics
    Date of publication: August 2012
    Description/subject: The Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2012 (Key Indicators), the 43rd edition of this series, includes the latest available economic, financial, social, and environmental indicators for the 48 regional members of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). This publication aims to present the latest key statistics on development issues concerning the economies of Asia and the Pacific to a wide audience, including policy makers, development practitioners, government officials, researchers, students, and the general public. Part I of this issue of the Key Indicators is a special chapter—Green Urbanization in Asia. Parts II and III comprise of brief, non-technical analyses and statistical tables on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and seven other themes. This year, the second edition of the Framework of Inclusive Growth Indicators, a special supplement to Key Indicators is also included. The statistical tables in this issue of the Key Indicators may also be downloaded in MS Excel format from this website or in user-specified format at SDBS Online.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: pdf, Xcel
    Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/ki/2012/pdf/MYA.pdf (Myanmar statistics)
    Date of entry/update: 21 August 2012


    Title: Key Indicators of Developing Asian and Pacific Countries 2001, Volume 32: Myanmar
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: "In 38 country tables and 40 regional tables, it presents long time series data on economic, financial, environmental and social development, providing a comprehensive statistical portrait of ADB's 40 developing member countries (DMCs). This 32nd edition differs from previous editions. It includes an analysis of major economic and social trends and attempt to capture the diversity of our DMCs highlight the different development paths followed.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: The Excel version is more legible that the PDF but needs more paper and sticky tape
    Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/Key_Indicators/2001/mya.pdf
    http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/Key_Indicators/2001/default.asp
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Key indicators of developing Asian and Pacific countries: Myanmar
    Date of publication: November 2004
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 16 November 2004


    Title: Marketing the Mekong: the Asian Development Bank and the Greater Mekong Sub-region Economic Cooperation Program
    Date of publication: 12 December 2003
    Description/subject: Shortcomings of economic cooperation in the Greater Mekong...The Greater Mekong Subregion: A Regional Fantasy... The document critically examines the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation (GMS) Programme, which was initiated by the Asian Development Bank in 1992 to boost economic development in the resource rich region. It outlines the main features of the programme and highlights the shortcomings and problem of the GMS: * the centrality of natural resource exploitation (water, land, forests, energy, minerals, fisheries) results in the large-scale expropriation of resources crucial to daily sustenance * the distribution of benefits is uneven since participating countries have differing levels of development and capacity (i.e. what does the Lao PDR gain from the East-West Corridor?) * internal disparities within participating countries are widened because of pockets of high capital and infrastructure investment in specific parts of countries, which can result in tensions and conflicts between national and local government, and between the government and the people * the vision of development promoted through the GMS serves regional investment, and not national or local development priorities: projects are formulated based on their potential for profits for investors rather than on their potential to respond to social, economic, ecological or institutional needs among local and national communities * GMS projects have already resulted in negative impacts on local communities through road and hydropower projects, impacts include displacement of families, loss of livelihood sources, loss of lands, among others * in the GMS framework, the rights of investors are protected, but the rights of local people and communities are not * local-national communities outside of governments and private sector have not been involved in drawing up GMS plans * the financing of GMS projects have tremendous debt implications for participating countries: new forms of project financing are creating new forms of debt and financial liabilities * governments play conflicting roles as owners, investors and regulators in public-private partnerships in infrastructure projects * GMS projects facilitate the transfer of local-national wealth to private actors external to the Mekong region.
    Author/creator: Shalmali Guttal
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Focus on the Global South
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 January 2005


    Title: Myanmar in Transition: Opportunities and Challenges
    Date of publication: 20 August 2012
    Description/subject: "Myanmar, which is emerging from decades of isolation, is poised to accelerate its economic growth on the back of its abundant labor force, rich natural resources, and geographical location. But the country faces many development challenges to achieve strong and inclusive growth. To take advantage of its rich potential and endowments, Myanmar can also use its strategic location between the People’s Republic of China and India, and act as a conduit between South and Southeast Asia. In order to sustain its growth momentum in the long run, Myanmar should aim for a growth trajectory that is inclusive, equitable, and environmentally sustainable. This special report assesses the country’s strengths and weaknesses and highlights the challenges and risks. The key lies in prioritizing the actions to surmount the challenges and introducing the requisite reforms."...Executive summary: "...The course of Myanmar’s future growth can be guided by three complementary development strategies: regional integration, inclusiveness, and environmental sustainability. Furthermore, given the myriad challenges the country faces and the limited resources at its disposal, the interventions can be prioritized and reforms sequenced for the maximum benefits.     Key development agendas include the following:  • Provide macroeconomic stability. A stable macro environment provides a foundation for investment and long-term growth. Key elements of sound macroeconomic policy include low and stable inflation; a sustainable fiscal position; and a flexible, market-based exchange rate.... • Mobilize resources for investment. Increased domestic and foreign savings are critical to meeting the enormous requirements of the private and public sectors. In addition, higher government revenues (e.g., taxation] and more efficient financial intermediation will also help to provide sustainable financing for development.... • Improve infrastructure and human capital. The removal of structural impediments in the key areas of education, health, and infrastructure can provide a basis for human capital development and improve connectivity.... • Diversify into industry and services, while improving agriculture. Broadening the economic base beyond primary industries can raise productivity and value addition. Yet agriculture, fisheries, and resource industries are not to be neglected as they contain considerable potential for expansion.... • Reduce the state’s role in production. A further reduction in the government's ownership and control of productive activities can help spur competition and increase investment by creating a level playing field.... • Strengthen government institutions. Economic transformation can be supported by effective government institutions, although building institutions and their capacity may take time. Attention might focus on nurturing administrative and regulatory systems; managing resources; and, most importantly, enhancing the capabilities of government personnel throughout the system.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: pdf (1.2MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/myanmar-in-transition.pdf
    http://www.adb.org/countries/myanmar/videos/189162 (video)
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2012


    Title: Myanmar's Economic Outlook Improving but Broad Reforms Still Needed
    Date of publication: 11 April 2012
    Description/subject: ADB administration and governance; Economics...MANILA, PHILIPPINES – "Myanmar is poised for a period of rising economic growth, but the country needs to embark on a comprehensive program of reforms to realize its potential and reduce widespread poverty, according to a forecast of the country’s growth, contained in a new report from the Asian Development Bank (ADB)..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 April 2012


    Title: Myanmar’s Trade and its Potential
    Date of publication: January 2013
    Description/subject: Abstract: "The paper tabulates Myanmar’s merchandise trade as reported by its partner countries, thereby circumventing the data constraints stemming from Myanmar’s patchy trade records. It then estimates Myanmar’s export potential, based on the bilateral export patterns observed for six other countries in Southeast Asia. Against that benchmark and controlling for outliers, Myanmar is found to be trading at about 15% its potential. The bulk of this gap is explained by very low trade with the industrialized countries. Through reintegration with the world economy accompanied by deep economic re forms domestically, Myanmar would be expected to be closing this gap rather swiftly."... Keywords: Myanmar, gravity model, export potential
    Author/creator: Benno Ferrarini
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB) ADB Economics Working Paper SeriesNo. 325
    Format/size: pdf (1MB-original; 836K-OBL version)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Myanmar%27s%20Trade%20and%20its%20Potential%20-%20ewp-325-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 09 April 2013


