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Society and Culture

  • Society and Culture - general studies

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Wikipedia (Burmese) Culture - burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Subscribe: burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Date of entry/update: 22 December 2013


    Individual Documents

    Title: THE BURMAN: HIS LIFE AND NOTIONS
    Date of publication: 1882
    Description/subject: "The Burman: His Life and Notions (1882) is a book about the peoples and customs of Burma (now Myanmar). First published under the pseudonym Shway Yoe, the book was written by the Scottish journalist and British Colonial administrator James George Scott. The book caused a sensation when it was first published because it was considered impossible that a Burman could write so well in English - Shway Yoe's unbiased tone and positive curiosity is also one reason that the author was presumed Burmese by the British. The book is most note worthy in the fact that the author made an extremely detailed and unparallelled description of the Burmese people and their culture, from their pagoda festivals to their lacquer, traditions, religion, dressing, food, and almost any category related." (Wikipedia)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Shway Yoe (James George Scott)
    Format/size: pdf (2.7MB - OBL version; 38MB - original scanned version)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/burmanhislife&notions-scott.pdf
    http://www.archive.org/details/burmanhislifenot00scotrich
    Date of entry/update: 27 May 2010


  • Daily life

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Burma Riders
    Date of publication: 2007
    Description/subject: Burmariders ist eine Hilfsaktion mit interaktiver Website und dem Ziel, auf die Notsituation der Menschen entlang der thailändisch-burmesischen Grenze aufmerksam zu machen. Die Burmariders Florian Fischer und Florian Niethammer fuhren ab 19.06. 2007 insgesamt 1.200 Kilometer mit Fahrrädern im unwegsamen Gebiet entlang der thai-burmesischen Grenze. Sie besuchten in rund vier Wochen sieben Flüchtlingslager. Das Team sammelte Informationen, Stimmen und Eindrücke unter den Flüchtlingen und berichtete per Webcast: Aktuelle Filmberichte wurden schon Minuten später im Internet veröffentlicht. Ethnische Minderheiten; Karen; Ride along the thai-burmese border; ethnic minorities; humanitarian situation; political situation in Burma; refugees in Thailand; Karen
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Burma Riders
    Date of entry/update: 22 August 2007


    Individual Documents

    Title: A Small, Finely Drawn Picture (review by Edith Mirante of "Burma Chronicles" by Guy Delisle)
    Date of publication: December 2008
    Description/subject: "...His most telling insights about Burma, come in the tiniest frames. Although determinedly small in scope, the book takes on layers of themes: expat life, tourist impressions, political commentary and the role of international NGOs...Like other foreign visitors, Delisle is fascinated by the many antiquated and quirky elements of Burmese life: a Morse code key still in use, long ropes with clips hanging from apartment windows for hoisting up packages, reliance on bank ledgers and WWII-era fire trucks. He gets classic nonpolitical laughs from his Thinggyan soaking and the sudden onset of the monsoon...On a last neighborhood walk with his son, Delisle happens on a Ferris wheel of the low-tech Burmese type, being turned by one athletic longyi-clad man. It is a remarkable Buddhist image of the wheel of life and a most human symbol of Burma, so much effort for so little change—around and around it goes..."
    Author/creator: Edith Mirante
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 12
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 December 2008


    Title: Myanmar: Reiches Land, armes Land
    Date of publication: 24 June 2007
    Description/subject: Myanmar, das frühere Burma, leidet unter der Misswirtschaft der Militärjunta. Die Schätze des Landes - Erdöl, Edelsteine, Fischreichtum, Kohle - können nicht genutzt werden, weil moderne Produktionsmittel fehlen. Korruption beherrscht das Leben. Alltagsleben in Burma, Buddhismus; Daily Life in Burma, Buddhism
    Author/creator: Barbara Jakoby
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: RP Online
    Format/size: Html (46k)
    Date of entry/update: 23 August 2007


    Title: Strangers in a Changed Land
    Date of publication: April 2001
    Description/subject: "Returning to Burma after a four-year absence, a visitor discovers that change has brought only a deepened sense of estrangement, not optimism, to ordinary Burmese..."
    Author/creator: Thalia Isaak
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: THE BURMAN: HIS LIFE AND NOTIONS
    Date of publication: 1882
    Description/subject: "The Burman: His Life and Notions (1882) is a book about the peoples and customs of Burma (now Myanmar). First published under the pseudonym Shway Yoe, the book was written by the Scottish journalist and British Colonial administrator James George Scott. The book caused a sensation when it was first published because it was considered impossible that a Burman could write so well in English - Shway Yoe's unbiased tone and positive curiosity is also one reason that the author was presumed Burmese by the British. The book is most note worthy in the fact that the author made an extremely detailed and unparallelled description of the Burmese people and their culture, from their pagoda festivals to their lacquer, traditions, religion, dressing, food, and almost any category related." (Wikipedia)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Shway Yoe (James George Scott)
    Format/size: pdf (2.7MB - OBL version; 38MB - original scanned version)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/burmanhislife&notions-scott.pdf
    http://www.archive.org/details/burmanhislifenot00scotrich
    Date of entry/update: 27 May 2010


  • Religion

    • Animism

      • The Nats

        Individual Documents

        Title: "Nats' Wives" or "Children of Nats": From Spirit Possession to Transmission Among the Ritual Specialists of the Cult of the Thirty-Seven Lords
        Date of publication: 22 September 2009
        Description/subject: Transmission processes in the Burmese cult known as the cult of the Thirty- Seven Lords are examined here through the analysis of three succession cases among the ritual specialists of this cult. I seek to understand how transmission works in a cult whose main ritual manifestation is spirit possession that involves the logic of inspiration and vocation, rather than the logic of reproduction and succession. A careful examination of contrasted cases reveals that succession among spirit mediums, rather than obeying fixed rules, actually involves the differentiated transmission of assets made of ritual property, functions, positions, and knowledge. Various combinations -- of spirit possession and affiliation or fictive kinship, of inspiration and tradition -- appear to operate at different levels of the cult, with inversions of values sustaining both its dynamics and its reproduction. keywords: spirit possession--ritual specialists--transmission--succession--tradition
        Author/creator: Benedicte Brac de la Perriere
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Asian Ethnology" Volume 68, Number 2, 2009 via The Free Library
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Asian+Ethnology/2009/September/22-p52621
        Date of entry/update: 22 December 2010


        Title: A New Palace for Mra Swan Dewi: Changes in Spirit Cults in Arakan (Rakhine) State
        Date of publication: 2009
        Description/subject: This article illustrates the relationship between religion and political power in a particular process of contemporary Burmese nation building. I highlight the symbolic appropriation of a specific national territory through the mediation of a spirit, and the recent building of a sanctuary in Arakan state by the wife of a Burmese military officer posted in the region, an action that is akin to concluding an agreement with a local spirit and then establishing the foundation of central authority over a local population. It highlights a process whereby the use of religion by the Burmese in the configuration of territory is observed as a way of maintaining or legitimizing hegemony over the country's marginal population groups. The article also shows how this process is made possible thanks to a specific segment of the local Arakanese elite, perceived to be the referring authority... keywords: Arakan state--spirit cults--nation building--territory-- locality--authority and power--tradition
        Author/creator: Alexandra de Mersan
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture: "Asian Ethnology" Volume 68, Number 2, 2009
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Asian+Ethnology/2009/September/22-p52621
        Date of entry/update: 22 December 2010


        Title: Festival Time at a Nat Shrine
        Date of publication: September 2004
        Description/subject: "A village celebrates its invisible rulers... Text By Aung Lwin Oo and photos by Olivier Pin-Fat Burma’s biggest nat festival takes place every August in the village of Taung Pyone, original home of two of the 37 original names in the nat pantheon. For five days each year Taung Pyone village becomes a fairground. Taung Pyone, 14 km north of Mandalay, has about 7,000 nat shrines, nearly 2,000 of them elaborate ones dedicated to the village’s famous sons—the brothers Shwe Phyin Gyi and Shwe Phyin Lay. They are said to have been executed by the 11th century Pagan ruler King Anawrahta for failing to help in the construction of a chedi to enshrine Buddha relics. The story is kept alive today by the symbolic absence from the ancient chedi of two bricks which the two brothers were instructed to contribute..."
        Author/creator: Aung Lwin Oo
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 8
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=4029
        Date of entry/update: 11 November 2004


        Title: Where Spirits Dwell
        Date of publication: September 2004
        Description/subject: Ancient nat cult still rules in Burmese households... The wedding announcement in a Burmese newspaper read like any other. But there was one startling discrepancy—the bridegroom was dead. The bride, though, believed she was marrying someone who could support her as well as any living being. Her chosen partner was a nat, an influential member of the spirit world. She became a nat kadaw, or nat spouse. Such “unions” are quite common in Burma, even though the country is devoutly Buddhist. As in neighboring Thailand, Theravada Buddhism exists happily enough alongside a widespread belief in the existence of a spirit world, and it’s commonly accepted that the Lord Buddha himself went through cycles of being a nat..."
        Author/creator: Yeni
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 8
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 11 November 2004


        Title: The Cult of the 'Thirty-Seven Lords'
        Date of publication: October 2001
        Description/subject: "The cult of the 'Thirty-Seven Lords', known in Burma as the thirty-seven 'naq' is commonly viewed as being a remnant of practices prevalent before Buddhicization, that is to say, as superstitions having their origins in the obscure period predating the establishment of Burmese civilization. This article will argue against this assumption and will assert that this cult cannot be properly understood if it is not considered as a part of the Burmese religious system still evolving with Buddhist society. The socio-religious structure of the 'naq' cult shows that it is neither a pre-Buddhist remnant, nor is it borrowed from India. Close analysis of the actual cult, of its legends of foundation, and of the historical evidence, clearly shows that it is a construct of Burmese Buddhist kings or, in other words, a produce of the localization of Buddhism in Burma..."
        Author/creator: Benedicte Brac de la Perriere
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Newsletter, Issue 25, International Institute for Asian Studies (Leiden)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Friends in High Places (about)
        Date of publication: 2001
        Description/subject: directed by Lindsey Merrison – Burma, 86 minutes. 56 minute version also available. video sale $225 rental $65 “Buddhism and nat worship are like mangoes and bananas” "...Whether contending with a deceitful daughter-in-law, forecasting financial prospects for a tea shop, or freeing a husband from government detainment, Friends in High Places reveals the central role of nats and spirit mediums in alleviating the day to day burdens of modern Burmese life..".
        Author/creator: Lindsey Merrison
        Language: English
        Alternate URLs: http://www.der.org/films/friends-in-high-places-preview.html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Buddhism

      • Burmese and general Buddhist teaching, meditation, links, resources, directories

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: America Burma Buddhist Association (ABBA)
        Description/subject: Direction to temples in the USA, event calendar, newsletters, Dhamma questions, donation form, guest book and links. Mahasi Sayadaw tradition
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Birmingham Buddhist Vihara
        Description/subject: photos, articles on Buddhism, publications, meditation, Buddhism FAQ...
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Burmese Buddhist Vihara
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 13 March 2004


        Title: Birmingham Peace Pagoda -- Sayadaw U Rewata Dhamma
        Language: English
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Bodhgaya News
        Description/subject: "This website aims to present a picture of what's happening in the Buddhist pilgrimage centre of Bodhgaya in the state of Bihar in India. The intention is to cover four main areas of news about Bodh Gaya: what's in the press, both English and Hindi, about Bodh Gaya, what events are happening there, what kind of meditation programs are scheduled and news about development activity in Bodh Gaya..."
        Author/creator: Dr Peter G. Friedlander
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Buddhanet File Library - General Buddhism
        Description/subject: Downloadable zipfiles of texts by Theravada teachers including Burmese:Ven Sayadaw U Janaka, Sayadaw U Jotika, Sayagyi U Ba Khin, Sayagyi U Chit Tin
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Buddha Dharma Education Association
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Buddhanet File Library - Meditation Methods
        Description/subject: Texts by Theravada teachers, including Burmese
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Buddha Dharma Education Association
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Buddhanet File Library - Theravada
        Description/subject: Downloadable zipfiles of texts by Theravada teachers including Burmese.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Buddha Dharma Education Association
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Buddhanet Search Engine
        Description/subject: Search for Burma, Burmese etc.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Buddha Dharma Education Association
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Buddhanet: Theravada Links
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Buddha Dharma Education Association
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Buddhanet: World Buddhist Directory (Myanmar)
        Description/subject: Lists meditation centres in Burma
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Buddhanet
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Buddhism in Myanmar (Burma)
        Description/subject: "Cyber Vihara For Daily Puja. Myanmar Way of Daily Buddhist Routines". Major link site for Burmese Buddhism. Shrines, senior monks, important religious events, monasteries in Myanmar and abroad, on-line discussion about Buddhism, and free books offer.
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Buddhism in the National Capital of Canada
        Description/subject: Has a good list of online Buddhist resources
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Buddhism Information and Articles
        Description/subject: "This Page consists of information on Buddhism, and has links to dozens of articles about the Buddhist Religion, as well as Buddhist Meditation. Learn about Buddhism by reading these articles from Buddhist monks, as well as laypeople who have a love and instight into Buddhist teachings. The information contained in these articles is meant to help all. We have many free articles about the history and philosophy of Buddhism which should appeal to most anyone interested in finding out about the religion of the Buddha..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Buddha Garden.com
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 21 May 2011


        Title: Buddhist bibliography
        Description/subject: 5694 titles (March 2004). Not much about Burmese Buddhism.
        Author/creator: Roger Garin-Michaud
        Language: English, French, Francais, Deutsch, German, Tibetan, Sanskrit
        Source/publisher: cyberdistributeur.com
        Format/size: html (1.3MB)
        Date of entry/update: 01 March 2004


        Title: Buddhist links
        Description/subject: About 400 links (March 2004) to Buddhist sites, mostly Mayahana/Vajrayana, with some useful meta-sites (lists of lists). Not much on Burmese Buddhism.
        Author/creator: Roger Garin-Michaud
        Language: English, French, Francais
        Source/publisher: cyberdistributeur.com
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 01 March 2004


        Title: Buddhist Virtual Library
        Description/subject: Meta meta lists (all traditions) Dr T.Matthew Ciolek (The Australian National University, Canberra, AU), (U. of North Carolina at Wilmington, US) and Privat-Dozent Jerome Ducor (Ethnographic Museum, Geneva, CH) in association with Adrian Hale, Barry Kapke, Murray Kessell, and Peter Schlenker (in US, UK, DE and AU).
        Author/creator: Dr T.Matthew Ciolek, Prof. Joe Bransford Wilson, Barry Kapke, Murray Kessell, Peter Schlenker
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The World-Wide Web Virtual Library
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Buddhistisch geprgte Lnder Asiens - Burma
        Language: Deutsch, German, English
        Source/publisher: Das Internationale Netzwerk engagierter Buddhisten
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Cyber-Vihara
        Description/subject: Major link site for Buddhism in general and Burmese Buddhism in particular. English and Burmese versions.
        Language: English, Burmese
        Source/publisher: Cyber-Vihara
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://web.ukonline.co.uk/buddhism/cvihara2.htm (Burmese)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Dhamma Journal
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Dhammadownload
        Description/subject: "This is the Dhamma Download Home Page. In this Web Site, you can freely download or listen on-line most of the Dhamma Talks which were given by Burmese monks over the years. You will be able to find talks in Burmese and English languages..."
        Language: English (html and audio), Burmese (html, audio and video)
        Source/publisher: Dhammadownload
        Format/size: html, Widows audio. Seems not to work with Netscape.
        Date of entry/update: 15 January 2004


        Title: DhammaWeb
        Description/subject: A large, ecumenical Buddhist site, with a Burma/Myanmar slant, encompassing the U Ba Khin as well as the Mahasi Sayadaw traditions. Features also Western teachers like Jack Kornfeld and Sharon Salzberg. Lots of downloadable material in the fields of: BUDDHA; DHAMMA; SANGHA; Teachers; Ancient Pagoda; Meditation; Interview; News/Opinion; Tipitka; Audio DataBase; Video DataBase; Books DataBase; Sayadaw Photo; Pa Auk Photo; Monasteries; DhammaWeb Art; DhammaWeb Photo (mostly of Burma). The Tipitaka DataBase (complete?) is very impressive.
        Language: English, Burmese
        Source/publisher: DhammaWeb
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 19 April 2007


        Title: Dharma Network
        Description/subject: Tapovan Forest Dharma Community, home of DharmaNetwork. Pictures of Tapovan, including our eco-buildings, our annual events programme and new information for visitors in 2002. Also the International teaching programme of Martin Aylward, Tapovan's co-founder and resident teacher. The Sangha Directory A resource set up by DharmaNetwork, to establish connection and share resources among like minded Dharma Friends. More and more are joining as an easy way to stay in touch with Sangha and hear about different initiatives being organised. Click here to go directly to the Directory or click here to find out more. ?DharmaYatra? ? A Pilgrimage. In July 2001, 90 people took part, over 3 weeks, in a 320km walk from Tapovan to Plum Village. We were greatly inspired and touched by the potency of pilgrimage as a form of Dharma practice and Sangha connection. Read a report on the walk and see the photo gallery. Click here to go dirsctly to information on DharmaYatra 2002... India 2003 - Retreat information for Bodh Gaya and Sarnath. Information on the annual Dharma practice and teachings in India with Christopher Titmuss and other teachers. A month of silent residential retreats in Bodh Gaya and then the Sarnath programme, combining formal practice and teachings with informal discussion and Sangha connection Dharma Facilitator Programme A 2 year programme in Eorope of study, practice and exploration of Dharma and its application in the West, led by Christopher Titmuss. The Sangam A new kind of Dharma Center evolving from Tapovan and being set up in Southern France. Information on the vision, the place, the great potential, possibilities, and the people involved.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Tapovan Forest Dharma Community
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Digital Buddhist Library and Museum
        Description/subject: Comprehensive Cyberspace for Buddhist Studies. Many sections do not work.
        Language: Chinese, English
        Source/publisher: Center for Buddhist Studies, National Taiwan University; Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies, Dharma Drum Mountain
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 09 August 2003


        Title: eDhamma.com, A Theravada Buddhism Website
        Description/subject: Print and audio texts of Burmese sayadaws... "This website is managed by a group of Myanmar Buddhist Families in the San Francisco Bay Area dedicated to the propagation of sasana all over the world. When a member of the group receives a dhamma tape, s/he lets the others know. All the members believe that "Dhamma dana is the supreme gift". Although we are far from Myanmar, we cherish Myanmar Buddhist culture. We want to share our treasure with readers all over the world. We have provided links to other Theravada sites. With their approval, we have posted biographies of eminent Sayadaws. Readers who want to practice vipassana are advised to seek the guidance of experienced meditation teachers. You can look up the various Theravada web sites for the schedules of short-term and long-term retreats."
        Language: English, Burmese
        Source/publisher: eDhamma.com
        Format/size: html, realaudia
        Date of entry/update: 29 October 2003


        Title: Gaia House
        Description/subject: A Centre for Meditation, Enquiry and Compassion. Gaia House offers Insight Meditation (known as Vipassana in the Buddhist tradition) and Zen Retreats throughout the year. The Centre provides comprehensive Dharma teachings and spiritual practices to realize wisdom and compassion in daily life. The Centre is not tied to any religion. West Ogwell, Newton Abbot, Devon TQ12 6EN, United Kingdom... 2002 retreat programme; online booking form; details of the latest Manager vacancies.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Gaia House
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Gustaaf Houtman : Burma-Related Publications
        Description/subject: Mainly online material
        Author/creator: Gustaaf Houtman
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Gustaaf Houtman
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Alternate URLs: http://sites.google.com/site/ghoutman/
        Date of entry/update: 07 January 2011


        Title: Index of Buddhist Internet Resources
        Author/creator: Paul Trafford
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Insight Meditation
        Description/subject: Welcome.... Dear Friends, Dharma teachings and insight meditation practices, known as Vipassana in the Buddhist Tradition, have a single purpose. They point to an enlightened life. To explore these teachings, participation in an insight meditation retreat is strongly recommended or direct instruction from an insight meditation teacher. May the teachings, meditations, reflections and information contained prove beneficial to all visitors. These teachings are not intended to represent any religious tradition or retreat centre. This website is updated every May and November. Towards Liberation, Christopher Titmus. With permission to reproduce. Teachings; Guided Meditations; Articles & Poems; Social & Political; Books & Tapes; Light on Enlightenment; Gaia House Programme; Dharma Facilitators Programme; International Retreats; Bodh Gaya Retreats 2003; Sarnath, India, 2003; Centres & Teachers; Other sites.
        Author/creator: Christopher Titmuss
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Insight Meditation Organisation
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: International Meditation Centres in the Tradition of Sayagyi U Ba Khin
        Description/subject: This is the Publications page of the Splatts House site. Discourses and other texts by Sayagyi U Ba Khin, Webu Sayadaw Mahathera, Ledi Sayadaw. Other parts of the site have meditation schedules, world-side contacts, a newsletter, vipassana meditation application form etc. and a link to the Pali Text Society.
        Language: English
        Alternate URLs: http://web.ukonline.co.uk/buddhism/meditate.htm
        Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


        Title: Leigh Brasington's Web Site
        Description/subject: NOT WORKING, OCTOBER 2003 # Ven. Ayya Khema # Ven. Tsoknyi Rinpoche # Upcoming Meditation Retreats # Meditation Retreat Centers # Reading List To Do Lists # Buddhism by the Numbers # Suttas Sutta Study Guides # Sutta Database Pali Dictionaries # The Jhanas (Meditative Absorptions) # Concentration & Insight Practices # Essays and Talks on Buddhism ...and much more
        Author/creator: Leigh Brasington
        Language: English
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Mahasi Meditation Centre, Buddha Sasana Nuggaha Organisation
        Description/subject: Photos of Mahasi Sayadaw, Chief Ovadacaria Sayadaws, Visiting Bhikkhus, Past and Present Presidents, Executive Committee Members; Discourses by Mahasi Sayadaw. Information about the Centre (Rangoon), list of publications in English and Burmese, online texts of discourses, World Wide List of Affiliated Mahasi Meditation Centers and more.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Buddha Sasana Nuggaha Organisation
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Meditation and Buddhism
        Description/subject: Vipassana resources, mainly in the U Ba Khin tradition
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Nibbana.Com
        Description/subject: "Presenting Theravada Buddhist tradition in its pristine form"
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Pāḷi Tipiṭaka
        Description/subject: "The Pāḷi Tipiṭaka is now available online in various scripts. Although all are in Unicode fonts, you may need to install some fonts and make some changes to your system to view the site correctly..."
        Language: English, Pāḷi
        Source/publisher: Vipassana Research Institute
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 21 May 2011


        Title: Satipanya Buddhist Trust
        Description/subject: "The Satipanya Buddhist Trust is grounded in the Buddhist Tradition of Theravada as practised in South-East Asia. Satipanya is located in Powys, Wales, in UK, south of Shrewsbury and near the Shropshire border. We run retreats devoted to contemplative living and vipassana insight meditation in the tradition of the Mahasi Sayadaw of Burma... Satipanya wishes to cultivate a meditative and contemplative atmosphere devoted to the two duties the Buddha would have his disciples fulfil: To practise Vipassana and to study the Dhamma. Vipassana, Insight Meditation, is the core practice taught by the Buddha. It is a method of self-investigation to see how we create our own mental distress and how we can put an end to it. The Mahasi Sayadaw of Burma taught a skilful method of vipassana that ultimately leads to this end of contentment and happiness, Nibbana. Rare it is to find the place and the time where we can stop and contemplate our lives, to spend time reflecting on the Buddha’s teachings and explore what to do when there is nothing to achieve? "...The site has essays and audio files by the Trust's spiritual director, Bhante Bodhidhamma.
        Author/creator: Bhante Bodhidhamma
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Satipanya Buddhist Trust
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 28 May 2007


        Title: Sitagu Buddhist Vihara (Austin, Texas)
        Description/subject: Articles, links, including to projects in Burma, Dhamma resources etc.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Sitagu Buddhist Vihara
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 30 October 2003


        Title: The Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw's Discourses and Treatises on Buddhism
        Description/subject: Audio (English, French, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, German) and pdf files (English) of Discourses, mainly by Mahasi Sayadaw. Plus Biography, Forum, News, List of officers of The Buddha Sæsana Nauggaha Organization from 1947, List of Donors and how much they gave.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Buddha Sæsana Nauggaha Organization
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: The Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw's Treatises on Buddhism
        Description/subject: English language texts. Slow site.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Buddha Sæsana Nauggaha Organization
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


        Title: Tipitaka On-line: The Teachings of the Buddha
        Description/subject: "The original Teachings of Gotama Buddha are available online in simple English, translated by distinguished Buddhist Scholars from Burma (Myanmar) where Theravada Buddhism prospers in pristine form. Registered readers of TIPITAKA On-line will receive the articles or the daily digest by Email, or view at the site as options."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Tipitaka online
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 08 November 2003


        Title: Tisarana Vihara
        Description/subject: Twickenham, London. "A Burmese (Myanmar) Buddhist Monastery in West London; English-speaking Resident Monks are actively engaged in Daily Dhamma Routines.
        Language: English
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 08 November 2003


        Title: Vipassana Meditation Website
        Description/subject: Retreat schedules, instructions etc. "This is the international home page of the organizations which offer courses in Vipassana Meditation in the tradition of Sayagyi U Ba Khin as taught by S.N. Goenka and his assistant teachers. Vipassana, which means to see things as they really are, is one of India's most ancient techniques of meditation. It was taught in India more than 2500 years ago as a universal remedy for universal ills, i.e., an Art of Living. For those who are not familiar with Vipassana Meditation, an Introduction to Vipassana by Mr. Goenka is available. The technique of Vipassana Meditation is taught at ten-day residential courses during which participants learn the basics of the method, and practice sufficiently to experience its beneficial results. There are no charges for the courses - not even to cover the cost of food and accommodation. All expenses are met by donations from people who, having completed a course and experienced the benefits of Vipassana, wish to give others the opportunity to also benefit. There are numerous Centers in India and Southern Asia; seven Centers in North America; seven Centers in Europe; seven Centers in Australia/New Zealand; and one Center in Japan. Each Center maintains its own schedule of regular ten day Vipassana courses. In addition, ten day courses are frequently held at other locations outside of Centers as they are arranged by local students of Vipassana in those areas. An alphabetical list of worldwide course locations is available..."
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: World Buddhist Directory Myanmar
        Description/subject: Lists meditation centres in Burma
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Individual Documents

        Title: Memories of Myanmar: A year at the Theravada Buddhist Missionary University
        Date of publication: October 2004
        Description/subject: "In 2003/2004, the author spent a year studying at ITBMU in Yangon, Myanmar. ITBMU is the acronym for the International Theravada Buddhist Missionary University; the largest Buddhist missionary project of the Burmese military regime, opened on the 9th of December 1998...If you have a serious interest in Buddhism, ITBMU is not the place where you would be able to pursue serious academic inquiry. It would be a pity to lose interest after a stint at ITBMU. People would be well-advised to go to Thailand or Sri Lanka. If you want to stay in Myanmar for some time, stay in one of the many meditation centers, you can still find wise teachers and good monks able to give proper meditation guidance. As for the ITBMU, the government department that set it up have their own interest to show themselves in a better light. They need the University and the foreign students to promote their own public relations image abroad; taking pictures of all graduates to fill the pages of the newspapers, both local and foreign..."
        Language: English
        Format/size: html (56K)
        Date of entry/update: 12 November 2004


        Title: Sayagyi U Ba Khin: Was Buddhismus ist
        Date of publication: 11 May 2001
        Description/subject: VORWORT: "Die folgenden drei Vorträge wurden von Sayagyi U Ba Khin auf Anfrage einer Gruppe westlicher Besucher im September und Oktober 1951 in der Methodisten-Kirche in Yangon, Myanmar (Rangun, Burma) gehalten. Das grundsätzliche Ziel von Sayagyi U Ba Khin war einerseits die Übung von Dhamma und andererseits, anderen die Übung von Dhamma zu lehren. Dieses Ziel ließ ihm nicht viel Zeit für Aktivitäten wie dem Schreiben von Büchern. Wenn er jedoch eingeladen wurde, einen Vortrag über Buddha-Dhamma zu halten, zeigte sich, daß sein theoretisches Verständnis dem Niveau seiner praktischen Übung entsprach. Das bedeutet jedoch nicht, daß Sayagyi dieWichtigkeit von Texten nicht zu würdigen wußte. Fortwährend bezog er sich auf die buddhistischen Texte, wie sie im Pali-Kanon und in den Kommentaren niedergelegt wurden. Er wies auch immer daraufhin, daß das Verständnis des Buddhismus nicht vollständig ist, wenn es nicht auch das Wissen um die grundlegenden Prinzipien der buddhistischen Lehre umfaßt. Sayagyi betonte jedoch immer, ein Mann der Übung zu sein. Oft gab er jenen, die ihn über buddhistische Meditation befragten, kurze Erklärungen, um dann zu sagen: "Genug der Worte, versuchen wir es jetzt!" Diese "kurzen Erklärungen", aus denen diese Broschüre besteht, bilden eine ausgezeichnete Einführung in die Theorie des Theravada-Buddhismus. Mögen sie auch heute die Lesenden dazu inspirieren, echter buddhistischer Meditation eine faire Chance zu geben....."
        Author/creator: Sayagyi U Ba Khin
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Internationales Meditationszentrum Österreich
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.ubakhin.ch/
        http://www.ubakhin.net/
        http://www.ubakhin.ch/publikationen.html
        Date of entry/update: 22 December 2010


        Title: Knowing and Seeing
        Date of publication: 2000
        Description/subject: Talks and Questions and Answers at a meditation retreat in Taiwan by Venerable Pa-Auk Sayadaw. This book details two approaches to insight meditation, namely, "tranquillity and insight" and "bare-insight" meditation. These two methods are essentially identical, starting from four-elements meditation and continuing into insight meditation. In this book the reader has an explanation of the classic instructions for both methods. The talks in this book were given by the Sayadaw teacher, from Pa-Auk, Mawlamyine, Myanmar, while he conducted a two-month meditation retreat at Yi-Tung Temple, Sing Choo City, Taiwan.
        Author/creator: Venerable Pa-Auk Sayadaw
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Buddha Dhamma Education Association Inc
        Format/size: pdf (912K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: The Practice Which Leads to Nibbana
        Date of publication: 1998
        Description/subject: Ven. Pa-Auk Sayadaw. Translated by Greg Kleiman. This is the method of practising meditation that is taught at Pa Auk Tawya Monastery, Myanmar Burma. It is based on the explanation of meditation found in the Visuddhimagga commentary. Because of that the method involves several stages of practice which are complex, and involved. These stages include a detailed analysis of both mentality and matter, according to all the categories enumerated in the Abhidhamma, and the further use of this understanding to discern the process of Dependent Origination as it occurs in the Past, Present, and Future. Therefore people who are unfamiliar with the Visuddhimagga and the Abhidhamma will have difficulty in understanding and developing a clear picture of the practice of meditation at Pa Auk Tawya. For foreigners who cannot speak Burmese this problem is made even more difficult. This introduction has been written to help Alleviate these difficulties by presenting a simplified example of a successful meditator's path of progress as he develops his meditation at Pa Auk Tawya.
        Language: English
        Format/size: PDF (1176K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: ‘Beyond the cradle and past the grave: the biography of Burmese meditation master U Ba Khin’
        Date of publication: 1997
        Description/subject: In Juliane Schober (ed.), Buddhist sacred biography in South and Southeast Asia. Universityof Hawai’i Press, 1997, pp 310-44.
        Author/creator: Gustaaf Houtman
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Universityof Hawai’i Press
        Format/size: pdf (1.5 MB) - 34 pages
        Alternate URLs: http://sites.google.com/site/ghoutman/published-work

        https://doc-04-80-docs.googleusercontent.com/docs/secure/vge26io45jblv96cf2o0j6c6jqneombu/i54togug4o374pco4f60kjkklruh826f/1292997600000/05684544955227738873/06771706098489303724/0B4h2jH17EBsEYTBjMTExNTktNjY5Mi00ZTNlLWE2NzktZTQxZDgxYmJlMGE3?e=open&nonce=t6jktnd27v3mk&user=06771706098489303724&hash=4sk4so2hbbdek6msdg0crr0qbb3md4lu
        Date of entry/update: 22 December 2010


        Title: The Benefits of Meditation and Sacrifice
        Date of publication: September 1996
        Author/creator: Aung San Suu Kyi
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Bangkok Post
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Living Meditation, Living Insight
        Date of publication: 1995
        Description/subject: The Path of Mindfulness in Daily Life. "I wrote this book to encourage practitioners learning to meditate in daily life. In this sense, the articles are presented as a "hands-on" or, more accurately, a "minds-on" training manual. Although I discuss meditation in general, the real focus is on how the Dhamma brings us into spontaneous, wholesome and creative living. My objective in presenting the articles is to help the aspirant build up a solid foundation of mindfulness as a way of life rather than as a practice separated from daily living."
        Author/creator: Dr. Thynn Thynn
        Language: Engl;ish
        Source/publisher: Buddha Dhamma Education Association Inc
        Format/size: PDF (270K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Dhamma Discourses on Vipassana Meditation: Ven Sayadaw U Kundala
        Date of publication: June 1992
        Description/subject: Sayadaw U Kundala is a renowned meditation master in the Mahasi Sayadaw tradition of Burma, noted for his loving-kindness. In these Dhamma talks the stages of the practice and the Insight Knowledges are explained. The method of meditation is given with detailed instruction. There is a detailed explanation of the Contemplation of Feelings, the second foundation of mindfulness, which, in the Theravada tradition, is the key to the Insight Knowledges. Overall, in the Sayadaw's teachings, there is much for the vipassana or insight meditator to be inspired by.
        Author/creator: Sayadaw U Kundala
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Buddha Dhamma Education Association Inc.
        Format/size: pdf
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Buddhist Nuns in Burma
        Date of publication: 1991
        Description/subject: Historical outline of the situation of Buddhist nuns in Burma, and argument for the restoration of full ordination of women into the Order. "...The present nuns of Burma are not regarded as full female equivalents of the monks. They are not bhikkhunis. The name for the Buddhist nuns is sila-rhan (owner of good moral conduct), may- sila (Miss Virtue), or bhva-sila (granny virtue). However, "rhan" is also the normal term of address for male novices (Pali: samanera, Burmese: kui-ran). Even the word "rhan-pru" (make a "rhan") refers to the pabbajja (leaving the household life) of male novices..."__ "According to a legend in the Burmese historical chronicles, the Burmese race arose from the union of a Sakyan prince, a fugitive related to the Buddha, and the daughter of a local chieftain in the city of Tagaung in Upper Burma. This is fixed in the memories of the people with the proverb, "The beginning of the Burmese people is from Tagaung." Quite certainly Theravada Buddhism has been a nation-building element in Burma. The majority of the inhabitants of the modern nation, the Socialist People's Republic of the Myanmar, define themselves as Burmese Buddhists. This statement is not merely a religious definition, but has a full range of social and juridical implications....."
        Author/creator: Dr. Friedgard Lottermoser
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Sakyadhita Newsletter, Summer 1991, vol.2, no.2
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.enabling.org/ia/vipassana/Archive/L/Lottermoser/burmeseNunsLottermoser.html
        http://dhammaramthinunnery.blogspot.com/2010/04/buddhist-nuns-in-burma-dr-friedgard.html
        Date of entry/update: 22 December 2010


        Title: An Introduction to Buddhism
        Description/subject: The pages of this web site were written for the students of my class on Buddhist Psychology. Although the religious aspects of Buddhism are discussed, I am far more interested in presenting Buddhism's philosophical and psychological side. It is not necessary to believe in heavens or hells, in gods, demons, or ghosts, or even in rebirth or reincarnation in order to benefit from the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama. I myself believe in none of these things, and yet have learned a great deal from the sutras -- far more than from any other source. I encourage all of you to become familiar with Buddhism, and I humbly suggest that these pages are a good place to begin! ..... "This is the teaching of the Buddhas..... The Buddha was born Siddhartha Gautama, a prince of the Sakya tribe of Nepal, in approximately 566 BC. When he was twentynine years old, he left the comforts of his home to seek the meaning of the suffering he saw around him. After six years of arduous yogic training, he abandoned the way of self-mortification and instead sat in mindful meditation beneath a bodhi tree. On the full moon of May, with the rising of the morning star, Siddhartha Gautama became the Buddha, the enlightened one. The Buddha wandered the plains of northeastern India for 45 years more, teaching the path or Dharma he had realized in that moment. Around him developed a community or Sangha of monks and, later, nuns, drawn from every tribe and caste, devoted to practicing this path. In approximately 486 BC, at the age of 80, the Buddha died. His last words are said to be....."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Dr. C. George Boeree Shippensburg University
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/introabudismo.html
        Date of entry/update: 22 December 2010