    Title: Myanmar: Energy Sector Initial Assessment
    Date of publication: October 2012
    Description/subject: Description: In order to have a better understanding of Myanmar’s energy sector, an ADB mission visited Myanmar from 20 through 30 September 2011. The information and findings gathered during the mission served in drafting an initial assessment of the sector. Subsequently, the assessment has been updated to reflect the findings of follow-up ADB missions and consultations with the government... The Report: Clearly, strengthening Myanmar’s energy sector is critical to reducing poverty and enhancing the medium and long-term development prospects of the country. Electrification is an urgent requirement, without which whole areas of the country will be severely hampered in their efforts to advance economically. Social progress also depends on electrification, without which health, education, and other essential services inevitably suffer. There are many dimensions to the sector and they must be addressed comprehensively and systematically so as to ensure efficient and effective use of resources. While electrification, especially of rural areas, is of primary concern, issues of sustainability and protection of the environment must be considered simultaneously... Conclusions: Drawing from this initial assessment of the energy sector, but with the caveat that a comprehensive assessment is needed, Myanmar’s development partners—in consultation with the government—could begin considering support for the sector by focusing on several apparent priorities including:
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: pdf (4.16MB) html (Summary)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/documents/myanmar-energy-sector-initial-assessment
    Date of entry/update: 27 November 2012


    Title: Myanmar: Interim Country Partnership Strategy 2012-2014 (Draft Documents for Consultation)
    Date of publication: September 2012
    Description/subject: Description: "In response to ongoing major reform moves by the Government of Myanmar, ADB is now preparing a re-engagement strategy (interim country partnership strategy), which will guide our approach towards full resumption of operations. The interim strategy provides the framework for rapid reengagement, while affording the space required for further analytical work, capacity building, policy dialogue, and broad-based consultations with all development stakeholders, leading to a fully-fledged country partnership strategy. The interim strategy, as summarized in the consultation draft, is informed by ADB's initial economic and sector assessments on Myanmar, as well as consultations with the country's government, development partners, civil society, and the business community during the period June to August 2012. The proposed interim strategy envisions a highly consultative process to form the basis of the ensuing full country partnership strategy. The documents provided on this page are drafts for consultation purposes. Comments on the draft are most welcome. Email contact...." Linked Document(s): Sector Assessment (Summary): Agriculture and Natural Resources... Sector Assessment (Summary): Energy... Sector Assessment (Summary): Transport... Sector Assessment (Summary): Urban Development and Water Sector... Economic Analysis (Summary)... Poverty Analysis (Summary)... Gender Analysis (Summary)... Environment Assessment (Summary)... Regional Cooperation and Integration (Summary)... Economic Reform (Summary)... Initial Assessment (Summary): Post-Primary Education.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: html. pdf
    Date of entry/update: 20 September 2012


    Title: New Energy Architecture: Myanmar
    Date of publication: June 2013
    Description/subject: "...This report is structured as follows. First, the New Energy Architecture methodology is outlined. In Step 1, the performance of the country’s current energy architecture is assessed. Step 2 describes the setting of the objectives of the New Energy Architecture. Step 3 outlines insights to support the development of a New Energy Architecture, and highlights potential risks in achieving this. Step 4 then discusses the need for leadership and multistakeholder partnerships to support the implementation of a New Energy Architecture in Myanmar..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Economic Forum, Asian Development Bank (ADB), Accenture
    Format/size: pdf (4.2MB-OBL version; 5.3MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/pub/2013/new-energy-architecture-mya.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 01 July 2013


    Title: POSITION PAPER ON THE INCLUSION OF BURMA IN ADB’S GMS PROJECTS
    Date of publication: 26 July 2004
    Description/subject: "The NCUB’s position is that the ADB should exclude Burma from all GMS projects until Burma is ruled by a government that is committed to the principles of transparency, accountability, public participation in decision-making processes, and independent monitoring. Briefly, NCUB’s position is based on the following grounds:..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: National Council of the Union of Burma (NCUB)
    Format/size: html (65K)
    Date of entry/update: 05 October 2004


    Title: Regional technical assistance projects that include Burma (approved July 2004 – April 2005)
    Date of publication: April 2005
    Description/subject: "As the table below indicates, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) continues to provide grants for regional technical assistance (TA) projects in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) that include Burma. The grants for the projects below amount to US$5.74 million. For all of the projects in the table below, the amount of the grant extended by the ADB was US$1 million or smaller. This allows the projects to be approved by the ADB President, not by the Board of Directors."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IFI-Burma
    Format/size: html, (42K), Word (47K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/ADB_grants_for_GMS_projects_including_Burma.doc
    Date of entry/update: 13 April 2005


    Title: Status of Burma at the MDBs (Multilateral Development Banks)
    Date of publication: 15 July 2003
    Description/subject: Burma in the Asian Development Bank; Burma in the World Bank Group; Non-accrual status; Burma in the International Monetary Fund; U.S. and E.U. sanctions on Burma - provisions on MDB assistance; Resources, Links etc... Background: "Most foreign aid to Burma, both bilateral and multilateral, ceased in the wake of the violent crackdown on the popular democracy movement in 1988. The United States and the European Union impose economic sanctions, which prohibit most bilateral aid from the U.S. and Europe, as well as support for multilateral development assistance to Burma (see box "U.S. and E.U. sanctions on Burma"). Burma also has not been involved in any new lending programs from the multilateral development banks since 1988-89...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Project,, Bank Information Center
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 15 July 2003


    Title: The ADB in Burma: Behind the Scenes
    Date of publication: April 2011
    Description/subject: CONCLUSION: Burma still lacks sound economic policy, and the state is unwilling to reconcile with ethnic armed groups. Foreign direct investment in Burma is concentrated in energy and extractive sectors and often results in militarization, displacement and human rights abuses in ethnic areas. The facilitation and mobilization of private investment is having and will continue to have a major impact on the environment and communities, particularly in ethnic areas where the majority of natural resources remain. Current foreign investment is not reducing poverty but reinforcing the current power structures, and the vast majority of citizens in Burma are excluded from the benefits of development. Until the people of Burma can meaningfully participate in development decisions, preconditions for responsible investment are in place, and adverse impacts can be mitigated, then the ADB should refrain from any form of new engagement with Burma. If they do engage (i.e., fund, facilitate, administer) in Burma, the ADB must follow the International Financial Corporation’s ‘Sustainability Framework,’ and adhere to their own environmental and social safeguard policies, including safeguards on Involuntary Resettlement, Environment and Indigenous People, as well as the ADB’s Accountability Mechanism and Public Communications Policy... RECOMMENDATIONS: Until the people of Burma can meaningfully participate in development decisions, preconditions for responsible investment are in place, and adverse impacts can be mitigated, then the ADB should refrain from any form of new engagement with Burma. If they do engage (i.e., fund, facilitate, administer) in Burma, the ADB must follow the International Financial Corporation’s ‘Sustainability Framework,’, and adhere to apply their own environmental and social safeguard policies, when they do engage, including safeguards on Involuntary Resettlement, Environment and Indigenous People, as well as the ADB’s Accountability Mechanism and Public Communications Policy. If the ADB is involved in any future national development planning for Burma, they must make sure it is based on proper needs assessments and a participatory consultation process which ensures that it furthers the interest of the people.
    Author/creator: S. Bourne
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: NGO Forum on ADB
    Format/size: pdf (1.3MB-OBL version; 1.52MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.forum-adb.org/docs/ADB-and-Burma.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 June 2012


    Title: The Multilateral Banks and Burma
    Date of publication: April 2004
    Description/subject: "The Asian Development Bank has quietly started providing modest assistance to Rangoon. Is more to follow?... On April 8, 2004 Mitch McConnell, a prominent American senator from Kentucky with an interest in the Burma debate, expressed concerns over multilateral assistance to Burma and threatened to cut US funding to institutions that might provide such assistance. At a hearing of the Senate Subcommittee on Foreign Operations, he stated: “Unfortunately, I am hearing that international financial institutions—particularly the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank—are keen on re-engaging Burma. They do so at their own risks, and should begin finding other funding sources for the upcoming fiscal year because none will be forthcoming from this Subcommittee.” Senator McConnell’s statement reflects the unease shared by many in the Burma democracy movement about multilateral assistance going to Rangoon, which has a poor track record regarding transparency and public participation in development projects and has been accused of a range of human rights abuses. So what exactly are the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, or ADB, doing with respect to Burma? As yet the numbers are small, but imply an effort to renew assistance..."
    Author/creator: Yuki Akimoto
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 4, April 2004
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 July 2004


    Title: Verbrannte Erde und Überflutungen: Staudammprojekte am Salween in Burma
    Date of publication: October 2003
    Description/subject: Ein Artikel über die Aktivitäten der ADB in Burma, Staudammprojekte am Salween, Umweltkatastrophen, ölkologische Folgen der Staudammprojekte. activities of the ADB concerning Burma; environmental, ecological and sicial consequences of dam-projects
    Author/creator: Daniel Apolinarski
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Burma Initiative Asienhaus
    Format/size: pdf (99K)
    Date of entry/update: 05 December 2003


  • Asian Development Bank (ADB) and its watchers (general, thematic)
    The Asian Development Bank is returning to Burma/Myanmar and is preparing projects. This sub-section of OBL contains some links and documents to the Bank's policies and procedures, including enhanced transparancy, which may be useful to those concerned.

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Bank Information Center
    Description/subject: The Bank Information Center BIC is an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organization that provides information and strategic support to NGOs and social movements throughout the world on the projects, policies and practices of the World Bank and other Multilateral Development Banks MDBs. BIC advocates for greater transparency, accountability and citizen participation at the MDBs.
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Civil Society Participation
    Description/subject: "ADB cooperates with civil society on three levels: on the policy level, on the country strategy level, and on the level of projects. Over two-thirds of ADB’s sovereign loans, grants, and related project preparatory technical assistance (PPTA) include elements of civil society participation. Generally ADB does not fund NGOs directly, but instead lends money to its client governments. Civil society organizations wishing to work with ADB should familiarize themselves with the country partnership strategy of the country where they are working and identify if there are contributions that the organization can make to ADB’s work. Participation on the policy level Civil society, among other key internal and external stakeholders, is actively consulted in the development and review of institution-wide ADB policies and strategies. ADB’s review and consultation process aims to identify and consider the views of CSOs and advocacy groups and to ensure that they have reasonable opportunity to be involved in formulating policy and strategy papers. Public Communication Policy (PCP) ADB seeks civil society views to improve information disclosure. One of the most significant changes to ADB operations under the PCP is providing information to facilitate greater engagement of affected people in the early stages of project planning and preparation. For example, documents are disclosed in draft form in advance of consultations..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 November 2012


    Title: Country Safeguard Systems
    Description/subject: Summary and links..."ADB helps developing member countries (DMCs) strengthen their safeguard systems and develop their capacity to address environmental and social issues in development projects. Country safeguard systems refer to the laws, regulations, rules, and procedures on the policy areas of environment, involuntary resettlement, and indigenous peoples safeguards, and their implementing institutions. Since the approval of the Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS) in 2009, ADB has been providing technical assistance to help strengthen the legal and institutional framework for effectively implementing safeguards..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 November 2012


    Title: Disclosure (ADB)
    Description/subject: "Transparency and accountability are essential to achieve ADB's vision of an Asia and the Pacific region free of poverty. They are the cornerstones of development effectiveness. ADB's new Public Communications Policy (PCP) 2011 strengthens the previous policy by expanding the scope and type of information ADB makes publicly available. It also allows for earlier disclosure of most Board documents, and offers a more effective framework for proactively disclosing information and responding to information requests on a timely basis. The revised policy is specially designed to keep developing member countries, development partners, civil society, people affected by ADB projects, academics, media, the private sector, and other key stakeholders increasingly abreast of ADB activities and to provide added platforms for seeking their views. This will create the kind of two-way information exchange crucial to building mutual understanding and trust that forms the foundation of solid partnerships and development effectiveness..." See video
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: html, Adobe Flash
    Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/site/disclosure/videos/17505
    Date of entry/update: 28 November 2012


    Title: NGO Forum on ADB
    Description/subject: Not much specifically on Burma/Myanmar.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: NGO Forum on ADB
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Public Consultation Process
    Description/subject: "The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is committed to a participatory and transparent consultation process for the review of its accountability mechanism (AM) policy. ADB carried out intensive and extensive consultations from mid-2010 to late 2011.The consultation process involved a wide range of stakeholders, including government officials, nongovernment organizations, project-affected people, project beneficiaries, the private sector, development partners,and the public at large. The goal of the consultations was to give all interested stakeholders the opportunity to help improve the effectiveness of the AM and thereby improve ADB's development outcomes..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 November 2012


    Title: Safeguards Overview
    Description/subject: "Environmental and social safeguards are a cornerstone of ADB's support to inclusive economic growth and environmental sustainable growth. ADB's safeguard policy aims to help developing member countries (DMCs) address environmental and social risks in development projects and minimize and mitigate, if not avoid, adverse project impacts on people and the environment. Approved by ADB’s Board of Directors in July 2009, the Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS) builds upon the three previous safeguard policies on the environment, involuntary resettlement, and indigenous peoples, and brings them into a consolidated policy framework that enhances effectiveness and relevance. The SPS applies to all ADB-supported projects reviewed by ADB’s management after 20 January 2010. ADB works with borrowers to put policy principles and requirements into practice through project review and supervision, and capacity development support. The SPS also provides a platform for participation by affected people and other stakeholders in project design and implementation."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 November 2012


    Title: Translation Framework
    Description/subject: "English is the working language of ADB. Nonetheless, ADB recognizes the need to communicate more widely and effectively by expanding the extent of information made available in languages other than English used in ADB's developing member countries. In March 2007, Management approved a translation framework. In accordance with ADB's commitment to increase shared information under the Public Communications Policy (PCP), the framework complements ADB's communications efforts with external stakeholders in line with its operational needs. Since the implementation of the framework, ADB has translated a wide variety of awareness-raising documents into the following developing member country languages: Armenian, Azeri, Bahasa Indonesia, Bangla, Chinese, Dari, Fijian, Filipino, French, Georgian, Hindi, Hindustani, Kazakh, Khmer, Kyrgyz, Lao, Marshallese, Mongolian, Nepali, Portuguese, Russian, Sinhala, Tajik,Tamil,Tetum, Thai, Tok Pisin,Tongan, Urdu, Uzbek , and Vietnamese..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: html (348K)
    Date of entry/update: 28 November 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: Conflict-sensitive approaches to development practice
    Date of publication: 25 October 2001
    Description/subject: Abstract: "This report, originally commissioned as a background paper by IDRC for a consultative meeting addressing conflict prevention and development practice, aims to provide a critical overview of the approaches to development being defined by donors, academic institutions, as well as NGOs and agencies charged with the delivery of effective aid and development programmes in conflict-prone and conflict-affected areas. Governmental and non-governmental actors alike increasingly recognise the need for conflict-sensitive approaches to development and humanitarian assistance and are consequently attempting to develop the theoretical underpinnings as well as the structural prerequisites for integrating conflict-sensitive perspectives into development assistance. The paper seeks to highlight the range of different approaches and to identify both their strengths and limitations. It concludes by proposing some of the important policy issues which need to be addressed if conflictsensitive development approaches are to have broader relevance and impact."
    Author/creator: Cynthia Gaigals, Manuela Leonhardt
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Internqtional Alert, Saferworld, International Development Research Centre
    Format/size: pdf (415K)
    Date of entry/update: 27 November 2012


    Title: Revised Public Communications Policy Expands and Speeds Up Access to Information (video)
    Date of publication: 02 April 2012
    Description/subject: To increase ADB's transparency and accountability, the Board has approved the revised Public Communications Policy, which will take effect on 2 April 2012. As a result of extensive stakeholder consultations, the PCP's key changes put ADB at the forefront of best practices on transparency.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: Adobe Flash
    Date of entry/update: 28 November 2012