        Title: An Introduction to Buddhism
        Description/subject: INTRODUCTION: "There are as many reasons for coming here to the Vihara as there are people who come. Perhaps yours was simply one of interest. You may have heard about Buddhism and you decided to investigate further. May be you havecome along to experience this particular Buddhist practice. You may have come along in the hope that meditation will help you sort out problems: - personal, interpersonal and social, or even that Buddhism will become your long searched for 'life's answer'! Whatever your personal reason for coming, this booklet is only an introduction and it would be impossible to include in it answers. to all the questions we get asked. So if after reading it, you have not been satisfied, then please ask one of the meditation teachers or one of the monks...."
        Author/creator: Venerable Dr. Rewata Dhamma
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Dhamma-talaka Publications
        Format/size: pdf (6.22 MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.scribd.com/doc/45737846/Introduction-to-Buddhism
        Date of entry/update: 22 December 2010


        Title: Mahasi Sayadaw
        Description/subject: A biographical sketch
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Sattipatthana Vipassana Meditation
        Description/subject: "The following explanation of the Buddhist practice of mindfulness has been drastically abridged from the begining of the text "Satipatthana Vipassana Meditation" by the Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw Agga Maha Pandita...The method of developing Wisdom is to observe matter and mind which are the two sole elements existing in a body with a view to know them in their true form. At present times experiments in the analytical observation of matter are usually carried out in laboratories with the aid of various kinds of instruments; yet these methods cannot deal with mindstuff. The Buddhist method of does not, however, require any kind of instruments or outside aid. It can successfully deal with both matter and mind. It makes use of one's own mind for analytical purpose by fixing bare attention on the activities of matter and mind as they occur in the body. By continually repeating this form of exercise the necessary Concentration can be gained and when the Concentration is keen enough, the ceaseless course of arising and passing away of matter and mind will be vividly perceptible..."
        Author/creator: Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw Agga Maha Pandita
        Language: English
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Snow in the Summer
        Description/subject: Sayadaw U Jotika. This book is a compilation of extracts from letters written by Sayadaw U Jotika, a Burmese Buddhist monk, to his Western students ten to fifteen years ago. These letters have been collated under the topics indicated by these chapter headings: Mind, Mindfulness and Meditation; Solitude; Parental Love and Guidance; Life, Living and Death; Learning and Teaching; Value and Philosophy; Friendship, Relationships and Loving-kindness.
        Author/creator: Sayadaw U Jotika
        Language: English
        Format/size: PDF (397K), html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.buddhanet.net/snow.htm
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Buddhism in Burma - general

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Buddhism in Burma
        Description/subject: "Buddhism in Burma (also known as Myanmar) is predominantly of the Theravada tradition, practised by 89% of the country's population. It is the most religious Buddhist country in terms of the proportion of monks in the population and proportion of income spent on religion. Adherents are most likely found among the dominant ethnic Bamar (or Burmans), Shan, Rakhine (Arakanese), Mon, Karen, and Chinese who are well integrated into Burmese society. Monks, collectively known as the Sangha, are venerated members of Burmese society. Among many ethnic groups in Myanmar, including the Bamar and Shan, Theravada Buddhism is practiced in conjunction with nat worship, which involves the placation of spirits who can intercede in worldly affairs....Contents: 1 History... 2 Traditions: 2.1 Veneration; 2.2 Shinbyu; 2.3 Buddhist holidays; 2.4 Buddhist lent; 2.5 Buddhist education... 3 Monasticism... 4 Politics: 4.1 Saffron Revolution... 5 See also... 6 Further reading... 7 References... 8 External links.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Wikipedia
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012


        Individual Documents

        Title: Mental Culture in Burmese Crisis Politics
        Date of publication: 29 March 1999
        Description/subject: "This book deals with the Buddhist dimensions underlying the politics of Aung San Suu Kyi and the Burmese democracy movement in general. Today, Aung San Suu Kyi is identified in the international arena as an icon of democracy hemmed in by conservative military forces. Within the country, however, the military manipulates this �foreign� sentiment as a welcome addition to its propaganda armoury. It portrays Aung San Suu Kyi as a puppet, an honorary ambassador of the foreigner who is driven by foreign interests in disregard of her own native traditions. This book argues that neither the international image of her, nor the military misuse of her international image within the country come to terms with Burmese political values as expressed in the Burmese language. Gustaaf Houtman analyses military politics as a politics of authority (ana) and confinement that emphasises the local delineation of boundaries under the guise of benevolence, using the discourse of culture, archaeology and race, and the threat of imprisonment. By contrast, he analyses the democracy movement as a politics of influence (awza) that aims to transcend these boundaries. This elaborates on political terminology in terms of Buddhist mental culture leading to �non-self� (anatta), promising freedom from imprisonment and confinement. The ideals of the four byama-so tay� � in particular loving-kindness (metta) and compassion (karuna) � stand for democracy, just as they have stood for ideal true socialist government. The senior NLD leaders all closely identify with this and with the practice of Buddhist mental culture in general. Furthermore, though the lower forms of magic are more common amongst the military, many retired military responsible for imprisoning and disqualifying the NLD from office also proclaim to be engaged in the practice of mental culture and patronise the same Buddhist meditation centres. Mental culture, while strongly represented as democracy politics, thus plays a role as a conciliatory third force in Burmese politics. The author decodes the present political situation in terms of continuities with past colonial politics and assesses commonalties between the two sides. The book argues that, through association with Buddhist ideas emphasising substantive commonalties in all forms of life, Burmese political vocabulary itself has the promise within it to promote reconciliation in this divided polity..." (from the Press Release)
        Author/creator: Gustaaf Houtman
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
        Format/size: PDF (2600K), or browse chapters (html) from the Copntents page
        Alternate URLs: http://homepages.tesco.net/~ghoutman/final.htm
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: The Soul of a People
        Date of publication: 1902
        Description/subject: First published in 1899..."This book is about Burma, seen through the eyes of an English gentleman during and after the conquering of Upper Burma by the British towards the end of the 19th century. It describes his impressions of the Burmese people and particularly their religion, Buddhism, which explains so much their strange customs and ways. Written in the excellent English, in choice of words and prose, lost in modern times, that typified the Victorian period".....CONTENTS: LIVING BELIEFS; HE WHO FOUND THE LIGHT—I; HE WHO FOUND THE LIGHT—II; THE WAY TO THE GREAT PEACE; WAR—I; WAR—II; GOVERNMENT; CRIME AND PUNISHMENT; HAPPINESS; THE MONKHOOD I; THE MONKHOOD II; PRAYER; FESTIVALS; WOMEN—I; WOMEN—II; WOMEN III; DIVORCE; MANNERS; 'NOBLESSE OBLIGE'; ALL LIFE IS ONE; DEATH, THE DELIVERER; THE POTTER'S WHEEL; THE FOREST OF TIME..... The Alternate URL has a link to the openlibrary page which offers several editions, in various formats. The OBL link is to the 1902 edition, with the insertion of the first page of the Contents, omitted from the openlibrary 1902 version.
        Author/creator: Harold Fielding Hall
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Macmillan & Co. via openlibrary.org
        Format/size: pdf (2.9MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://openlibrary.org/works/OL1104253W/The_soul_of_a_people
        Date of entry/update: 23 September 2010


        Title: The Burmese Empire a Hundred Years Ago
        Date of publication: 1893
        Description/subject: First published: 1833....CONTENTS: INTRODUCTION; LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL WORKS REFERRED TO; PREFACE BY MR. JARDINE; PREFACE BY CARDINAL WISEMAN; DESCRIPTION OF THE BURMESE EMPIRE... BURMESE COSMOGRAPHY: I. Of the Measures and Divisions of Time commonly used in the Sacred Burmese Books; II. Of the World and its Parts; III. Of the Beings that live in this World, of their Felicity or Misery, and of the Duration of their Life; IV. Of the States of Punishment; V. Of the Destruction and Reproduction of the World; VI. Of the Inhabitants of the Burmese Empire.... BURMESE HISTORY: VII. Origin of the Burmese Nation and Monarchy; VIII. Abridgment of the Burmese Annals, called Maharazven; IX. Of the present Royal Family, and of the Principal Events that have taken place under the Reigning Dynasty.... CONSTITUTION OF THE BURMESE EMPIRE: X. Of the Emperor, and of his White Elephants; XI. Officers of State and of the Household, Tribunals, and Administration of Justice; XII. Revenue and Taxes; XIII. Army and Military Discipline.... RELIGION OF THE BURMESE: XIV. The Laws of Godama; XV. Of the Talapoins; XVI. The Sermons of Godama; XVII. Superstitions of the Burmese.... MORAL AND PHYSICAL CONSTITUTION OF THE BURMESE EMPIRE: XVIII. Character of the Burmese; XIX. Manners and Customs of the Burmese; XX. Literature and Sciences of the Burmese; XXI. Natural Productions of the Burmese Empire; XXII. Calendar of the Burmese. Climate and Seasons of the Burmese Empire; XXIII. Of the Currency and Commerce of the Burmese Empire.... BURMESE CODE: XXIV. Abstract of the Burmese Code entitled Damasat; or the Golden Rule
        Author/creator: Father Vincenzo Sangermano
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Archibald Constable & Co.
        Format/size: pdf (8.2MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://ia341340.us.archive.org/0/items/cu31924023243904/cu31924023243904.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 21 September 2010


      • Buddhism and Society

        • Buddhism and society, Buddhist Ethics

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: Buddhist Peace Fellowship
          Description/subject: Engaged Buddhism
          Language: English
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Buddhist Peace Fellowship discussion group
          Description/subject: "This group is set up for discussion, announcements, and matters of interest pertaining to Socially Engaged Buddhism in the U.S. and the world at large"
          Language: English
          Subscribe: bpf-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
          Alternate URLs: More information: http://www.bpf.org
          Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


          Title: Buddhist Relief Mission
          Description/subject: "The Buddhist Relief Mission, established in 1988, supports Buddhist charities, education and welfare projects throughout the world". Buddhist publications, Scholarships for monks, Buddhists in prison, Buddhist schools, Sangha hospitals, Refugee ordinations, Buddhist orphanages, Monastery support.
          Language: English
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Engagierter Buddhismus
          Description/subject: "Diese Internet-Seiten mchten Sie mit den Inhalten und der Bewegung fr gesellschaftlich engagierten Buddhismus bekannt machen und Ihnen das internationale Netzwerk engagierter Buddhisten mit seinen Zielen, Ideen, Aktivitten und Kontaktmglichkeiten vorstellen. Engagierter Buddhismus Gesellschaftlich, humanitr und kologisch engagierter Buddhismus hat seine Wurzel und Entstehung in der Lehre und Lebenspraxis des Gautama Shakyamuni Buddha. Buddhas Weg grndet in der meditativen Erfahrung der Wirklichkeit und ist geprgt ist von tiefer Einsicht und groem Mitgefhl fr alle Wesen. Sie und alle Phnomene erkennt er als untrennbar wechselseitig miteinander verbunden. Es gibt kein vom Anderen isoliertes, aus sich und fr sich existierendes "Ich". Diese Erkenntnis - im Buddhismus "Erwachen" (bodhi) genannt - lt uns den tiefsten Grund unseres Leidens erkennen wie auch unser unbegrenztes Potential menschlicher Mglichkeiten (genannt "Buddhaschaft"). Darum hat der Weg des Buddha die umfassende Verwirklichung des Menschen und die Befreiung aller lebenden Wesen vom Leiden zum Ziel. Engagierter Buddhismus ist die Bemhung, eine hieran orientierte, globale "Kultur des Erwachens" zu verwirklichen..."
          Language: Deutsch, German, English
          Source/publisher: Das Internationale Netzwerk engagierter Buddhisten
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: International Network of Engaged Buddhists
          Description/subject: "... It is a distinguish network of activists, spiritual leaders and academics, mainly Buddhists of all sects, at international level that addresses the social issue and commits the social services based on spirituality with collaboration from non-Buddhist fellows. INEB members conduct the activities in variety of issues to serve their own community on decentralization basis. But the members are supportive of one another. The secretariat office will maintain flow of information and support by offering a program to fortify members' capacity and organizing joint activities. Issues of Interest: INEB has firm confidence in compassion, non-violence and co-existence as revealed by The Buddha. Confrontation with suffering, analysis and actions to put out suffering, particularly in the modern world context is the core mission. The issues of interest revolve around integration of spirituality and social activities. Issues that INEB emphasized included peace reconciliation, ecology, women issue and empowerment, health, education, human rights, community building, alternative development, role of spiritual leaders in modern world context, etc..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: International Network of Engaged Buddhists
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Journal of Buddhist Ethics
          Description/subject: A rich mine of docs, including archives of Journal of Buddhist Ethics and on engaged Buddhism and Buddhism and human rights...... "The Journal of Buddhist Ethics is the first academic journal dedicated entirely to Buddhist ethics. We promote the study of Buddhist ethics through the publication of research and book reviews and by hosting occasional online conferences. Our subject matter includes: * Vinaya and Jurisprudence * Medical Ethics * Philosophical Ethics * Human Rights * Ethics and Psychology * Ecology and the Environment * Social and Political Philosophy * Cross-cultural Ethics * Ethics and Anthropology * Interfaith Dialogue on Ethics ....."
          Language: English
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


          Title: Sarvodaya: The Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement of Sri Lanka
          Description/subject: "In thousands of villages, Sarvodaya has fostered the development of a society in which peace permeates through all levels of the society -- starting at the individual and village level. While sometimes criticized for its qualitative mode of operation, it is precisely such a deeply grounded approach that can prove most effective in breaking the cycle of violence. "This study found that the project has had considerable impact on peace building and prevention of conflict..." "Sarvodaya News; Sarvodaya Initiative for Peace; Endowment Fund; Sarvodaya USA Partnership Projects; Sarvodaya Overview ;Sarvodaya Philosophy; The Sarvodaya Library; Related Links; Virtual Shramadana Camp. LOts of material on the site.
          Language: English
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: The Buddhist Channel -- Bringing Buddha Dhamma Home
          Description/subject: News dealing with social and political angles on Tibetan and other Buddhist traditions
          Language: English, French, Francais
          Source/publisher: The Buddhist Channel
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 30 August 2006


          Title: Think Sangha
          Description/subject: "Buddhist" Intellectual Practice Tools for Integrating Spirituality & Social Change Work. "Think Sangha is a socially engaged Buddhist think tank affiliated with the Buddhist Peace Fellowship (BPF) and the International Network of Engaged Buddhists (INEB). We use a Buddhist sangha model to explore pressing social issues and concerns. The group's methodology is one based in friendship and Buddhist practice as much as theory and thought. The Think Sangha's core activities are networking with other thinker-activists, producing Buddhist critiques of social structures and alternative social models, and providing materials and resource persons for trainings, conferences, and research on social issues and grassroots activism..." "NEW! For the first time the entire contents of this 1997 publication are available here on-line"
          Language: English
          Format/size: html
          Alternate URLs: http://www.suanmokkh.org/ds/ts-orig1.htm
          http://www.inebnetwork.org/news-and-medias/publications
          Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


          Individual Documents

          Title: Discrimination: A Buddhist perspective
          Date of publication: 17 August 2012
          Description/subject: "...The Pali Canon has a very strong and unequivocal teaching that mental attachment is extremely detrimental – a biased view which asserts that people achieve freedom from suffering in any way other than their conduct is a distorted and perverted view. It is a mental attitude that leads to a very detrimental rebirth, and to pain and unhappiness in this life. It can be stated then with some certainty that in the Pali Canon there is a very strong teaching that any form of discourse that proposes a racist opinion is a wrong view, it will lead to suffering and, indeed, is dukkha itself. Those holding such opinions will not only suffer in the future but are themselves an expression of mental turmoil while holding such views. They are immersed in dukkha not metta."
          Author/creator: Dr. Paul Fuller
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Mizzima
          Format/size: pdf (94K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 August 2012


          Title: Founding Human Rights within Buddhism: Exploring Buddha-Nature as an Ethical Foundation
          Date of publication: 15 October 2010
          Description/subject: Abstract In this article, I hope to suggest (1) a fertile ground for human rights and social ethics within Japanese intellec-tual history and (2) a possible angle for connecting Dōgen‖s ethical views with his views on private religious practice. I begin with a review of the attempts to found the notion of rights within Buddhism. I focus on two well-argued attempts: Damien Keown‖s foundation of rights on the Four Noble Truths and individual soteriology and Jay Garfield‖s foundation of rights on the compassionate drive to liberate others. I then fuse these two approaches in a single concept: Buddha-nature. I analyze Dōgen‖s own view on the practice-realization of Buddha-nature, and the equation of Buddha-nature with being, time, empti-ness, and impermanence. I end with tentative suggestions concerning how Dōgen‖s particular view on Buddha-nature might affect any social ethics or view of rights that is founded on it.
          Author/creator: Anton Luis Sevilla
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Journal of Buddhist Ethics Volume 17, 2010
          Format/size: pdf (317 K)
          Alternate URLs: http://blogs.dickinson.edu/buddhistethics/2010/10/15/human-rights-founded-on-buddha-nature/
          Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


          Title: Same Robes, Different Roles
          Date of publication: March 2010
          Description/subject: Burmese monks in Sri Lanka find that their local counterparts wield far more power than they could ever imagine having in their homeland... "For centuries, Burmese monks have been traveling to Sri Lanka, both to study the Buddha’s teachings and to help their Sinhalese brethren restore the monastic order on the island after periods of foreign domination. Burmese monks walk along Galle Face Green, a promenade near Colombo’s city center. (PhotO: NEIL LAWRENCE/THE IRRAWADDY) These days, however, it is the Burmese monks who are more likely to feel under siege. Since the crackdown on the Saffron Revolution in 2007, the Burmese regime has imposed ever more stringent restrictions on monks seeking to further their studies abroad—reinforcing their sense that despite their revered status as religious leaders, they are increasingly regarded as second-class citizens. For those who do make it to Sri Lanka—according to one Burmese embassy official in Colombo, there are some 250 Burmese monks now living in the country—this sense is deepened by the contrast with what they see in the society around them..."
          Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 3
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 17 March 2010


          Title: Thai Buddhists Help Needy Burmese Children
          Date of publication: September 2008
          Description/subject: "Needy children in Burma will benefit from an initiative launched by the Phuttika Network, a coalition of “socially engaged’’ Buddhists in Thailand..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 9
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 13 November 2008


          Title: Putting Compassion into Action
          Date of publication: July 2008
          Description/subject: Do Burmese people really understand the meaning of compassion? Not according to a prominent Buddhist monk who has taken a leading role in Cyclone Nargis relief efforts... MAE SOT, Thailand — "“HOW did you feel when you heard that people were homeless, that monks had lost their monasteries and had nowhere to stay? Over 130,000 people were killed and 2.4 million suffered badly. How did you feel?” The monk who asked these questions paused and looked at his audience of around 3,000 people at the Tawya Burmese monastery in the Thai border town of Mae Sot, opposite Myawaddy. A patient is comforted by Sitagu Sayadaw in a clinic in the Irrawaddy delta. He continued: “If you felt concerned and afraid for them, that’s good. It means you have compassion.” But before anyone could take too much satisfaction in that thought, he added: “That’s good, but it’s not good enough.” The speaker was Dr Ashin Nyanissara—better known as Sitagu Sayadaw [abbot]—one of Burma’s most respected monks. He was in Mae Sot in late June to give a dhamma talk on compassion—and to ask the local Burmese community, estimated to be tens of thousands strong, to support relief efforts in the Irrawaddy delta, where millions still struggle in the aftermath of Cyclone Nargis. Since the cyclone struck on May 2-3, Sitagu Sayadaw has been rallying his followers to come to the assistance of their compatriots in the delta and the former capital, Rangoon, which also suffered substantial damage. His message was simple: Compassion is important, but it doesn’t amount to much unless it is accompanied by action. “If you lack compassion, you will be an irresponsible person,” the 71-year-old abbot told his attentive audience, who were seated both inside the monastery’s main building and outside on the ground. “But compassion in mind and in words alone won’t help the refugees in the cyclone-affected area,” he added. “Such compassion won’t bring food to people in need.”..."
          Author/creator: Lyaw Zwa Moe
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 7
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 15 July 2008


          Title: BUDDHISM, POWER AND POLITICAL ORDER
          Date of publication: 2007
          Description/subject: "Weber’s claim that Buddhism is an otherworldly religion is only partially true. Early sources indicate that the Buddha was sometimes diverted from supramundane interests to dwell on a variety of politically related matters. The significance of Asoka Maurya as a paradigm for later traditions of Buddhist kingship is also well attested. However, there has been little scholarly effort to integrate findings on the extent to which Buddhism interacted with the political order in the classical and modern states of Theravada Asia into a wider, comparative study. This volume brings together the brightest minds in the study of Buddhism in Southeast Asia. Their contributions create a more coherent account of the relations between Buddhism and political order in the late pre-modern and modern period by questioning the contested relationship between monastic and secular power. In doing so, they expand the very nature of what is known as the ‘Theravada’. This book offers new insights for scholars of Buddhism, and it will stimulate new debates..."
          Author/creator: Ian Harris (ed)
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Routledge
          Format/size: pdf (1.81MB)
          Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


          Title: TIME FOR TRANSFORMATION
          Date of publication: November 2002
          Description/subject: "Sulak Sivaraksa is a prominent Thai social critic and intellectual, and a pioneer in what he calls "socially engaged Buddhism." His ideas have been widely published and in 1995 he was honored with the Right Livelihood Award, also known as the Alternative Nobel Peace Prize. He spoke to The Irrawaddy about the challenges confronting Burma, Thailand and Buddhism, and America�s role in the war on terror..."
          Author/creator: Sulak Sivaraksa (Interview)
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" vol. 10, No. 9
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: BUDDHISM AND DEEP ECOLOGY FOR PROTECTION OF WILD ASIAN ELEPHANTS IN MYANMAR: A RESOURCE GUIDE
          Date of publication: 2002
          Description/subject: Keywords: Burmese elephants, Burma. I. THE ASIAN ELEPHANT: A. Cultural; B. Ecological and Conservation Issues; C. Conservation Measures... II. BUDDHISM AND DEEP ECOLOGY: A. Need for Spiritual Approach; B. Buddhism; C. Deep Ecology; D. Wildlife (poaching); E. Forest Protection (D and E are considered the two major elephant threats)... III. DHAMMA/ECOLOGY GLOSSARY... IV. APPENDIX: DHAMMA/DEEP ECOLOGY EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES... " Dr. Henning’s resource guide, which combines Buddhist principles and Asian elephant conservation in Myanmar, is an innovative approach to Asian elephant conservation. I have never seen someone with a biological background such as Dr. Henning’s attempt this approach in such a clear, concise manner. I found the resource guide to be an excellent potential teaching tool not only for Myanmar but also for any Buddhist country in which elephant conservation is an issue. I could easily envision this guide as the first in a series of written materials that deals with such conservation issues, perhaps beyond elephants. I would think that any individuals or agencies interested in conserving Asian elephants would be interested in this guide and would want to help make it available to a wider audience."... "The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), an endangered species listed in Appendix I of CITIES, is thought to number between 34,000 to 56,000 in thirteen Asian countries. According to U Uga, there are less than 4,000 elephants in the wild in Myanmar, which has the largest population in the ASEAN countries (India has a larger population for the continent). The total Asian elephant population is less than 10 percent of its more glamorous cousin-the African elephant. The Myanmar elephant is internationally endangered and is regarded as a worldwide flagship species. Throughout their range states, the wild elephant is severely threatened by habitat destruction, poaching, and fragmentation into small isolated groups. Many population biologists believe that nowhere in Asia is there a single wild population large enough to avoid inbreeding over the long term. ..."
          Author/creator: Daniel H. Henning PhD
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Daniel H. Henning
          Format/size: pdf (832K)
          Date of entry/update: 23 February 2004


          Title: Buddhism and Human Rights Online Conference
          Date of publication: October 1995
          Description/subject: "Welcome to "Buddhism and Human Rights," an Online Conference sponsored by the _Journal of Buddhist Ethics_. Thank you for choosing to participate in the first electronic conference ever attempted in Buddhist Studies. Those of us at the _Journal of Buddhist Ethics_ are truly excited to be venturing forth into new intellectual territory in an attempt to make important scholarship on Buddhism and Human Rights available to the widest possible audience. We hope you enjoy the conference and feel free to contribute to it in a constructive and productive manner. Consistent with our previous announcements, participation in the conference is structured on three levels: (1) conference papers, which were prepared in advance and are already posted in the JBE, (2) conference panelists, who have prepared advance statements, also posted in the JBE, and who will facilitate the discussions of the papers, and (3) conference members who "attend" by subscribing, free of charge, and who offer comments, questions, and observations at their discretion. Because we are exploring uncharted territory, it is rather difficult to anticipate the volume of participant response. As such, all comments, questions, and observations will be monitored. We will post as many of these as we possibly can (screening out any submissions deemed inappropriate for publication by the editors). It is our fond desire that the fine papers prepared for the conference will provoke serious, thoughtful discussion that reflects the deep concerns of the conference's constituents, while at the same time preserving the spontaneity that hopefully emerges in any conference setting..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "Journal of Buddhist Ethics" via Ahimsa Coffeehouse
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 17 August 2012


          Title: Dhamma, Ethics and Human Rights
          Date of publication: December 1994
          Description/subject: "...At the heart of Buddhist ethics is inter-responsibility, or Bodhicitta; what His Holiness the Dalai Lama calls Universal Responsibility. In the Theravada we speak of Samma-sankappa or Right Thought, which leads to Bodhi, the Awakened Mind. This principle is expressed in everyday terms by the teaching of loving-kindness, non-violence, compassion, and particular responsibilities. For monks and nuns these are set down in the rule or Vinaya; for lay people in the Sigalovada Sutta and for rulers in the Dasarajadhamma. In the early, organic societies the Buddha was addressing, these specific responsibilities were assumed to be adequate guidelines for human behaviour, with no need to identify the corresponding rights. In modern, fragmented societies, however, where the fulfillment of responsibilities cannot be guaranteed by the immediate community, the corresponding rights are specified and protected by States and International Organisations. In large part these bodies derive their legitimacy from their protection of human rights. A State which does not guarantee the enjoyment of human rights by its people loses its claim to legitimacy..."
          Author/creator: Sayadaw U Rewata Dhamma
          Language: English
          Format/size: html (31K)
          Date of entry/update: 13 March 2005


          Title: The Rajadhammasangaha
          Date of publication: 1979
          Description/subject: "The Rajadhammasangaha" was presented to King Thibaw in December 1878. The first printing was c.1915. This translation by L.E.Bagshawe is from the version edited with a biographical preface by Maung Htin (U Htin Fatt) and published by the Sape U Publishing House in 1979... "On the seventh waxing day of Nadaw...the Wetmasut Myoza Wungyi finished the writing of his book Rajadhammasangaha and presented it to King Thibaw. The author describes it pleasantly as “a book of the proper behaviour for Kings and other high officers of government”. The Pagan Wundauk U Tin, however, says “it is a book of admonishment addressed to King Thibaw.” And in this he speaks the direct truth. In this book the Wetmasut Myoza Wungyi documents the proposals for changes in the system of government that were planned from the time of King Mindon. His intention in writing the book, he says, is, “In bygone times of the Buddha-to-be there were good and excellent Kings who guarded the well-being of all living creatures; like them may our own King, Lord of the Saddanta Elephant and Lawful King, under the Law guard the well-being of all living creatures like that of his own beloved children.” This expressed intention has a further meaning. Under an autocracy we cannot really say that the monarch rules with the single-minded wish to rule all living creatures on the same terms as his own children. If he is brought to the point where he must consult the "living creatures", we may be able to say that he regards them on equal terms with his own children. If there is no law requiring consultation, his guardianship becomes dubious..."
          Author/creator: By the Yaw Mingyi U Hpo Hlaing (the Wetmasut Myoza Wungyi). Edited with biographical preface by Maung Htin (U Htin Fatt) and translated from the Burmese by L.E. Bagshawe
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
          Format/size: pdf (1MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/The_Rajadhammasangaha-print.pdf (configured for print)
          Date of entry/update: 05 September 2004


          Title: Buddhism and the Race Question
          Date of publication: 1974
          Description/subject: Conclusion: "In the foregoing pages we have tried to show that Buddhism stands for the oneness of the human species, the equality of man, and the spiritual unity of mankind. The differences among the so-called races as far as their physical characteristics go are negligible. The differences in cultural attainment are due to historical circumstances and not to any innate aptitudes with which some of the ”cultured” races, whether of the East or West, are favoured by nature or God. All men likewise, irrespective of their race, caste or class, have the capacity to reach the heights of moral and spiritual attainment. Man’s destiny is to develop as a spiritual being and therefore what really matters is the degree of his moral and spiritual development. This has no connection with birth in any particular race or caste since the ”meanest”, “humblest” of mankind may have the potentialities for attaining the very highest in this respect in this life, so that we have no right to despise any person whatever his station in life may be. The harbouring of racial and caste prejudice is moreover detrimental to one’s mental health and spiritual state and it is a characteristic of the spiritually enlightened that they shed them and act with love and impartiality towards all. Race and caste discrimination are also inimical to social progress since they bring about artificial and unreal divisions among human beings where none exist and hinder harmonious relations...."
          Author/creator: G. P. Malalasekera & H. N. Jayatilleke
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Buddhist Publication Society (The Wheel Publication No. 200/201)
          Format/size: pdf (233K)
          Date of entry/update: 17 August 2012


          Title: BUDDHIST ECONOMICS
          Date of publication: 1973
          Description/subject: "... "Right Livelihood" is one of the requirements of the Buddha’s Noble Eightfold Path. It is clear, therefore, that there must be such a thing as Buddhist economics. Buddhist countries have often stated that they wish to remain faithful to their heritage. So Burma: “The New Burma sees no conflict between religious values and economic progress. Spiritual health and material well-being are not enemies: they are natural allies.” 1 Or: “We can blend successfully the religious and spiritual values of our heritage with the benefits of modern technology.” 2 Or: “We Burmans have a sacred duty to conform both our dreams and our acts to our faith. This we shall ever do.” 3 All the same, such countries invariably assume that they can model their economic development plans in accordance with modern economics, and they call upon modern economists from so-called advanced countries to advise them, to formulate the policies to be pursued, and to construct the grand design for development, the Five-Year Plan or whatever it may be called. No one seems to think that a Buddhist way of life would call for Buddhist economics, just as the modern materialist way of life has brought forth modern economics. Economists themselves, like most specialists, normally suffer from a kind of metaphysical blindness, assuming that theirs is a science of absolute and invariable truths, without any presuppositions. Some go as far as to claim that economic laws are as free from "metaphysics" or "values" as the law of gravitation. We need not, however, get involved in arguments of methodology. Instead, let us take some fundamentals and see what they look like when viewed by a modern economist and a Buddhist economist..."
          Author/creator: E.F. Schumacher
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Small Is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered.
          Format/size: html, pdf
          Alternate URLs: http://neweconomicsinstitute.org/schumacher/buddhist-economics
          Date of entry/update: 16 January 2005


          Title: Dasa Raja Dhamma (The Ten Duties of Rulers)
          Date of publication: 0400
          Description/subject: The basic framework of Buddhist ethics for rulers is set out in the "Ten Duties of the King" (dasa-raja-dhamma)... "We cannot assign a definite date to the Jataka stories. Taking into account archaeological and literary evidence it appears that they were compiled in the period, the 3rd Century B.C. to the 5th Century A.D. They give us invaluable information about ancient Indian civilization, culture and philosophy. The Jataka stories have been very popular in the Buddhist world."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Jataka
          Format/size: html (9K)
          Date of entry/update: 06 August 2005


          Title: The Practice which leads to Nibbāna (Part 1)
          Description/subject: (Compiled and Translated by U.Dhamminda)_Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa_ INTRODUCTION: The method of practising meditation that is taught at Pa Auk Tawya Monastery is based on the explanation of meditation found in the Visuddhimagga commentary. Because of that the method involves several stages of practise which are complex, and involved. These stages include a detailed analysis of both mentality and matter according to all the categories enumerated in the Abhidhamma and the further use of this understanding to discern the process of Dependent Origination as it occurs in the Past, Present, and Future. Therefore people who are unfamiliar with the Visuddhimagga and the Abhidhamma will have difficulty in understanding and developing a clear picture of the practice of meditation at Pa Auk Tawya. For foreigners who cannot speak Burmese this problem is made even more difficult. This introduction has been written to help alleviate these difficulties by presenting a simplified example of a successful meditator’s path of progress as he develops his meditation at Pa Auk Tawya. This we hope will enable you to understand a little better the more detailed sections of the book which are the actual instructions for those who are practising meditation. It also must be stressed from the beginning that this book is intended for use by people who are actually undergoing a course of meditation at the centre under the guidance of Pa Auk Sayadaw....."
          Author/creator: Pa Auk Sayadaw
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Dhamma Web
          Format/size: html
          Alternate URLs: http://www.dhammaweb.net/html/viewpage.php?page=2
          Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


        • Burmese Buddhism and Society

          Websites/Multiple Documents

          Title: All Burma Monks' Alliance
          Description/subject: We are a religious and social service provider organization staffed by and composed of Burmese Buddhist monks from the 2007 Saffron Revolution. We are currently supporting and providing assistance to refugee monks inside and outside of Burma. The A.B.M.A was formed by a group of senior monks as a response to the severe economic and social problems existing in Burma in 2007. The A.B.M.A. leaders are recognized as the primary organizers and coordinators of the activities of the so-called Saffron Revolution in September, 2007. In a very dramatic way, the world was reminded again of the Burmese people’s struggle for democracy. The peaceful marches, demonstrations and rallies led by the saffron-robed monks were ultimately met by violent reactions of the Burmese military regime. Since that time there has been less media attention to the ongoing problems in Burma. However, as a result of their activities in September 2007, thousands of monks and individual citizens have suffered from the reaction and repression of the military regime. Some monks were arrested and tortured, and remain in prison. Some went into hiding inside Burma, and others left Burma as refugees. The A.B.M.A has established an assistance network for these internal and external refugees, both monks and civilian democracy activists. We hope that through the support of sympathetic organizations and individuals we will be able to continue and to expand on the important work we are doing. Exiled Burmese monks living in Thailand, India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka are supported by the A.B.M.A. main office in Mae Sot, Thailand. Groups of exiled monks are also living in refugee status in various cities around the United States, supported by our monastery in Utica, New York. Objectives: * To maintain our support for the assistance network for monks, both inside and outside of Burma * To promote democracy inside Burma, especially in order to defend and preserve the religious and cultural foundations of the nation * To fulfill the customary role of Burmese monks by distributing reading material and sponsoring meetings and discussions on Buddhist beliefs, practices and education * To maintain and update the database of targeted and refugee monks. We have compiled a list of monks under threat, and we will continue to monitor and document information about them from inside Burma. * To support and expand the existing educational programs for both monks and needy families inside Burma. We are trying to procure assistance for educational facilities, schools and training programs for the monks and needy families inside Burma.
          Language: English, Burmese
          Source/publisher: All Burma Monks' Alliance
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 December 2009


          Title: Sasana Moli - International Burmese Monks Organization
          Description/subject: "Mission Statement background Burmese monks from all around the world established the International Burmese Monks Organization (IBMO) in October 2007 under the leadership of two prominent Burmese Buddhist monks, the late Venerable U Kovida and Venerable U Pannya Vamsa. Following the September 2007 street protests in Burma, many Buddhist monks were arrested, disappeared, beaten and even killed. During the crackdown, monks and nuns inside Burma asked monks living outside of the country to continue to their struggle. They asked the IBMO to raise international awareness about Burma’s political struggles. Inside Burma, there is no freedom of speech. To speak out against human rights abuses, to speak out against dictatorship, or to speak out for common human decency, as the Buddhist faith demands, is to invite attack at the hands of the military junta. The IBMO travels the globe in order to provide a voice for our monks and nuns inside Burma who are denied this right. We try to teach others about both the beauty and the harsh realities of military control inside the closed country. Monks are not politicians but is their duty to help relieve the suffering of all the people of Burma. The Buddha gave ten rules for kings to ensure that kings did not harm their subjects. Burma’s generals violate all of these rules every day. According to IBMO Chairman, the Venerable U Pannya Vamsa, the roots of Burma’s crisis are in the military's refusal to hand over power in 1990 to leaders elected in general elections. The IBMO works alongside the Burma democracy movement to lobby international governments to pressure the junta to commence a real dialogue with democratic opposition leaders including the Nobel Peace Laureate, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. Additionally, IBMO partners with the Burmese Diaspora, grassroots advocacy groups, and ecumenical and peace organizations to support direct advocacy efforts on behalf of the Burmese people, such as media interviews, lectures, and testifying before legislators. The IBMO also supports the courageous work of monks and nuns inside Burma. Throughout Burmese history, monks have played a significant role in maintaining peace in our society. The Burmese military dictatorship has total disregard for the welfare of its people. The junta provides no proper education, health care or other public services. People are forced to turn to the monasteries for help. Monks witness the desperate needs of the people every day and in September, they rose up together to answer these needs. Today, monks inside Burma are working desperately to feed and clothe Cyclone Nargis victims taking shelter in monasteries throughout Southern Burma. The IBMO raises funds to send directly to these monks inside Burma to buy rice, medicine, and other much-needed relief supplies..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Sasana Moli
          Format/size: html
          Alternate URLs: http://sasanamoli.org/
          Date of entry/update: 03 December 2009


          Individual Documents

          Title: SECULARISM AND VIOLENCE IN THE BUDDHIST STATE: THE CASES OF THAILAND AND MYANMAR
          Date of publication: 07 December 2009
          Description/subject: Abstract: "The term, ‘post-secular society’ would be almost inexplicable to citizens of Thailand (Siam) and Myanmar (Burma) because the concept of a ‘secular’ society itself would be inconsistent with socio-cultural norms, despite the rampant consumerism which pervades the one and the endemic poverty the other. Far from being ‘secular’ societies, defined as those in which religion has a subordinate or minimal role in public life and is divorced from the policy-making centres of power, the contemporary states of Thailand and Myanmar have established their national identities on the cornerstone of Buddhism. In official parlance, to be Thai or Burmese is to be Buddhist. This exclusionary formula is pursued despite each of these two nation states giving official support to the international mantra, ‘freedom of religion’, and each of them having substantial minorities who follow the Muslim, Christian, Hindu or other faiths. Religion is so tightly interwoven with political life in these two countries that one might ask whether it is possible that they could be conceived as religio-political societies in the manner of the pre-Reformation Italian city states. This paper explores the integral relationship between religion and public political society in contemporary Thailand and Myanmar in the context of Buddhism’s philosophy of non-violence, its reification of ahimsa (non-violence, non-harm), and commitment to atman (selflessness) and moksha (non-attachment to materiality) as essential values for transforming socio-political relations."
          Author/creator: Helen James
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Parliament of the World's Religions
          Format/size: pdf (71K)
          Date of entry/update: 06 October 2010


          Title: Of Monarchs Monks and Men: Religion and the State in Myanmar
          Date of publication: December 2009
          Description/subject: "...The relationship between religion and the state during the pre-colonial period was the most dominant one in Burmese society for at least a thousand years if not more. With the dawn of the colonial period, it saw a hiatus, but revived when nationalism took center stage. After independence in 1948, the relationship once again became important and remains so until today. Whereas their economic relationship was more crucial in the earlier phases of the pre-colonial period, their political relationship increasingly assumed a larger role as time went on, until today it is predominantly political. Throughout this slow transformation, their symbolic relationship remained largely unchanged. This essay is a summary of that historical process beginning with the Pagan period in the mid 11th century until the present..."
          Author/creator: Michael A. Aung Thwin
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Asia Research Institute • Singapore...ARI Working Paper No. 127
          Format/size: pdf (218K)
          Date of entry/update: 11 March 2010


          Title: The Resistance of the Monks: Buddhism and Activism in Burma
          Date of publication: 22 September 2009
          Description/subject: "Since the Burmese army’s brutal military crackdown on Buddhist monks and other peaceful protestors in September 2007, a constant refrain has been, “What happened to the monks?” ...This report attempts to answer that question. It tells the story of many among hundreds of monks who were arrested and beaten, and the more than 250 monks and nuns who remain in prison today, often with decades remaining on their sentences. It tells the story of large numbers of monks who left their monasteries, returning to their villages or seeking refuge in other countries. And it tells the story of monks who remained, many of whom live under constant surveillance...".....TABLE OF CONTENTS: * The Resistance of the Monks * Map of Burma * I. Summary * II. Burma: A Long Tradition of Buddhist Activism * III. The Role of the Sangha in the 1988 Uprising and After the 1990 Election * IV. Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhism * V. The SPDC and Buddhism * VI. The Reemergence of Buddhist Political Activism in Burma * VII. The September 2007 Crackdown * VIII. Cyclone Nargis and Its Aftermath * IX. International Networks * X. Conclusion * XI. Recommendations * Acknowledgments * Appendix I: Terminology and Abbreviations * Appendix II: Letter to the Penang Sayadaw U Bhaddantapannyavamsa from the Burmese Foreign Ministry, October 27, 2007[195] * Appendix III: Statement by Sasana Moli, the International Burmese Monks Organization, May 2008
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
          Format/size: pdf
          Date of entry/update: 22 September 2009


          Title: The 'Bit of Fun’ that Turned Sour
          Date of publication: September 2009
          Description/subject: "A photograph of well-known Burmese actor, Min Maw Kun, and his 11 friends posing in saffron robes on the day of their ordination at a Buddhist monastery caused a wave of outrage when it was published on a popular Burmese Web site. Although their heads are shaved and they are wearing religious robes, most of the young men are displaying fashionable tattoos. Some of the men smile cheekily at the camera while others hug or pose provocatively. Actor Min Maw Kun, fifth from left, and friends. Many dismayed Burmese, especially Buddhist monks, felt the photo was in bad taste. A revered monk who lives in the US, Ashin Candobhasacara, asked: “Why would Min Maw Kun and his friends insult our religion like that?” He said the young men “should apologize for their decadent behavior.” One member of the group in the photograph who spoke anonymously to The Irrawaddy, said, “It was only meant as a bit of fun. It certainly had no political meaning.” The photo was taken before the 2007 monk-led uprising."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 6
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 19 January 2010


          Title: The Role of Monkhood in Contemporary Myanmar Society
          Date of publication: September 2008
          Description/subject: Introduction: "Recent events in Myanmar, particularly the “Saffron Revolution” in 2007 and cyclone Nargis in 2008 placed Myanmar monks in the focus of the international community. Not for the first time in history, the Myanmar "Sangha" took a leading role in times of emergency, and was able to mobilise rapidly their forces in order to help and represent the people of Myanmar. In 1988 they went to the streets with other citizens to call for democratic and economic reforms in the country. Similarly, in 2007, monks participated in the nation-wide protests against rising fuel and commodity prices. The visible and silent support of the monks provided encouragement and moral guidance for the predominantly Buddhist na-tion. Facing the post-Nargis devastation and indecisiveness related to access of interna-tional humanitarian aid, Myanmar monks became the only organised group able to respond promptly with aid for traumatised victims, providing them with shelter and distributing basic commodities in their communities. The saffron revolution did not succeed. How-ever, for some analysts it was not the end but rather the beginning of a new chapter in Myanmar’s contemporary history, marking the emergence of a new potential social and political force, nourishing hopes of the opposition and for all who expect general changes in Myanmar. Monks, particularly the younger generation, became more aware of their strength and responsibility for the country. In Myanmar most independent activity is suppressed or under strict control of the state. The monkhood, in contrast, enjoys a high level of immunity and freedom, for instance, with regard to freedom of movement (within the country and abroad)3 or various social activities, mostly in the local area. The recent events showed that their role in the society is not limited to the preservation of religion and rituals..."
          Author/creator: Sylwia Gil
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung
          Format/size: pdf (288K)
          Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


          Title: Putting Compassion into Action
          Date of publication: July 2008
          Description/subject: Do Burmese people really understand the meaning of compassion? Not according to a prominent Buddhist monk who has taken a leading role in Cyclone Nargis relief efforts... MAE SOT, Thailand — "“HOW did you feel when you heard that people were homeless, that monks had lost their monasteries and had nowhere to stay? Over 130,000 people were killed and 2.4 million suffered badly. How did you feel?” The monk who asked these questions paused and looked at his audience of around 3,000 people at the Tawya Burmese monastery in the Thai border town of Mae Sot, opposite Myawaddy. A patient is comforted by Sitagu Sayadaw in a clinic in the Irrawaddy delta. He continued: “If you felt concerned and afraid for them, that’s good. It means you have compassion.” But before anyone could take too much satisfaction in that thought, he added: “That’s good, but it’s not good enough.” The speaker was Dr Ashin Nyanissara—better known as Sitagu Sayadaw [abbot]—one of Burma’s most respected monks. He was in Mae Sot in late June to give a dhamma talk on compassion—and to ask the local Burmese community, estimated to be tens of thousands strong, to support relief efforts in the Irrawaddy delta, where millions still struggle in the aftermath of Cyclone Nargis. Since the cyclone struck on May 2-3, Sitagu Sayadaw has been rallying his followers to come to the assistance of their compatriots in the delta and the former capital, Rangoon, which also suffered substantial damage. His message was simple: Compassion is important, but it doesn’t amount to much unless it is accompanied by action. “If you lack compassion, you will be an irresponsible person,” the 71-year-old abbot told his attentive audience, who were seated both inside the monastery’s main building and outside on the ground. “But compassion in mind and in words alone won’t help the refugees in the cyclone-affected area,” he added. “Such compassion won’t bring food to people in need.”..."
          Author/creator: Lyaw Zwa Moe
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 7
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 15 July 2008


          Title: Will Thamanya Sayadaw’s Body Ever Rest in Peace?
          Date of publication: June 2008
          Description/subject: Body snatchers cart off the remains of a legendary abbot. Is the theft linked to the junta, the result of astrologers’ advice, a jealous rival abbot, or was it the action of loyal disciples?... IT was a dark night on April 2 when the body of the revered U Winaya, the Thamanya Sayadaw (abbot), one of Burma’s holiest monks, was mysteriously stolen.
          Author/creator: Amy Gold May
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 6
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 23 July 2008


          Title: Ruling the Rulers
          Date of publication: May 2008
          Description/subject: Efforts to limit the powers of Burma’s absolute monarchs failed. So did the monarchy... "THROUGHTOUT Asia, the middle of the 19th century was a period of political turmoil, as Western imperial powers pressed in upon countries that were subject to various forms of pre-modern rule. Burma was no exception, as it was forced to come to terms with a nation that was not only militarily superior, but also politically more advanced. Under the country’s last two monarchs, King Mindon (1853-78) and King Thibaw (1878-85), there were attempts to reform Burmese polity in the face of growing external challenges. At the center of these efforts was Yaw Atwinwun U Hpo Hlaing, the author of “Rajadhammasangaha,” a treatise which would have laid the basis for a constitutional monarchy in Burma, and which, in the words of respected scholar Maung Htin, “might have kept King Thibaw in the enjoyment of his throne..."”
          Author/creator: Min Lwin
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 5
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 01 May 2008


          Title: Laity of the Land -- a review of Ingrid Jordt's "Burma’s mass lay meditation movement"
          Date of publication: April 2008
          Description/subject: An anthropologist examines the role of Burma’s “New Laity” in the complex relationship between Buddhism and the military regime... "Burma’s Mass Lay Meditation Movement: Buddhism and the Cultural Construction of Power, by Ingrid Jordt.... DURING his official visit to Burma in March, Thai Prime Minister Samak Sundaravej learned something about his Burmese hosts that apparently struck him as significant. “Myanmar’s leaders meditate,” he said upon his return to Bangkok, as if this fact alone should be enough to convince anyone that Burma’s despotic rulers are not as bad as they are made out to be. While Samak’s implied approval of the Burmese generals on the grounds that they meditate may strike most observers as absurd, it does highlight a practice that has played an important role in forming Burma’s post-independence political consciousness. As anthropologist Ingrid Jordt argues in a recently published book, Burma’s mass lay meditation movement “has become a resistance and a parallel construction of economy, spheres of potency, and influence that stand against the state in its militaristic unity"...."
          Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 4
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


          Title: Compassionate Confrontation
          Date of publication: March 2008
          Description/subject: "...Metta, usually rendered as “loving-kindness” in English, is a strong wish for the well-being and happiness of all living things. A mind with metta is inclusive and nondiscriminatory and has the power to transform any situation. This is what the Buddha taught and exemplified. As the Burmese monks who participated in last September’s protests demonstrated, metta is not an attitude of passive acquiescence. Metta does not accept evil, but confronts it directly with a force that is its exact opposite. In times of trouble, the revered Sangha, or community of monks, cannot merely insulate itself from the suffering of ordinary people. The monks who protested in Burma showed that they are not just peace lovers, but peacemakers. They did not stop at praying for the benefit of the Burmese people, but took to the streets to oppose the malice manifested in the exclusionary politics of military domination..."
          Author/creator: Min Zin
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 3
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


          Title: Serving the People
          Date of publication: March 2008
          Description/subject: A leading Burmese monk instructs his disciples to treat the ill and to study the Buddha’s teachings... "When Burmese monks protested in September 2007, the disciples and monks at Sayadaw Nyanissara’s monastery in the Sagaing hills near Mandalay exercised restraint and stayed away from the demonstrations, largely because of their respect for the work the activist monks were accomplishing throughout the country..."
          Author/creator: Zhuang Wubin
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 3
          Format/size: html (16K)
          Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


          Title: Burmas Mönche zwischen Gleichschaltung und Rebellion
          Date of publication: 25 September 2007
          Description/subject: Zehntausende buddhistische Mönche demonstrieren in Burma für Demokratie und den Sturz der Militärjunta. Sie riefen sogar zur "Exkommunikation" der herrschenden Generäle auf, indem sie erklärten, von Militärs keine Nahrungsmittelspenden oder Almosen mehr anzunehmen. Da sich Buddhisten mit diesen Gaben traditionell jedoch Verdienste für das nächste Leben erwerben wollen, strafen die Mönche die Militärs mit ihrer Verweigerung wirksam ab.
          Language: German, Deutsch
          Source/publisher: Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker
          Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


          Title: Mönche sind Birmas moralische Instanz
          Date of publication: 24 September 2007
          Description/subject: Buddhistische Mönche stehen an der Spitze der Proteste gegen die Militärjunta in Birma. Sie spielen in dem südostasiatischen Land eine herausragende Rolle: Die Menschen verehren die Robenträger als Lehrer und Vorbilder und sehen sie als wichtigste moralische Instanz. Aufstände 2007; Role of Buddhist monks; uprisings 2007
          Author/creator: Christiane Oelrich
          Language: German, Deutsch
          Source/publisher: Tagesspiegel
          Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


          Title: The Politics of Piety: Pageantry and the Struggle for Buddhism in Burma
          Date of publication: April 2007
          Description/subject: Abstract: The Tatmadaw’s search for political or moral legitimacy has not managed to repair their defective title to rule since 1962. Lacking this status, in the 1990s the military elite were forced to respond to the presence of Aung San Suu Kyi and return to what has traditionally provided the greatest source of legitimacy in Burmese politics - Buddhism. In the course of doing so, the generals must appeal to the traditional beliefs on the people’s idealized Burmese king even though their actions, like the actions of their royal ancestors towards whom they turn, fall far short of the Burmese ideal. Military rule in Burma (Myanmar) has been justified on a number of grounds since 1962, including the army’s (Tatmadaw) claims to possess a unique ability in suppressing communist and ethnic insurgencies while effectively managing the economy. Following elections held in 1990, the Tatmadaw also sought to placate domestic strife by sporadically holding conventions and proposing constitutional reforms. Elections aside, attempts to establish the legitimacy for military rule being based upon historical and cultural interpretations of the traditional relationship between Burmese rulers and their subjects have become more prominent over the past decade or more. Because the Burmese generals’ rule is neither based on law nor a monarchical rule over willing persons, their legitimacy would always be questionable. This reason, as well as the nation’s size, ethnic composition, poverty, and relative international isolation, might explain the tendency of the Burmese rulers to pursue a harsh strategy to preserve their rule. Yet it is revealing to discover how they have attempted to transform their defective title, especially since the 1990 election result, into a valid one by promoting the duties of ‘kingship.’ By way of their Buddhist political rhetoric - the promotion of Buddhism to legitimize their rule - the generals have appealed to the mass political culture and the traditional beliefs of the Burman majority. In order to make their rule longer lasting and their defective title more legitimate - both domestically and in the eyes of the international community - the Tatmadaw have attempted to mask their harsh demeanor with a more moderate sort of superintendence that also attempts to make their rule appear kingly. That only a small minority of the people were willing to be ruled by the Tatmadaw in 1990 was evident in the outcome of the May elections. Improving this imbalance could depend, to some degree, upon the success of the generals’ kingly performance and the Buddhist political rhetoric which accompanies their activities. Examining the importance of Buddhism in the political landscape and the political culture of the Burman majority is often downplayed by analysts in their haste to discuss institutional reforms. Yet understanding the Tatmadaw’s self-appointed role as the protectors and preservers of Buddhist traditions in Burma is appropriate, not only because the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) have been strongly promoting Southeast Asia Research Centre Working Paper Series, No. 85, 2007 3 Buddhism in recent times, but because they have also failed to achieve any lasting moral or political legitimacy during times of relative peace. This article addresses the use of Buddhism as a form of political rhetoric and the reaction of the current regime’s use of Buddhism to that of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s. Because political rhetoric is a means by which the political elite may persuade the masses towards a particular end, successful rhetoricians cannot ground their arguments in complete falsehoods but must appeal to at least partial truths that are grounded in history or traditional beliefs. The SPDC, therefore, must use their experiences to narrate history in accordance with their objectives. Their legitimacy must be based upon a certain historical interpretation of Buddhism and order in society that conforms to the rule of kings and kingdoms, like Pagan. Because citizens have no direct experience with ancient history, the perceived truth of their traditional beliefs may be influenced by both the officially sanctioned history, as well as by more democratically leaning interpretations. Yet credibility also influences rhetorical persuasion and it is here that the generals may have encountered significant obstacles.
          Author/creator: Stephen McCarthy
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: City University of Hong Kong, Southeast Asia Research Centre Working Paper Series, No. 85, 2007
          Format/size: pdf (171K)
          Date of entry/update: 18 February 2009


          Title: The Political Face of Burmese Buddhism
          Date of publication: December 2004
          Description/subject: "...Religion is an important medium in the formulation of political strategies and identities in Burma. No political practice is possible without involving Buddhism—and Buddhism has been politicized to a degree where no religious act is apolitical..."
          Author/creator: Editorial
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12. No. 11
          Format/size: html
          Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=4236
          Date of entry/update: 28 April 2008


          Title: Rethinking Daná in Burma:
          Date of publication: 23 May 2004
          Description/subject: "Previous anthropological literature construes daná (Pali dâna) in Burma rather narrowly, as giving to monks or to the Buddha. However, the detailed data I collected during fieldwork in Burma reveal that the Burmese understand daná more broadly, as 'giving' in which saydana (Pali cetanâ) plays a key role. The paper is a chapter of my PhD dissertation entitled "In the World of Rebirth: Politics, Economy and Society of Burmese Buddhists." By presenting ethnographic data that has not been offered in previous literature, I re-examine the Burmese concept and practice of daná. Daná is closely associated with the Burmese notions of purity, detachment, and nobility, as well as merit. Its idea is deeply grounded in the Burmese language and culture. Some forms of daná are not as conspicuous as giving to the monastic order. They are less identifiable by an outside observer, for they are not always revealed as daná because they occur in the everyday act of giving. Thus, such forms of daná have been largely neglected, or at best treated less seriously. I argue, however, that we cannot fully understand the idea of daná or the mindsets of the Burmese Buddhists without taking these forms of daná into account. A detailed observation of the everyday discourse of daná reveals that daná permeates all kinds of daily transactions, shaping the practice of giving in Burmese society. This understanding of daná may seem at odds with the traditional descriptions of daná in Burma or in other Theravada Buddhist societies. However, I will show that the Burmese understanding of daná in fact resonates with the idea of daná we find in stories of giving in Buddhist cultures. The point of my argument is not to understate the significance of giving to monks or to the Buddha. My intention is to offer a description and analysis that takes into fuller account the subtleties of the practice and language of daná."... Paper from "Burmese Buddhism and the Spirit Cult Revisited - An Interdisciplinary Conference on Religion in Contemporary Myanmar Saturday, May 22-Sunday, May 23, 2004 Hartley Conference Center Mitchell Building Stanford University.
          Author/creator: Naoko Kumada
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Stanford University
          Format/size: pdf (162.86 KB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.dhammaweb.net/dhammabook/view.php?id=259
          Date of entry/update: 08 July 2010


          Title: Engaging Buddhism for Social Change
          Date of publication: March 2003
          Description/subject: "Buddhism will only be a force for social change in Burma if it can effect a paradigm shift away from the prevailing discourse of "samsara"... "Many Burmese Buddhists seem content resting in their "magical gardens"–to borrow a term from the German sociologist, Max Weber–where tradition is rarely questioned and adversity is accepted as just. But even in their magical gardens, their slumber is full of misery, with more nightmares than dreams. Eighty-nine percent of Burma’s population is Theravada Buddhist, yet "un-Buddhist" experiences are also common. The people of Burma bear unspeakable suffering through corruption, human rights violations, a media blackout and the free-running drug industry. If the five basic Buddhist precepts of abstinence from killing, stealing, engaging in sexual misconduct, lying or using drugs were truly observed, Burma would be a much different country. Institutional controls on Buddhism, set mainly by the military, restrict the potential for religion to be a force for change in Burma. In other ways, Burmese Buddhism has a tendency to render people passive and complacent rather than as political actors vigilant for change... "
          Author/creator: Min Zin
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 2
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: BUDDHISM AND DEEP ECOLOGY FOR PROTECTION OF WILD ASIAN ELEPHANTS IN MYANMAR: A RESOURCE GUIDE
          Date of publication: 2002
          Description/subject: Keywords: Burmese elephants, Burma. I. THE ASIAN ELEPHANT: A. Cultural; B. Ecological and Conservation Issues; C. Conservation Measures... II. BUDDHISM AND DEEP ECOLOGY: A. Need for Spiritual Approach; B. Buddhism; C. Deep Ecology; D. Wildlife (poaching); E. Forest Protection (D and E are considered the two major elephant threats)... III. DHAMMA/ECOLOGY GLOSSARY... IV. APPENDIX: DHAMMA/DEEP ECOLOGY EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES... " Dr. Henning’s resource guide, which combines Buddhist principles and Asian elephant conservation in Myanmar, is an innovative approach to Asian elephant conservation. I have never seen someone with a biological background such as Dr. Henning’s attempt this approach in such a clear, concise manner. I found the resource guide to be an excellent potential teaching tool not only for Myanmar but also for any Buddhist country in which elephant conservation is an issue. I could easily envision this guide as the first in a series of written materials that deals with such conservation issues, perhaps beyond elephants. I would think that any individuals or agencies interested in conserving Asian elephants would be interested in this guide and would want to help make it available to a wider audience."... "The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), an endangered species listed in Appendix I of CITIES, is thought to number between 34,000 to 56,000 in thirteen Asian countries. According to U Uga, there are less than 4,000 elephants in the wild in Myanmar, which has the largest population in the ASEAN countries (India has a larger population for the continent). The total Asian elephant population is less than 10 percent of its more glamorous cousin-the African elephant. The Myanmar elephant is internationally endangered and is regarded as a worldwide flagship species. Throughout their range states, the wild elephant is severely threatened by habitat destruction, poaching, and fragmentation into small isolated groups. Many population biologists believe that nowhere in Asia is there a single wild population large enough to avoid inbreeding over the long term. ..."
          Author/creator: Daniel H. Henning PhD
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Daniel H. Henning
          Format/size: pdf (832K)
          Date of entry/update: 23 February 2004


          Title: The First Perfection: Charity in Buddhism and Burmese Culture
          Date of publication: July 2001
          Description/subject: "Charity, one of the Buddhist perfections, has long been an integral part of Burmese culture. But history—and habit—have obscured its real social and spiritual value. "If you knew what I know about dana (generosity), you would not let one meal go by without sharing it," the Buddha once said. Dana is the Pali term for giving, generosity and charity, and it is an integral part of the Buddhist ethos. It includes giving of material support to those in need; giving of spiritual knowledge to those in despair; giving of love to those who are abandoned; and giving of protection to those who are threatened. Having given away something with the intention of making life easier for another being, one immediately feels a happiness that fills one’s heart and mind. The Venerable Ashin Thittila of Burma explains the benefits of dana thus: "The object in giving is to eliminate the craving that lies dormant within oneself; apart from which there are the attendant blessings of generosity such as the joy of service, the ensuing happiness and consolation, and the alleviation of suffering." The main idea concerning generosity or any of the ten parami (or "perfections", of which dana is the first and foremost) is that there should be no strings attached. The Buddha urged his followers to give without any expectation of personal reward. Basically, the ultimate aim of generosity practice is the transformation of the individual from a self-centered, greed-driven existence to one that is other-centered and greed-free. Giving is literally a practice in letting go—one that increasingly flies in the face of the acquisitive tendencies that drive modern society. However, even in societies that are not completely consumerist in orientation, true generosity faces serious social pressures. In Burma, for instance, dana has been misinterpreted by successive reigns and regimes to serve the interests of the ruling elite, who profess to promote the values espoused by Buddhism..."
          Author/creator: Min Zin
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 6
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 04 May 2008


          Title: Ethnic and Religious Diversity: Myanmar’s Unfolding Nemesis
          Date of publication: May 2001
          Description/subject: Abstract: "By whatever statistics one relies on, Myanmar has a genuine ethnic and religious plurality. From a geographical perspective, about one half of the country is comprised of territory traditionally occupied by non-Burmese ethnic minorities. Demographically, the Burmese (BaMa) make up 65% of the nation’s 50 million population. A complicated picture of different religious allegiances also emerges. Although some of the minorities share Theravada Buddhism with the Burmese majority, there are as well substantial communities of Muslims, Hindus and Christians. These ethnic and religious minorities find themselves frequently marginalized. Few appear now to have the opportunity to join the armed forces, and with some notable exceptions, few can expect promotion in any government service, the domain of the BaMa Buddhist majority. Although other nations in the region have somewhat similar challenges of ethnic and religious minority challenges, Myanmar’s case can be considered exceptional. It has also been historically problematic. The military government that took over Burma in 1962 justified its action as necessary to keep the state from fragmenting into ethnic and political secessionist blocs. The present generation of military government can also argue that a strong army is necessary to hold the country together. Despite several carefully negotiated cease-fires between the state and fractious minority groups in the last decade, ethnic discontent is still a serious problem. Further, an unyielding and patronizing Burmese cultural hubris prevails which continues to polarize the nation. Thus it can be argued that unresolved ethnic-religious tensions represent a greater threat to Myanmar’s military government than any other feature, including the continuing presence of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and National League for Democracy."
          Author/creator: Bruce Matthews
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
          Format/size: html
          Alternate URLs: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=explorer&chrome=true&srcid=1imZf6jc0g9wPl9iZaaxjM...
          Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


          Title: Monks Used to Recruit Forced Labour
          Date of publication: October 2000
          Description/subject: "...According to reliable sources, military authorities in Karen State have been turning to local Buddhist abbots to recruit villagers for road-building and other construction projects. The sources added that sizeable donations were being offered to the senior monks in exchange for their cooperation..."
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 10 (Intelligence section)
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Buddhism and Burmese Politics
          Date of publication: September 2000
          Description/subject: On Miltary Authority (ANA) and Electoral Influence (AWZA): extract from Gustaaf Houtman's "Mental Culture"
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. VII, No. 3
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Burmese Sisterhood: Unacknowledged Piety
          Date of publication: September 2000
          Description/subject: Buddhist nuns have long played an important role in the country's spiritual life, despite centuries of discrimination.
          Author/creator: Thameechit
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 9
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: The Blessed Steps of Mingala
          Date of publication: March 2000
          Description/subject: Pyei Lwin Nyeinchan examines the Buddha's most auspicious teaching and its place in Burmese culture.
          Author/creator: Pyei Lwin Nyeinchan
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8 No. 3
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: A Review of Gustaaf Houtman's "Mental Culture in Burmese Crisis Politics"
          Date of publication: 2000
          Description/subject: Mental Culture in Burmese Crisis Politics. By Gustaaf Houtman. Tokyo: ILCAA Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa Monograph Series, no. 33, Publication of the Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, 1999... "Gustaaf Houtman’s book offers an insightful and innovative analysis of the present day political crisis in Burma. Houtman’s primary aim is to demonstrate the central importance of mental culture, which he defines as the practices of vipassana (“contemplation”) and samatha (“meditation”) for understanding Burmese political ideology and the shape of the ongoing political conflict between the military regime that seized power in 1962 and the democracy movement. Houtman describes his agenda thus: “It [this book] focuses on how the terminology and practices of mental culture inform, indeed constitute coherent internal cultural debates surrounding the politics of the military regimes since 1962, and in particular since 1988” (p. 9). He provides a focused analysis of the most recent events in the conflict together with discussions of the historical development of Burmese politics, beginning with the anti-colonial movements against the British..."
          Author/creator: Karen Derris,
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Journal of Buddhist Ethics Volume 7, 2000
          Format/size: pdf (60.53 K)
          Alternate URLs: http://blogs.dickinson.edu/buddhistethics/2010/04/22/a-review-of-mental-culture-in-burmese-crisis-p...
          Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


          Title: The Pagoda and the General - A Millennium-old Struggle
          Date of publication: October 1999
          Description/subject: "...t is interesting to note that Theravada Buddhism, Burma’s state religion for almost a thousand years, came to Burma by way of war. In the 11th century, King Anawrahta of the Pagan dynasty invaded the Mon Kingdom of Thaton in what is now southern Burma. Among the loot he took back to Pagan was the missionary monk Shin Arahan and the Buddhist scriptures he had brought with him from Ceylon. After establishing the Pagan dynasty through relentless warfare, Anawrahta made Theravada Buddhism the state religion in 1056 AD and went on a pagoda-building spree, as if to atone for the bloody atrocities he had committed while building his empire...[Ne Win's] His “Burmese Way to Socialism,” which was in effect until the 1988 pro-democracy uprising, was peppered with Buddhist cosmology. He also keeps some of the best astrologers in Burma as his personal consultants...Apart from his alleged mystical powers, [the Thamanya Sayadaw] is perhaps most venerated for his refusal to kowtow to the military junta. He rejected an invitation from Khin Nyunt, the junta’s intelligence chief, to receive honors in Rangoon. When Khin Nyunt went to Thamanya and offered him a sleek limousine, the abbot allegedly ordered the car be used to carry gravel..."
          Author/creator: Zaw Myo Han
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 8
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Shewedagon and the Generals
          Date of publication: May 1999
          Description/subject: Playing the religion card. The Burmese generals recently renovated Shwedagon Pagoda. Under the junta's guidance intensive restoration of ancient pagodas and temples is being carried out all over Burma. As people throughout the country donate gold, diamonds and rubies to pagodas, the generals pay daily visits to sacred shrines. But what is the reason behind all this?
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 4
          Format/size: html
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Mental Culture in Burmese Crisis Politics
          Date of publication: 29 March 1999
          Description/subject: "This book deals with the Buddhist dimensions underlying the politics of Aung San Suu Kyi and the Burmese democracy movement in general. Today, Aung San Suu Kyi is identified in the international arena as an icon of democracy hemmed in by conservative military forces. Within the country, however, the military manipulates this �foreign� sentiment as a welcome addition to its propaganda armoury. It portrays Aung San Suu Kyi as a puppet, an honorary ambassador of the foreigner who is driven by foreign interests in disregard of her own native traditions. This book argues that neither the international image of her, nor the military misuse of her international image within the country come to terms with Burmese political values as expressed in the Burmese language. Gustaaf Houtman analyses military politics as a politics of authority (ana) and confinement that emphasises the local delineation of boundaries under the guise of benevolence, using the discourse of culture, archaeology and race, and the threat of imprisonment. By contrast, he analyses the democracy movement as a politics of influence (awza) that aims to transcend these boundaries. This elaborates on political terminology in terms of Buddhist mental culture leading to �non-self� (anatta), promising freedom from imprisonment and confinement. The ideals of the four byama-so tay� � in particular loving-kindness (metta) and compassion (karuna) � stand for democracy, just as they have stood for ideal true socialist government. The senior NLD leaders all closely identify with this and with the practice of Buddhist mental culture in general. Furthermore, though the lower forms of magic are more common amongst the military, many retired military responsible for imprisoning and disqualifying the NLD from office also proclaim to be engaged in the practice of mental culture and patronise the same Buddhist meditation centres. Mental culture, while strongly represented as democracy politics, thus plays a role as a conciliatory third force in Burmese politics. The author decodes the present political situation in terms of continuities with past colonial politics and assesses commonalties between the two sides. The book argues that, through association with Buddhist ideas emphasising substantive commonalties in all forms of life, Burmese political vocabulary itself has the promise within it to promote reconciliation in this divided polity..." (from the Press Release)
          Author/creator: Gustaaf Houtman
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
          Format/size: PDF (2600K), or browse chapters (html) from the Copntents page
          Alternate URLs: http://homepages.tesco.net/~ghoutman/final.htm
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: Myaing-gye: Ngu Sayadaw: A Jahan who Shines the light of Dhamma
          Date of publication: 30 July 1998
          Description/subject: "This book is not a biography of Myainggye: Ngu Sayadaw U Thu Za-na. In fact it is a personal record of Sayadaw's life experiences. As mortal being Sayadaw has passed through many ups and downs in his life. This has been recorded and narrated without any bias. Facts, even though they may be bitter are being presented in this book...U Thu Za-na is a young monk with a few years in monkhood (Vassa). The author has reached an agreement with U Thu Za-na—not to write about his biography. Therefore, my purpose is not to write Sayadaw's biography, or for any cause or causes, but merely to write everything as it was, as I saw and understand it. As everybody knows that Myaing-gye: Ngu Sayadaw U Thu Za-na has become a wellknown person in the country. Also rumours have been rife in the country. Some said Sayadaw stands on this side. Some accused him that he is from the other side. Who and What Myaing-gye: Ngu Sayadaw is? This book will after all answer all these questions. The readers will, after reading this book, understand to some extent Who and What Myaing-gye: Ngu Sayadaw is..."
          Author/creator: Myaing Nan Swe; Shin Khay Meinda (trans)
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Democratic Karen Buddhist Association (DKBA)
          Format/size: pdf (646K - OBL version; 13 MB - original scan)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/U%20Thuzanas%20Book%20(for%20PC%20reading).pdf
          Date of entry/update: 07 June 2011


          Title: Buddhism under a Military Regime: The Iron Heel in Burma
          Date of publication: April 1993
          Description/subject: "As a community of believers, Buddhism in Burma is involved in a continuing and intense ideological struggle against a repressive military regime. A "church" (sasana) comprising both lay and clerical (sangha) devotees, Buddhism is the religion of the majority of the Burmese and the leading cultural institution in the country-what one Western observer over a century ago called "the soul of a people."' For the Burmese of today, tired and demoralized by three decades of military rule, Buddhism plays a crucial role..."
          Author/creator: Bruce Matthews
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Asian Survey, Vol. 33, No. 4. (Apr., 1993), pp. 408-423.
          Format/size: pdf (323K)
          Alternate URLs: http://charlesesalazar.pbworks.com/f/Buddhism+under+a+military+regime--the+iron+heel+in+burma.pdf
          http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0004-4687%28199304%2933%3A4%3C408%3ABUAMRT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Z
          Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