    Title: Safeguard Policy Statement
    Date of publication: June 2009
    Description/subject: "The Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS) builds upon the three previous safeguard policies on the environment, involuntary resettlement and indigenous peoples, and brings them into one single policy that enhances consistency and coherence, and more comprehensively addresses environmental and social impacts and risks. The SPS aims to promote sustainability of project outcomes by protecting the environment and people from projects' potential adverse impacts by avoiding adverse impacts of projects on the environment and affected people, where possible; minimizing, mitigating, and/or compensating for adverse project impacts on the environment and affected people when avoidance is not possible; and helping borrowers/clients to strengthen their safeguard systems and develop the capacity to manage environmental and social risks"
    Language: English (available also in 10 other lnguages - not Burmese)
    Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Format/size: pdf (319K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/documents/safeguard-policy-statement?ref=site/safeguards/main (Description and contents)
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Safeguard-Policy-Statement-June2009.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 November 2012


    Title: Understanding the Asian Development Bank's Safeguard Policy
    Date of publication: 2010
    Description/subject: What protections does the Bank's new Safeguard Policy provide for communities and the environment?...Policy navigation tool... Executive summary... 1. Introduction... 2. Overview of the new Policy: 2.1 General Policy requirements; 2.2 Environment safeguard requirements; 2.3 Involuntary resettlement safeguard requirements; 2.4 Indigenous Peoples safeguard requirements; 2.5 Special requirements for different finance modalities; 2.6 Country safeguard systems; 2.7 Prohibited investments; 2.8 Operations Manual... 3. Summary assessment of the new Policy: 3.1 Overview; 3.2 Environment; 3.3 Involuntary resettlement; 3.4 Indigenous Peoples; 3.5 Financing modalities; 3.6 Operations Manual... 4. Implications for civil society organisations: 4.1 Resistance to arbitrary interpretation; 4.2 Particular attention to different types of investment/financing modality; 4.3 Particular attention to application of country safeguard systems; 4.4 Monitoring of safeguards implementation in the ADB's response to the financial crisis; 4.5 Documenting poor policy implementation; 4.6 Utilisation of Accountability Mechanism... 5. Conclusion... Endnotes... Appendix 1: Overview of policy review process
    Author/creator: Jessica Rosien
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Oxfam Australia
    Format/size: pdf (1.75MB)
    Date of entry/update: 27 November 2012


  • International Monetary Fund

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: IMF Myanmar Page
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Bullet points from IMF Article IV mission briefing, Sept 4 2007
    Date of publication: 04 September 2007
    Description/subject: "...In general the cooperation from the technical counterpoints was very good, even better than last year. • Continuing concerns about Govt capacity. Counterparts are suffering from lack of opportunity to interact with outside world, seen both in technical skills & morale. IMF will try to increase engagement at the technical level. • Macroeconomic picture is hard to judge given questions about Govt numbers. The economy is definitely growing, but only about 5%, not the 13% range as claimed..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund
    Format/size: pdf (31K)
    Date of entry/update: 27 January 2009


    Title: Efficiency Costs of Myanmar’s Multiple Exchange Rate Regime
    Date of publication: August 2008
    Description/subject: Myanmar’s multiple exchange rate system creates various economic distortions. This paper describes the exchange rate practices in Myanmar, develops a model of foreign exchange markets, and presents the efficiency costs imposed by quasi-fiscal operation under the current exchange rate regime. The results of our model-based analyses indicate that the equilibrium exchange rate under the unified market could be at around K 400–500 per U.S. dollar, and using the equilibrium exchange rate (instead of the official exchange rate) as the accounting rate increases trade openness to more than 20 percent from less than 1 percent measured by official statistics. The total efficiency loss caused by the current multiple exchange rate regime is estimated at about 14–17 percent of GDP in 2006/07... JEL Classification Numbers: F31, H29... Keywords: Multiple Exchange Rate, Exchange Rate Unification, Efficiency Analysis
    Author/creator: Masahiro Hori and Yu Ching Wong
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IMF Working Paper WP/08/199
    Format/size: pdf (295K)
    Date of entry/update: 05 January 2009


    Title: IMF: May monitor Myanmar's economic progress under fund program
    Date of publication: 21 November 2012
    Description/subject: Washington - "The International Monetary Fund is near a deal with the Myanmar government for a program to monitor the country's economic plans as it struggles to reverse its place as one of the poorest countries in Asia. After decades of military rule and one of the worst human rights records in the world, the country of 48 million people is striving to remake itself as a democratic and open-market economy. To award and encourage the government in capital Naypyidaw, the country's largest international creditors are negotiating debt relief while Myanmar lawmakers build new political and economic institutions. The IMF said Wednesday that it had reached an understanding that could form the basis of a possible staff-monitored program during January-December 2013. There would be no financial assistance involved in the program..."
    Author/creator: Ian Talley
    Language: Engish
    Source/publisher: "The Wall Street Journal"
    Format/size: pdf (54K)
    Date of entry/update: 21 November 2012


    Title: International Monetary Fund - World Economic Outlook Database October 2007 -- Myanmar
    Date of publication: October 2007
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund
    Format/size: pdf (26K), Excel (21K )
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/weoreptc(1).xls
    Date of entry/update: 27 January 2009


    Title: Myanmar: IMF Credit Outstanding as of July 31, 2010
    Date of publication: 31 July 2010
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.imf.org/external/np/fin/tad/exportal.aspx?memberKey1=688&date1key=2010-07-31&category=EXC&tsvflag=Y
    Date of entry/update: 16 August 2010


    Title: Myanmar: Recent Economic Developments
    Date of publication: 10 December 1999
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    Format/size: PDF (3.20 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.cfm?sk=3335.0
    Date of entry/update: 16 August 2010


    Title: MYANMAR: STAFF REPORT FOR THE 2011 ARTICLE IV CONSULTATION
    Date of publication: 02 March 2012
    Description/subject: KEY ISSUES: Context: Political reconciliation is gaining traction. The main opposition party, National League for Democracy will contest the April by-elections; many political prisoners have been freed; and several ceasefire agreements with ethnic minorities have been signed. The economic reform momentum is strong. Growth and inflation are expected to accelerate modestly... Focus of the consultation: Consistent with past advice, the authorities are moving forward with reforms of the exchange rate system. Discussions centered on improving macroeconomic management to underpin these reforms, and on policies to foster broad-based economic growth... Key policy issues and recommendations: Priorities are establishing the market infrastructure for the planned move to a managed float, and monetary and foreign exchange policy capacity to complement plans to unify the exchange rates. Financial sector modernization remains essential to support the reform process and improve financial intermediation. Fiscal policy priorities include ending deficit monetization, reprioritizing spending, and increasing nonresource revenues for development spending within a medium-term fiscal framework. Structural reforms should aim to increase agricultural productivity, and foster private sector development... Exchange rate arrangement: Myanmar continues to avail itself of transitional arrangements under Article XIV, although it has eliminated all Article XIV restrictions. Myanmar maintains exchange restrictions and multiple currency practices subject to Fund approval under Article VIII. The exchange rate regime is classified as other managed arrangement.
    Language: EnglIsh
    Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    Format/size: pdf (545K-OBL version; 1MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2012/cr12104.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 21 November 2012


    Title: Myanmar: Statistical Appendix
    Date of publication: 27 January 2001
    Description/subject: Full text
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    Format/size: PDF (789K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmar—Staff Report for the 2007 Article IV Consultation— Informational Annex
    Date of publication: 05 November 2007
    Description/subject: The attached informational annex is being issued as a supplement to the staff report for the 2007 Article IV consultation with Myanmar (SM/07/347, 11/5/07) which is tentatively scheduled for discussion on Wednesday, November 28, 2007. At the time of circulation of this paper to the Board, the Secretary’s Department has not received a communication from the authorities of Myanmar indicating whether or not they consent to the Fund’s publication of this paper; such communication may be received after the authorities have had an opportunity to read the paper.
    Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund
    Format/size: pdf (47K)
    Date of entry/update: 27 January 2009