          Title: BUDDHISM, HUMAN RIGHTS AND JUSTICE IN BURMA
          Date of publication: November 1989
          Description/subject: "In pre-colonial Burma, there was a balance between the state, the people and the Sangha (the community of monks and nuns). The state protected and supported the Sangha, which in turn legitimized the state and by acting as the conscience of society, protected the people. To the kings, the Sangha pointed out the moral path which Buddhist teaching holds out to rulers, correcting them when they departed from the norm, or Dhamma. At village level the monks, dependent for their livelihood on the people, were always aware of the situation of the villagers, and had every interest in promoting their well-being. Monks often acted as spokesmen for the village people in their dealings with the local authorities. In this way, the Sangha protected the people from the depredations of rulers, and supported the rule of righteous kings by encouraging the people to obey them. The basic framework of Buddhist ethics for rulers is set out in the "Ten Duties of the King" (dasa-raja-dhamma):..."
          Author/creator: Sayadaw U Rewata Dhamma
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Sayadaw U Rewata Dhamma
          Format/size: pdf (93K)
          Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


          Title: Two Indigenous Karen Religious Denominations
          Date of publication: 1981
          Description/subject: "This paper is a short presentation of two Pwo Karen sects as they may be found in contemporary Western Central Thailand. It will discuss the organization, origin, and cultural content of the two denominations in order to show how their politico-religious concepts and ritual architecture are related to their historical position in a larger system comprising the Buddhist monarchial civilizations of Burma and Thailand. It is my supposition that the religious paraphernalia of present day sects materialized in a certain historical context as symbols of royalty and autonomy, and in the larger social context functioned to identify these Pwo Karen collectively as a sovereign part of a larger civilized world. These symbols of self-defined participation in the world, and at times even claims to superiority, had been moulded according to a model set by the monarchism of the 18th century Mon Buddhist kingdom in Lower Burma. It included a messianic Buddhist framework, which precipitated millenarian expectations of the rise of a world conqueror and subsequent future Buddha, the Buddha Ariya Mettaya, who would install a new and ideal society for the elect. Viewing the history of the Buddhist valley civilizations, be they Burmese, Mon or Thai, we may see that this messianic aspect of Theravada Buddhism has been the catalyst for both social discontent and personal political ambitions within the Buddhist societies of Southeast Asia.2 The term 'Karen' covers a category of people in Burma and Thailand who speak related languages. Karen-speaking people are spread over a large area, and their habitations are found in the hills and forests as well as the lowland. Everywhere Karen groups live interspersed among various other ethnic groups, hill as well as valley peoples..."
          Author/creator: Kirsten Ewers Andersen
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Soertryk FOLK Reprint Vol. 23 1981 K0BENHAVN
          Format/size: pdf (247K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


          Title: The Rajadhammasangaha
          Date of publication: 1979
          Description/subject: "The Rajadhammasangaha" was presented to King Thibaw in December 1878. The first printing was c.1915. This translation by L.E.Bagshawe is from the version edited with a biographical preface by Maung Htin (U Htin Fatt) and published by the Sape U Publishing House in 1979... "On the seventh waxing day of Nadaw...the Wetmasut Myoza Wungyi finished the writing of his book Rajadhammasangaha and presented it to King Thibaw. The author describes it pleasantly as “a book of the proper behaviour for Kings and other high officers of government”. The Pagan Wundauk U Tin, however, says “it is a book of admonishment addressed to King Thibaw.” And in this he speaks the direct truth. In this book the Wetmasut Myoza Wungyi documents the proposals for changes in the system of government that were planned from the time of King Mindon. His intention in writing the book, he says, is, “In bygone times of the Buddha-to-be there were good and excellent Kings who guarded the well-being of all living creatures; like them may our own King, Lord of the Saddanta Elephant and Lawful King, under the Law guard the well-being of all living creatures like that of his own beloved children.” This expressed intention has a further meaning. Under an autocracy we cannot really say that the monarch rules with the single-minded wish to rule all living creatures on the same terms as his own children. If he is brought to the point where he must consult the "living creatures", we may be able to say that he regards them on equal terms with his own children. If there is no law requiring consultation, his guardianship becomes dubious..."
          Author/creator: By the Yaw Mingyi U Hpo Hlaing (the Wetmasut Myoza Wungyi). Edited with biographical preface by Maung Htin (U Htin Fatt) and translated from the Burmese by L.E. Bagshawe
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
          Format/size: pdf (1MB)
          Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/The_Rajadhammasangaha-print.pdf (configured for print)
          Date of entry/update: 05 September 2004


          Title: ELEMENTS OF PWO KAREN BUDDHISM
          Date of publication: 1978
          Description/subject: "...the frequent dichotomization of Burman and Thai "hill-tribes" as animists opposed to the valley population as Buddhists, the Buddhism of the "hill-tribes" being only a thin veneer on animistic beliefs, does not hold. It is rather a question of an inclusive hierarchization of religious activities and value orientations, where the basis for an exclusive dichotomization becomes unclear and elusive, when one investigates the concerned activities more closely. The levels of activities are interlocked and a future value orientation may be directed towards an increased emphasis on "pure" monk- and more Buddhist elements, as the Karens become subsumed under the Thai cash-crop economy and the concommittant cultural contacts. The role of the boungkhos as maintainers of nature's order will disappear when it becomes evident that economic survival under a new economy immediately seems to depend more on insights into the market-mechanisms than on maintenance of the up till now balanced eco-system."
          Author/creator: Kirsten Ewers Andersen
          Language: English
          Source/publisher: The Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies
          Format/size: html (35K)
          Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Buddhist relics

        Individual Documents

        Title: "Venerating the Buddha's Remains in Burma: From Solitary Practice to the Cultural Hegemony of Communities"
        Date of publication: 2001
        Description/subject: The veneration of Buddha relics and images is a neglected, yet central organizing principle of Theravada culture and religious practice. My essay is informed by a historised understanding of Eliade's hierophany, a manifestation of a universal Buddhist sacred reality that defines and identifies cultural orders at the centers of local, historical contexts. I further rely on Bells' work on ritual and Gramsci's writings on hegemony to describe Burmese veneration of the Buddha's remains in diverse social and religious contexts. These range from the solitary practice, meditation and personal service in the Ananda mode to the Royal mode that defines social hierarchy in public rituals and expresses socio-religious aspirations of individuals and communities through culturally salient metaphors.
        Author/creator: Juliane Schober
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 6 (2001)
        Format/size: pdf (1.91MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol6/index.shtml
        Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


        Title: Sariputta and Moggallana in the Golden Land: The Relics of the Buddha's Chief Disciples at the Kaba Aye Pagoda
        Date of publication: 1999
        Description/subject: In this article, the author reconstructs and documents the story of the relics of the Buddha's chief disciples, Sariputta and Moggallana, at the Kaba Aye Pagoda in Burma. Using previously unpublished archival materials, including first-hand archaeological reports and internal museum documents, as well as contemporary newspaper accounts, the author details the discovery of the relics by British military officers in 19th-century India, the subsequent removal of the relics to England where they were placed on museum exhibition, and their eventual reenshrinement in Burma and India 100 years later.
        Author/creator: Jack Daulton
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 4 (1999)
        Format/size: pdf (2.84MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol4/index.shtml (Vol. 4)
        Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


      • Buddhist texts

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Access to Insight: Readings in Theravada Buddhism
        Description/subject: A good starting point for online information on Theravada Buddhism, with many links to other sources. Contains Theravada Text Archives, which include translations and commentaries of suttas from the Pali Canon, short essays, books on meditation practice, and much more.The Thai forest traditions; From the Buddhist Publication Society; Other contemporary western writers and teachers; Study guides; Selected texts from the Pali Canon (English translations): Vinaya Pitaka (selected texts); Sutta Pitaka (selected texts). Digha Nikaya (85k; Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans.); Majjhima Nikaya (116k; Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans.); Samyutta Nikaya (149k; Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans.); Anguttara Nikaya (160k; Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans.); Khuddaka Nikaya (excluding the Dhammapada) (200k; Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans.); Dhammapada (75k; Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans.).
        Language: English
        Alternate URLs: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/ (Theravada Text Archives)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: BuddhaSasana: A Buddhist page by Binh Anson
        Description/subject: Several hundred Buddhist texts, including many from Burma -- books, sutras, articles, talks. Wide variety of origin and focus.
        Author/creator: Binh Anson
        Language: English, Vietnamese
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.viet.net/anson/ebud/ebidx.htm
        Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


        Title: Buddhist Publication Society
        Description/subject: BPS catalogue etc. Some electronic texts (e.g. under "Publications"). "The Buddhist Publication Society (BPS), founded inSri Lanka in 1958, is an approved charity dedicated to making known the teaching of the Buddha. BPS publications represent the standpoint of Theravada Buddhism, the oldest living Buddhist tradition whose Pali Canon gives us the most authentic account of what the historical Buddha himself actually taught. In a span of thirty-five years the BPS has become a major Buddhist publisher with hundreds of titles and a field of distribution extending to ninety countries.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Buddhist Publication Society
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


        Title: Myat Yadanar
        Description/subject: Dhamma articles in Burmese (Myanmar)
        Language: Burmese, Pali
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Tipitaka
        Description/subject: "The Teachings of Gotama Buddha preserved over 25 centuries as Canonical Pali Literature"
        Language: English
        Format/size: Yahoo group (access by WWW and email)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Individual Documents

        Title: Guide to Tipitaka
        Date of publication: February 1984
        Description/subject: "The Guide to the Tipitaka is an outline of the Pali Buddhist Canonical Scriptures of Theravada Buddhism from Burma. This is a unique work, as it is probably the only material that deals in outline with the whole of the Pali Buddhist Tipitaka. The Tipitaka includes all the teachings of the Buddha, grouped into three divisions: the Suttanta Pitaka, or general discourses; the Vinaya Pitaka, or moral code for monks and nuns; and the Abhidhamma Pitaka, or philosophical teachings. An excellent reference work which gives an overview of the Pali Buddhist texts..."
        Author/creator: Compiled by U Ko Lay
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Buddha Dhamma Education Association Inc.
        Format/size: PDF (640K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Dasa-raja-dhamma
        Date of publication: 1959
        Description/subject: "The ten duties of the ruler" - translation by Ven. Walpola Rahula, 1959
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Jataka
        Format/size: html (9K)
        Date of entry/update: 24 January 2004


      • Buddhist women

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Sakyadhita: The International Association of Buddhist Women
        Description/subject: "Sakyadhita, the name of the International Association of Buddhist Women, means "Daughters of the Buddha." The objectives of Sakyadhita, as expressed at its founding meeting in 1987 in Bodhgaya, India, are: 1.To promote world peace through the practice of the Buddha's teachings 2.To create a network of communications for Buddhist women throughout the world 3.To promote harmony and understanding among the various Buddhist traditions 4.To encourage and help educate women as teachers of Buddhadharma 5.To provide improved facilities for women to study and practice the teachings 6.To help establish the Bhikshuni Sangha (community of fully-ordained nuns) where it does not currently exist..."
        Language: English
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Individual Documents

        Title: Burmese Sisterhood: Unacknowledged Piety
        Date of publication: September 2000
        Description/subject: Buddhist nuns have long played an important role in the country's spiritual life, despite centuries of discrimination.
        Author/creator: Thameechit
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 9
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Buddhist Women in Burma: The Rocky Path Towards Liberation
        Date of publication: January 1998
        Description/subject: "...While monks and lay-people are still asleep, Daw Yewadi, a Buddhist nun, is already busy with preparing breakfast for the guest monks who came here to pay respect to Ven. U Vinaya, better known as Thamanya Sayadaw, a highly revered 85 years old monk living at Thamanya Hill..."
        Author/creator: Martin H. Petrich, Executive Secretary of the INEB
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Dhamma Web
        Format/size: pdf (26 K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.dhammaweb.net/dhammabook/view.php?id=260
        Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


        Title: Buddhist Nuns in Burma
        Date of publication: 1991
        Description/subject: Historical outline of the situation of Buddhist nuns in Burma, and argument for the restoration of full ordination of women into the Order. "...The present nuns of Burma are not regarded as full female equivalents of the monks. They are not bhikkhunis. The name for the Buddhist nuns is sila-rhan (owner of good moral conduct), may- sila (Miss Virtue), or bhva-sila (granny virtue). However, "rhan" is also the normal term of address for male novices (Pali: samanera, Burmese: kui-ran). Even the word "rhan-pru" (make a "rhan") refers to the pabbajja (leaving the household life) of male novices..."__ "According to a legend in the Burmese historical chronicles, the Burmese race arose from the union of a Sakyan prince, a fugitive related to the Buddha, and the daughter of a local chieftain in the city of Tagaung in Upper Burma. This is fixed in the memories of the people with the proverb, "The beginning of the Burmese people is from Tagaung." Quite certainly Theravada Buddhism has been a nation-building element in Burma. The majority of the inhabitants of the modern nation, the Socialist People's Republic of the Myanmar, define themselves as Burmese Buddhists. This statement is not merely a religious definition, but has a full range of social and juridical implications....."
        Author/creator: Dr. Friedgard Lottermoser
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Sakyadhita Newsletter, Summer 1991, vol.2, no.2
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.enabling.org/ia/vipassana/Archive/L/Lottermoser/burmeseNunsLottermoser.html
        http://dhammaramthinunnery.blogspot.com/2010/04/buddhist-nuns-in-burma-dr-friedgard.html
        Date of entry/update: 22 December 2010


      • Burmese Buddhism outside Burma

        Individual Documents

        Title: A Dying Presence
        Date of publication: September 2007
        Description/subject: Monks from Burma may soon be just a memory in a corner of Thailand crowded with Burmese temples... "The three women, clad in white, knelt before the elderly abbot and gently helped the forgetful old man recite his mantra as he accepted their alms. It was a scene that was to be found in many similar forms in monasteries throughout Thailand that day—the birthday of the country’s queen, when Thai women traditionally pay tribute to their revered matriarch. What made this event so special, however, was that the 87-year-old abbot, Sayadaw U Dhamananda, is Burmese. His temple, Wat Tha Ma Oo, is one of nine built by wealthy and influential Burmese traders in the northern Thai city of Lampang in the 19th and early 20th centuries..."
        Author/creator: Jim Andrews
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 9
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8442
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


        Title: Under an October Moon
        Date of publication: November 2005
        Description/subject: Burmese exiles in western Thailand honor religious tradition and cultural heritage during this year’s Festival of Lights..."...Despite the challenges facing Mae Sot’s culturally diverse population, the city’s Burmese and Thai communities put aside their suspicions and came together under a full moon in October to celebrate an ancient religious festival. While the revelry of the coming evening’s festivities is a large part of the celebration, the day of October’s full moon begins on a solemn—and appropriately religious—note. Before dawn, the city’s monks emerge from their monasteries and walk single-file according to the rank of ordination to accept the day’s alms from crowds of devotees..."
        Author/creator: Yeni
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 11
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


        Title: In the Name of Mandalay
        Date of publication: June 2005
        Description/subject: Preserving Burmese traditions in Thailand... "In 1886 the British finally conquered Mandalay, the historic capital of the last independent Burmese kingdom. San Toe, a servant of the beleaguered King Thibaw and a devout Buddhist, fled the newly colonized city, bringing with him an image of the Buddha crafted by Mandalay artisans. He worked in the logging business as an employee of the Bombay Burma Trading Corporation before settling in the town of Mae Sariang in northern Thailand. There he built a Burmese monastery in 1909 to house his cherished Buddha image. Historically, the Burmese have viewed the city of Mandalay as a source of pride and an important link to Burma’s rich cultural and religious traditions. The name of the monastery in Mae Sariang, Wat Mandalay, reflects this connection and honors the lineage of the monastery’s central religious artifact—the Mandalay-made Buddha image..."
        Author/creator: Yeni
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 6
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 28 April 2006


        Title: A Tale of Two Temples
        Date of publication: November 2002
        Description/subject: "Religious restrictions and visa regulations for foreign monks threaten to put an end to the long tradition of Burmese Buddhism in Thailand... Upon entering the compound of Wat Pafang in Thailand�s Lampang Province guests are greeted silently by its manicured green lawns palm trees and a golden stupa at the back. Inside the prayer room, centuries-old Buddha images meditate placidly while visitors admire the thick wooden poles covered with gold leaf. The landscape may be fairly typical of other Buddhist temples around the country but as one of the oldest Burmese temples in northern Thailand, Wat Pafang has had a unique history. But now these temples and their monks are feeling the effects of government regulations passed over a decade ago, leaving the future of Burmese Buddhism in Thailand in doubt..."
        Author/creator: Aung Zaw
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" vol. 10, No. 9
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Burmese Buddhist meditation discussion groups

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Insight Meditation
        Description/subject: "This list is for people seeking truth and wisdom through meditation. The type of meditation discussed will be Theravada Buddhist meditation found mainly in Myanmar (Burma), Sri Lanka and Thailand."
        Language: English
        Subscribe: InsightMeditation-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Vipassana Meditators
        Description/subject: Welcome all VIPASSANA MEDITATORS of the World. This group provides information on Vipassana Meditation, as taught by S.N.Goenka in the tradition of Sayagyi U Ba Khin. This groups is for all Vipassana meditators of the world. All the events, newsletter and infomation for Vipassana meditators will be posted here. Vipassana is an universal, scientific method towards purifying the mind. It is the practical essence of the teachings of the Buddha, who taught Dhamma - the Universal Law of Nature. Vipassana is one of India's most ancient meditation techniques. It was rediscovered 2500 years ago by Gotama the Buddha, and is the essence of what he practiced and taught during his forty-five year ministry. During the Buddha's time, large numbers of people in northern India were freed from the bonds of suffering by practicing Vipassana, allowing them to attain high levels of achievement in all spheres of life. Over time, the technique spread to the neighbouring countries of Burma, Sri Lanka, Thailand and others, where it had the same ennobling effect. Five centuries after the Buddha, the oble heritage of Vipassana had disappeared from India. The purity of the teaching was lost elsewhere as well. In the country of Burma, however, it was preserved by a chain of devoted teachers. From generation to generation, over two thousand years, this dedicated lineage transmitted the technique in its pristine purity. In the past, India had the distinction of being regarded as a World Teacher. In our time, the Ganges of Truth is once again flowing out from India to a thirsty world.
        Subscribe: subscribe@yahoogroups.com
        Alternate URLs: For more information: http://www.vridhamma.org/Dhamma-Giri.aspx
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Burmese Buddhist scholarship

        Individual Documents

        Title: On the Ambivalence of Female Monasticism in Theravada Buddhism: A Contribution to the Study of the Monastic System in Myanmar
        Date of publication: 22 September 2009
        Description/subject: "How have Buddhist nuns in Myanmar engaged themselves in monastic relationships while being officially excluded from the monastic institution (the Sangha) since the female order disappeared? This article examines the term "nuns" and monastic status through the way it is embodied in everyday interactions. I begin by presenting the main characteristics of the ambivalent status of Buddhist nuns and the methodological problem this raises -- an analysis of donation interactions between nuns and lay donors indicates the different paths that lead to monastic identification. I then focus on the various relationships in which nuns are engaged in Myanmar, with a description of the combination of relationships between nuns, monks, and lay donors that highlights the monastic system as a network of dynamic relationships in which monastic social identity and its processes of legitimation can take place... keywords: Theravada Buddhism--female monasticism--donation interactions--monastic relational system
        Author/creator: Laure Carbonnel
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture: "Asian Ethnology" Volume 68, Number 2, 2009
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/On+the+ambivalence+of+female+monasticism+in+Theravada+Buddhism%3A+a.....
        Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


        Title: Power, Authority, and Contested Hegemony in Burmese-Myanmar Religion
        Date of publication: 22 September 2009
        Description/subject: "THE INITIAL inspiration for this collaboration came from the experience garnered at an international conference on Burmese studies in 2002, titled "Burma-Myanmar Research and Its Future." (1) It was convened to reflect on social science and humanities-based scholarship on Myanmar in the past half century, which had started in earnest in the 1940s, and culminated in the first wave of publications based on empirical research in the 1950s and 1960s. (2) At the start of the millennium, the conference acknowledged a new era in engaging in constructive discussion amongst scholars in many areas of Burmese-Myanmar studies. Some of the articles in this special issue were originally presented as part of a panel on religion convened by the guest editors of this issue, Hiroko Kawanami and Benedicte Brac de la Perriere, whilst others were written anew to fit the theme of power, authority, and contested hegemony in the field of Burmese-Myanmar religion. Although most approaches are generally phenomenological or anthropological, some have undertaken analysis from a historical perspective or a hermeneutical approach to enrich the discussion. What must also be highlighted here is that the scope of this issue was restricted to those concerned primarily with social phenomena that have relevance to Buddhism, it being the religion of the majority population in Myanmar. Other religions such as Islam and Hinduism that are also adhered to by Myanmar people of other ethnic origins, as well as Christianity and indigenous religions practiced by minority groups, were left out here. (3)....."
        Author/creator: Hiroko Kawanami
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Asian Ethnology" Volume 68, Number 2, 2009
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Asian+Ethnology/2009/September/22-p52621
        Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


        Title: Relics, Statues, and Predictions: Interpreting an Apocryphal Sermon of Lord Buddha in Arakan
        Date of publication: 22 September 2009
        Description/subject: "This article presents an apocryphal Buddhist text that contains a speech of the Buddha listing the relics linked to his former existences in Arakan, as well as prophecies regarding the historical succession of kings. Looking at various aspects such as the geographical distribution of the relics and the typically Buddhist representation of kingship, the author argues that the text can best be understood in the eighteenth-century context of the political decline of the Arakanese kingdom. As this article shows, apocryphal texts have authority because they build on traditional concepts and beliefs and are still a poorlyexploited source of historical enquiry."... keywords: Arakanese Buddhism--history of Arakan--Buddhist relics-- apocryphal Buddhist texts--prophetical literature
        Author/creator: Jacques P. Leider
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Asian Ethnology" Volume 68, Number 2, 2009, 333-364
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


        Title: The Cult of Thamanya Sayadaw: The Social Dynamism of a Formulating Pilgrimage Site
        Date of publication: 22 September 2009
        Description/subject: "This article analyzes the cult of the monk Thamanya Sayadaw and examines the process by which a community-based village-dwelling monk became a forest-dwelling monk, and then a nationally prominent cult figure. Focusing on the social dynamics which led to the community becoming a major center for pilgrimage, I describe how a large-scale enterprise has emerged around this monk. The materialization of such power suggests that the cult of Thamanya Sayadaw emerged out of a dialectic transaction between the donation of religious land, and a popular belief in the prosperity of the followers as the realization of the material manifestation of the power of saints. I also argue that we need to pay attention to the participation of his followers as well as the practices of the monk himself, and also distinguish two types of participation: the participation of the residents who have settled on this land, and that of pilgrims... keywords: cult of a saint--materialization of power--engaged Buddhism-- pilgrimage--religious land--forest-dwelling
        Author/creator: Keiko Tosa
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Asian Ethnology" Volume 68, Number 2, 2009
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


      • Burmese pagodas and other religious buildings
        See also the Architecture and Archaeology sections

        Individual Documents

        Title: A TIGRESS ON THE SHWEDAGON: A RESEARCH NOTE
        Date of publication: December 2008
        Description/subject: "...Donald Stadtner brought the following piece of history regarding the Shwedagon to our attention and sent a photograph of glasswork that recorded the event, together with the text below from Walter del Mar, The Romantic East: Burma, Assam, & Kashmir (London: Adam and Charles Black, 1906, 27-28). We reproduce it further below along with a detail of the glass painting, from a private collection in Yangon. The scene depicts the incident quite literally , with the soldier climbing "to the roof of one of the smaller shrines....." Although del Mar refers to the animal as a tiger, it was in actuality a tigress and the events discussed below occurred on 3 March 1903, the tigress having moved to the vicinity of the Shwedagon from Gyophu Lake..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 6, 2008
        Format/size: pdf (292K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


        Title: U Khan Dee: The Hermit on the Hill
        Date of publication: June 2002
        Description/subject: "More than fifty years after his death, U Khan Dee, the hermit of Mandalay Hill, is still remembered as one of the most remarkable figures of Burma's late colonial period. During the latter half Burma's colonial rule, pious visitors to Mandalay Hill would recount their tales of the venerable hermit monk who possessed remarkable powers. Some spoke of his great height, others claimed he was invisible, still others said he could turn silver into gold. And although people all over Burma today still speak reverently of U Khan Dee, his life was marked by controversy. Also known as Yathee Gyi U Khan Dee (the Great Hermit U Khan Dee), his legendary status was achieved only through a long uphill struggle. In 1908, U Khan Dee first arrived at Mandalay Hill from Yamethin Township, Mandalay, after leaving the Buddhist monkhood where he spent 12 years. He was driven by the strong desire to reconstruct religious buildings and restore Buddhist statues that were severely damaged by the series of fires that ravaged the city around the turn of the century..."
        Author/creator: Aung Zaw, Shawn L Nance
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No.5
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


        Title: Text and New Contexts: Shwedagon and Kyaikhtiyoe today
        Date of publication: December 2001
        Description/subject: "Texts and Contexts", December 2001 Conference, Universities' Historical Research Centre, Yangon University... Abstract: The paper discusses the use of texts in current renovation of pagodas in Myanmar, taking as examples aspects of work undertaken at the Shwedagon and Kyaikhtiyoe in the last two years. Different types of texts, from inscriptions and traditional accounts to contemporary technical reports, are used to illustrate the complex tradition found in the country today. These are presented in the context of past interaction including Mon influence and the Hsandawshin (Sacred Hair) heritage, as well as present links such as planetary aspects and the role of renovation in encouraging the sustenance of Theravada practice.
        Author/creator: Elizabeth Moore,
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Myanmar Historical Research Journal, University of Yangon [forthcoming]
        Format/size: pdf (747K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Shwedagon Through the Ages
        Date of publication: May 1999
        Description/subject: History has not always been kind to Shwedagon, Burma's most sacred pagoda, but after two and a half millennia, it still stands as a timeless monument to the spiritual aspirations of Burmese Buddhists.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 4
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Note [on the Senbyú Pagoda at Mengún]
        Date of publication: 1885
        Description/subject: The article is undated, but since it refers to the memoranda of Yule (1879) and Sladen (1868) it is likely to have been written in the 1880s. I have arbitrarily dated it 1885 for the sake of the order among the documents in this section.
        Author/creator: J. FERGUSSON.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring 2004
        Format/size: pdf (96 K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.soas.ac.uk/sbbr/editions/soas-bulletin-of-burma-research-volume-2-issue-1.html
        Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


        Title: Remarks on the Subject [of the Senbyú Pagoda at Mengún]
        Date of publication: 17 April 1879
        Description/subject: "In a paper describing what I had seen of architectural remains of Hindu character in Java, which was read before the Asiatic Society of Bengal, in October, 1861, there occurred the following passage in reference to that magnificent monument of Buddhism, the Boro Bodor:— “Mr. Fergusson, who gives a good account of the Boro Bodor in his Handbook of Architecture, considers it to be a kind of representation of the great Buddhist monasteries, which are described in the Ceylonese writings as having been many stories high, and as containing hundreds of cells for monks....."
        Author/creator: Col. Henry Yule, C.B
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring 2004,
        Format/size: pdf (278 K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.soas.ac.uk/sbbr/editions/soas-bulletin-of-burma-research-volume-2-issue-1.html
        Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


        Title: Some Remarks upon COL. YULE'S Notes on the Senbyú Pagoda
        Date of publication: 23 June 1869
        Description/subject: "With reference to the interesting account of the Senbyú Pagoda at Mengun, read at the last meeting of the Royal Asiatic Society, and more particularly with reference to the remarks by Col. Yule on the Buddhas of the Boro Bodor, I would, with the greatest deference to the writer, beg to offer some suggestions derived from personal observation of the manner in which many groups of figures of Buddha (Sákya Muni) are sculptured in Bengal and the North-West Provinces of India..."
        Author/creator: C. HORNE, F.R.A.S.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring 2004
        Format/size: pdf (17 K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.soas.ac.uk/sbbr/editions/soas-bulletin-of-burma-research-volume-2-issue-1.html
        Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


        Title: Some Account of the Senbyú Pagoda at Mengún, near the Burmese Capital, in a Memorandum
        Date of publication: 06 January 1868
        Description/subject: "...1. The Pagoda was built in the reign of king Bodo Piyah,1 in the Burmese year 1178 (A.D. 1816), by his grandson, Noungdau Gyee, now known as Bagyeedau Piyah,2 which specifies his relationship as paternal uncle to the present reigning king. 2. It is situated at Mengoon, on the west bank of the Irrawaddy, a couple of hundred yards only from the huge brick ruin which is known as the Mengoon pagoda..."
        Author/creator: CAPT. E. H. SLADEN, Political Agent at Mandalé
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring 2004
        Format/size: pdf (260 K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.soas.ac.uk/sbbr/editions/soas-bulletin-of-burma-research-volume-2-issue-1.html
        Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


      • History of Buddhism in Burma

        Individual Documents

        Title: THE BUDDHIST KINGS OF CHIENGMAI AND PEGU, THE PURIFICATION OF THE SANGHA, AND THE MAHABODHI REPLICAS IN THE LATE FIFTEENTH CENTURY
        Date of publication: December 1996
        Description/subject: "In the late fifteenth century two similar and interesting events took place. Two Southeast Asian kings, both claiming to be Buddhist world rulers, built replicas of the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodhgaya, India. The first king was Dhammacetti (1462-1492) of Pegu, who built the Shwegugyi Temple in Pegu in 1479. The other king was Tilokaraja (1441-1487), of Chiengmai, who began building the Wat Cet Yot in 1455 (although the building went on for over a decade). Both the Shwegugyi and the Wat Cet Yot are replicas of the Mahabodhi temple at Bodhgaya, India, in their general architectural design, their use of the seven stations in their layout, and their association with the bodhi tree. The Mahabodhi temple is important to Buddhism, because it was built next to the bodhi tree under which the Buddha sat when he was enlightened. The seven stations at that temple refer to the seven different sites where the Buddha spent each of the seven weeks after enlightenment. This means that the Mahabodhi temple, the bodhi tree, and the seven stations there are directly tied to the foundation of the sasana and to the purity of the sasana. The construction of the two Mahabodhi replicas is even more interesting because only two other replicas of the Mahabodhi were built in Southeast Asia, one in Pagan built in 1215 by Nadaunmya (Htilominlo), and a minor one at Chiengrai, which cannot be dated or attributed. It is difficult to find out, however, why two kings in neighboring areas built Mahabodhi replicas at about the same time and why such replicas were not built in Southeast Asia for the 250 years before this time or at anytime afterwards.6 The chronicles and inscriptions explain that Tiloka and Dhammacetti were performing meritorious acts by building the Mahabodhi replicas. The chronicles and inscriptions also claim that these two kings were trying to unify and purify the sangha in their lands. However, the chronicles and inscriptions do not say why Mahabodhi replicas were built by Dhammacetti and Tilokaraja around the same time and not by every king before and after who tried to gain merit or be a dhammaraja by purifying and uniting the sangha. I think it is important to find the underlying reasons for the similar event occurring in Chiengmai and Pegu in the late fifteenth century. I will try, using the information that is available, and general information regarding the social, political, commercial, religious, agricultural, and demographic trends of that period, to provide the best possible answer to the questions (1) why the Mahabodhi replicas in Chiengmai and Pegu were built, (2) why they were built in these two places and not somewhere else, and (3) why they were built at this time. My argument, which I will develop and explain more fully below, is that the most significant factor in the adoption of Mahabodhi replicas and the repurification of the sangha in late fifteenth century Chiengmai and Pegu was international trade. During the fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, mainland Southeast Asia was politically (small and numerous states) and religiously (small and numerous sects) divided and not many kings had the resources or power to prove their claims of being dhammarajas by unifying or purifying the sangha or support the construction of temples on the same scale as Pagan. During the same period, however, trade grew as did agricultural cultivation and the population). By the late fifteenth century, central kings gained money for religious patronage of the sangha and for political patronage of (and more prestige in the eyes of) local rulers and probably better control of their kingdoms outside of the capital. The links that Chiengmai and Pegu had with international trade also brought ideas for rulers and monks. The religious reform and the building of Mahabodhi replicas of the late fifteenth century in Pegu and in Chiengmai came from ideas, brought along trade routes (maritime and within Southeast Asia), strengthening the prestige of Sri Lanka as a center of pure Buddhism. Also, Buddhist monks travelling along Southeast Asian trade routes seem to have spread beliefs in the royal capitals (as trade centers) that religious reform should also include a replica of the Mahabodhi temple. The monks who took advantage of these ideas won the support of the central ruler over rival sects since they had a better claim to religious purity. The central kings had more resources and control than their predecessors over their kingdoms and could make the selection of a particular sect and the religious repurification more significant throughout the kingdom. Finally, to reinforce their image as dhammarajas who unified and purified the sangha, and as cakravartins or world Buddhist rulers, Dhammacetti and Tilokaraja tried to replace Pagan with their own capitals as the chief center of Buddhism (which meant that their capitals also had to have Mahabodhi replicas)."
        Author/creator: ATSUKO NAONO
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
        Format/size: pdf (1.2MB-low res; 2.3MB-medium res; 4.3MB - high res)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/Naono1996-ocr-mr.pdf
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/Naono1996-ocr-hr.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 04 October 2010


        Title: Buddhism in Myanmar: A Short History
        Date of publication: 1995
        Description/subject: Contents: * Preface * 1. Earliest Contacts with Buddhism * 2. Buddhism in the Mon and Pyu Kingdoms * 3. Theravada Buddhism Comes to Pagan * 4. Pagan: Flowering and Decline * 5. Shan Rule * 6. The Myanmar Build an Empire * 7. The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries * Notes * Bibliography
        Author/creator: Roger Bischoff
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Access to Insight
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: The Kalyānī inscriptions erected by King Dhammaceti at Pegu in 1476 A. D. - Text and translation
        Date of publication: 1892
        Description/subject: "...In 1478, King Dhammazedi from the Mon kingdom of Ramannadesa, erected ten stone inscriptions written with Mon and Pali language. ... The stone inscription is known among scholars as the "Kalyani Sima" or "Kalyani Inscription". The inscription deal mainly with the the reform undertaken by the king to purify Theravada Buddhism in his kingdom..."
        Author/creator: TAW SEIN KO,(trans)
        Language: Pali, Mon, English
        Source/publisher: Government of Burma
        Format/size: pdf (3.38MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924011724808
        Date of entry/update: 04 October 2010


      • Monastic education

        Individual Documents

        Title: Idealism and Pragmatism: A Dilemma in the Current Monastic Education Systems of Burma and Thailand
        Date of publication: 23 May 2004
        Description/subject: Conclusion: "In both Burma and Thailand the debate is far from over. While both the idealists and the pragmatists agree that the principal aim of the monastic education systems should be to train monks in the Dhamma and Vinaya, the two sides cannot agree whether or not steps should be taken to help fulfil some educational needs of the society by bringing in some secular subjects in monastic schools. Today, in Burma, the curricula for the various monastic examinations focus exclusively, also narrowly, from the very beginning on the study of Pali and the TipiTaka. No English, mathematics, geography, philosophy nor history are included because they are considered secular subjects.[24] As a result, even educated monks find it difficult to relate the dhamma to lay people's lives. In Thailand, too, the main curricula, such as the nak tham and the Pali parian, have remained exclusively religious. Although, since 1970 there has been a new curriculum, called sai saman suksa (lit. general way of education)[25], which combines the religious and the secular, it does seem this curriculum has been forced on the leadership and has not been a well thought through policy. This curriculum has too many subjects at each level means student-monks do not have sufficient time to learn properly either Pali and Buddhism or secular subjects.[26] In addition, this curriculum has been designed neither to replace nor to complement the traditional religious curricula, such as the nak tham and the parian curricula. It has thus the potential to distract, which I think it has done, the young monks from the nak tham and parian curricula. Indeed, its separate existence from the two highly regarded religious curricula, the nak tham and the parian, suggests that the idealists and the pragmatist have yet to work out the objectives of monastic education."... Presented at the conference on "Burmese Buddhism and the Spirit Cult Revisited - Revisiting Buddhism and the spirit cult in Burma [and Thailand]... at Stanford University, USA by Venerable Khammai Dhammasami, Oxford University, UK, 22-23 May 2004
        Author/creator: Venerable Khammai Dhammasami
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Stanford University, USA
        Format/size: pdf (70.9 KB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.dhammadownload.com/images/Venerable-Dr-Khammai-Dhammasami-Biography.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 17 September 2010


      • Wizzar cults

        Individual Documents

        Title: Review by Bob Hudson of "Wonders of Mebegon Village" (Ashin Kunsal Kassapa (trans).
        Date of publication: April 2008
        Description/subject: "...This account in English of a contemporary wizzar cult has been translated from Burmese and edited by a Spanish-born Buddhist monk. It is a sometimes loosely-linked compilation, comprising hagiographies of three wizzars, a biography of the medium through whom they speak, testimonials from devotees and a glossary. Its value is increased by the amount of detail provided: lists of participants in ceremonies, the prayers recited, the quantities of ingredients and offerings, the timing of rituals..."
        Author/creator: Bob Hudson
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: SOAS BULLETIN OF BURMA RESEARCH 5 2007
        Format/size: pdf (113K)
        Date of entry/update: 01 October 2010


    • Christianity

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Bible Society Work in Myanmar
      Description/subject: "Though Myanmar is predominantly a Buddhist country and there also resurgence of Biddhism there is a growing demand of ther scriptures not only by the church members but also by the people from other religions especially for the Myanmar (Burmese) Bible. In 2002 at the special request 5000 New Testaments with special cover were printed locally for the for the religious leaders of the other faith. In the past it was not easy for BSM to print Bible or New Testament in one language within a year. However, with the concerted efforts made by the respective translation committees, BSM translation staff and translation consultants, there is a remarkable progress. Now, at least four new language scriptures would be ready for printing yearly. In addition to printing of new language scripture there is also an urgent need for reprinting of Bibles which are out of stock for some years for the church members as well as for the out reach programs. To meet the urgent need of the scripture, we have worked the production plan for 2004 and 2005....."
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


      Title: Christians Concerned for Burma
      Description/subject: Useful site with reports on IDPs, narcotics, human rights, relief missions etc. Good links page. Prayer days for Burma
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Christians Concerned for Burma
      Format/size: html (only configured for Internet Explorer - the drop-down menus don't work with Netscape)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: David gegen Goliath: Christen in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 26 February 2007
      Description/subject: Interview mit dem Präsidenten des Kachin Theological College (KTC).Im Gespräch mit Livenet berichtete er von seiner Schule in der Stadt Myitkyina, der grössten theologischen Ausbildungsstätte im Norden des Landes, die den Bachelor of Theology und den Master of Divinity verleiht und in den letzten 15 Jahren ein starkes Wachstum erlebt hat. „Seit dem Zusammenbruch des Sozialismus wollen viele Absolventen von Colleges und Sekundarschulen das KTC besuchen.“ Zahlreiche Kurse werden englisch unterrichtet; im abgeschotteten Land sehen Eltern hier offensichtlich ein Sprungbrett für die Laufbahn ihrer Sprösslinge; Verfolgung von Christen, Kachin Interview with the president of the baptist Kachin Theological College; Christian students; Persecution of Christians
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Livenet
      Format/size: Html (64k)
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2007


      Title: The Church of the Province of Myanmar
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Hinduism, Brahminism

      Individual Documents

      Title: Specialists for Ritual, Magic and Devotion: The Court Brahmins (Punna) of the Konbaung Kings (1752-1885)
      Date of publication: 2006
      Description/subject: Abstract: "Though they formed an essential part of Burmese court life, the Brahmins have hitherto attracted no scholarly interest outside Burma. Based on a study of royal orders and administrative compendia as well as recent Burmese research, this article gives for the first time an overview of the origins, the ritual and ceremonial functions and the organization of the punna. The main section is preceded by an overview of sources and research questions. Special emphasis is given in the last part to the noteworthy role played by punna in King Bodawphaya�s reform policies."
      Author/creator: Jacques P. Leider
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 10, 2005/06
      Format/size: pdf (804K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol10/index.shtml (JBS Vol. 10)
      Date of entry/update: 31 December 2008


    • Islam

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Arakan Rohingya National Organization (ARNO)
      Description/subject: "According to the 1947 Constitution, a group of people who entered Burma before 1825 and settled in a defined territory are also indigenous race of Burma. This clause was especially written for Rohingya people, said Dr. Aye Maung, one of the author of the 1947 constitution. Accordingly U Nu government recognized Rohingya as an indigenous race of Burma..." Keywords: Islam, Muslim, stateless. Big, flashy site with lots of content.
      Language: English
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: Southeast Asia’s Muslims on the Spot
      Description/subject: "As the focus sharpens on Southeast Asia’s role in the war against terror, many of the region’s Muslims worry that authorities are missing the point..."
      Author/creator: Irrawaddy Contributors
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Arts - general

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: "BurmaNet News" Arts archive
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 April 2012


  • Book collections and libraries in Burma

    Individual Documents

    Title: Ex Libris
    Date of publication: September 2009
    Description/subject: Behind the doors of a Rangoon collector’s amazing library... "The catalogue alone is a work of art, its pages edged with gold and packed with rare photographs, pictures and maps covering the history of Burma and Southeast Asia from the 16th century onward. Nearly 600 items are meticulously listed, described and illustrated within the catalogue’s hard covers. They belong to what must qualify as one of the most extraordinary private libraries in the region—the treasured property of a wealthy Burmese businessman, Moe Myint, under secure lock and key in his home on Rangoon’s University Avenue..."
    Author/creator: Jim Andrews
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 January 2010


  • Broadcast Media

    Individual Documents

    Title: Taking Over the Airwaves
    Date of publication: January 2010
    Description/subject: Private FM radio stations are sprouting up all over Burma, offering listeners a variety of entertainment and, of course, government propaganda... "Almost every household in Burma has a radio on nowadays. Many families fight over what program to listen to. Father wants to hear the news and sports; the kids listen to pop music and celebrity interviews; mum tunes in every day to the fortune-teller, while grandmother enjoys the Buddhist monks’ recitals. Many Burmese own cheap, Chinese-made radios that can pick up both FM and shortwave broadcasts. (Photo: YUZO/The Irrawaddy) FM radio is booming in more ways than one in Burma. The stale government broadcasts of the 80s and 90s have been replaced by popular independent stations all across the country, from Moulmein to Myitkyina. The Ministry of Information renewed licenses in 2009 for eight private radio stations which transmit high-fidelity broadcasts on FM bands. Stations are licensed to broadcast daily from 7 a.m. to 9 p.m. and are allowed to solicit revenue from advertising..."
    Author/creator: Ko Htwe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17504
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    Title: Maintaining the BBC Standard - An Interview with Tin Htar Swe
    Date of publication: January 2005
    Description/subject: "The BBC’s Burmese Service is the most popular, and generally regarded as the most reliable, of the Burmese-language shortwave broadcasters. The Irrawaddy spoke recently with Tin Htar Swe, head of the Burmese Service... Question: What sort of news do you feed to your audience inside Burma? Answer: Our aim is to provide ground breaking stories, whether global or regional. We have a highly sophisticated audience who are well informed about the world events. One would have imagined that—given the limited access to foreign newspapers, periodicals and journals—people would be deprived of information. On the contrary, we realized that most people are very much up to date with what is happening in the world. When we put out a story we have to make sure that we explain the story well and that all angles are covered. When it comes to news we do not draw a line between global and Burma news. There are some exceptions of course; because Burma is a closed society we also try to put out stories which can be too local for the international audience but definitely not for the Burmese people inside the country..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 1
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 10 August 2005


    Title: Airing His Views - An Interview with Soe Thinn
    Date of publication: October 2004
    Description/subject: "(Soe Thinn is the director of the Radio Free Asia Burmese Service in Washington, DC. He also worked with the Burmese Service of the Voice of America from 1992 until 1996 and with the Burmese Foreign Service from 1969 until October 1988. He spoke with The Irrawaddy about the challenges of bringing information to the Burmese public and RFA's future plans.)..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 8
    Format/size: pdf (19K)
    Date of entry/update: 28 April 2008


    Title: Keeping the Pulse of Burmese Airwaves
    Date of publication: November 2002
    Description/subject: "A new radio station plying the airwaves in Rangoon offers listeners a limited, but significant alternative to state-run broadcasts... The emergence of City FM ... has won the hearts and ears of entertainment-starved audiences in Rangoon. Run by the Yangon City Development Committee (YCDC) since November 2001, City FM (FM 89.00 MHz) has forged ahead with its commercial-style, entertainment-first broadcasts. "We started City FM with the YCDC�s own budget and we later received a lot money from advertisements. The funding source has nothing to do with the government," a high-ranking YCDC official told The Irrawaddy...With its limited outreach and entertainment-only scope, City FM is just a small drop in the ocean in regards to the country�s national broadcasting media. Yet, it has found a space on Burma�s airwaves�apolitical and free from the relentless state-broadcast propaganda. "When listening to City FM, I never hear the brazen announcements of government propaganda such as the �Three National Causes� and �Twelve [political, economic and social] Objectives� that you hear repeatedly on the state-owned media," says Ko Lin..."
    Author/creator: Min Zin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Burmese Humour

    • Burmese comedy -- videos

      Individual Documents

      Title: ParParLay & The Moustache Brothers VideoMix- Mandalay, Burma
      Date of publication: 15 November 2007
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: zzzeroX via Youtube
      Format/size: Adobe Flash, 5.5minutes
      Date of entry/update: 10 January 2009


      Title: Myanmar satire upsets government - 13 Nov 07
      Date of publication: 13 November 2007
      Description/subject: Aljazeera documentary about and featuring the moustache brothers
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Aljazeera via Youtube
      Format/size: Adobe Flash, (2 minutes 19 seconds)
      Date of entry/update: 10 January 2009


      Title: Moustache Brothers - Mandalay - Myanmar
      Date of publication: 18 August 2007
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: AbuBox via Youtube
      Format/size: Adobe Flash 2,38mins
      Date of entry/update: 10 January 2009


      Title: Zagana's Beggars' National Convention (video)
      Date of publication: 2006
      Description/subject: 5 sections follow each other automatically...Zagana, a famous Burmese comedian, and his team performed in 1990. Represented from DVB (Democratic Voice of Burma) in 2006. www.dvb.no
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Zar Ga Nar via DVB via Youtube
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (40 minutes)
      Date of entry/update: 10 January 2009


    • Burmese humour -- Cartoons

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: "The Irrawaddy" cartoon archive
      Description/subject: Mostly "Harn Lay's cartoons (see also shanland.org)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 January 2009


      Title: 969toons.com
      Description/subject: "Myanmar Online Cartoon Journal"
      Language: Burmese (a little English)
      Source/publisher: 969toons.com
      Format/size: html, jpeg
      Date of entry/update: 30 January 2009


      Title: Harn Lay's politcal cartoons
      Description/subject: High quality, hard-hitting. See also the cartoons on "The Irrawaddy"
      Author/creator: Harn Lay
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Shanland
      Format/size: jpeg
      Alternate URLs: http://www.cartoonharnlay.com/
      http://www.irrawaddy.org/archive_cartoon.php?sub_id=9
      http://www.shanland.org/oldversion/cartoons.htm
      Date of entry/update: 15 December 2010


      Individual Documents

      Title: Irrawaddy Artist Honored
      Date of publication: May 2010
      Description/subject: Harn Lay, The Irrawaddy’s cartoonist and illustrator, has received a grant from Human Rights Watch in recognition of his satirical cartoons targeting the Burmese military regime.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 29 August 2010


      Title: The Joke’s on the Generals
      Date of publication: November 2008
      Description/subject: Laughter is a sharp weapon in the hands of Burma’s regime critics... "BURMA is under siege and the crackdown on anti-regime monks and activists has intensified, continuing day and night. The bloodshed in Burma in September 2007 and the regime’s inadequate, heartless response to the cyclone the following May ignited worldwide anger, directed at regime leader Snr-Gen Than Shwe. Yet through it all, the callous, stubborn general remained a figure of fun, arousing mirth as well as outrage..."
      Author/creator: Yeni
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 11
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 November 2008


      Title: Pioneers of Burmese Cartooning
      Date of publication: September 2003
      Description/subject: "During the popular struggle against the British and civil war, two cartoonists entertained and provoked Burmese audiences with their fiesty sketches... A newspaper without a cartoon is like curry without salt — U Hein Sunn, prominent Burmese cartoonist..."
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


    • Burmese humour -- articles

      Individual Documents

      Title: 'A Man Without a Head Can Run Burma’
      Date of publication: February 2008
      Description/subject: "Burmese comedians’ political satire reveals how the people think and how their rulers live in fear... An American without legs can climb Mount Everest,” the American president said proudly at a gathering of statesmen. Immediately, the Russian president said, “A Russian without arms can swim across the Atlantic.” The other world leaders were stunned by the two statements. But the leader of Burma came to the rescue: “In my country, a man without a head can run the country for 20 years.” That’s a joke by a well-known comedian known as Godzilla, and it drew loud applause from hundreds of Burmese in Bangkok in January. Cracking such a joke irks Burma’s rulers and can lead to imprisonment for comedians..."
      Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


      Title: Joking With the Generals
      Date of publication: May 2001
      Description/subject: Humor is one of the few things that make life in Burma bearable for most people, but even this salve for the soul can rub the ruling generals the wrong way.
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 4
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Exiles Mock the Year Gone by
      Date of publication: April 2001
      Description/subject: "The Burmese New Year, celebrated in mid-April, is traditionally an occasion for a good-humored send-up of social and political events of the past year. Troupes form as part of the Thingyan Water-Throwing Festival to give Thangyat performances, providing a running, rhyming commentary on the misdeeds of officials and others in high places. This year, Burmese exiles in India are keeping up the tradition with a recording of Thangyat performances that targets both Burma's military junta and opposition groups..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9, No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Burmese information technology

    Individual Documents

    Title: Reading the Cybertech Signposts - Burma’s IT drive slows on MI chief’s downfall
    Date of publication: March 2005
    Description/subject: "Burma’s ruling generals like to present themselves as enlightened modernizers. Though they use outmoded methods to stifle information flows, they pay plenty of lip service to e-projects and IT initiatives of all sorts. Burma’s main Internet service and satellite feed provider, Bagan Cybertech, is one example. Last October’s coup has placed a large question mark over its future—and consequently over the fate of Burma’s entire IT sector. For whatever happens to Bagan Cybertech could determine what the future holds for other enterprises that flourished when Gen Khin Nyunt was prime minister and military intelligence, or MI, chief..."
    Author/creator: Shawn L. Nance
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 August 2005


  • Burmese social and political culture

    • Astrology, numerology, fortune telling, prophetic sayings etc.

      Individual Documents

      Title: Pagoda Power
      Date of publication: July 2009
      Description/subject: Looking for omens in a pile of rubble... "IT was a sunny day, but a young laborer working on the renovation of the Danok Pagoda, near Rangoon, recalled: “It suddenly grew very dark and we saw a bright red light rising from the northern end of the pagoda, and we heard a strange, haunting voice coming from that direction.” Then the ancient pagoda collapsed, reportedly killing 20 of the laborer’s fellow workers and naval personnel who were helping out. The authorities blamed faulty renovation work, which they said was being hurried along because of the approaching rainy season. Many local people, however, have a less mundane explanation for the collapse of the historic pagoda. Supernatural forces, not shoddy workmanship, brought it down, they say..."
      Author/creator: Arkar Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 4
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 August 2009


      Title: So What’s in Store for Burma in 2005?
      Date of publication: January 2005
      Description/subject: "Political Turmoil, Military Intrigues, But Also Prosperity and Progress—Astrologers Hedge Their Bets...The tsunami that smashed into several Southeast Asian countries in December appears miraculously to have spared Burma the full fury of its preternatural power... While many outside Burma cast doubt on the regime figures, the generals in Rangoon have a mystical explanation for them: Burma escaped the lethal waves relatively unharmed because they had earned merit with Lord Buddha by building pagodas...Burmese soothsayers saw the Sumatra earthquake as a bad omen and a harbinger of political upheaval, perhaps a change of government. The current year will certainly be a crucial one for the regime, they say. Superstitious nonsense? Not for the overwhelming majority of the Burmese people, including their leaders. It’s no secret that top generals and their wives regularly consult astrologers. Even opposition figures have their astrologers—democratic-minded ones, of course..."
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2005


      Title: "A Preliminary Study of Burmese Prophetic Sayings"
      Date of publication: 2002
      Description/subject: The Burmese people are known to be superstitious in many ways. One is a belief in prophetic saying known as tabaun. This paper explains how in the past, people placed importance on these prophetic sayings. It describes how learned Buddhist monks have reminded people not to be influenced by them. Rather, they should be concerned with their kamma.
      Author/creator: Saw Tun
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 7 (2002)
      Format/size: pdf (829K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol9/index.shtml
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


      Title: No Escape from the 31 Planes of Existence
      Date of publication: February 2001
      Description/subject: Naypyidaw—the “Abode of Kings”—is Than Shwe’s monument to his own rule... "I am not an astrologer, but I will venture one prediction about the year ahead: that the regime in Burma will hold its election as planned and formally introduce what it calls a “discipline-flourishing democracy.” So far, however, the junta leaders remain tight-lipped about the how and when of the election. At this stage, the best anyone can offer is an educated guess. But come what may, the election will happen—be sure of it. Why am I so certain of this, when others have suggested that the junta will probably try to find some pretext to put the vote off indefinitely? Because the clearest evidence of the junta’s intentions can be found in Naypyidaw, where construction of new parliamentary buildings is proceeding apace. This news is not entirely reassuring, however. According to a recent Reuters report, much work remains to be done on the new legislature, “from unfinished roads to painting many of the parliamentary complex’s 31 buildings, with pagoda-style roofs sheathed in scaffolding.” But others who have been to the junta’s capital say that they are amazed at how much progress has been made since last March, when only the main building of the Hluttaw, or Parliament, had been completed. In recent months, the regime has ordered army engineers and construction workers to work even faster to meet their deadline—whenever that might be. While some people are preoccupied with the question of when the buildings will be finished, I am more intrigued by the number being built—31. In Buddhism, this number has a special significance. According to Buddhist cosmology, 31 is the number of planes of existence into which we can be reborn. Humans belong to the fifth plane, above other beings such as animals and hungry ghosts, but below the devas—the god-like beings who exist in the realms of form and formlessness. The important thing to remember about the 31 planes of existence is that they are all subject to suffering. By following the Buddha’s teachings, however, one can escape the rounds of rebirth and attain a state that is completely beyond suffering, known as Nirvana..."
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    • Burmese political culture - books from the 1950s and '60s (most published by AFPFL)

      Individual Documents

      Title: "Criticism of the paper on an advisory board for internal unity" "ျပည္တြင္း ညီညြတ္ေရး အႀကံေပးအဖြဲ႔ စာတန္းအေပၚ ေ၀ဖန္ခ်က္"
      Date of publication: 01 October 1969
      Author/creator: Thein Pay Myint သိန္းေဖျမင့္
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Thein Pay Myint သိန္းေဖျမင့္
      Format/size: pdf (3.67MB)
      Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


      Title: "Mao Ze Dong’s China and the Sovereignty of Myanmar" "ေမာ္စီတုန္းတရုတ္ႏွင့္ ျမန္မာ့ အခ်ဳပ္အခ်ာအာဏာ"
      Date of publication: 01 August 1967
      Description/subject: A collection of articles in "Bo Ta Taung" newspaper about the relationship between Burma and China in 1967. This book is a ...... သိန္းေဖျမင့္ သည္ ၁၉၆၇ ခုႏွစ္က ဗိုလ္တေထာင္ သတင္းစာတြင္ တရုတ္ျမန္မာ ဆက္ဆံေရး အေၾကာင္း အခန္းဆက္ ေဆာင္းပါးမ်ားေရးခဲ့ၿပီး၊ ဤစာအုပ္ တြင္ စုစည္း ထုတ္ ေ၀လိုက္ျခင္း ျဖစ္သည္။
      Author/creator: Thein Pay Myint သိန္းေဖျမင့္
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: "Bo Ta Taung"
      Format/size: pdf (6.1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 11 August 2012


      Title: "Communism and we Burmans" "ဘံု၀ါဒႏွင့္ ဒို႔ဗမာ
      Date of publication: 25 January 1967
      Description/subject: First Edition 1954: Second Edition 1964: Third Edition 1967, ... Articles by: 1. Thakhin Ko Daw Hmai, 2. Thakhin Aung San, 3. U Nu, 4. Thakhin Soe, 5. Thakhin Than Tun, 6. Thakhin Ba Hein, 7. Thakhin Hla Pay (Bo Lat Yar), 8. Thakhin Kyaw Sein, 9. Thein Pay Myint, 10. U Ba Swe, 11. Thakhin Lay Maung, 12. U Thant (United Nations)..... ပထမအႀကိမ္ ထုတ္ေ၀ျခင္း ၁၉၅၄၊ ဒုတိယ အႀကိမ္ ထုတ္ေ၀ျခင္း ၁၉၆၄၊ ယခုတႀကိမ္ သည္ တတိယ အႀကိမ္ ထုတ္ေ၀ျခင္းျဖစ္သည္။... စာေရးဆရာ ေပါင္းစံုပါ၀င္သည္။ ၁. သခင္ကိုယ္ေတာ္ မႈိင္း ၂. သခင္ေအာင္ဆန္း ၃. ဦးႏု ၄. သခင္စိုး ၅. သခင္သန္းထြန္း ၆. သခင္ဗဟိန္း ၇. သခင္ လွေဖ(ဗိုလ္လက္ယာ) ၈. သခင္ ေက်ာ္စိန္ ၉. သိန္းေဖျမင့္ ၁၀. ဦးဘေဆြ တို႔ျဖစ္သည္။
      Author/creator: Thein Pay Myint သိန္းေဖျမင့္
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Thein Pay Myint သိန္းေဖျမင့္
      Format/size: pdf (13.92MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Book20-split.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 11 August 2012


      Title: "On The People's Democratic Dictatorship" “ျပည္သူ႔ဒီမိုကေရစီ အာဏာရွင္စနစ္”
      Date of publication: 1966
      Description/subject: Translated into Burmese by Lwin Maung in 1966. Chinese original, 1949... Ka Laung Pyan Publishing House, Rangoon, Burma... ထုတ္ေ၀သူ ၏ အမွာ ဤ “ျပည္သူ႔ဒီမိုကေရစီ အာဏာရွင္စနစ္” ဟူေသာ စာတမ္းကို တရုပ္ျပည္ကြန္ျမဴနစ္ပါတီ (၂၈) ႏွစ္ေျမာက္ အထိမ္းအမွတ္ အတြက္ ၁၉၄၉ ခုႏွစ္ ဇြန္လ ၃၀ ရက္ေန႔ တြင္ ရဲေဘာ္ ေမာ္စီတံုး ေရးသားျခင္း ျဖစ္ပါသည္။
      Author/creator: Mao Zedong
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Format/size: pdf (2.02MB)
      Date of entry/update: 24 July 2012


      Title: "The Path of the AFPFL" "ဖဆပလ ၏ ေျခလွမ္း"
      Date of publication: 01 September 1963
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Lanzin Newspaper လမ္းစဥ္ သတင္းစာ
      Format/size: pdf (7MB)
      Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


      Title: "Thein Pay Myint - a threat to peace" "ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရးႏွင့္ သိန္းေဖျမင့္ အႏၱရာယ္"
      Date of publication: 15 August 1963
      Description/subject: ဤစာအုပ္တြင္- ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး အဖ်က္သမား သိန္းေဖျမင့္ အလုိမရွိ... ကြန္ျမဴနစ္ပါတီႏွင့္ သိန္းေဖျမင့္... ႏိုင္ငံေရး မ်က္လွည့္ဆရာႀကီး သိန္းေဖျမင့္... ျပည္သူ႔ ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး အဖြဲ႔ ေပါင္းစံု ႏွင့္ သိန္းေဖျမင့္... သိန္းေဖျမင့္ ၏ ႏိုင္ငံတကာ့ေရးရာ အျမင္မ်ား။ (လမ္းစဥ္ အယ္ဒီတာ အဖြဲ႔မွ ျပဳစုသည္)
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: "Lanzin Newspaper" လမ္းစဥ္သတင္းစာ
      Format/size: pdf (7.69MB)
      Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


      Title: "Domestic Peace and Dialogue Movement" "ျပည္တြင္းၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရးႏွင့္ ေတြ႔ဆံုေဆြးေႏြးေရး အေရးေတာ္ပံု"
      Date of publication: 1963
      Description/subject: Peace in Burma movement lead by Thakhin Ko Daw Hmaing: ... သခင္ကိုယ္ေတာ္မႈိင္း ဦးေဆာင္သည့္ ျပည္တြင္းၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး လႈပ္ရွားမႈ အေၾကာင္း တင္ျပသည့္ စာအုပ္တအုပ္ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ လမ္းစဥ္ အယ္ဒီတာ အဖြဲ႔မွ ျပဳစု တင္ျပပါသည္။
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: "Lanzin Newspaper" လမ္းစဥ္ သတင္းစာ
      Format/size: pdf (4.93MB)
      Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


      Title: "The Advanced Socialism" "တိုးတက္ေသာ ဆိုရွယ္လစ္စနစ္"
      Date of publication: 1963
      Description/subject: ပထစ ေခါင္းေဆာင္ သခင္တင္ေရးသားသည္။
      Author/creator: Thakhin Tin (A leader of the Union Party)
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Thakhin Tin
      Format/size: pdf (7.51MB)
      Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


      Title: "The Burma Workers Party's view on the BSPP" ဗမာျပည္ အလုပ္သမားပါတီ ၏ မဆလ ပါတီအေပၚ သေဘာထား
      Date of publication: 09 August 1962
      Description/subject: The Burma Workers Party's view on the BSPP (Wi Du Ya Tha Khin Chit Maung and journalists: Press Release.) ဗမာျပည္အလုပ္သမား ပါတီ၏ မဆလ ပါတီ အေပၚ သေဘာထား (၀ိဓုရ- သခင္ခ်စ္ေမာင္ ႏွင့္ သတင္းစာ ဆရာမ်ား အေမး အေျဖ... တိုင္းေရးျပည္ေရး အျဖစ္စံု တင္ျပခ်က္မ်ား)
      Author/creator: Vi Dhu Ra Tha-khin Chit Maung
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Burma Workers Party Headquarters
      Format/size: pdf (2.18MB)
      Date of entry/update: 04 August 2012


      Title: "Collected speeches and his opinion on internal peace by Brigadier General Kyaw Zaw"
      Date of publication: 01 December 1960
      Description/subject: First edition- November 1957: Second edition - December 1960: "ဗိုလ္မွဴးခ်ဳပ္ေက်ာ္ေဇာ ၏ ျပည္တြင္းၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး သေဘာထားႏွင့္ လက္ေရြးစဥ္ မိန္႔ခြန္းမ်ား" ပထမအႀကိမ္ပံုႏွိပ္ျခင္း- ႏို၀င္ဘာလ ၁၉၅၇၊ ဒုတိယအႀကိမ္ပံုႏွိပ္ျခင္း- ဒီဇင္ဘာလ ၁၉၆၀။
      Author/creator: Brigadier General Kyaw Zaw
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Brigadier General Kyaw Zaw
      Format/size: pdf (4.42MB)
      Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012


      Title: "AFPFL’s view on recognizing Buddhism as the State Religion"
      Date of publication: 18 December 1959
      Description/subject: Publication of Man Dai Newspaper(14-12-59) "ဗုဒၶဘာသာကို ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ဘာသာ အျဖစ္သတ္မွတ္ေရးႏွင့္ပါတ္သက္၍ ဖ.ဆ.ပ.လ အဖြဲ႔ခ်ဳပ္၏သေဘာထား" (၁၄-၁၂-၅၉) ေန႔ အထူးထုတ္ မ႑ိဳင္ သတင္းစာကို၊ သံဃာ့ တပ္ဦး အဖြဲ႔မွ တဆင့္ ကူးယူ ရိုက္ႏွိပ္ ေ၀ငွသည္။
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: AFPFL
      Format/size: pdf (1.01MB)
      Date of entry/update: 29 July 2012


      Title: Seminar to evaluate the AFPFL's Programme ဖဆပလ အဖြဲ႔ခ်ဳပ္ လုပ္ငန္းစဥ္ျပန္လည္သံုးသပ္ေရး ႏွီးေႏွာ ဖလွယ္ပဲြ
      Date of publication: 24 October 1959
      Description/subject: "Seminar to evaluate the AFPFL's Programme" (24 October 1959 ) ဖဆပလ အဖြဲ႔ခ်ဳပ္ လုပ္ငန္းစဥ္ျပန္လည္သံုးသပ္ေရး ႏွီးေႏွာ ဖလွယ္ပဲြ (၁၉၅၉-ခု ေအာက္တိုဘာလ ၂၄- ရက္) တြင္ ဖဆပလ အဖြဲ႔ခ်ဳပ္ ၀ါဒႏွင့္ လုပ္ငန္းစဥ္သေဘာထား လူမႈေရး အခဏ္ ကို ပညာေရးႏွင့္ ျပည္ေထာင္စု ယဥ္ေက်းမႈ က႑ ဖဆပလ အဖြဲ႔ခ်ဳပ္၊ အလုပ္အမႈေဆာင္ ဦးထြန္းတင္ ေဆြးေႏြးတင္ျပပါသည္။
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Education and Culture Section (AFPFL)
      Format/size: pdf (2.07MB)
      Date of entry/update: 04 August 2012


      Title: Step by Step Struggle Against Oppression ဖိႏွိပ္မႈ တိုက္ပြဲ အဆင့္ဆင့္
      Date of publication: September 1959
      Description/subject: First edition: July 1959 ... Second edition: August 1959 ... 1. Freedom of religion... 2. Freedom of expression ... 3. Freedom of organizing ...4. justice ... 5. Freedom of working and living... 6. Right to freedom through independence ... 7. Independence of Ireland ... 8. The American Revolution ... 9. The French Revolution ... 10. Italian solidarity... 11. Independence of Mexico ... 12. The hero of South American freedom ... 13. Independence of Philippines... 14. Various struggles... 15. Non-violence of the people of Korea... 16. Freedom and intelligence....... သန္႔ရွင္း ဖဆပလ အဖြဲ႔ခ်ဳပ္ ဥကၠဌ ဦးႏု ေရးသည္... ပထမ ႏွိပ္ျခင္း (၁၉၅၉ ဇူလိုင္)... ဒုတိယ ႏွိပ္ျခင္း (၁၉၅၉ ၾသဂုတ္)... ၁. လြတ္လပ္စြာကိုးကြယ္ခြင့္... ၂. လြတ္လပ္စြာေရးသားေဟာေျပာခြင့္... ၃. လြတ္လပ္စြာ စည္းေ၀းခြင့္ႏွင့္ စည္းရံုးခြင့္... ၄. လြတ္လပ္စြာ တရားစီရင္ခြင့္... ၅. လြတ္လပ္စြာသက္ေမြး ၀မ္းေက်ာင္းႏိုင္ပံု... ၆. လြတ္လပ္ခြင့္မွ လြတ္လပ္ေရးသို႔... ၇. အိုင္ယာလန္လြတ္လပ္ေရး... ၈. အေမရိကန္ေတာ္လွန္ေရး... ၉. ျပင္သစ္အေရးေတာ္ပံု... ၁၀. အီတလီျပည္စည္းလံုးေရး... ၁၁. မကၠဆီကိုလြတ္လပ္ေရး... ၁၂. ေတာင္အေမရိကလြတ္လပ္ေရးသူရဲေကာင္း... ၁၃. ဖိလစ္ပိုင္ လြတ္လပ္ေရး... ၁၄. တိုုက္ပြဲအမ်ဳိးမ်ဳိး... ၁၅. ကိုရီးယားျပည္သူတို႔၏ အႏုနည္း... ၁၆. လြတ္လပ္ေရးႏွင့္ ႏွလံုးရည္
      Author/creator: U Nu
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL-Clean)
      Format/size: pdf (5.00MB)
      Date of entry/update: 07 August 2012


      Title: "Where is Parliamentary Democracy going?" "ပါလီမန္ဒီမိုကေရစီဘယ္လဲ"
      Date of publication: 1959
      Description/subject: This is a criticism by Member of Parliament Tha Khin Chit Maung (Thar Yar Waddy) of Prime Minister General Ne Win's speech to Parliament on 16 February, 1959. ဤစာအုပ္သည္ ပါလီမန္အမတ္ သခင္ခ်စ္ေမာင္ (သာယာ၀တီ) က ၀န္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္ ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ ေန၀င္း ၁၉၅၉၊ ေဖေဖၚ၀ါရီ ၁၆ တြင္ ပါလီမန္ သို႔ ေျပာသည့္မိန္႔ခြန္းကို ေ၀ဖန္ ခ်က္ျဖစ္သည္။
      Author/creator: Wi Du Ya Thakhin Chit Maung ၀ိဓူရ သခင္ခ်စ္ေမာင္
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Burma Labour Party (Rangoon District)
      Format/size: pdf (2.46MB)
      Date of entry/update: 24 July 2012


      Title: "Where is Social-Ni (Red-Social) going?" ဆိုရွယ္နီဘယ္လဲ?
      Date of publication: August 1958
      Description/subject: Criticism on The Burma Workers Party. ..... အလုပ္သမားပါတီအားေ၀ဖန္ခ်က္။
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: The comrades who want the Real Peace
      Format/size: pdf (2.52MB)
      Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012


      Title: "Interim Organizing Programme of the AFPFL (Clean)" ဖဆပလ(သန္႔ရွင္း) အဖြဲ႔ စည္းရံုးေရး ၾကားျဖတ္လုပ္ငန္းစဥ္
      Date of publication: 07 July 1958
      Description/subject: The AFPLF had split into 2 factions. The faction which published this paper called itself the "clean" AFPFL. It had to organise itself quickly because the other faction, the "stable" AFPFL, had already begun... ဗ.တ.လ.စ ပံုႏွိပ္တိုက္၊ အမွတ္ ၄ ၀ကၤဘာလမ္း၊ ဗဟန္း၊ ရန္ကုန္ၿမိဳ႔
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: AFPFL (Clean)
      Format/size: pdf (777K)
      Date of entry/update: 29 July 2012


      Title: Criticism of Chan Aye's Critical review ခ်မ္း ေအးစစ္တမ္း ေ၀ဖန္ခ်က္
      Date of publication: 01 August 1957
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Burma Workers and Peasants Party
      Format/size: pdf (3.66MB)
      Date of entry/update: 09 August 2012


      Title: Report of the Burma Workers' and Peasants' Party Central Committee
      Date of publication: 01 February 1957
      Description/subject: The report was presented in "Countrywide Conference of Burma Workers' and Peasants' Party" hold in 5 - 7 September 1956) ဗမာျပည္အလုပ္သမား လယ္သမားပါတီ ဆဌမ အႀကိမ္ေျမာက္ ဗဟိုေကာ္မတီ အစီရင္ခံစာ" ဒုတိယ အႀကိမ္ေျမာက္ ႏိုင္ငံလံုးဆုိင္ရာ ပါတီ ကြန္ဖရင့္ တြင္ တင္သြင္းသည္။ (၁၉၅၆၊ စက္တင္ဘာ ၅ - ၇)
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Burma Workers' and Peasants' Party
      Format/size: pdf (7.24MB)
      Date of entry/update: 09 August 2012


      Title: People’s Democracy Party - Burma (formerly Dobama Asiayone) ျပည္သူ႔ ဒီမိုကေရစီပါတီ (ဗမာျပည္)
      Date of publication: 20 November 1956
      Description/subject: The history and constitution of the People’s Democracy Party (Burma) which changed from Dobama Asiayone (Our Burman Association). ယခုစာတမ္းသည္ ျပည္သူ႔ ဒီမုိကေရစီပါတီ (ဗမာျပည္) ၏ သမိုင္း ႏွင့္ ဖြဲ႔ စည္းပံု ျဖစ္ ၿပီး ၄င္းပါတီသည္ ဒို႔ဗမာ အစည္းအရံုးမွ အသြင္ေျပာင္းလာသည့္ ပါတီျဖစ္သည္။
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: People’s Democracy Party (Burma)
      Format/size: pdf (2.90MB)
      Date of entry/update: 07 August 2012