    Title: Myanmar—Staff Report for the 2007 Article IV Consultation—Debt Sustainability Analysis
    Date of publication: 05 November 2007
    Description/subject: The attached debt sustainability analysis is being issued as a supplement to the staff report for the 2007 Article IV consultation with Myanmar (SM/07/347, 11/5/07), which is tentatively scheduled for discussion on Wednesday, November 28, 2007. At the time of circulation of this paper to the Board, the Secretary’s Department has not received a communication from the authorities of Myanmar indicating whether or not they consent to the Fund’s publication of this paper; such communication may be received after the authorities have had an opportunity to read the paper.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund
    Format/size: pdf (66K)
    Date of entry/update: 27 January 2009


    Title: Statement at the Conclusion of an IMF Staff Mission to Myanmar
    Date of publication: 21 November 2012
    Description/subject: "...“The government has made rapid strides over the last two years. The exchange rate regime has been changed from a peg to a managed float. The financial sector is being gradually modernized, starting with partial deposit rate liberalization and the relaxing of some restrictions on private banks. This year’s fiscal budget was debated in Parliament for the first time, yielding increased spending in critical areas such as health, education, and infrastructure. Laws to support the development goals of the government have been passed, including on land reforms, microfinance, and foreign investment. Discussions on clearing Myanmar’s external arrears are also progressing. “These reforms are already bearing fruit. Growth is expected to accelerate to around 6¼ percent in FY2012/13, bolstered by foreign investment in natural resources and exports of commodities. Inflation has declined rapidly and should remain moderate at around 6 percent next year. Meanwhile, the exchange rate has been stable in recent months, with international reserves increasing to US$4 billion. “Nevertheless, the government recognizes there is still a long way to go. Myanmar remains one of the poorest countries in Asia, with economic development stymied by many distortions..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund (IMF) Press Release No. 12/453
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 21 November 2012


    Title: Statement at the Conclusion of the 2011 Article IV Mission to Myanmar
    Date of publication: 25 January 2012
    Description/subject: "An International Monetary Fund (IMF) mission led by Ms. Meral Karasulu visited Nay Pyi Taw and Yangon during January 9–25, 2012 for the 2011 Article IV Consultation. The team met with the authorities and other key counterparts to discuss recent economic developments and the outlook for Myanmar. At the conclusion of the mission, Ms. Karasulu issued the following statement today in Nay Pyi Taw: ...“The new government is facing a historic opportunity to jump-start the development process and lift living standards. Myanmar has a high growth potential and could become the next economic frontier in Asia, if it can turn its rich natural resources, young labor force, and proximity to some of the most dynamic economies in the world, into its advantage. “Delivering on these expectations with inclusive and sustainable growth should start with establishing macroeconomic stability. This process has already begun with plans underway to unify the exchange rate and lift exchange restrictions on current international payments and transfers. As this essential process continues, channeling the reform momentum to improving monetary and fiscal management and to structural reforms would allow taking full advantage of the positive effects of exchange rate unification..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IMF via "The New Light of Myanmar"
    Format/size: pdf (52K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/IMF_statement-NLM2012-01-25.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 01 February 2012


    Title: Statement by the Hon. WIN SHEIN , Governor of the Fund and the Bank for MYANMAR
    Date of publication: 12 October 2012
    Description/subject: "...Let me briefly reflect upon the recent macroeconomic situation of Myanmar and outline the Government’s programs and policies for economic reform going forward. Nowadays, Myanmar has embarked on democratic path in building a new nation through peaceful transition, while Myanmar has been endeavoring for the development of the country. The government, after assuming office in March 2011, has been implementing the reform measures in all aspects. As the first step of its reform strategy, the government prioritized political reform and national reconciliation process, which resulted prominent achievements, winning the stronger trust of the international community. In this process, we have maintained political stability, which is essential for macroeconomic and financial stability, and for sustained economic growth..."
    Author/creator: Hon. WIN SHEIN
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Monetary Fund (IMF) Governor’s Statement No. 22
    Format/size: pdf (81K-OBL version; 499K-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.imf.org/external/am/2012/speeches/pr22e.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 21 November 2012


  • The World Bank and Its Watchers

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Bank Information Center
    Description/subject: The Bank Information Center BIC is an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organization that provides information and strategic support to NGOs and social movements throughout the world on the projects, policies and practices of the World Bank and other Multilateral Development Banks MDBs. BIC advocates for greater transparency, accountability and citizen participation at the MDBs.
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: World Bank Myanmar page
    Description/subject: "The World Bank has begun the process of re-engaging with the Government to support reforms that will benefit all of the people of Myanmar, including the poor and vulnerable. Comparable country data for Myanmar can't be provided at this time..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Bank
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 January 2010


    Title: World Bank Reports and Documents on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 26 December 2013
    Description/subject: Results of browsing Documents > Myanmar (10 documents, Dec 2001. 130 documents, September 2012), 218 (December 2013)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Bank
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: World Bank Research on Myanmar
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Bank
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2013


    Title: World Bank Search for Myanmar
    Description/subject: Results of a search for Myanmar on the World Bank site
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Bangk
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.worldbank.org
    Date of entry/update: 16 August 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Burma - Issues and options in the energy sector
    Date of publication: 30 June 1985
    Description/subject: Sector Report. Burma' s energy resources are large and varied. While the Government has done a commendable job of developing these resources largely on its own, their development has nevertheless been comparatively slow. While this may have constrained economic growth to date, it also provides a ready basis for an acceleration in future economic growth and increased exports. This report analyzes the technical, financial and institutional requirements for realizing that potential through the turn of the century in the context of two scenarios - a Planned Growth scenario which reflects the official growth targets, and an Economic Growth scenario under which public finance and balance of payments constraints result in somewhat slower economic growth. Under either scenario a major investment program and infusion of current technology will be needed. The report recommends considerable technical assistance and studies to help effect this transfer of technology. To help finance these requirements, it will be necessary to improve the financial footing of the public corporations in the sector; this would entail price increases for many energy products. There is also a need to strengthen energy planning and inter-ministerial coordination on energy matters. Keywords: Hydroelectric power; Petroleum; Natural gas; Coal; Fuelwood; Biomass energy; Petroleum exports; Technical assistance; Technology transfer; Deforestation; Offshore gas fields; Energy planning
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Bank
    Format/size: Page, Text (432K), PDF (8531K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1999/09/17/000009265_3970723102606/Rendered/INDEX/multi_page.txt
    http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1999/09/17/000009265_3970723102606/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma and the CGIAR centers: a study of their collaboration in agricultural research
    Date of publication: 30 November 1986
    Description/subject: CGIAR Study Paper "This report on the collaboration between international agricultural research centers (IARCs) and the agricultural research system of Burma was undertaken at the request of the CGIAR impact study and includes several objectives. They entail providing (1) a picture of the collaboration between CGIAR-supported IARCs and Burma; (2) an assessment of how international inputs have contributed to national research capacity; and (3) an evaluation of the relevance and impact of the centers ' training programs. Further to this, the report involves (4) a summary of the impact on food production; and (5) a discussion of the way in which selected technologies originating in the centers have been transmitted through national programs to farmers. By cooperating with various IARCs, Burma ' s agricultural research departments and other agencies under the Agriculture Corporation have greatly increased yields of rice, maize, sorghum, wheat, cotton, jute, sugarcane and food legumes in Burma. In addition, Burma has received genetic materials, training fellowships and opportunities to establish contacts with research workers and scientists in other countries to permit the continuous exchange of ideas." Keywords: International agricultural research coordination; Food production; Agricultural inputs; Food crops; Research centers; Training programs
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Bank
    Format/size: Text (164K), PDF (4315K), Page.
    Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2001/01/24/000178830_98101901560884/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf
    http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSServlet?pcont=details&eid=000178830_98101901560884
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma groups detect flaws in World Bank's re-engagement move
    Date of publication: 07 September 2012
    Description/subject: "After pressure from civil society in Burma, the World Bank released a draft summary of its Interim Strategy Note (ISN) last month, an outline of its re-engagement plans with Burma over the next 18 months. The move comes after local and international NGOs claimed that the Bank had not adequately engaged in consultation with civil society. The draft ISN is meant to inform the consultation process, and the final ISN is due to be released by the Bank in the end of October..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bank Information Center (IF-Eye Issue #54):
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 08 September 2012