      Title: "Various Affairs in Politics (First Volume)" "ႏိုင္ငံေရးရာ အျဖာျဖာ"
      Date of publication: 09 October 1946
      Description/subject: 33 articles by U Ba Pay out of 98 in "Han Thar Waddy" newspaper from 23 April 1946... ဟံသာ၀တီ သတင္းစာ ပါ ေဆာင္းပါး ၃၃ ေစာင္ ကို စုစည္းခ်က္ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ စာအုပ္ထုတ္ေ၀ခ်ိန္အထိ ဟံသာ၀တီ သတင္းစာတြင္ ေဆာင္းပါး ၉၈ ေစာင္ ေဖၚျပခဲ့ပါသည္။ ေဆာင္းပါးမ်ားကို ဦးဘေဖ ေရးသားၿပီး ပထမဆံုး ေဆာင္းပါးကို ၁၉၄၆ ခု၊ ဧၿပီ ၂၃ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ စတင္ေဖၚျပပါသည္။
      Author/creator: U Ba Pay (The Great Leader)
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: "Han Thar Waddy" newspapaper
      Format/size: pdf (5.9MB)
      Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


      Title: The Monk and the Vote ဘုန္းႀကီးႏွင့္မဲ
      Date of publication: 1946
      Description/subject: Presentation of the book is Monks should be right to Vote or not in election. ဤစာအုပ္တြင္ ဘုန္းႀကီးမ်ား အေနျဖင့္ ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲတြင္ မဲေပးပိုင္ခြင့္ ရွိသင့္ မရွိသင့္ ကို တင္ျပထားသည္။
      Author/creator: U Tint Shwe (Patama Jaw, Parli Mahar Wizar)
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Format/size: pdf (3.65MB)
      Date of entry/update: 07 August 2012


      Title: "THE NEW BURMA IN THE NEW WORLD"
      Date of publication: 1945
      Description/subject: Manifesto of the Anti Fascist People's Freedom League (Burma Patriotic Front)... Towards better mutual understanding and greater co-operation between the British and the Peoples of Burma... Radio Address by Colonel Naywin (7-5-45) to the People of Burma... Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League Statement... Queries and replies at the press interview given by Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League on 14th May 1945 ... Programme of "National reconstruction through National service"... Policy and immediate Programme of the Anti- Fascist People's Freedom League (Burma Patriotic Front)... Provisional Rules for Supreme Council of Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League... Leaders Conference ... Letter to the Governor ... Resolutions passed at the Meeting of the Supreme Council of The Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League which was held in Session on the 6th, 7th and 8th October 1945... Statement of the Supreme Council of Anti- Fascist People's Freedom League on His Excellency tho Governor's speech on 17fn October 1945 Instrument of Instructions. ... Statement issued on 28th October 1945 by Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League ... The League's Rejonder... List of the nominees of the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League... Shwedagon Mass Meeting. Governor's Executive Council ... Gist of Major-General Aung San's Speech... THE FOLLOWING DOCUMENT IS MISSING: The report of Thakin Than Tun, General Secretary, AFPFL made at the mass meeting held at the Shwedagon Pagoda on the 18th November 1945
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Anti Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL)
      Format/size: pdf (2.6MB-OBL version; 7.07MB-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Book19(en).pdf
      Date of entry/update: 11 August 2012


      Title: "Manifesto of the Communist Party" ကြန္ျမဴနစ္ပါတီ ေက်ညာစာတမ္း (၁)
      Description/subject: The title in Burmese translation is "Manifesto of the Communist Party (1)"... Translated to Burmese from the version "Translated: Samuel Moore in cooperation with Frederick Engels, 1888;" by Maung Maung Tin (No publication date in Burmese translation). Written: Late 1847; First Published: February 1848; Source: Marx/Engels Selected Works, Vol. One, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1969, pp. 98-137; Proofed: and corrected against 1888 English Edition by Andy Blunden 2004; ... ျမန္မာဘာသာျပန္ ၏ ေခါင္းစဥ္မွာ "ကြန္ျမဴနစ္ပါတီ ေက်ညာစာတမ္း (၁)" ျဖစ္ပါသည္... ထုတ္ေ၀သူ၏ မွတ္ခ်က္တြင္ (၁၈၄၈ ခုႏွစ္ မူလ ဂ်ာမန္ဘာသာ စာမူမွ ၁၈၈၈ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ ဆမ္ျမဴရယ္မိုးက အဂၤလိပ္ ဘာသာျပန္ဆို၍၊ ဖရက္ဒရစ္ အိန္ဂ်ယ္စ္က တည္းျဖတ္ထားသည့္ အဂၤလိပ္ဘာသာ- "ကြန္ျမဴနစ္ပါတီ ေက်ညာစာတမ္း" ကို ျမန္မာ ဘာသာသုိ႔ ျပန္ဆိုထားျခင္းျဖစ္ပါသည္။ ယခု စာမူတြင္ ၁၈၈၈ ခုႏွစ္ အဂၤလိပ္ ဘာသာ ရိုက္စာအုပ္ႏွင့္ ၁၈၉၀ ျပည့္ႏွစ္ ဂ်ာမန္ဘာသာ ရိုက္ စာအုပ္တို႔ အတြက္ အိန္ဂ်ယ္စ္၏ မွတ္ခ်က္မ်ားႏွင့္ ဘာသာ အမ်ဳိးမ်ဳိး ျဖင့္ ရိုက္ေသာ ေက်ညာစာတမ္း စာအုပ္မ်ား၏ နိဒါန္းမ်ား အားလံုးလည္း ပါ၀င္ေပသည္။) ဟု ပါရွိသည္။
      Author/creator: Karl Marx and Frederick Engels
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Format/size: pdf (8.12MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist-manifesto/index.htm
      Date of entry/update: 05 August 2012


      Title: Guidelines for organisers on the rules and programme of the Union League
      Description/subject: No publication date. This book was probably published in 1959 or 1960, (Page 6, paragraph 16). "ျပည္ေထာင္စု အဖြဲ႔ ခ်ဳပ္- စည္းရံုးေရး မွဴးမ်ား လိုက္နာရန္ စည္းကမ္းခ်က္ ႏွင့္ စည္းရံုးေရး လုပ္ငန္းစဥ္- ညႊန္ၾကားခ်က္" ... ဗ.တ.လ.စ ပံုႏွိပ္တိုက္ အမွတ္ ၃၉၇ ျပည္လမ္း ၊ ရန္ကုန္။ ...
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Union League
      Format/size: pdf (1.02MB)
      Date of entry/update: 29 July 2012


      Title: Karl Marxism ကားလ္မတ္စ္ ၀ါဒ
      Description/subject: Probably published in 1941(not sure): Recognized by the Nagani (Red Dragon) book club and the Nagani (Red Dragon) printing house. (The title in the cover of this book used "Karl Marx", but the title in first page is "Karl Marxism" and the book explain about Marxism ..... မ်က္ႏွာဖံုး မွ စာအုပ္ အမည္ "ကားလ္မတ္စ္" ျဖစ္ၿပီး၊ ပထမစာမ်က္ႏွာမွ စာအုပ္အမည္မွာ "ကားလ္မတ္စ္ ၀ါဒ" ျဖစ္သည္။ မာ့က္စ္ ၀ါဒအေၾကာင္းရွင္းျပထားေသာ စာအုပ္ျဖစ္သည္။)
      Author/creator: Thakhin Bo သခင္ဗို
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Na Gar Ni
      Format/size: pdf (8.17MB)
      Date of entry/update: 09 August 2012


      Title: Standard rules for registered trade unions
      Description/subject: No publication date. The Burma Trade Union Congress was a central trade union organization in Burma, founded in 1950 as the trade union wing of the Burma Workers and Peasants Party (Wikipedia).
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: The Trade Union Congress (Burma)
      Format/size: pdf (1.12MB)
      Date of entry/update: 04 August 2012


    • Burmese political culture - general publications

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Harn Lay's politcal cartoons
      Description/subject: High quality, hard-hitting. See also the cartoons on "The Irrawaddy"
      Author/creator: Harn Lay
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Shanland
      Format/size: jpeg
      Alternate URLs: http://www.cartoonharnlay.com/
      http://www.irrawaddy.org/archive_cartoon.php?sub_id=9
      http://www.shanland.org/oldversion/cartoons.htm
      Date of entry/update: 15 December 2010


      Individual Documents

      Title: Helping Education to Keep Pace with Reform
      Date of publication: 12 March 2012
      Description/subject: Need for translations into Burmese of key texts
      Author/creator: David Steinberg
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 31 March 2012


      Title: Der Traum vom buddhistischen Wohlfahrtsstaat
      Date of publication: 29 December 2005
      Description/subject: Die hier vorgestellte These besagt, dass es im buddhistischen Birma ein von Menschen aus allen Schichten der Bevölkerung geteiltes geschichtlich überliefertes System von Vorstellungen und Erwartungen gibt, das mit unserem Begriff "Wohlfahrtsstaat" belegt werden kann. keywords: burmese way to socialism, social system, constitution, political culture, welfare state
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zöllner
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: Asienhaus Focus Asien Nr. 26; S. 15-21
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 March 2006


      Title: The Culture of Burmese Politics: An Interview with Gustaaf Houtman
      Date of publication: January 2004
      Description/subject: "Gustaaf Houtman, PhD, is the Deputy Director of the Royal Anthropology Institute in London and the Editor of Anthropology Today. His book, Mental Culture in Burmese Crisis Politics, discusses the Buddhist dimensions to Burma’s conflict between the opposition and the ruling military junta. He spoke with The Irrawaddy about Burma’s political culture and the shortcomings of scholarly work about the country..."
      Language: Engllish
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2004


      Title: Ethnic Entertainers Make the Scene
      Date of publication: May 2003
      Description/subject: "Burma’s ethnic diversity hasn’t translated into equal representation in the entertainment industry, but young ethnic stars are gradually rising above the prejudice held by the Burman majority... Back in the 1970s, when Sai Khan Lait would walk the city streets to go to school at Mandalay Medical Institute, kids along the way would heckle him for his peculiar attire: an ethnic Shan outfit. When hanging around campus, schoolgirls simpered at him. When at the hospital, he would be roundly upbraided by the nurses. "As a student coming from an ethnic minority group, I was very much aware that my life would not be easy in Mandalay," says Sai Khan Lait, who has since become the most famous and respected composer of original modern music in Burma. "Those experiences were deeply personal, and compelled me to compose the song, ‘A Shan Living in Mandalay’." The song went on to become one of the biggest hits in Burmese pop music history..."
      Author/creator: Min Zin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 4
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 02 July 2003


      Title: Thagyamin Is Watching You
      Date of publication: April 2003
      Description/subject: "Legend has it that the king of the nats makes an annual visit to earth with the aim of delivering the world from evil...Where did Thagyamin choose to visit this year? Maybe he was so comfortable surrounded by angels and queens that he forgot to replenish his store of merit. Or perhaps, during Thingyan he went to Inya Lake to enjoy a drink or two with the generals. With any luck he might have found time between drinks to remind them of their spiritual duties..."
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: 'External' Aspects of Self-Determination Movements in Burma
      Date of publication: February 2003
      Description/subject: Abstract: "Based on secondary resources and long term anthropological field research, this paper explores some of the 'external' factors involved in the pro-democracy and ethnic struggles for self-determination currently being experienced in Burma. The analysis draws in cultural, economic and political aspects to demonstrate that a number of macro- and micro-level external or external-origin influences are at play, at a number of different 'inside', 'outside' and marginal sites. The paper argues in particular that 'cultural' factors such as computer-mediated communication and contacts with outsiders when living in exile, serve as means by which real, virtual and imaginary connections are drawn between these different sites and the actors who inhabit them. In the context of Burma, this paper thus presents a glimpse into this complexity of origin and substance of external influences, of interactions between the external and the internal, and of the multidirectional pathways along which they operate. After an introductory overview, it does so by first reviewing some pertinent macro-political and macro-economic external factors, including international views and strategic interests. The paper then focuses on micro-level social and cultural issues, examining aspects of new media as utilised by the Burmese exile community and international activists. External influences on exiled communities living in the margins on the Thai-Burma border (characterised by the paper as neither 'inside' nor 'outside' proper), including Christianity and foreign non-governmental organisations, are then explored. The paper concludes that inside views, reactions and experiences of outside influences are presently just as important in determining outcomes as are the outside influences themselves."
      Author/creator: Sandra Dudley
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Queen Elizabeth House
      Format/size: pdf (123K)
      Alternate URLs: http://ideas.repec.org/p/qeh/qehwps/qehwps94.html
      Date of entry/update: 08 July 2010


      Title: The Coming of the 'Future King" -- Burmese Minlaung Expectations Before and During the Second World War
      Date of publication: 2003
      Description/subject: Throughout the history of Burma we come across rebellions often led by so-called 'future kings,' minlaungs. In western historiography, minlaung-movements are usually attributed to the pre-colonial past, whereas rebellions and movements occurring during the British colonial period are conceived of as proto-nationalist in character and thus an indication of the westernizing process. In this article, the notion of minlaung and concomitant ideas about rebellion and the magical-spiritual forces involved are explained against the backdrop of Burmese-Buddhist culture. It is further shown how these ideas persisted and gained momentum before and during World War II and how they affected the western educated nationalists, especially Aung San whose political actions fit into the cultural pattern of the career of a minlaung.
      Author/creator: Susanne Prager
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 8, 2003
      Format/size: pdf (601K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol8/Abstract2_ClymerOpt.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009


      Title: Ludu Daw Amar: Speaking Truth to Power
      Date of publication: October 2002
      Description/subject: A brief look into the life of Ludu Daw Amar, Burma�s best known female journalist and social critic... "The Burmese word amar translates as "the strong" or "the hard". It is an apt description of one of Burma�s most respected female figures, Ludu Daw Amar (she prefers the spelling, Amah), who turned 87 in November. An energetic political dissenter and left-leaning journalist with a faculty for articulating messages to and for the public, Ludu Daw Amar and her family have had more than their fair share of troubles with the authorities. Even now, Daw Amar is under constant surveillance, but she has never been one to bow down to power. As the prefix of her name Ludu or "the people" suggests, Daw Amar�s raison d�etre is to speak truth to power on behalf of the people without compromise. "I�ll never forget my first impression," recalls Dutch journalist Minka Nijhuis, who has met Daw Amar four times since 1995. "At first she looked so fragile that even her wristwatch seemed too heavy for her arm. But that impression disappeared as soon as she started speaking."
      Author/creator: Min Zin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: An Interview with Ad Carabao
      Date of publication: September 2002
      Description/subject: "I think I can be more like a bullet they could use in fighting back."... The Irrawaddy spoke recently with Yuenyong "Ad" Ophakul, of the Thai folk-rock band Carabao, about his recent solo release, "Don�t Cry" (Mai Dtong Rong Hai). The album, which combines reggae rhythms with strong lyrics expressing support for the Shan struggle for independence, is the artist�s latest foray into Burmese politics. The artist spoke about music and free expression in an interview with Wandee Suntivutimetee..."
      Author/creator: Wandee Suntivutimetee
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: AND THE BAND PLAYED ON
      Date of publication: September 2002
      Description/subject: "The promotion of political ideas in a musical context has been a common feature of mass movements Southeast Asia. In Burma, where strict censorship prevails and military dictatorship still governs, the uneasy marriage of music and politics continues to be met with stiff resistance. Like other political movements in Southeast Asia, music has provided a rallying point for the masses during political upheavals in Burma. It has served as a potent response to the rapid political and social displacements brought on by neo-colonialism, industrialization, and dictatorship. At the same time, music has also been appropriated to serve the establishment by strengthening national cohesion, promoting entrenched power structures and spreading selected values and information to the multitudes..."
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10. No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Burmese Pop Music: Identity in Transition
      Date of publication: September 2002
      Description/subject: "Dominated by cover songs derived from foreign imports, Burmese popular music continues to struggle to find its own voice. In a closed society like Burma, culture is all about preservation and less to do with innovation. Any creative breakthrough produces moral panic, not only in the minds of the powers that be, but also of the majority of folks. In a deep-down analysis, the structural interests of both politics and the market are the most decisive factors in shaping the creative capacity of the society at large. The 30-year-long journey of Burmese pop music can be seen in this light, since it is very much a product of this control culture and is still subject to the restrictive and exploitative political and market structure..."
      Author/creator: Min Zin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Straight Outta Rangoon
      Date of publication: September 2002
      Description/subject: "Rap music and Hip-Hop have gained a foothold in Rangoon, but many still prefer to step to a different beat. Sai Sai stands waiting backstage wearing his high-top Nike Air Jordans, both hands in the pockets of his oversized shorts that match his loose-fitting hooded sweatshirt. His friend, wearing a bandanna on his head beneath a New York Yankees baseball cap flipped backwards, talks to a fellow band-member sporting her favorite skintight jeans. They are waiting to perform along side some of Burma�s newest and hottest music stars in Rangoon at an outdoor concert�a rarity in a country where public gatherings of more than five people are officially prohibited..."
      Author/creator: Shawn L. Nance/Rangoon
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Power of Hpoun
      Date of publication: December 2001
      Description/subject: "The excitement surrounding the discovery of a white elephant has served to illustrate the continuing importance of pre-modern notions of power in Burmese society... Culture is not an immediate obstacle to the political transition that Burma urgently needs to undergo. However, Burmese culture—or, more particularly, notions of power rooted in Burmese culture—may provide a distorted map that could very well prolong the country’s journey towards its goal of achieving a modern, democratic state..."
      Author/creator: Min Zin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9, No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Stealing Heaven's Thunder
      Date of publication: April 2001
      Description/subject: The descent of the Celestial King during the Burmese New Year has been eclipsed by the ambitions of generals who believe they will be rewarded for their deeds here on Earth.
      Author/creator: Min Zin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Life under Military Rule
      Date of publication: September 2000
      Description/subject: Family vs. Morality
      Author/creator: Christina Fink
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. VII, No. 3
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Looking at Burma's Political Culture
      Date of publication: September 2000
      Description/subject: With headlines declaring a political stalemate and international efforts for promoting dialogue stalled, many of those outside Burma are grappling for an understanding of what makes the Burmese political mind tick. On the following pages, Burmese from varied walks of life share their views on the mental culture surrounding Burmese political thinking. What do they see as the cultural and social influences that have an impact on the way people think of politics? How much of a role do religion and traditional values play? And what does it all mean for the future of Burma?
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. VII, No. 3
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Thakin Kodaw Hmaing (1876 -1964)
      Date of publication: March 2000
      Description/subject: Contemporary poet and literary scholar Min Thu Wun has commented that modern Burmese literature and political thought would be impossible to imagine without the works of Kodaw Hmaing. Maung Lun, later known as Thakin Kodaw Hmaing, was born on March 23, 1876 in Wale Village, Shwedaung Township. In 1894 he moved to Rangoon, where he began his career as a playwright. Later turning to journalism, he published his first articles in a newspaper in Moulmein. But in 1911, just as the Burmese nationalist movement was gaining strength, he returned to the capital to work for the Suria newspaper.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 8, No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 February 2009


      Title: Remaking Myanmar and human origins
      Date of publication: 04 August 1999
      Description/subject: "...an account of the role of pagoda relics and museum fossils in SLORC-SPDC concepts of nation-building... Here I examine two notable features of this regime. Desperate for national and international recognition, it began the large-scale renovation and construction of pagodas, on the one hand, and museums, palaces and ancient monasteries on the other. These constructions have taken place on a scale and with a rapidity never before witnessed in the history of Southeast Asia. It has decided to renovate and rebuild all the thousands of pagodas in the 11th century capital Pagan. It is furthermore committing enormous funds to pagodas all over the country. At least two dozen new museums have been built. These house ancient heritage, but also the history of the army and the Pondaung fossils, that it claims represent the oldest humanoids of the world. The latter, it hopes, places the Myanmar people on the world's map as the oldest civilization. It also has rebuilt all ancient palaces in the ancient capitals. As I hope to show, these are vital elements at the heart of the regime's "new" ideology I have dubbed "Myanmafication", after their decision to rename the country Myanmar in 1989..."
      Author/creator: Gustaaf Houtman
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Anthropology Today", Vol. 15, No. 4, August 1999, pp 13-19
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 July 2010


      Title: The True Meaning of Garava
      Date of publication: August 1999
      Description/subject: Garava, the principle of respect for oneself and others, is a cornerstone of Burmese culture. But as Pyei Lwin Nyeinchan writes, forcing people to kowtow to authority is not the way to win respect.
      Author/creator: Pyei Lwin Nyeinchan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Kamma on the Palm of Your Hand?
      Date of publication: March 1999
      Description/subject: Moe Aung examines the relationship between Buddhism and popular beliefs in Burma.
      Author/creator: Moe Aung
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Our Burmese Days
      Date of publication: 1996
      Description/subject: by Lindsey Merrison color, 94 minutes, rd 1996 video sale $225, rental $65 "An examination of biculturalism wrapped in an extraordinary personal odyssey. "Our Burmese Days" is also a fascinating defacto glimpse of life in a country that's rarely covered in the media today. Now known as Myanmar, the film's title is a reference to the novel "Burmese Days" by George Orwell, who worked for a time in the country's colonial police force...B&W footage of the war in Burma is well integrated with modern views and memories. The camera gives a a feel for contemporary life, both urban and rural without being "touristy". The filmmaker had long negotiations with the country's military for a permit to shoot this film. While the political situation is only hinted at the film is eloquent about the violence of world and family history; eloquent about the anguish and spiritual expense of hating one's own origins..."
      Author/creator: Lindsey Merrison
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: What policy should be used to establish the third Union of Burma? တတိယ ျပည္ေထာင္စုျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ ဘယ္မူနဲ႔ ဖြဲ႔စည္းမလဲ
      Description/subject: This is a speech of Wi Du Ya Thakhin Chit Maung on the 44th anniversary of Union Day (12 February 1991)... (၄၄) ႀကိမ္ေျမာက္ျပည္ေထာင္စုေန႔ (၁၂-၂-၉၁)၊ အမ်ဳိးသား ျပန္လည္တည္ေဆာက္ေရး ဒီမိုကေရစီတပ္ေပါင္းစု ဌာနခ်ဳပ္တြင္ က်င္းပသည့္ ျပည္ေထာင္စုေန႔ အခမ္းအနားတြင္ ၀ိဓူရ သခင္ခ်စ္ေမာင္ ေျပာၾကားေသာ မိန္႔ခြန္း... (၁၉၉၂ ခုႏွစ္ ေဖေဖာ္၀ါရီလ၊ ပထမအႀကိမ္၊ ေစာင္ေရ ၅၀၀၀၊ တန္ဖိုး ၁၀က်ပ္။)
      Author/creator: Wi Du Ya Thakhin Chit Maung ၀ိဓူရ သခင္ခ်စ္ေမာင္
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: League of National Progressive Youth
      Format/size: pdf (3.14MB)
      Date of entry/update: 04 August 2012


    • Culture of violence

      Individual Documents

      Title: Voices for Change: Domestic Violence and Gender Discrimination in the Palaung Area (Burmese)
      Date of publication: 25 November 2011
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report documents how women in the Palaung area are affected by domestic violence and gender discrimination. Survey results collected by PWO show that almost all respondents had experienced or seen physical violence within families in their community, and that physical violence is occurring with alarming frequency, in many cases on an almost daily basis. PWO’s research shows that gender discrimination is widespread in the Palaung area, and that many people’s attitudes conform to traditional gender stereotypes which assume that women must fulfil the role of homemaker and accept sole responsibility for childcare duties. Since the 2010 election, Burma’s military-backed regime has failed to take any effective action to promote women’s rights and gender equality, or to uphold its commitments to CEDAW. Burma remains one of only two ASEAN countries lacking a specific law criminalising domestic violence, and PWO’s research has found that there are no government-led projects to raise awareness of domestic violence and women’s rights in the rural areas of northern Shan State, where the vast majority of the Palaung population live. The ‘new’ regime has yet to address the economic and social crises fuelling domestic violence in the Palaung area. The economic crisis afflicting the Palaung people as a direct result of the state’s monopoly of the tea industry, as well as the increase in opium cultivation and addiction in the Palaung area since the 2010 election have directly contributed to the problem of domestic violence, as males resort to physical violence as a means of expressing their anger and frustration with their situation. More than five decades of civil war have bred a culture of male domination, fear, and violence in Burma. Palaung people, especially males, have been socialised into this culture, and see violence as a necessary means of asserting their authority over their wives, in the same way as the state uses violence to assert its authority over Burma’s ethnic nationalities. The regime appears to have no intention of bringing an end to Burma’s culture of violence, and continues to wage war against ethnic rebels in northern Shan State. 5 Domestic violence has a devastating impact on individuals, families and communities. Apart from the obvious physical impact of domestic violence, women also suffer psychologically. Domestic violence threatens the stability of the family unit, often has a negative impact on children’s education, and acts as an obstacle to community development. Burma’s military-backed regime needs to recognise domestic violence and gender discrimination as obstacles to achieving a peaceful society in Burma, and to embark upon a program of genuine political reform which addresses the social and economic factors fuelling domestic violence and gender discrimination."
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Palaung Women's Organization (PWO)
      Format/size: pdf (1.91MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.palaungwomen.com
      Date of entry/update: 25 January 2012


      Title: Voices for Change: Domestic Violence and Gender Discrimination in the Palaung Area (English)
      Date of publication: 25 November 2011
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report documents how women in the Palaung area are affected by domestic violence and gender discrimination. Survey results collected by PWO show that almost all respondents had experienced or seen physical violence within families in their community, and that physical violence is occurring with alarming frequency, in many cases on an almost daily basis. PWO’s research shows that gender discrimination is widespread in the Palaung area, and that many people’s attitudes conform to traditional gender stereotypes which assume that women must fulfi l the role of homemaker and accept sole responsibility for childcare duties. Since the 2010 election, Burma’s military-backed regime has failed to take any effective action to promote women’s rights and gender equality, or to uphold its commitments to CEDAW. Burma remains one of only two ASEAN countries lacking a specifi c law criminalising domestic violence, and PWO’s’ research has found that there are no government-led projects to raise awareness of domestic violence and women’s rights in the rural areas of northern Shan State, where the vast majority of the Palaung population live. The ‘new’ regime has yet to address the economic and social crises fuelling domestic violence in the Palaung area. The economic crisis affl icting the Palaung people as a direct result of the state’s monopoly of the tea industry, as well as the increase in opium cultivation and addiction in the Palaung area since the 2010 election have directly contributed to the problem of domestic violence, as males resort to physical violence as a means of expressing their anger and frustration with their situation. More than fi ve decades of civil war have bred a culture of male domination, fear, and violence in Burma. Palaung people, especially males, have been socialised into this culture, and see violence as a necessary means of asserting their authority over their wives, in the same way as the state uses violence to assert its authority over Burma’s ethnic nationalities. The regime appears to have no intention of bringing an end to Burma’s culture of violence, and continues to wage war against ethnic rebels in northern Shan State. 5 Domestic violence has a devastating impact on individuals, families and communities. Apart from the obvious physical impact of domestic violence, women also suffer psychologically. Domestic violence threatens the stability of the family unit, often has a negative impact on children’s education, and acts as an obstacle to community development. Burma’s military-backed regime needs to recognise domestic violence and gender discrimination as obstacles to achieving a peaceful society in Burma, and to embark upon a program of genuine political reform which addresses the social and economic factors fuelling domestic violence and gender discrimination."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Palaung Women's Organisation
      Format/size: pdf (1.5MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.palaungwomen.com
      Date of entry/update: 25 January 2012


      Title: VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN (Chapter from "Gathering Strength")
      Date of publication: January 2002
      Description/subject: OVERVIEW; WOMEN IN WAR; RELOCATION & DISPLACEMENT; SEXUAL VIOLENCE & ARMED CONFLICT; SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN AREAS OF MILITARY OCCUPATION; SEXUAL VIOLENCE ACROSS BORDERS: REFUGEES & MIGRANTS; SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN THE COMMUNITY; REPORTING & PUNISHMENT OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE; FORCED MARRIAGE; DOMESTIC VIOLENCE; DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN RELOCATION & REFUGE; GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS.
      Author/creator: Brenda Belak
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Images Asia
      Format/size: PDF (745K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Dress

      Individual Documents

      Title: Nationalism by design: The politics of dress in British Burma
      Date of publication: January 2008
      Description/subject: Colonial attempts to hem in racial and gender difference through practice, law and lore made dress a potent field of resistance in British Burma, giving rise to new strands of nationalism by design.
      Author/creator: Penny Edwards
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS) (Newsletter No. 46
      Format/size: pdf (580K)
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


    • Myanmar Literature Project

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Dates of the Myanmar Literature Project papers
      Date of publication: April 2010
      Description/subject: Since some of the papers have been updated it is not clear how to date them. This list gives the date of original publication and of the updates, where relevant.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (54K)
      Date of entry/update: 24 April 2010


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - English version
      Date of publication: February 2007
      Description/subject: English introduction to the Myanmar Literature Project..."The project connects three aims.  It intends to document and analyse the role of Burmese/Myanmar literature as a medium between the world and the country’s society from the beginning of the 20th century until today.  It seeks to establish a network of people who are concerned about Burma's/Myanmar's intellectual and literary life past, present and future both inside and outside of present day Myanmar.  It wants to implement small scale training courses in the fields of literary, historical and social sciences for scholars and students of Myanmar studies..."
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner (ed)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (91.6K)
      Date of entry/update: 08 May 2007


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - Home Page
      Description/subject: This page contains a German introduction to the project plus links to an English introduction and to a number of individual papers, which are all in English apart from the German version of one paper which is also online in English.
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner (ed)
      Language: English, Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 08 May 2007


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - Working Paper No. 10:100 - Papers Presented at the Burma Studies Conference Singapore 2006
      Description/subject: Contents: About the Contributors... I INTRODUCTION (Hans-Bernd Zoellner)... Looking Back on the Way to a Second Level of Investigation... Nationalism ... Political Terms and Political Reality ... Socialist Economics with a Question Mark... A Way Out ... Looking Ahead - Sceptically, not Pessimistically ... II Hans-Bernd Zöllner: INTEGRATING OTHER PEOPLES’ PAST... III Mo Mo Thant: A STUDY OF PUBLICATION BY NAGANI BOOK CLUB UNDER THE NATIONALISTIC ASPECTS... 1 Introduction... 2 Political Biographies... 3 Socialism... 4 Anti-Fascism... 5 Internal Affairs ... 6 Summary... 7 Bibliography ... IV Tin Hlaing: TRANSLATION OF POLITICAL TERMS AND CONCEPTS INTO BURMESE WITH REFERENCE TO NAGANI PUBLICATIONS... Initial Conditions ... Growth of Nationalism and Political Awakening... Political Terms and Concepts in Nagani Books... Reviving Old Terms ... Parties and Organizations ... Democracy and People Power, Communism and Socialism... Revolution ... Constitution ... Political Meetings... University ... Other un-translated Terms... Conclusion... References... V Khin Maung Nyo: EMERGENCE OF SOCIALIST ECONOMIC LITERATURE IN MYANMAR/BURMA SOME PROVISIONAL REMARKS... Introduction... Attractiveness of Socialism... Controversial Issues... Experiences of the Thakins ... Anti-Imperialism and Anti-Capitalism... Nationalism and Buddhism ... Japanese Period ... Individual Responsibility... Socialism - a Solution or a Problem?... VI Bo Bo: A CONTROVERSIAL FICTION OF A CONTROVERSIAL AUTHOR, THE WAY’S OUT... Photograph of Daw Khin Kyi Kyi ... Introduction... Newspaper Advertisement of Thein Pe The Way Out... Political Background of the Book ... Literary Background ... Synopsis of the Book ... Foreword... The Plot ... Book Reviews and Comments ... My Opinion... References... VII APPENDICES.
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner (ed.)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (340K - OBL version; 607K - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.zoellner-online.org/mlp100.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2011


      Individual Documents

      Title: Myanmar Literature Project . Working Paper No. 10:1.1 "The Strike War"
      Date of publication: October 2012
      Description/subject: Foreword (Hans-Bernd Zöllner): "It's a special pleasure for me to write the foreword for this working paper which is a rather special issue in more than one way. The translator, Stephen Campbell, sent the text to me and asked if it could be included in the Myanmar Literature Project's series of Working Papers. After having a look at the work I realised first that Thakin Po Hla Gyi was no Nagani author but as a Thakin must have shared the political creed of the Nagani founders. Second and more important, his work complements a series of books and pamphlets published by Nagani, notably the two booklets by Ba Hein and Thein Pe on the students' revolution and the involvement in the strike of the oilfield workers in 1938 and the Indo-Burmese riots of the same year respectively (Working Papers 11 an 12 of this series). Therefore, it is very much suited to be included in ths series. Thakin Po Hla Gyi's book very much contributes to understand the revolutionary spirit among the students, workers and nationalists in the year 1938 – 1300 according to the Burmese era. It would be worthwhile to further investigate the events of that year and compare it to the upheavals in Burma's post-war history. Finally, I would like to thank Stephen Campbell very much for his contribution to the Myanmar Lierature Project. The publication of the text coincides with the 75th anniversary of the Nagani Bok Club which will be celebrated in Yangon on November 4th, 2012. Hopefully, this celebration and the changes happening in Myanmar these days will help to broaden the interest in the foundations of Burma's independence in the late colonial period, its impact on later events and its significance for understanding Burmese perceptions of society and politics."
      Author/creator: Thakin Po Hla Gyi (trans. Stephen Campbell)
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Literature Project (Working Paper No. 10:11.1)
      Format/size: pdf (5.6MB)
      Date of entry/update: 21 November 2012


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 01. Working Paper No. 10:1 - An Introduction into the Nagani Book Club
      Description/subject: Contents About the Contributors... I. INTRODUCTION (Hans-Bernd Zöllner)... On the History of the Myanmar Literature Project... A Rather Long March... First Steps... Future Issues... Introducing this Publication... Fundamentals... Categories of Interest... Nagani in Different Contexts... People... Books... Public Relations... Others... A Note on Editing the Book Reports...... II. ENTERTAINING KNOWLEDGE: An Introduction into the Nagani Book Club... 1. Introduction: 2. History and Stories... Roots... The Genesis of an Idea... The Beginnings... Success and Split... The Final Years... 3. Books and More... Classification and Nature of Published Books... The Reception of World Literature... Personal and Political Affiliation... 4. The Club's Impact... 5. Invitation to Join the "Club of Researchers"..... III. INFORMATION ABOUT U TUN AYE (Compiled by Thakin Hla Kun)... 1. Life Sketch of U Tun Aye... 2. Translation of an Interview given by U Tun Aye... Foreword by Editor Soe Myint Latt... 3. The Song.. 4. Some of the Publications of Nagani..... IV. BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON THAKIN HLA KUN... 1. Personal Life Sketch... Photograph of Thakin Hla Kun (1945)... 2. Extract from a diary covering a travel to Yangon in January, 2005 (H.-B. Zöllner)... Photograph of Thakin Hla Kun (2005)..... V. INTERVIEW WITH DAGON TAYA: Photograph of Dagon Taya (2001)..... VI. NU’s BIOGRAPHICAL REMINISCENCES ON THE NAGANI BOOK CLUB: Outside the Ivory Tower... Reproduction of an invitation card to commemorate the 10th anniversary of Nu's death..... VII. THE NAGANI NEWSLETTER "AN OVERVIEW... Volume 1, No. 1, 42 pp. [Incomplete]; Volume 1. No, 2, 36 pp; Vol. I, No. 3, 34 (+2) pp; Vol. I, No. 4, 38 (+2) pp; Vol. I, No. 5 [missing]; Vol. 1. No. 7, (End of September 1938), 40 pp; Vol. I, No. 8, 32 pp. (End of October 1938); Vol. I, No. 9, 32 pp..... VIII. THREE DOCUMENTS: Leaflet Heralding the Purposes and Activities of the Nagani Book Club... Translation of Leaflet Heralding Purposes and Activities of the Nagani Book Club... The Dragon Book of Verse (Title Page)... Nagani Share..... IX. LIST OF BOOKS PUBLISHED BY NAGANI BOOK CLUB AND BURMA PUBLISHING HOUSE: Nagani Book Club... Tun Aye's Burma Publishing House..... X. APPENDICES: Nagani Project"Call for Participants"..... SHORT INFORMATION on the MAKING of the BOOK REPORTS
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zöllner (ed)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (717K - OBL version; 1.52MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.zoellner-online.org/mlp1.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 02. Working Paper No. 10:1.1 - Additional Material related to the Nagani Book Club
      Description/subject: Contents: About the Contributors... I. INTRODUCTION (Hans-Bernd Zöllner): International Relations... Documents and Information... Writings on The Nagani Book Club... Miscellanea..... II. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: 1. The Left Book Club..... III. DOCUMENTS and INFORMATION: 1. Tun Shwe’s Dossier (Translation: Ye Nyunt)... 2. Myint Swe, Nagani Diga (Translation: Tin Hlaing)... 3. Nagani Weekly (Nwe Ni Aung)... 3.1. Vol. 2, No 3 (August 31st, 1940); 3.2. Vol. 2, No 16 (September 21st, 1940); 3.3. Vol. 2, No 17 (28th September 1940); 3.4. Vol. 2, No. 19 (12th October, 1940); 3.5. Vol. 2, No. 35 (February 8th, 1941)..... IV. WRITINGS on NAGANI: 1. Kyaw Hoe, Inception and Objective of the Nagani Association (Translation: Ye Nyunt)... 2. Maung Zeyar, Nagani Sarzu (Translation: Ye Nyunt)... 3. Maung Zeyar, Thakin Ba Thaung & Nagani (Translation: Ye Nyunt)..... V. MISCELLANEA..... VI. APPENDICES
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zöllner (ed)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (939K - OBL version; 3.58MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.zoellner-online.org/mlp1.1.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 03. Working Paper No. 10:2 - Material on Thein Pe, Biography of Saya Lun and Member of Parliament
      Description/subject: Contents: About the Contributors..... I INTRODUCTION (Hans-Bernd Zoellner): Measuring the Size of a Dragon... Some Observations and Questions... About this Volume... Drawing Thankin Kodaw Hmaing... Front page of Saya Lun's Biography (Reproduction)..... II MATERIAL ON THEIN PE, BIOGRAPHY OF SAYA LUN: 1 Bibliographical Information (Kyaw Hoe, Translation: Frankie Tun)... 2 Ko Tar: Book Review on Biography of Saya Lun... The Author... Saya Lun alias Thakin Kodaw Hmine... Thein Pe’s Biography of Saya Lun ... The Editorial Foreword and Introduction... 3 Commentary on Ko Tar Thein Pe, Biography of Saya Lun (Gerhard Köberlin)... 4 Kyaw Nyunt: Book Review on Biography of Saya Lun (Thakin Kodaw Hmaing)... Brief Biography of the Author, Thein Pe Myint (1914-1978) 27 Summary of the Book on Saya Lun... Aim and Impact of the Book and Assessment... References... 5 Critique of the Review by Kyaw Nyunt (Volker Grabowsky)... 6 Some Writings by Saya Lun (Translation: U Tin Htway)... Introductory Remarks: a) Poems on the Student Strike of 1920 (University le:-khyui:-kri:)... b) Excerpts from the Thakin Tika..... III MATERIAL ON THEIN PE, MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT... 1 Bibliographical Information (Kyaw Hoe, Translation: Frankie Tun)... 2 Nay Lin: Book Report of Min Taing Pin (Member of Parliament) (Translation: Tin Hlaing)... Thein Pe, Saya Lun and Royal Advisers... Brief Biography of the Author... Abstract of the Story... Remarks... 3 Commentary on Nay Lin’s report (Doerthe Beer)... 4 Thein Pe, The MLA (Translation: Usha Nagayarma)..... IV APPENDICES... SHORT INFORMATION on the MAKING of the BOOK REPORTS... INFORMATION about COMMENTARIES on BOOK REPORTS.
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner (ed.)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (539K - OBL version; 1.46MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.zoellner-online.org/mlp2.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 04. Working Paper No. 10:3 - Material on Ba Hein: The World of Capitalists
      Description/subject: Contents: About the Contributors... I INTRODUCTION (Hans-Bernd Zoellner)... Heralding another Book Club... Ba Hein and the Alliance of Students, Thakins and Workers... The Godfathers... The Message and its Multi-Layered Background... About this Volume... Illustrations... II PREFACE BY THAKIN THAN TUN (Translation: Thakin Hla Kun)... III MATERIAL ON BA HEIN: WORLD OF CAPITALISTS... 1 U Tin Htway on Ko Ba Hein's World of Capitalists... 2 Kyaw Hoe: Information about Ba Hein (Translation: Frankie Tun)... 3 U Aung Min Naing: Book Review (Translation: Georg Noack)... Biography of the Author... Summary of the Book of "The Capitalist World"... Critique... 31 Short Commentary by Philip Schunke... 4 Zaw Naing: Book Report (Danashin loka), (Translation: Georg Noack)... Biography of the Author... Summary of Content... Critique... Present Significance... 41 Tinya Wollweber: Commentary on Zaw Naing’s Report on Danashin Loka... IV SOME MATERIAL FROM THE INTERNET ON RAJINI PALME DUTT5... 1 Vijay Singh, Record of the Discussions of Rajani Palme Dutt with MK Gandhi, Sardar Patel and Jawaharlal Nehru (4th, 8th and 9th April, 1946)... Introduction... 2 Paul Flewers, What R Palme Dutt stood for ... 3 Jim Higgins, RP Dutt: Stalin’s British mouthpiece (February 1975)... V APPENDICES... SHORT INFORMATION on the MAKING of the BOOK REPORTS... INFORMATION about COMMENTARIES on BOOK REPORTS.
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner (ed.)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (448K - OBL version; 878K - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.zoellner-online.org/mlp3.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 05. Working Paper No. 10:4 - Material on Thein Pe: Students’ Boycott (Two Volumes)
      Description/subject: Contents: About the Contributors.... I INTRODUCTION (Hans-Bernd Zoellner).... Marginal Research on a Central Issue.... Contextualizing two Documentary Novels .... A Closer Look at Three Burmese Political Theatres in 1938 and 1939.... The Task of Conceptualising the Role of Students in Burmese Politics.... About this Volume.... Reproduction of the Front Page..... II MATERIAL ON THEIN PE, STUDENTS’ BOYCOTT.... 1 Kyaw Hoe, Bibliographical Information, Part 1 (Translation: Frankie Tun).... 2 Kyaw Hoe, Bibliographical Information, Part 2 (Translation: Frankie Tun)...Two Photos from the Students' Strike of 1936...3. A critique by Maung Nu of “The Boycotting Student”... 4 Than Min Htaik, Book Report on Students' Boycott (Translation: Aung Kyaw Moe).... The Biography of Writer Thein Pe Myint (1914-1978).... Synopsis Volume One.... Synopsis Volume Two.... A Review on the Novel “The Boycott Student”.... 5.1 Commentary by Esther-Rina Urbani.... 5.2 Reply to the Commentary by Than Min Htaik... 6 Kyaw Min: Book Report on Students' Boycott, Vol 1 (Translation: Frankie Tun).... Biography of the Author... STUDENTS’ BOYCOTT ( First Part ).... Critique.... 7. Commentary on the Report on Thein Pe Myint's Students' Boycott (Jasmin Lorch).... 8. Kyaw Min: Book Report on Students' Boycott, Vol 2 (Translation: Frankie Tun) .... Students’ Boycott (Part Two).... Critique.... 9. Commentary by Barend Jan Terwiel .... 10. Aye Kyaw, The 1936 Strike.... 11. Article from Oway Magazin: "Hell Hound at Large".... 12. Demands of the Striking Students, 1936.... 13. Nu, Autobiographical Reminiscences: A Quarrel with Principal Sloss.... Meet the RUSU President... A Fiendish Tattoo on Tin Cans... Expulsion and the Student Strike... Outside the Ivory Tower.... 13. Frankie Tun, My Point of View after Reading Thein Phe Myint’s Students’ Boycott.... 14 Khin Yi on the End of the Student Strike of 1939.... 15 John F Cady's Remembrances of 1936.... 16 Lucian Pye on the Students’ Strike of 1936 and the Burmese “Politicians’ Search for Identity”..... III APPENDICES.
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zollner (ed.)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (556K - OBL version; 5.75MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.zoellner-online.org/mlp4.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 06. Working Paper No. 10:4.1 - Students and Politics in Burma/Myanmar – Documents and Essays
      Description/subject: I INTRODUCTION (Hans-Bernd Zoellner)..... II DOCUMENTS: 1 1920-1947: DOCUMENT 1: Demands of the Striking Students, 1920... DOCUMENT 2: Speech of the Chairman of the Strike Committee Ko Ba U... DOCUMENT 3: On the Death of Aung Kyaw (December 1938).... DOCUMENT 4: We Students... DOCUMENT 5: Meeting of the ABSU October 1939... 2 1948-1962: DOCUMENT 6: Nu, “New Responsibilties”, 28th February 1951 … DOCUMENT 7: Maung Maung, Student Unions in England and Burma... DOCUMENT 8: Nu, “To Students” 23rd November 1951... DOCUMENT 9: Nu, “Advice to University Students”, 2nd November 1953... DOCUMENT 10: Address by General Ne Win December 2, 1958... DOCUMENT 11: TEXT OF ADDRESS BY GENERAL NE WIN DECEMBER 18, 1959...... 3: DOCUMENTS 1962 to 1988: DOCUMENT 12: Seventh July Student Massacre... Document 13 : Excerpt from Aung Gyi’s letter to Ne Win, 22 June 1988... Document 14: Excerpt from Ne Win’s Speech before the BSSP Congress, 23. July 1988... Document 15: Peace Eludes U Thant... DOCUMENT 16: Tin Maung Oo, A Rose In December 74..... 4: 1988 until Today: DOCUMENT 17: Excerpts from Suu Kyi’s Speech at Shwedagon-Pagoda, 26.8.1988... DOCUMENT 18: Excerpts from Megan Clymer, Min Ko Naing... DOCUMENT 19: Two Interviews with Ko Ko Gyi: Democratic Voice of Burma: Interview with Ko Ko Gyi after his release Thu Mar 17, 2005... Interview with MIZZIMA (No Date)..... DOCUMENT 20: Min Ko Naing on Burma’s Human Right Day (Monday 13.3.2006)... DOCUMENT 21: VOA, October 3, 2006, Report on Arrests of "88 Students Group" … DOCUMENT 22: Interview with Min Ko Naing 2007... DOCUMENT 23: Statement of the 2007 Generation Students' Union..... 5: Aung Saw Oo, Burma's Student Movement: A Concise History..... III Bibliographical Note (H.-B. Zöllner)..... IV. Essays: 1. Barbara Zeus, The Internet: a new weapon of the Burmese student movement?... 2. Anna Jüschke, “Reformasi“ versus Revolution – Burma’s and Indonesia’s Students in Comparison.
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner (ed)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (801K - OBL version; 1.89MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.zoellner-online.org/mlp4.1.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 07. Working Paper No. 10:5 - Material on Ba Khaing, Political History of Myanma
      Description/subject: Contents: About the Contributors..... I. INTRODUCTION: A Pioneering Work, Nearly Forgotten... Shared Convictions - Different Ways... Closed Systems of Communication... About this Volume... Reproduction: Front Page..... II. MATERIAL on BA KHAING, POLITICAL HISTORY OF MYANMA: 1. Kyaw Hoe, Bibliographical Information (Translation: Frankie Tun)... 2. Dr. Khin Thida, Review of the Book [Extracts] (Translation: Htun Aung Kyaw)... 3. Myanmar Political History, Translation (Tin Hlaing)... Introduction... Chapter 1: History of Burma.... Chapter 2: Growth of the Desire for Independence ... Chapter 3: The Beginning of the Wunthanu Movement ... Chapter 4: General Council of Burmese Associations (G.C.B.A.)... Chapter 5: The Breach Begins .... Chapter 6 ... Chapter 7: The Sasana... Chapter 8: Wunthanu Activities of Burmese Women... Chapter 9: U Chit Hlaing GCBA... Chapter 10: Second Split of GCBA... Chapter 11: U Soe Thein GCBA... Chapter 12: [50 Sub-chapters; see overview on pp.12-14] ...... 4. Extracts from U Ba Khaing's book “Burma's Political History” (Translation: Tin Htway)... Extract No. 1 (pp.: 56-58) ... Burmese Text (The Split between Old Men and Youth) .... Extract No. 2 (pp.: 64-66)... Burmese Text (GCBA Associations)... Extract No. 3 (pp.: 77-78) Burmese Text (Chapter 6) ... Extract No. 4 (pp.: 90-95) ... Burmese Text (Chapter 8 - Wunthanu Activities of Burmese Women) ... Extract No. 5 (pp.: 209-211) ... Burmese Text (The Thakin Movement) ... Extract No. 6. (pp.: 271-272) ... Burmese Text (U Chit Hling and Burmese Language) ... Extract No. 7 (pp.:301-302) ............................ Burmese Text: (The Financial Situation of Myanma) .... 5. Ko Ko Thett, An Appraisal of ‘Political History of Burma’ by Ba Khine..... III. APPENDICES: SHORT INFORMATION on the MAKING of the BOOK REPORTS.... INFORMATION about COMMENTARIES on BOOK REPORTS
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zollner (ed.)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (2.9MB - OBL version; 8.93MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.zoellner-online.org/mlp5.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 08. Working Paper No. 10:6 - Material on Nu: Gandalarit
      Description/subject: CONTENTS: About the Contributors..... I. INTRODUCTION (Hans-Bernd Zöllner): Travelogue in Various Perspectives... Winning Friends and Influencing Peoples... Various Images of a Burmese Nation Between India and Japan ... Books ... Travels... Homogenity, Diversity and the Threat of Splits... Building Friendship through Charismatic Diplomacy... About this Volume...... II. MATERIAL on NU, GANDALARIT: 1. Kyaw Hoe, Bibliographical Information (Translation: Frankie Tun)... Reproduction of Three Photos Contained in the Book ... A scene from a Chinese play... Chiang Kai-shek & Wife and the Delegation... Mao Tse Tung... 2.1 Mo Mo Thant: Report on Gandarlarit (Translation. Georg Noack)... Biography of the Author ... Gandarlarit... Critique... 2.2. Commentary on Mo Mo Thant’s Book Report by J. Wahoff ... 3.1. Tin Hlaing: Book Report on Nu, Gandalarit... The Author... The Book... The Backdrop... The Contents of the Book... External Sources of Information in the Book... Translation of Terms and Concepts... Aim and Impact... Assessment of the Book..... APPENDIX: Additional Information about the Members of the Delegation... 3.2. Lydia Seibel: Commentary on Tin Hlaing's Book Report ... 3.3. Tin Hlaing: Response on Lydia Seibel's Comment ... 4. Excerpt: The Japanese Air-Raid on Chungking, Translation by Tin Htway... 5. The Dobama Song..... III. APPENDICES: SHORT INFORMATION on the MAKING of the BOOK REPORTS... INFORMATION about COMMENTARIES on BOOK REPORTS.
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner (ed)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (481K - OBL version; 1.18MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.zoellner-online.org/mlp6.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 09. Working Paper No. 10:7 - Material on Mogyo: José Rizal
      Description/subject: Contents: About the Contributors.... I INTRODUCTION (Hans-Bernd Zoellner): Presenting a Tragic Asian Hero... Burmese Days - Martyrs’ Days... Reflections and Questions... About this Volume...... II MATERIAL ON MOGYO, JOSE RIZAL: 1 Kyaw Hoe, Summary (Translation: Khin Maung Saw) .... 2 Moe Hein Zaw: Book Review (Translation: Aung Kyaw Moe) .... Chapter (1).... Chapter (2): The Student Life .... Chapter (3): The Overseas Education .... Chapter (4): Learning Higher Education .... Chapter (5): Noli Me Tangere .... Chapter (6): A Melancholic Love Story .... Chapter (7): Second Expatriation .... Chapter (8): The Reign of Greed .... Chapter (9): A Struggle between Violence and Peace .... Chapter (10) How Rizal Let the World Know about the Philippines .... Chapter (11): The Blistering Lava from the Volcano .... Chapter (12): Coming Back to Sacrifice His Life .... Chapter (13): The Execution .... Review .... 2.1 Commentary to Moe Hein Zaw’s Report by Heinrich Geiger .... 3 Daw Khin Hla Myint: Book Review on Jose Rizal (Translation: Khin Maung Saw) .... Chapter (1) .... Chapter (2).... Chapter (3).... Chapter (4) .... Chapter (5) .... Chapter (6) .... Chapter (7) .... Chapter (8) .... Chapter (9) .... Chapter (10) .... Chapter (11) .... Chapter (12) .... Chapter (13) .... Analysis: .... 4 U Thet Tun: Report on the Translation of the Biography of Jose Rizal .... 41 Commentary on the report by U Thet Tun by Dietrich Schilling .... 5 Nagani News, Book Review by Ye Ye Tauk (Translation: Khin Maung Saw) .... 6 Nagani News, My Last Farewell (Translation: Khin Maung Saw) .... 7 Ba Choe, U Wizara (Translation: Georg Noack) .... 8 Khin Maung Saw, A Comparative Study of Rizal’s Biography, English Version written by Russell & Rodriguez and the Burmese Version written by Moe Gyo (U Ohn Khin)...... III APPENDICES: SHORT INFORMATION on the MAKING of the BOOK REPORTS 88 INFORMATION about COMMENTARIES on BOOK REPORTS.
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner (ed)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (411K - OBL version; 669K - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.zoellner-online.org/mlp7.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 10. Working Paper No. 10: 8 - Material on Three Books on “World War and Burma”
      Description/subject: Contents: About the Contributors..... I. INTRODUCTION (Hans-Bernd Zöllner): Burma and the World - The World and Burma: Broad Issues, Strong Asymmetries ... Burma Between September 1939 and August 1940... World, War & Burma in Theory and Practice. Some Questions .... About This Volume...... II. MATERIAL ON BA HEIN, WORLD WAR AND BURMA'S FUTURE .... 1. Bibliographical Information (Kyaw Hoe, Translation: Frankie Tun) ... Title Page, Reproduction.... 2. Shwe Sin Aung,: Book Review (Translation: Tin Hlaing) ..... Biography of the author... The book's abstract ... Comments... 3. Bernhard Dahm, Commentary on the Book Report ... 4. Response of Shwe Sin Aung to the Commentary ...... III. MATERIAL ON AUNG SAN, BA MAW, BA KHAING, WORLD WAR AND BURMA: 1. Bibliograpgraphical Information (Kyaw Hoe, Translation: Frankie Tun) ... World War and Burma, Title Page.... 2. Tin Htway, Translation of Aung San, World War and Burma (1979)... 3. Thet Tun, Translation of Aung San, World War and Burma (ca. 2003)...4. Aung San, World War and Burma (Burmese Text)... 5 Shwe Sin Aung, Assessment of Aung San's Article (translation: Thakin Hla Kun)... 6. Joanne Dunne, Synopsis of the Article Aung San, World War and Burma, 1940... 7. Susanne Prager-Nyein, Essay on Aung San's World War and Burma... 8. Joanne Dunne, Remarks on Aung San, World War and Burma ... 9. 1 Ba Maw, World War and Burma (Translated by Chit Thein Oo)... 9. 2 Ba Maw, World War and Burma (Translated by Khin Maung Saw)... 9. 3 Ba Maw, World War and Burma (Burmese Text) .... 10. 1 Ba Khaing, The World War and Burma (Translated by Chit Thein Oo) ... 10. 2 Ba Khaing, The World War and Burma (Translated by Khin Maung Saw) ... 10. 3 Ba Khaing, The World War and Burma (Burmese Text).... 11. Two Burmese Marching Songs (translated by Tin Htway) ... 10.1 Bama Letyone Tat Marching Song ... 11.2 Aung Gyi's Ye Tat Marching Song No. 1... 12. Aung San on the "International Situation" (1946) ... 13. Appendices to "World War and Burma"... 13.1.1 Soe, Announcement of his Book on Dialectic Materialism (Translated by Chit Thein Oo ...13.1.2 Soe, Announcement of his Book on Dialectic Materialism (Translated by Khin Maung Saw) .... 13.1.3 Soe, Announcement of his Book on Dialectic Materialism (Burmese Text)... 13.2.1 Nagani Policy Not Changed (Translated by Chit Thein Oo) ... 13.2.2 Nagani Policy has not Changed (Translated by Khin Maung Saw)... 13.2.3 Nagani Policy has not Changed (Burmese Text)...... IV. MATERIAL ON HLA PE, BA KHAING, WORLD WAR AND IDEOLOGY: 1. Bibliographical Information (Kyaw Hoe, Translation: Hninsi von Marschall)... Title Page, Reproduction... 2. Moe Hein Zaw: Book Review (Translation: Ye Nyunt)...... V. EXCERPTS FROM THE DEBATE ON THE WAR RESOLUTION IN THE BURMESE PARLIAMENT, 23. February 1940... The Resolutions.... U Kun's Speech ..... Mr. Bourne's Speech ....... V. APPENDICES: SHORT INFORMATION on the MAKING of the BOOK REPORTS... INFORMATION about COMMENTARIES on BOOK REPORTS.
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner (ed)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (2.8MB - OBL version; 6.9MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.zoellner-online.org/mlp8.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 19 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 11. Working Paper No. 10:9 - Two Books on the Russian Revolution
      Description/subject: Contents: About the Contributors.... I INTRODUCTION (Hans-Bernd Zoellner): Modelling a Revolution against Britain via Britain.... A Pilgrimage’s Legacies... About this Volume ...... II MATERIAL ON NU, WAY OUT OF POVERTY (Two Volumes).... 1 Kyaw Hoe, Bibliographical Information (Translation: Gunnar Peters) .... 2 Win Lwin, Book Review (Tranlation: Master Group).... The Translator .... Introduction... The Way to Emancipate the Paupers, General Critique.... The Topics in the Book.... Affairs of Myanmar.... The Second Stage of the Russian Revolution and Myanmar.... Impact of the System .... Conclusion .... 3 Commentary on the Book Report .... 4 R Page Arnot, Biographical Note .... 5 R Page Arnot, The Russian Revolution .... III MATERIAL ON ANONYMOUS, LENIN: 1 Kyaw Hoe: Bibliographical Information (Translation: Gunnar Peters).... Reproduction of the Title and Back Page .... 2 The Book’s Foreword (Translation: Thakin Hla Kun).... Why ‘Lenin‘ should be read with all seriousness .... 3 Thinzar Swe, Maung Phyu, Aye Aye Khine: A Summary of the Book.... The Leader of the Poor.... University and Rebel.... Not Making a Living with his Law Education.... Transport into Exile .... Social Democratic Party .... Living in London .... Social Democrat Conference .... Bolshevik and Menshevik.... All the Poor People .... Appearance of Soviets .... Not Being Inflexible .... First Rebellion against the Government.... Blaming Lenin .... Revival in Russia .... Arrest as a Russian Undercover Agent .... The 1917 Revolution.... Return to the Home Country.... Plan to Bring Down the Provisional Government.... Seizing Power .... The Smolny Institute Building.... Leader of the Poor.... Within a Month.... Moscow.... Lenin was Shot by a Jewish Lady.... War with Poland .... Death of Lenin .... 4 Gerhard Will, Commentary on the Book Report of Maung Phyu and Aye Aye Khine.... 5 Katja Meincke, Anna Jüschke, Commentary on Thinzar Shwe’s Book Report .... 6 Biographical Information on James Maxton (from Wikipedia).... 7 Sidney Hook: Book Review of Maxton, Lenin.... 8 Maung Ba Swe: Stalin, erector of Paradise on Earth (Translation: Georg Noack).... 9 Thakin Hla Kun: How our memory of Lenin faded.... IV APPENDICES.
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner (ed)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (456K - OBL version; 1.3MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.zoellner-online.org/mlp9.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 19 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 12. Working Paper No. 10:10 - Material on Soe: Socialism and Chit Hlaing: Memories (updated)
      Description/subject: updated July 2011... CONTENTS: About the Contributors... Foreword (Hans-Bernd Zöllner); I.INTRODUCTION (Robert H. Taylor)... II. MATERIAL ON SOE, SOCIALISM: 1.Kyaw Hoe: Bibliographical Information (Translation: Gunnar Peters); Reproduction of Title Page; Soe, Photos; 2.Translation (Tin Hlaing); The Significance of the Red Flag; Editor Thakin Than Tun's Foreword; Foreword ; Chapter 1; Chapter 2; Chapter 3; Chapter 4; Chapter 6; Chapter 7; Chapter 8; Chapter 9; Chapter 10; Appendix One; Appendix Two; Appendix Three; Appendix Four; 3 Nagani News, Socialism and Burma (Translation: Phone Kywe Myat); 4 Nagani News, Socialism (Translation: Phone Kywe Myat); 5 Nagani News, 11 Points of Discussion on Socialism (Translation: Phone Kywe Myat)... III. U CHIT HLAING, A SHORT NOTE ON MY INVOLVEMENT IN THE BURMA: SOCIALIST PROGRAMME PARTY (Unrevised Version)... IV. APPENDICES
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner (ed)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (544K - OBL version; 4.81MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.phil.uni-passau.de/fileadmin/group_upload/45/pdf/workingpaper/WP_10_Soe__Socialism__Chit...
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 13. Working Paper No. 10:11 - Material on Ba Hein: Students' Revolution
      Description/subject: Contents: About the Contributors I. INTRODUCTION (Hans-Bernd Zöllner) 1. Manifold Complement 2. Revolution in Theory and Practice 3. Another Tragic Hero 4. Questions 5. About this Volume. II. MATERIAL ON BA HEIN, STUDENTS’REVOLUTION 1. Kyaw Hoe, Bibliographical Information (Translation: Gunnar Peters) Photo: Ba Hein, Nu and his Family 2. Translation: Sandy Saw Myat and Gunnar Peters (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6 and 7) (8) Appendix: Announcement of the All Burma Students' Union 3. Ba Hein, Students’ Revolution -- Reproduction of the Burmese Text (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6 and 7) (8) Appendix: III. ADDITIONAL MATERIAL 1: Further Writings of Ba Hein 1. Maung Maung Myint Than, Brief Summary of Ba Hein’s Review of "British Imperialism and India" written by Joan Beauchamp 2. Ba Hein, My Answer (Translation: Maung Maung Myint Than) 3. Maung Maung Myint Than, Review of Ba Hein’s Article: A Political Party That Made the World Frighten 4. Ba Hein, Life's Journey (Translation: Ye Nyunt) IV. ADDITIONAL MATERIAL 2: Writings About Ba Hein 1. Ye Nyunt, Review of an Article of Dagon Taya: "One with the Padomma lotus smile" or Ba Hein 2. Thakhin Hla Kun: Meeting with Ko Ba Hein V. APPENDICES
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner (ed)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (904K - OBL version; 3.97MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.phil.uni-passau.de/fileadmin/group_upload/45/pdf/workingpaper/WP_11.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 14. Working Paper No. 10:12 - Material on Thein Pe: Indo-Burman Conflict
      Description/subject: Contents: About the Contributors I. INTRODUCTION (Hans-Bernd Zoellner) 1. Numbers, Genres, and Emotions 2. Additional Information on Nagani 3. Another Invitation for Further Studies II. MATERIAL ON THEIN PE, INDO-BURMAN CONFLICT 1. Kyaw Hoe, Bibliographical Information (Translation: Hninsi von Marschall) Photo of Thein Pe 2. English Text of Cover and Back Pages (Translation: Georg Noack) Cover Page Back Side of Cover Page Back Side of Back Page Back Page 3. Translation of the Text (Translation: Tin Htway) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 4. Burmese Text Front Page Back of Front Page. Back Page 5. Ba Hein, Life’s Journey III. APPENDICES
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner (ed)
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (2.5MB - OBL version; 7.5MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.zoellner-online.org/mlp12.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 15. Working Paper No. 10:13 - Material on Two Political Dictionaries
      Description/subject: Contents: About the Contributors ..... I. INTRODUCTION (Hans-Bernd Zöllner): Two encyclopaedias within an encyclopaedic venture... Geo-Politics... The Authors and the World... The Transfer-Question or: Facts and their Meaning... About This Volume..... II. MATERIAL on HLA PE, POLITICAL MAP OF THE WORLD: 1. Bibliographical Information (Kyaw Hoe, Translation: Hinsi von Marschall)... 2. Photos and Reproduction... Bo Let Ya (Hla Pe): Two Photos... Reproduction of Title Page... 2. Ba Hein, Foreword and Hle Pe, Introduction (Translation: Ye Nyunt)... 3. Moe Hein Zaw, Book Review (Translation and Comments: Khin Maung Saw)..... III. MATERIAL on NU, HLA PE, DICTIONARY OF POLITICAL TERMS: 1. Bibliographical Information (Kyaw Hoe, Translation: Hninsi von Marschall)... Reproduction of a Copy of the Title Page... 2. Translation (Tin Hlaing)...... IV. APPENDICES.
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner (ed)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (1MB - OBL verwsion; 6.21MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.zoellner-online.org/mlp13.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 16. Working Paper No. 10:14 - Material on Thandwe Maung, Ashoka and Tun Shein, First Hand Experience of India
      Description/subject: Contents: About the Contributors.... I.INTRODUCTION (Hans-Bernd Zöllner): India exposed in Comprehensive Eclecticism... The Authors and a Changing Publisher's Profile .... Two Role Models for Burma's Future... Religion, Politics and Violence - and Other Open Questions ... About this Volume ...... II.MATERIAL on THANDWE MAUNG, ASHOKA: 1. Kyaw Hoe, Bibliographical Information (Translation: Uta Gärtner)... Reproduction of the Title Page... 2. Lu Pe Win, Preface (Translation: Ye Nyunt)... 2.1 Biographical Information on Lu Pe Win... 3. Author's Foreword (Translation: Ye Nyunt)... 4. Khine Khine Thin, Thway Thway Myint, Book Review (Translation: Soe Naung and Tin Hlaing... Biography of the author ... The book ... Chapter 1... Chapter 2... Chapter 3... Chapter 4... Chapter 5... Chapter 6... Chapter 7 (The inscriptions) ... Assessment.... 5 Jan Dreßler, Commentary on the Book Report of Khine Khine Thin....... III.MATERIAL on TUN SHEIN, FIRST HAND EXPERIENCE OF INDIA: 1. Kyaw Hoe, Bibliographical Information (Translation: Uta Gärtner)... Reproduction of the Title Page... 2. Bo Yan Naing, Biography (Translation: Ye Nyunt)... Bo Yan Naing, Photo... 3. Author's Preface (Translation: Ye Nyunt)..... Thandwe Maung, Asoka and Tun Shein, First Hand Experience of India: 4. Nay Lin, Book Report... Brief biography of the author .... All that should be known... Jawaharlal Nehru .... The birth of the Congress ... Actors in the Congress... The secrets of Congress .... Assessment .... 5. Translation of the Book's Information on Jawaharlal Nehru .... IV. We Students! ..... Burmese Text .... Translation (Ye Nyunt)...... V. APPENDICES
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner (ed)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (429K - OBL version; 1.95MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.zoellner-online.org/mlp14.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 17. Working Paper No. 10:15 - Material on Four Books about Germany
      Description/subject: Contents:- About the Contributors; I. INTRODUCTION (Hans-Bernd Zöllner): A Personal Note; Feelings of Sympathy towards Germany; A Period of Accelerating Tensions, both Internally and Externally; Britain's Difficulties and Burmese Problems; Germany - Among Others; About This Volume and the Need for Further Research... II. MATERIAL on SHWE U DAUNG, What Hitler has Done: Bibliographical Information (Kyaw Hoe, Translation: Gunnar Peters); Biography of the author/translator; The book's abstract; Comments; Arthur Minsat, Commentary on the Book Report; Shwe Sin Aung, Reply to Arthur Minsat's Commentary... III. MATERIAL on THEIN PE, Who is Wrong - Hitler or Chamberlain: Bibliograpgraphical Information (Kyaw Hoe, Translation: Gunnar Peters); Nay Lin, Book Review (Translation Tin Hlaing); Biographical sketch of the author; The contents in brief; Comments; Larah Wessendorf, Commentary on the Book Report; Nay Lin, Answer to Larah Wessendorf's Commentary... IV. MATERIAL on BA KHAING, Internal Affairs of Germany: Bibliograpgraphical Information (Kyaw Hoe, Translation: Gunnar Peters); Reproduction of Title Page; Nay Lin, Book Review (Translation. Ye Nyunt); Summary; Review; Nay Lin, Answer to Christoph Mann's Commentary... V. MATERIAL on THA DUN, Germany: Bibliograpgraphical Information (Kyaw Hoe, Translation: Gunnar Peters); Tun Aye, Apology (Translation: Maung Maung Aye); Map of Germany in 1871; Tha Dun, Foreword (Translation: Maung Maung Aye); Nwe Ni Aung, Summary of the Book's Information on Bismarck and Hindenburg (Translation: Maung Maung Aye); Bismarck; Hindenburg... VI. Other Material: Germany in the Nagani Weekly79; Term Paper: Capitalism and Hitler as told by Nagani (1969/70);... VII. APPENDICES: SHORT INFORMATION on the MAKING of the BOOK REPORTS; INFORMATION about COMMENTARIES on BOOK REPORTS
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zöllner (ed.)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (411k - OBL version; 851K - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.phil.uni-passau.de/fileadmin/group_upload/45/pdf/workingpaper/mlp15_1_.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 18: Working Paper No. 10:15.1 - Material on Khin Khin Lay, Two Books about Germany
      Description/subject: Contents: About the Contributors; I. INTRODUCTION (Hans-Bernd Zöllner): Countering Burmese Inclinations towards Germany in the Service of British Propaganda; The Problems of a "Non-Political" Political Book Club; Politics Based on a Combination of Knowledge and Science; Khin Khin Lay as an Independent Writer cum Entepreneur; Inconsistencies; About this Volume... II. MATERIAL on Rays of War: Bibliographical Information (Kyaw Hoe, Translation: Georg Noack); Reproduction of Title Page; Aye Aye Myint: Book Review (Translation:Richard Zatu); Biography of the writer; Gist of "Image of War"; Evaluation; Translation of the Book's Final Pages; Ute Köster, Commentary on the Book Report; Translation of the Information on the Book's Back Cover; Life of Edith Cavell (Wikipedia); Gordon Brown on Edith Cavell; Peter van Alfen... III. MATERIAL on Enemy of the World; 1. Bibliograpgraphical Information (Kyaw Hoe, Translation: Georg Noack); Reproduction of Title Page, First Edition; Reproduction of Title Page, Reprint of 1967; Blurb of the 1967 Edition (Translation Richard Zatu); The Author's Preface of 1967 (Translation Richard Zatu); Moe Hein Zaw, Book Review (Translation Richard Zatu); Biographical sketch of the author; Objective; Summary of the Story; Evaluation; Franziska Blum, Commentary on the Book Report... IV. ADDITIONAL MATERIAL: SHORT INFORMATION on the MAKING of the BOOK REPORTS INFORMATION about COMMENTARIES on BOOK REPORTS.
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zöllner (ed.)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (691K - OBL version; 1.5MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.phil.uni-passau.de/fileadmin/group_upload/45/pdf/workingpaper/WP_15.1_Two_Books_by_Khin_...
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 19: Working Paper No. 10:16 - Material on Four Books about Sun Yat Sen
      Description/subject: Contents:- About the Contributors... I INTRODUCTION (Hans-Bernd Zöllner) Look East to the West: Idealisation of Second-hand Experiences and Incorporation into the Buddhist Sphere; The Neglect of Difference and the Choice of New Models by the Political Elites; A Note on the Books' Contributors... About This Volume... II MATERIAL on Nationalism: 1 Kyaw Hoe, Bibliographical Information (Translation: Gunnar Peters); Reproduction of Title Page; Reproduction of Sun Yat Sen's Photo; 2 Shwe Pyi Soe, Book Review (Translation: Ye Nyunt); Biography of Deedok U Ba Choe; Introduction; Context of the Book and Review; Dr Sun Yat Sen; Speeches 1-6; Reflection of the Time and System; Conclusion; 3 Salai Kipp Ko Liang, Book Report; Introduction; A Brief Comment on the Titles of the Burmese Versions; Summary of the Contents; Assessment; 4 Nagani News, Book Review of "Nationalism"; 5Nagani News, Book Review of "Racism" by Magnus Hirschfeld... III MATERIAL on People's Power and French Revolution: 1 Kyaw Hoe, Bibliograpgraphical Information (Translation: Gunnar Peters); Four Books on Sun Yat Sen: Reproduction of Title Page; 2 Thein Pe, Foreword (Translation Ye Nyunt); 3 Shw Pyi Soe, Book Review (Translation Ye Nyunt); Biography of the author; Review of "People's Power and French Revolution"; Reflection on Age and System in Myanmar; Conclusion... IV MATERIAL on Peoples' Power and English-American Great Revolution: 1 Kyaw Hoe, Bibliograpgraphical Information (Translation: Gunnar Peters); Reproduction of Title Page; 2 Mogyoe, Foreword (Translation: Ye Nyunt); 3 Shwe Pyi Soe, Book Review (Translation: Ye Nyunt); Introduction; (1) People's Power; (2) The Historical Campaigns in England; (3) The American Revolution; Generalized Comment; Conclusion; V Material on The Inner History of the Chinese Revolution: 1 Bibliograpgraphical Information (Kyaw Hoe, Translation: Gunnar Peters); Reproduction of Title Page; 2 Nay Linn, Book Review (Translation: Richard Zatu); Brief Biography of the Translator; Summary of "The Inner Story of the Chinese Revolution" ; Evaluation... VI APPENDICES: SHORT INFORMATION on the MAKING of the BOOK REPORTS; INFORMATION about COMMENTARIES on BOOK REPORTS
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (543K - OBL version; 1.68MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.zoellner-online.org/mlp16.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 20: Working Paper No. 10:17 - Nu, Early Plays and Ba Thoung, Adaptation of “An Enemy of the People”
      Description/subject: Contents:- About the Contributors... I INTRODUCTION (Hans-Ber;nd Zöllner): Plays on the Fringe 4 Ba Thoung's Vision and Nu's Dream; Unplayed Plays - Unrealised Visions of Modernity; About This Volume... II MATERIAL on Nu, Modern Drama: 1 Bibliographical Information (Kyaw Hoe, Translation: Gunnar Peters); Title Page; 2 Critique of Nu "Modern Plays" in the Nagani Weekly; 3 Htay Htay Myint, Book Review (Translation: Thakin Hla Kun); Introduction; Play 1: U Klein; Play 2: Naung Daw Chut-Khan; Play 3: Sukara; Play 4: The Husband of a Wicked Wife; Play 5: An Elephant Must Lose Its Life; 4 Translation (Tin Hlaing); U Kalein; The Husband of a Bad Wife; The Wife of a Bad Husband; Get a Husband, Kill an Elephant; Sukra; 5 Nu, Forward to "Wolf the Wolf of Man"... III MATERIAL on BA THOUNG, An Enemy of the People; 1 Bibliograpgraphical Information (Kyaw Hoe, Translation: Gunnar Peters)173 Reproduction of Title Page ; Reproduction of Title Page (2nd Edition, 1963); Nu and Ba Thoung, Plays; 2 Preface to the First Edition (Translation: Tin Hlaing); 3 Tin Hlaing, Book Review; Thakin Ba Thaung; Summary of the Play; The Translation of Terms and Concepts; Impact; 4 Kyaw Nyaing, Book Review1... V APPENDICES: SHORT INFORMATION on the MAKING of the BOOK REPORTS; INFORMATION about COMMENTARIES on BOOK REPORTS
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (686K - OBL version; 1.75MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.zoellner-online.org/mlp17.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 21: Working Paper No. 10:18 - Two Books on Sex and Gender
      Description/subject: Contents:- About the ... I. INTRODUCTION (Hans-Bernd Zöllner): Connecting Burma to modernity - and vice versa; The personal and the political; Facts before fantasy; New and old ways of educating people; About this volume... II. MATERIAL on Hla Shwe, Husband and Wife: 1. Bibliographical Information (Kyaw Hoe, Translation: Gunnar Peters); Hla Shwe, Foreword (Translation: Phone Kyaw Myat); 2. Thwe Thwe Nwe, Book Review (Translation: Thiri Than Win); Summary of contents; Thinking about this book; 3. Dagon Tayar, Dr. Hla Shwe (1947) (Translation: Phone Kyaw Myat); 4. Maung Maung Nyo, Dictator Dr. Hla Shwe (1961); 5. Aung Min Htut, A Commentary on Dr. Hla Shwe’s Translation, Prof. Mg Mg Nyo’s Book on the Same Subject and His letter... III. MATERIAL on Mya Sein, Women: 1. Bibliograpgraphical Information (Kyaw Hoe, Translation: Gunnar Peters); Mya Sein, Picture; Mya Sein, Photo Gallery; 2. Advertisment of "Woman" in book no. 96, "Sinn Fein"; 3. Deedoke U Ba Choe, Foreword (Translation: Phone Kyaw Myat); 4. Min Maw Thant, Book Review (Translation. Ma Thida); Brief biography of the author; Summary of the contents; Khin Khin Su's problem; Lecture 1: Women in world history; A marriage proposal; Lecture 2: Male - female relations; Khin Khin Su in love; Lecture 3: Developments in England; Khin Khin Su's reaction; Lecture 4: Women in China; Lecture 5: Women in Japan; Lecture 6: Women in India; Khin Khin Su's own investigations - Women in Burma; Comments; 5. Andrea Fleschenberg, Commentary; 6. Ma Thanegi on Women; 7. Biography of Mya Sein (from the Who's Who in Burma (1961)); 8. Mya Sein's speeches at the BurmaRound Table Conference 1931... IV. Additional Material: 1. The "Upper Garments" controvery (1938) (Translation: Phone Kyaw Myint); 1.1 A Kyawt, The monks and the thin upper garments; 1.2: Sein Hlaing, The monks and the thin upper garments (response); 2. Khin Myo Chit, Problems of the Women of Burma (1940); 2.1 Review Maung Yoe (Translation: Ye Nyunt); 2.2: Review Shwe Pyi Soe (Translation: Phone Kyaw Myat); 3. The Bhikkuni Controversy; 3.1 Nagani News, Reference to a Book of Ashin Adiccavamsa (1938); 3.2 Shwe Oak Oar, Biography of Ashin Ardessa Wuntha (Adiccavamsa) Translation: Aung Min Htut; 3.3 Bricker, Discrimination of Women in Modern Burma (2006); 4. Than Than Nwe, Gendered Space: Women in Burmese Society; 5. Cherrryl Barron, Burma: Feminist Utopia?; 6. Chie Ikeya, The 'Traditional' High Status of Women in Burma - Conclusion ... V. APPENDICES: SHORT INFORMATION on the MAKING of the BOOK REPORTS; INFORMATION about COMMENTARIES on BOOK REPORTS.
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zöllner (ed.)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Lehrstuhl für Südostasienkunde, Universität Passau, Myanmar Literature Project
      Subscribe: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/mlp10.18-op.pdf
      Format/size: pdf (642K - OBL version; 2.18MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.phil.uni-passau.de/fileadmin/group_upload/45/pdf/workingpaper/WP_18_Two_Books_on_Sex_and...
      Date of entry/update: 19 July 2011