    Title: Burma: World Bank Grant Could ‘Exacerbate’ Problems In Border Regions
    Date of publication: 10 August 2012
    Description/subject: "Civil society groups have urged the World Bank to exercise caution before pressing ahead with their plans to pump $85 million into community projects in Burma’s conflict-torn border regions or risk “exacerbating” local problems. Campaigners have criticised the Bank for claiming that locals will be able to “decide whether to invest in schools, roads, water or other projects” without disclosing details of their consultation plans, transparency provisions and whether they have conducted a conflict-assessment. “Burma’s ethnic conflicts are complex and the ongoing ceasefire negotiations are fragile, so if the World Bank is looking into providing assistance they need to publish this information,” said Khin Ohmar from Burma Partnership. “That kind of money can easily exacerbate problems or even create more different types of conflicts within the communities..."
    Author/creator: Hanna Hindstrom
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 08 September 2012


    Title: Counting the full cost : parental and community financing of education in East Asia
    Date of publication: 30 November 1996
    Description/subject: Publication. "This study highlights the need for much more detailed attention to the cost of schooling incurred by parents and communities. In some societies these costs are greater than even the costs to governments. Quite apart from overt forms of privatization, the growth of household resourcing of public education has been a hidden form of privatization of enormous influence. This study presents empirical findings, and primarily focuses on nine East Asian countries -Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao People ' s Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam -although clear parallels can be drawn with experiences in some other parts of the world. While patterns are far from uniform, one striking feature from this study is that costs to households have increased in long-standing capitalist countries as well as in former socialist countries. The scale of the increase varies widely, but it is significant that in these countries there is an increase at all. The study concludes that governments seeking to achieve universal primary education and expanded enrollments in secondary education must consider the costs and benefits at the household level. Their resulting policies must focus not only on supply but also on demand for education. Included in demand will be complex considerations of the quality and the price of education. When assessing the cost side of the equation, policy analysts must count the full cost -not only to governments, but also to parents and communities- and not only the monetary costs of donated labor, materials, and land." Keywords: Educational financing; Human capital; Cost of education; Resources mobilization; Resources utilization; Parent-child relationships; School-community relationships; Public education; Denationalization; Human rights; Private schools; Private education; Household budgets; Enrolment ratio
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Bank
    Format/size: Page, Text (223K), PDF (5289K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1996/11/01/000009265_3970311115031/Rendered/INDEX/multi_page.txt
    http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1996/11/01/000009265_3970311115031/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Free trade area membership as a stepping stone to development: the case of ASEAN
    Date of publication: 28 February 2001
    Description/subject: World Bank Discussion Paper. "This study investigates the economic impacts of accession to the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) by the new member countries of Cambodia, the Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Vietnam. The trade policies of these countries are examined, and a series of quantitative analyses were undertaken to evaluate the impacts of accession. The results showed that the static impacts of reducing tariffs against ASEAN members are beneficial, although the magnitude of the net gains is diminished by the trade diversion resulting from the discriminatory nature of the reforms. The binding commitments on protection rates under the AFTA plan provide an important initial step to more broader and more beneficial trade reforms. The study focuses on some of the key country-specific policy challenges associated with trade liberalization--such as declining tariff revenues in Cambodia, and the negative impacts on sensitive domestic industries in Vietnam. The study recommends that accession to AFTA be viewed as an important transitional step in the broader process of trade reform and institutional development needed for successful development and poverty alleviation. Keywords: Free trade areas; Trade policy; Tariff reductions; Trade liberalization; Comparative advantage.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Bank
    Format/size: Text (586K), PDF (11979K), Page.
    Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2001/03/30//000094946_01032007262136/Rendered/PDF/multi0page.pdf
    http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSServlet?pcont=details&eid=000094946_01032007262136
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human Rights Watch Letter to World Bank President Zoellick on Burma
    Date of publication: 08 February 2012
    Description/subject: World Bank: Emphasize Civic Participation in Burma; Encourage Transparency, Accountability in Exploring Reengagement
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: pdf (203K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/related_material/Download%20Human%20Rights%20Watch%20letter%20to%20President%20Zoellick%20on%20Burma_0.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 26 February 2012


    Title: Irrigation O & M and system performance in Southeast Asia: an OED impact study
    Date of publication: 27 June 1996
    Description/subject: Operations Evaluation Study. "This report discusses six gravity irrigation schemes supported by the World Bank in the paddy lands of Thailand, Myanmar, and Vietnam. Its main objective is to assess: (i) the agro-economic impacts of these schemes at least five years after completion of the investment operations, and (ii) the influence of operation and maintenance (O & M) performance on the sustainability of those impacts. The finding that dominates the study has little to do with O & M. Offering poor economics and low incomes, these paddy irrigation schemes face an uncertain future. Improved O & M performance will not rescue them. In fact, the study finds that this causality is being reversed. As the uncompetitiveness of paddy farming drives the younger members off farms and the older members to stay behind and concentrate on basic subsistence crops, social capital will erode and O & M standards are likely to suffer. Based on the study of the six schemes, several recommendations have been made and grouped into the following general categories, then expanded on: (1) to sharpen the response to O & M failures; (2) to simplify the technology of infrastructure and operations; (3) to promote the transfer of management to farmers and their Water User Groups; and (4) to improve household earnings." Keywords: Gravity irrigation; Paddyland; Competitiveness; Agricultural productivity; Household income; Subsistence farming; Traditional farming; Farm management; Rural infrastructure; Agro-economic impacts; Operation & maintenance; Water user groups
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Bank
    Format/size: Page, Text (609K), PDF (12415K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1996/06/27/000009265_3961214172549/Rendered/INDEX/multi_page.txt
    http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1996/06/27/000009265_3961214172549/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Multilaterals Warned Not to Go Too Far, Too Fast in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 18 April 2012
    Description/subject: "WASHINGTON, Apr 18, 2012 (IPS) - As multilateral lending agencies prepare to seriously re- engage with Myanmar for the first time in decades, observers at the spring meetings of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) are warning that a poor understanding of ground conditions in the country could jeopardise many of the early opportunities created by government-initiated reforms. While international economic sanctions, particularly those put in place by the United States and European Union, have significantly limited the ability of multilateral agencies to operate in Myanmar, recent weeks have seen several governments move to ease these measures. This week the U.S. announced a second round of loosening, while officials in both Australia and the EU are currently engaged in similar discussions..."
    Author/creator: Carey L. Biron
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Inter-Press Service (IPS)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 May 2012


    Title: Myanmar Economic Monitor
    Date of publication: October 2013
    Description/subject: Overview  The economy grew at 6.5 percent in 2012/13. The main drivers of growth were increased gas production, services, construction, foreign direct investment, and strong commodity exports. Inflation has been on the rise in recent months, reaching 7.3 percent in August 2013...  The budget deficit declined to 3.7 percent of GDP in 2012/13, from 4.6 percent in 2011/12. The 2013/14 budget provides for increased spending on social sectors, although the defense budget remains high...  The nominal exchange rate has been depreciating since the turn of the year, reaching K975 to one US dollar in July 2013 with some reversal of this trend between August and September. The current account deficit increased to 4.4 percent of GDP in 2012/13, up from 2.4 percent in 2011/12, due to import liberalization and lifting of some exchange restrictions...  Gross international reserves reached US$4.6 billion at the end of 2012/13, equivalent to 3.7 months of imports, up from US$4.0 billion in 2011/12...  The outlook is positive, with the economy projected to grow at 6.8 percent in 2013/14 and rising further to 6.9 percent in the medium-term. This will be on account of a continued increase in gas production, increased trade, and stronger performance in agriculture...  Risks to the outlook include the challenge of maintaining the reform momentum. Externally, a slowdown in Chinese domestic investment and a decline in global commodity prices would hurt commodity exporting countries such as Myanmar...  The Policy Watch section presents a number of planned or recently implemented policy reforms which reflect the country’s continuing drive to improve the business environment...  A Special Feature Article presents a summary of findings from a recent assessment of Myanmar’s Public Financial Management (PFM).
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Bank
    Format/size: pdf (838K)
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2013


    Title: Myanmar-- Policies for Sustaining Economic Reform
    Date of publication: 16 October 1995
    Description/subject: Important report, which criticises the SLORC's economic and social policies, including paddy procurement policies."A significant program of economic reforms has been instituted in Myanmar since the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) assumed power in late-1988. This shift in economic policies followed almost a quarter century of economic decline during which the prevalent development paradigm was termed " the Burmese way of socialism " . Under that model, economic development was to be achieved through rapid industrialization and self sufficiency, and led by the State Enterprise (SE) sector. Economic performance under that policy regime was poor. During 1962-77, real GDP growth barely kept up with population expansion and, as a result, living standards stagnated. Investment levels remained low, agricultural output grew slowly, and the economy grew more inward looking. The initial attempts at economic reform in the mid-1970s succeeded at first but could not be sustained due to macroeconomic and structural factors, which were reflected in widening budget and current account deficits, rising inflation, and stagnant agricultural output and exports. Faced with these serious external and internal imbalances in the early-1980s the Government's stabilization attempts relied on tightening import controls, cutting public investment, and demonetization but were ineffective in reversing the economic decline. Following the anti-government demonstrations of 1988, the SLORC assumed power and announced that many key aspects of the earlier model would be abandoned in its economic reform program. With over seven years having elapsed since those reforms were initiated, it is an opportune time to take stock. Specifically, this report examines the impacts of the policy changes, with a view to identifying the areas in which progress has been made, as well as the gaps that still remain in the program. This analysis would then underpin the report's recommendations concernng areas in which additional reforms are required and how these measures should be phased. Keywords: Economic growth; Economic reform; Economic stabilization; Government role; Policy making
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Bank
    Format/size: Text (456K)or PDF (8416K) Page.
    Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1995/10/16/000009265_3961019103423/Rendered/PDF/multi0page.pdf
    http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSServlet?pcont=details&eid=000009265_3961019103423
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: MYANMAR: CAPITALIZING ON RICE EXPORT OPPORTUNITIES
    Date of publication: 28 February 2014
    Description/subject: Conclusions: "Myanmar has new global and regional rice market opportunities. Should they be captured, higher rice exports could eventually stimulate agricultural growth, which in turn could reduce poverty and boost shared prosperity. Better export opportunities and more stable prices, to which a more efficient export system could contribute, would trigger an increase of rice sector productivity and eventually overall agricultural productivity, given the large share of rice in Myanmar’s planted area, production, trade, and consumption. Higher agricultural productivity would also help the landless, who often work as seasonal farm workers. With more and better quality paddy, the milling industry would accelerate its modernization, creating non-farm jobs and stimulating economic growth. Net buyers of rice in rural and urban areas would benefit from a larger variety and improved quality of rice, potentially at lower prices. 109. Yet several big challenges lie ahead. Strong competition from other exporters and constantly rising demands for the safety and quality of rice on world markets puts pressure on Myanmar’s rice sector. While field yields are only half of those realized by other exporters, significantly expanding the current exportable surplus will take time and can only be realized if rice farming profitability is considerably increased. With reduced carryover stocks, rice exports in 2013/14 are currently trailing the same period in 2012/13, illustrating the importance of addressing structural weaknesses along the value chain if Myanmar is to become a reliable rice exporter. A significant increase in exports also necessitates that Myanmar diversify both its overseas markets and the quality of its rice exports. 110. Taken as a whole, the policy recommendations will go a long way towards improving the prospects for more profitable rice farming. Policymakers need to understand that the rice milling sector and exporters also need a conducive policy environment without an anti-export bias to ensure that their performance is upgraded to become internationally competitive. While public spending programs take time to materialize, policies can have an immediate effect. A small change of policy or even its clear communication and implementation can have a lasting positive impact without any cost to stretched national or local budgets. With this in mind, policies should be considered the most effective vehicle for attracting private investment in the rice value chain in the short run and should be utilized strategically. 111. With more consistent enabling economic policies, alignment of public investment with the strategic objective of export promotion is the key to the long-term prospects for rice exports. The focus should change from producing and selling more low-quality rice to producing and selling increased quantities of different qualities of rice and doing so more efficiently. This strategy would allow Myanmar’s rice value chain participants to earn higher incomes, capture the growing market of higher value rice, and diversify risks in different markets..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Bank
    Format/size: pdf (938K-reduced version; 1.6MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://lift-fund.org/Publications/Myanmar_Capitalizing_on_Rice_Export_Opportunities.pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs18/WB-Myanmar-Capitalizing_on_Rice_Export_Opportunities-en.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 02 July 2014


    Title: Power trade strategy for the Greater Mekong Sub-region
    Date of publication: 31 March 1999
    Description/subject: Sector Report. "The main objectives of the study are to: a) assess options and formulate a strategy for power trade among the Greater Mekong countries, paying special attention to the barriers to trade and the policy, institutional and commercial framework required to develop and operate efficiently a regional power network; and b) establish the rationale and options for donors ' support to power trading and transmission network investment needs within the region. Although power trade among the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) countries is beginning to grow, there are important barriers that could prevent its development: 1) policy barriers, 2) technical barriers, 3) institutional barriers, and 4) commercial and financial barriers. The strategy proposed in the study addresses the following overarching issues: 1) Regional electricity trade should be second to national and local needs. 2) Conditions must be established for a public-private partnership to develop power trade in the region. 3) Conflicts must be resolved between short- and long-term objectives, between national and regional views, and eventually, between specific projects. 4) There must be a common path of fundamental economic practices to allow open access to transmission. 5) Financial and technical assistance must be secured. 6) There must be a regional agreement on policy issues and an institutional framework to address market uncertainties and potential conflicts, and to promote regional trade. Keywords: Electricity trade; Regional trade; Electric networks; Transmission; Mekong river; Trade barriers; Private-public partnerships; Technical assistance; Institutional framework; Trade policy; Greenhouse gas emissions; Sectoral reforms; Government policy; Power sector reform; Wholesale trade; Open access; Tariffs; Risks; Taxes; Royalties; Financial instruments; Thermal power; Watershed management
    Language: Text (261K), PDF (6529K), Page
    Source/publisher: World Bank
    Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1999/12/11/000094946_99041505302543/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf
    http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSServlet?pcont=details&eid=000094946_99041505302543
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Project Information Document (Appraisal Stage) - MM: Telecommunications Sector Reform - P145534 (English)
    Date of publication: 06 December 2013
    Author/creator: Norbhu,Tenzin Dolma;
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Bank
    Format/size: html, pdf (28K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/SDN/2013/12/09/090224b0821127d6/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Project0Inform0tor0Reform000P145534.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2013


    Title: Statement on Myanmar: Pamela Cox, World Bank East Asia and Pacific Regional Vice President
    Date of publication: 26 April 2012
    Description/subject: " Statement on Myanmar: Pamela Cox, World Bank East Asia and Pacific Regional Vice President Available in: Español, 日本語 WASHINGTON, April 26, 2012 - The World Bank today released the following statement from World Bank Vice President for East Asia, Pamela Cox, on the Bank's steps toward re-engagement with the Government of Myanmar: “I want to update you on where the World Bank Group stands in relation to Myanmar. We are working closely with our Board and shareholders on our plans moving forward. As you’re aware, we have re-engaged with the government in Myanmar, with the aim of supporting reforms that will benefit all the people of Myanmar, especially the poor and vulnerable. In early June, we will be opening an office in Myanmar, which will be led by a new country manager. Also in June, I’ll be travelling to Myanmar to gain a firsthand assessment of the situation. The vice presidents of our private sector arm, IFC and our insurance arm, MIGA, will join me on that visit..."
    Language: English (Spanish also available)
    Source/publisher: World Bank
    Format/size: html, pdf (91K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/WB_Myanmar_Statement2012-04-26.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2012


    Title: World Bank Prepares Interim Strategy Note for Myanmar
    Date of publication: 10 August 2012
    Description/subject: "...In describing the country context in which the Bank’s re-engagement with Myanmar is taking place, the ISN reviews the significant and far-reaching changes that have taken place in Myanmar over the past 18 months, including the political and civil reforms (the release of political prisoners, the progress in ceasefire negotiations with non-state armed groups, the release of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the re-entry of her National League for Democracy Party into the country’s political system) as well as the important economic reforms have been undertaken, including floating of the currency, legalization of trade unions, tax reform and forthcoming legislation on foreign investment and banking reform, while acknowledging remaining challenges in each of these areas. The ISN describes Myanmar as embarking on a triple transition: from an authoritarian military system to democratic governance; from a centrally-directed economy to market-oriented reforms; and from 60 years of conflict to peace in the border areas. These transitions offer hope to the people of Myanmar for better, safer and more productive lives, but also pose the risk that setbacks in one of the transitions will affect the others. The proposed program of the World Bank Group (WBG) will thus focus on activities that can support the success of these three transitions and prepare the way for the resumption of a full country program..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Bank
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 08 September 2012


  • UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: UNCTAD
    Format/size: Try your luck with the search engine. Search for Myanmar
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Country fact sheet: Myanmar 2004
    Date of publication: 22 September 2004
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNCTAD -- World Investment Report 2004
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2005


    Title: FDI in brief: Myanmar
    Date of publication: 09 March 2004
    Description/subject: The 1997-1998 Asian financial crisis affected FDI flows to Myanmar...FDI flows to Myanmar continued to decline since 1998, primarily because of the impact of the 1997-1998 Asian financial crisis (figure 1). FDI stock in Myanmar increased from $56 million in 1990 to $4.2 billion in 2002 (figure 2). Most FDI to Myanmar were from the developed countries in 1995-2001 (figure 3). Among the developing economies, ASEAN countries and the Asian newly industrialized economies were the largest investors. FDI from the United Kingdom and the United States were significant among the developed countries (table 1), and were dominated by oil and gas activities (table 2). More than 50 per cent of FDI in Myanmar in 1999-2001 were in the primary sector (figure 4), which were dominated by investment in oil and gas. FDI in tourism and real estate sector were also significant. FDI flows as a percentage of gross fixed capital formation since 1997 has been declining (figure 5), while inward FDI stock as a percentage of gross domestic product has been increasing steadily since 1992, except for a blip in 2002 (figure 6).
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2005


    Title: FDI in Least Developed Countries at a Glance: 2002
    Date of publication: 03 March 2003
    Description/subject: Search for Myanmar
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNCTAD
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2005


    Title: FDI Policies for Development: Myanmar, Country fact sheet
    Date of publication: 04 September 2003
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNCTAD: World Investment Report 2003
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2005


    Title: FDI PROFILE: MYANMAR -- WID Country Profiles
    Date of publication: 04 September 2004
    Description/subject: Statistics on FDI and the operations of TNCs
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNCTAD - World Investment Directory
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2005


    Title: THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES REPORT 2004 - STATISTICAL ANNEX
    Date of publication: 24 May 2004
    Description/subject: Search for Myanmar
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT (UNCTAD/LDC/2004)
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2005


  • UNESCAP (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific )

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Asia-Pacific in Figures
    Description/subject: Click on Myanmar and check relevant boxes to generate a set of statistics for Myanmar.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNESCAP
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2004


    Title: UNESCAP Statistics Division
    Description/subject: This page leads, by browsing and searching, to a number of documents on Burma/Myanmar statistics
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNESCAP
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2004


    Individual Documents

    Title: DEVELOPMENT OF ENABLING POLICIES FOR TRADE AND INVESTMENT IN THE IT SECTOR OF THE GREATER MEKONG SUBREGION - CHAPTER 5: MYANMAR
    Date of publication: 2003
    Description/subject: Chapter 5: Myanmar: 5. 1 Introduction: The Background; 5. 2 Policies Governing the Production and use of IT; The Computer Science Law (1996); The Draft IT Master Plan; 5. 3 Present state IT Use and Production; ICT use: Selected old Technology Indicators; Use of New Technology: Telecommunication; Mobile Telephone; Computers and Internet; Present state of IT Production; Human Resource Development in IT; 5. 4 Investment in IT: Policies, Performance and Challenges Investment Policies; Trend in Foreign Direct Investment; Role of FDI in Myanmar Economy; Working with Constraints: Promoting Investment in the IT Sector; 5. 5 Trade in IT: Policy, Performance and Challenges; Trends in the External Sector; Trade Policy: Present Scene; Structure and Direction of Trade; Promoting Trade: the Role of IT; Implications of e-ASEAN and ITA; 5. 6 Concluding Observations and Reflections on Policy Options; Tables; References .
    Author/creator: K J Joseph
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNESCAP
    Format/size: pdf (589K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unescap.org/tid/projects/gms.asp
    Date of entry/update: 10 April 2004


    Title: ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SURVEY OF ASIA AND THE PACIFIC 2011
    Date of publication: May 2011
    Description/subject: Search for Myanmar statistics etc.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNESCAP
    Format/size: pdf (10.5MB - full text).
    Date of entry/update: 11 May 2011


    Title: Quarterly Statistical Summary for Myanmar
    Date of publication: 22 July 2005
    Description/subject: This valuable summary of selected production, trade, travel and financial statistics from Myanmar is updated every three months. The most recent data can be obtained by inserting the month and year desired in the pdf document. The Myanmar data usually appear nine months after the quarter they summarize. Thus, the Myanmar stats for the third quarter of 2004 were posted in the ESCAP report for June, 2005
    Author/creator: UNESCAP (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNESCAP
    Format/size: pdf (16 kb)
    Date of entry/update: 25 October 2005


    Title: Quarterly Statistical Summary for Myanmar
    Date of publication: 22 April 2005
    Description/subject: This valuable summary of selected production, trade, travel and financial statistics from Myanmar is updated every three months. The most recent data can be obtained by inserting the month and year desired in the pdf document. The Myanmar data usually appear nine months after the quarter they summarize.
    Author/creator: UNESCAP
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNESCAP
    Format/size: pdf (16 kb)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unescap.org/stat/data/statind/myanmar_mar05.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 25 October 2005


    Title: Quarterly Statistical Summary for Myanmar
    Date of publication: 21 October 2005
    Description/subject: This valuable summary of selected production, trade, travel and financial statistics from Myanmar is updated every three months. The most recent data can be obtained by inserting the month and year desired in the pdf document. The Myanmar data usually appear nine months after the quarter they summarize.
    Author/creator: UNESCAP
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNESCAP
    Format/size: pdf (22 KB)
    Date of entry/update: 25 October 2005


    Title: Results of a Google search for Myanmar on the ESCAP site
    Description/subject: Many articles and notices of meetings
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UN ESCAP
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 July 2014


    Title: Statistical Indicators for Asia and the Pacific (Myanmar) July 2004
    Date of publication: 27 July 2004
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNESCAP
    Format/size: pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unescap.org/stat/data/statind/pdf/index.asp
    Date of entry/update: 16 August 2010


    Title: Statistical Indicators for Asia and the Pacific (Myanmar) May 2004
    Date of publication: 06 May 2004
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNESCAP
    Format/size: pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unescap.org/stat/data/statind/pdf/index.asp
    Date of entry/update: 16 August 2010