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project - 22: Working Paper No. 10:19 - Material on Three Novels ("Pantha Ma Sa U" and "Oil" by Ba Thoung; "May" by Dagon Taya)
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner (ed.)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: pdf (855K)
      Date of entry/update: 18 August 2012


    • SPDC Cultural Perspectives

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: The Golden Land
      Description/subject: Very jolly site, full of pics of soldiers, dancers and temples. Very slow; set aside a whole afternoon. This site contains "The New Light of Myanmar" snippets, with slow graphics; the "Information Sheets" with slow graphics from mid-1998. The earlier stuff, basically text, is much faster
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SPDC
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: Remaking Rangoon
      Date of publication: July 2003
      Description/subject: "Rangoon’s modernization drive in preparation for the 2006 Asean Summit is destroying the capital’s architectural heritage... A house of teak and brick in Botataung Township in Rangoon is being razed to make way for a taller, more modern skyscraper. The house was full of charm at the turn of the 20th century, and was one of many buildings that earned the Burmese capital the reputation as the "Pearl of the Orient". "My house was beautiful and in good condition considering it was nearly 100 years old," said the 50-year-old owner, as he watched his home being demolished. But now he is more pragmatic than sentimental. "As the new ones are coming, the old ones have to go," he added. In the first half of the last century Rangoon was a model for other Southeast Asian cities. Famed for its many buildings of religious, historical and architectural significance, the city was a hybrid of colonial charm and unique Burmese splendor. The great traditional houses of the city were built from teak, with grand spired roofs, decorated eaves and crafted paneling. But now much of that has been thrown into the dustbin of history..."
      Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


  • Clothing

    • Fashion

      Individual Documents

      Title: Short Skirts Raise Eyebrows in Rangoon
      Date of publication: November 2009
      Description/subject: Rangoon’s street scene is changing as increasing numbers of young women in Burma’s largest city cast off their sarongs in exchange for miniskirts and hot pants. Low-cut blouses with “spaghetti” straps are also “in,” observers of the local fashion scene report.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17146
      Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


  • Crafts

    Individual Documents

    Title: Where Even Dead Flowers are Doomed
    Date of publication: September 2007
    Description/subject: An ancient Burmese tradition faces decline... The fishermen of Inle Lake are not the only ones going through hard times. one of the area’s major handicraft businesses, making so-called “flower-molded” Buddha figurines, is also in steep decline. Generations of craftsmen have been making the exquisite statuettes for centuries, molding them from the petals of dried flowers, mixed with powder, teak sawdust and resin. Figurines molded from the petals of flowers and donated to lakeside temples are invested with miraculous powers by the Pa-O, Shan and Intha people who live in the region. But they’re also sought after as souvenirs by tourists visiting the lake. The rising cost of the raw materials, particularly the teak sawdust and resin, and encroaching competition from manufacturers of cheap wooden and plastic Buddhas have brought the local handicraft business practically to a standstill, however..."
    Author/creator: Kai Wai
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8465
    Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


    Title: A Shan Kaleidoscope - a review of "The Shan: Culture, Art and Crafts"
    Date of publication: March 2007
    Description/subject: The Shan: Culture, Art and Crafts, by Susan Conway. River Books, Bangkok, 2006. P212... Factual errors fail to mar a beautiful book about a Burmese ethnic minority culture... "This is the ideal book for anyone interested in Shan textiles, paintings and architecture. It also contains a wealth of unique historical photographs, many taken at the turn of the last century. Susan Conway, a research associate at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London, has done a wonderful job presenting traditional Shan art and culture, and the outcome is a beautiful, coffee-table-style book, which in many ways is the first of its kind about the Shan peoples of upper and northeastern Burma. The book covers Shan history, princes and palaces, arts, crafts and even trade, and it contains detailed descriptions of Shan male and female dress and textile patterns..."
    Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 May 2008


  • Ethnic Groups
    See Separate Section "Ethnic Groups in Burma" and "Ethnic Discrimination" in the Human Rights Section

    Individual Documents

    Title: Die verborgene Welt der Naga
    Date of publication: 16 September 2005
    Description/subject: Im Dschungel Südostasiens lebt ein geheimnisvolles Volk In der Abgeschiedenheit fast undurchdringlicher Regenwälder von Myanmar hat ein Volk ein einmaliges Kulturerbe bewahrt. Es beruht auf den Traditionen eines archaischen Heldentums. Auserwählte Krieger sollen die Stammesgemeinschaft vor allem Übel bewahren. Die Kraft dazu - so glauben sie - erhalten sie durch das Abschlagen eines Kopfes. keywords: Naga, indigenous people, headhunting
    Author/creator: Michael Leja
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: ZDF
    Format/size: 82,5k
    Date of entry/update: 13 December 2010


    Title: Human Rights, Forgotten Wars & Survival: Burma's Indigenous Peoples
    Date of publication: 31 October 2000
    Description/subject: "...Burma is home to one of the world's longest-running civil wars, the victims of which have overwhelmingly been civilians living in rural areas. Every year, hundreds are killed, tens of thousands displaced, and the livelihoods of many more destroyed by the Burmese army. Hundreds of thousands of people from the Arakanese, Karen, Karenni, Mon, Shan, and other ethnic groups have sought asylum in neighboring countries, as refugees or illegal migrant workers. Widespread displacement, combined with government efforts to force fully assimilate ethnic peoples, has led many to fear for the survival of their unique languages, cultures, and traditions. .."
    Author/creator: Edith Bowles
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Cultural Survival Quarterly" Issue 24.3
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/csq/csq_article.cfm?id=474B8D9B-60CD-41B5-8025-A9F0C89...
    Date of entry/update: 08 July 2010


  • Festivals

    Individual Documents

    Title: Thangyat: Traditional Songs Hard to Suppress
    Date of publication: April 2008
    Description/subject: "Thangyat is one of the oldest examples of Burmese folk art. Usually amusing and satirical, Thangyat combines poetry, dance and music and is sung to the beat of a traditional drum on festive occasions. In the past, during the Burmese New Year water festivals, or Thingyan, young people would publicly recite humorous Thangyat lyrics, which freely criticize everything from politics to social behavior. But the Burmese military generals have changed all that. In 1989, a year after taking power, the generals lost their sense of humor and banned public performances of Thangyat. However, Thangyat is still kept alive by exiled Burmese communities..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


    Title: When the British Lit up the Burmese Sky
    Date of publication: November 2004
    Description/subject: Hot-air balloon contest dates back to colonial times... "There can’t be many indigenous festive traditions in Burma that owe their existence to the British. One of the most popular festivals in Taunggyi, capital of Shan State, dates back, however, to Britain’s annexation of upper Burma in the late 19th century. The British colonial and military officers stationed in Taunggyi at that time organized the first hot-air balloon contests, which are now a highlight of the Tazaungdaing festival of light, celebrated in late November. The first of the contests organized so enthusiastically by the British was held in 1894, nine years after the annexation of upper Burma..."
    Author/creator: Nanda Chann
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 12, No. 10
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


  • Food/Cooking

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Burmese cuisine
    Description/subject: "Burmese cuisine includes dishes from various regions of the country, now known as Myanmar. Owing to the geographic location of Myanmar, Burmese cuisine has been influenced by China, India and Thailand. The diversity of Myanmar's cuisine has also been contributed to by the myriad of local ethnic minorities. Burmese cuisine is characterized by extensive use of fish products like fish sauce and ngapi. Seafood is a common ingredient in coastal cities such as Sittwe, Kyaukpyu, Mawlamyaing (formerly Moulmein), Mergui (Myeik) and Dawei, while meat and poultry are more commonly used in landlocked cities like Mandalay. Freshwater fish and shrimp have been incorporated into inland cooking as a primary source of protein and are used in a variety of ways, fresh, salted whole or filleted, salted and dried, made into a salty paste, or fermented sour and pressed....Contents 1 Eating customs... 2 Influences... 3 Ingredients: 3.1 Starches; 3.2 Ngapi; 3.3 Condiments; 3.4 Fruits... 4 Notable dishes: 4.1 Chinese-inspired; 4.2 Indian-inspired; 4.3 Shan-inspired; 4.4 Mon-inspired; 4.5 Rakhine-inspired... 5 Gallery... 6 See also... 7 References... 8 External links.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: "F & B" ("Myanmar Times" Special Issue on Myanmar Foods and Beverages - June, 2012) "စားေသာက္ကုန္ ႏွင့္ အေဖ်ာ္ယမကာ"
    Date of publication: June 2012
    Description/subject: Special supplementary issue of Myanmar Times about Myanmar Foods and Beverages..... ျမန္မာတိုင္းမ္ ၏ အထူးထုတ္ အခ်ပ္ပို၊ ျမန္မာအစား အေသာက္ႏွင့္ ေဖ်ာ္ရည္မ်ား အေၾကာင္း။
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: pdf (933K-OBL version; 0.99MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.myanmar.mmtimes.com/2012/news/575/f_b/fnb.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 23 August 2012


    Title: Mohinga Memories
    Date of publication: November 2009
    Description/subject: A connoisseur of Burma’s most celebrated food reminisces over a steaming bowlful of noodles... "You like mohinga?” asked Min Naing as we partook of the quintessential Burmese dish in a bustling tea shop, the center of Burmese social life. It has become our tradition whenever I visit Rangoon to meet in this tea shop and discuss various issues—from food and music to global warming and contemporary American politics—over steaming cups of Burmese tea and bowls of noodles... Tea shops are centers of Burmese culinary culture. I nodded. Few people I know could turn down a bowl of mohinga, the piquant, complex medley of rice noodles and other ingredients in a savory fish-based broth widely regarded as the country’s national dish..."
    Author/creator: Withaya Huanok
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17145
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    Title: London's Road to Mandalay
    Date of publication: February 2006
    Description/subject: A Burmese restaurant mixes good food and politics... "It is hard to come across fine Burmese restaurants outside Burma. Most of those that do exist are located in Western countries. To many non-Burmese, traditional Burmese dishes remain an unfamiliar cuisine. Some describe Burmese food as a cross between Thai, Indian and Chinese cuisines, although it does have its own distinctive character..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No.2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


  • Literature
    See also "Freedom of Opinion and Expression" under Human Rights

    • Burmese scholars and literary figures -- texts, reviews, profiles, obituaries, articles, papers, bibliographies etc.

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Special Issue of the "Journal of Burma Studies" in Homage to U Pe Maung Tin
      Date of publication: 2004
      Description/subject: "Professor U Pe Maung Tin (1888-1973): The Life and Work of an Outstanding Burmese Scholar" Anna Allott (PDF full article) In 1998, Daw Tin Tin Myaing (Brenda Stanley), the youngest daughter of the late Burmese scholar U Pe Maung Tin, organized a symposium at the University of London School of Oriental and African Studies to honor the achievements of her father. U Pe Maung Tin grew up as a Christian, but mastered Pali, the language of Buddhism, early in his career. This led him to become one of the world's leading translators of Pali texts into English and interpreter of Buddhist doctrine to Western scholars. This article by guest editor and former student Anna Allott outlines U Pe Maung Tin's life and work as a Pali scholar, lifelong student and promoter of the Burmese language, historian, linguist, phonetician, teacher, and editor. "Professor U Pe Maung Tin: A Gentle Genius, A Meek Master" Alan Saw U (PDF full article) U Pe Maung Tin's accomplishments as a Burmese scholar are well-documented. Less so are his teachings and writings about Christianity and the Christian ministry in Burma. Alan Saw U, executive secretary and editor of the Myanmar Christian Literary Society, reflects on U Pe Maung Tin's life as a leading figure in the Anglican Church in Burma. "U Pe Maung Tin: Researcher, Scholar, Pedagogue: His Contribution to Burmese Studies in France" Denise Bernot (PDF full article) U Pe Maung Tin possessed, by nature, all of the qualities of an erudite researcher: he was always ready to learn more; constantly trying to deepen his understanding; frequently opening a new line of inquiry; and in his work, at once rigorous and bold. U Pe Maung Tin never allowed himself to become a prisoner of tradition, though he knew perfectly the traditions of his own country and masterfully assimilated those of Great Britain. Convention never obstructed him from stating a scientific truth or doing the morally right thing. For those reasons, he left behind a legacy of lasting valuable research. "U Pe Maung Tin's and Luce's "GlassPalace Revisited" U Tun Aung Chain (PDF full article) A leading contemporary Burmese historian, U Aung Chain Tun offers a thoughtful and illuminating perspective on U Pe Maung Tin's translation ion of The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma with G.H. Luce. "Notes on Dipavamsa: An Early Publication by U Pe Maung Tin" Tilman Frasch (PDF full article) While trolling a Burmese market, German scholar Tilman Frasch unexpectedly found a battered copy of U Pe Maung Tin's first work, Notes on Dipavamsa, a text that opened new doors to scholarship on the history and literature of Theravada Buddhism - and set U Pe Maung Tin on a long and fruitful journey as Burma's leading scholar of the 20th century. "U Pe Maung Tin Bibliography" Patricia M. Herbert (PDF full article) From age 23 until his death at 84, U Pe Maung Tin was a prodigious writer and editor in both Burmese and English. He was the editor of the important Journal of the Burma Research Society. He wrote the first book on Burmese phonetics. With G.H. Luce, he edited Inscriptions of Burma and translated The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma. This invaluable annotated bibliography lists these and more than 200 other works by U Pe Maung Tin, a dramatic illustration of the legacy of this important Burmese scholar. "Text, Lineage, and Tradition in Burma: The Struggle for Norms and Religious Legitimacy Under King," Bodawphaya (1782-1819) Jacques P. Leider (PDF full article) Jacques P. Leider is a French historian following in the footsteps of U Pe Maung Tin, who pioneered the academic study of Burmese history through the editing, translating, and interpreting of primary textual sources. Leider examines a little-studied period of Burmese history, the reign of King Bodawphaya, whose radical attempts at religious reform laid the groundwork for the later 19th century monastic reform movement in Burma. Volumes: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 publications > journal of burma studies > abstracts by volume > volume 9 ABSTRACTS: VOLUME 9
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 9, (2004)
      Format/size: pdf (716.46 K)
      Date of entry/update: 08 December 2010


      Title: Myanmar Literature Project
      Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner (ed)
      Language: English, Burmese, German
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Literature Project
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009


      Individual Documents

      Title: ‘Tell the World the Truth’
      Date of publication: September 2010
      Description/subject: Minn Latt Yekhaun was one of the first three Burmese students to study in Prague during the 1950s. Despite his tragic death more than 20 years ago, his influence on Burmese-Czech relations remains to this day
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


      Title: OBITUARY Dr. U HLA PE (1913-2007)
      Date of publication: September 2007
      Description/subject: "Dr. U Hla Pe, Emeritus Professor of Burmese in the University of London, died peacefully at his home in Moulmein (Mawlamyine), Burma, on 31 July 2007. He was 94 years old. Saya Hla Pe worked in or for School of Oriental and African Studies for 41 of those years, before retiring to live in Burma in 1980. He wrote numerous articles, gave many talks both at SOAS and elsewhere, and taught a succession of devoted students. His most substantial publications are Konmara Pya Zat, vol 1, Introduction and translation (London 1952), which is a study of Burmese dramatic literature in the 1870s, and the six fascicules of the unfinished Burmese-English dictionary (London, 1941-1981)..."
      Author/creator: John Okell
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS BULLETIN OF BURMA RESEARCH 5, 2007
      Format/size: pdf (83K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 October 2010


      Title: Literature in Paralysis -
      Date of publication: January 2005
      Description/subject: "In Burma, with the onset of the cool season in November, a government appointed National Literary Award Scrutinizing Committee announces the National Literary Award winners. Despite the absence of freedom of expression and the restrictions on public gatherings, past and current prize winners enthusiastically tour the country to give speeches, and join panel discussions on literature..."
      Author/creator: Yeni
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2005


      Title: Reading Tea Leaves: Review of Secret Histories. Finding George Orwell in a Burmese Teashop, by Emma Larkin
      Date of publication: November 2004
      Description/subject: By searching for George Orwell’s past, Emma Larkin reveals his relevance to Burma’s present... Review of Secret Histories. Finding George Orwell in a Burmese Teashop, by Emma Larkin. John Murray, London: 2004: 232 pp. "It’s not a bad way to spend one’s time, becoming a habitu้ of teashops, chatting to other bibliophiles, intellectuals, students, and the occasional nasty official. These unique spaces of Burmese life are the primary sources for Emma Larkin’s rich new book, Secret Histories, as she follows the trail of George Orwell’s time in colonial Burma..."
      Author/creator: David Scott Mathieson
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 12, No. 10
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 31 January 2005


      Title: P. Moe Nin: A Companion of Burma
      Date of publication: April 2004
      Description/subject: The career of Burma’s modern literary pioneer was marked by contradiction.
      Author/creator: Htain Linn
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Itrrawaddy", Vol. 12, No. 4, April 2004
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 July 2004


      Title: "Notes on Dipavamsa: An Early Publication by U Pe Maung Tin"
      Date of publication: 2004
      Description/subject: While trolling a Burmese market, German scholar Tilman Frasch unexpectedly found a battered copy of U Pe Maung Tin's first work, Notes on Dipavamsa, a text that opened new doors to scholarship on the history and literature of Theravada Buddhism's leading scholar of the 20th century.
      Author/creator: Tilman Frasch
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 9, 2004
      Format/size: pdf (572K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol9/index.shtml
      Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009


      Title: "Professor U Pe Maung Tin: A Gentle Genius, A Meek Master"
      Date of publication: 2004
      Description/subject: U Pe Maung Tin's accomplishments as a Burmese scholar are well-documented. Less so are his teachings and writings about Christianity and the Christian ministry in Burma. Alan Saw U, executive secretary and editor of the Myanmar Christian Literary Society, reflects on U Pe Maung Tin's life as a leading figure in the Anglican Church in Burma.
      Author/creator: Alan Saw U
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 9, 2004
      Format/size: pdf (516K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol9/index.shtml
      Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009


      Title: "Text, Lineage, and Tradition in Burma: The Struggle for Norms and Religious Legitimacy Under King, Bodawphaya (1782-1819)
      Date of publication: 2004
      Description/subject: Jacques P. Leider is a French historian following in the footsteps of U Pe Maung Tin, who pioneered the academic study of Burmese history through the editing, translating, and interpreting of primary textual sources. Leider examines a little-studied period of Burmese history, the reign of King Bodawphaya, whose radical attempts at religious reform laid the groundwork for the later 19th century monastic reform movement in Burma.
      Author/creator: Jacques P. Leider
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 9 (2004)
      Format/size: pdf (673K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol9/index.shtml (JBS Vol. 9)
      Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009


      Title: "U Pe Maung Tin â�" Researcher, Scholar, Pedagogue: His Contribution to Burmese Studies in France"
      Date of publication: 2004
      Description/subject: "U Pe Maung Tin possessed, by nature, all of the qualities of an erudite researcher: he was always ready to learn more; constantly trying to deepen his understanding; frequently opening a new line of inquiry; and in his work, at once rigorous and bold. U Pe Maung Tin never allowed himself to become a prisoner of tradition, though he knew perfectly the traditions of his own country and masterfully assimilated those of Great Britain. Convention never obstructed him from stating a scientific truth or doing the morally right thing. For those reasons, he left behind a legacy of lasting valuable research."
      Author/creator: Denise Bernot
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 9 (2004)
      Format/size: pdf (566K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol9/index.shtml (JBS Vol. 9)
      Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009


      Title: "U Pe Maung Tin Bibliography"
      Date of publication: 2004
      Description/subject: From age 23 until his death at 84, U Pe Maung Tin was a prodigious writer and editor in both Burmese and English. He was the editor of the important Journal of the Burma Research Society. He wrote the first book on Burmese phonetics. With G.H. Luce, he edited Inscriptions of Burma and translated The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma. This invaluable annotated bibliography lists these and more than 200 other works by U Pe Maung Tin, a dramatic illustration of the legacy of this important Burmese scholar.
      Author/creator: Patricia M. Herbert
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 9, (2004)
      Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol9/index.shtml (JBS Vol. 9)
      Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009


      Title: "U Pe Maung Tin’s and Luce’s "GlassPalace Revisited"
      Date of publication: 2004
      Description/subject: Abstract: "A leading contemporary Burmese historian, U Aung Chain Tun offers a thoughtful and illuminating perspective on U Pe Maung Tin�s translation ion of The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma with G.H. Luce."
      Author/creator: U Tun Aung Chain
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 9, 2004
      Format/size: pdf (596K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol9/index.shtml (JBS Vol. 9)
      Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009


      Title: PROFESSOR U PE MAUNG TIN (1888-1973) The Life and Work of an Outstanding Burmese Scholar *
      Date of publication: 2004
      Description/subject: Introduction to the Special Issue and Outline of U Pe Maung Tin's life...In 1998, Daw Tin Tin Myaing (Brenda Stanley), the youngest daughter of the late Burmese scholar U Pe Maung Tin, organized a symposium at the University of London School of Oriental and African Studies to honor the achievements of her father. U Pe Maung Tin grew up as a Christian, but mastered Pali, the language of Buddhism, early in his career. This led him to become one of the world�s leading translators of Pali texts into English and interpreter of Buddhist doctrine to Western scholars. This article by guest editor and former student Anna Allott outlines U Pe Maung Tin�s life and work as a Pali scholar, lifelong student and promoter of the Burmese language, historian, linguist, phonetician, teacher, and editor.
      Author/creator: Anna Allott
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 9, 2004
      Format/size: pdf (631K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol9/index.shtml (JBS Vol. 9)
      Date of entry/update: 31 December 2008


      Title: Fighting Words
      Date of publication: July 2003
      Description/subject: "Steeped in tradition and stifled by repression, Burma’s literary culture remains defiant despite its seeming silence...Journalists in Rangoon say a combination of factors have pushed the works of revolutionary writers like Bamaw Tin Aung and Bohmu Chit Kaung, which once shaped the political ideologies of Burma’s youth, to the back bins, while at the same time putting a stress on the country’s rich literary tradition. Due to the perils of being associated with politics in Burma, many young people now eschew the sensitive topic for fear of retribution and imprisonment. This same fear has resulted in even fewer people pursuing writing careers, as the lives of writers are also heavily scrutinized. Writers, publishers and bookstore owners say they impose strict self-censorship on themselves in order to stay out of trouble...Despite the pressures facing writers in Burma today, nobody in Rangoon feels that the country’s rich literary tradition is facing extinction. The resiliency of the Burmese spirit can be seen as writers continue to put pen to paper even in the knowledge that they face potential imprisonment and a lifetime of harassment..."
      Author/creator: Tony Broadmoor
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


      Title: Love in the Time of War and Empire
      Date of publication: November 2002
      Description/subject: "What Amitav Ghosh's novel "The Glass Palace" lacks in emotional intensity, it makes up for in breadth, covering the story of three generations of families in Burma, Malaya and India, and the historical forces that shaped the colonial era..."
      Author/creator: Karen Connelly
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Writer's Day 1988: An Address by U Win Tin, December 9, 1988
      Date of publication: April 2001
      Description/subject: "This is an English version of the introductory words spoken by U Win Tin, editor of the Burmese newspaper, Hanthawadi, on the occasion of a literary gathering arranged and held by the National League for Democracy to mark Writers' Day (sa-hso-daw nei). The gathering, which is traditionally known in Burmese as a sa-pei haw-pyaw-bwe, featured two main speakers, author Maung Thawka and the poet U Tin Moe. Maung Thawka and U Tin Moe both since fled the country to live in exile. U Win Tin was arrested in 1989 and sentenced to 14 years in prison."
      Author/creator: U Win Tin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", VOL. VII, NO. 3 SPRING 2001
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: An Auspicious Moment
      Date of publication: January 2001
      Description/subject: The author, the former editor of the recently banned Thintbawa magazine, pays homage to celebrated poet Tin Moe in this article first published shortly after the latter's release from prison in 1995.
      Author/creator: Tin Maung Than. Part One
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Living History: Dagon Taya and Modern Burmese Literature
      Date of publication: July 2000
      Description/subject: Dagon Taya is not just Burma's greatest living writer; he is also a towering figure of 20th century Burmese literary history. After decades of attacks from critics and political pponents, his conviction that writers must respond tothe social and political realities of their times remains as strong as ever, writes Irrawaddy culture editor Min Zin.
      Author/creator: Min Zin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Literary "Gypsy" Leaves Burma
      Date of publication: July 1999
      Description/subject: The Irrawaddy recently spoke to celebrated author Maung Tha Ya, who recently left Burma after more than a decade of fears that writing anything new would be "like giving the government a noose" to hang him. Noted for his itinerant lifestyle as well as his naturalistic literary style, he told us about his past and his plans for the future.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Dandruff in My Halo
      Date of publication: March 1999
      Author/creator: Khin Myo Chit
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Burma Debate" Vol.. VI, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Obituary of Khin Myo Chit
      Date of publication: March 1999
      Author/creator: Anna Allott
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Burma Debate" Vol.. VI, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Half a Century of Publishing in Mandalay
      Date of publication: 1997
      Description/subject: The Ludu Kyi-bwa-yay Press was established in Mandalay as a radical left-wing publishing house by Ludu U Hla and his wife, Daw Amar, in 1938. Ludu U Hla was a pioneering Burmese journalist, would-be social reformer, social historian, and, most of all, recorder of folk-tales. Daw Amar began her writing career in 1938 as a translator, mostly of anti-Western works; in 1964 she began a series of major works dealing with Burmese traditional performing arts and the history and culture of Upper Burma and of Mandalay. U Hla died in 1982, and in March 1984 much of the press was destroyed in the great Mandalay fire. Nevertheless, the press resumed publishing in 1987 under the direction of Daw Amar and despite continued strict government censorship has remained in operation until the present. The latest book in Ludu U Hla's folktale series appeared posthumously in 1996. This article is followed by a translation of a short biography of Ludu U Hla written by Daw Amar.
      Author/creator: Anna Allott
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 1 (1997)
      Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol9/index.shtml (Vol. 1)
      Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


    • Journalism

      Individual Documents

      Title: Kyemon U Thaung and Ludu Daw Amar: Two Outstanding Journalists (Obituary)
      Date of publication: May 2008
      Description/subject: "BURMA’s independent media scene lost two of its most outstanding figures in April, when Kyemon U Thaung and Ludu Daw Amar died within four days of each other..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 May 2008


    • Poetry

      • Articles about poets and poetry of Burma/Myanmar

        Individual Documents

        Title: Language-oriented poetry in Myanmar
        Date of publication: 27 April 2011
        Description/subject: "To many people outside Myanmar (Burma), it might come as a surprise that there is such a thing as Language-oriented Poetry in contemporary Myanmar poetry scene. As I happen to be the person responsible (‘the instigator’ / ‘the culprit’) of so-called Language-oriented Poetry in Myanmar, I feel that I should have my say on how this has come about in Myanmar, a country that has been under a military regime for the past 20 years or so..."
        Author/creator: Zeyar Lynn
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Jacket2
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 30 September 2013


        Title: Contemporary Burmese Poetry
        Date of publication: August 2009
        Description/subject: Article by Vicky Bowman. The article was accompained by some poems when the issue was published online in August 2009, but I cannot find them. They were: Hyma Ein – The Submarine Island... Manorhary – The Boat Will Row Back to My Shore... Manorhary – Days After Snow... Phone Thet Paing – Diary
        Author/creator: Vicky Bowman
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Number 21 August 2009
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 30 September 2013


        Title: The Refugee Who Fled to Burma
        Date of publication: June 2001
        Description/subject: Ashin Ananda was a unique refugee: Not only did he flee to Burma during the Ne Win era; he also became an important interpreter of Burmese culture for a Western audience. Thiri reflects on the legacy of this Buddhist monk from Estonia, who died just one year before his native country regained its independence from the former Soviet Union.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 5
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: The Development of Political Themes in Minthuwun's Poetry
        Date of publication: 1997
        Description/subject: Min-thuwun is perhaps the greatest of living Burmese poets. Over the past 70 years he has published more than 100 poems covering a broad range of topics, including young love, the hardships of village and student life, and Burmese nationalism. Following a brief biographical sketch of the poet, this article presents a series of readings of selected poems that show Min-thuwun to be a passionate promoter of Burmese culture and an astute and subtle social commentator whose political messages are conveyed in figurative verse notable for its depictions of the victims of injustice. By framing his discussion within the periodization of 20th-century Burmese literature put forth by the poet-critic Mya Zin, the author demonstrates how Min-thuwun's career can be taken to exemplify the development of modern Burmese literature as a whole.
        Author/creator: Saw Tun
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 1 (1997)
        Format/size: pdf (1.21MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol1/index.shtml (Vol. 1)
        Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


      • Modern poems (Burmese and English) - some with accompanying articles

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: BURMA (MYANMAR) - Poetry
        Description/subject: Poems, articles...: Aung Cheimt...Maung Chaw Nwe...Mya Kabyar...Ma Ei...Maung Pyiyt Min...Tin Moe...Zeyar Lynn...Maung Yu Py...Wawn Awng
        Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Poetry International, Rotterdam
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 30 September 2013


        Individual Documents

        Title: Various Burmese Poets
        Date of publication: 2012
        Description/subject: from "Bones will Crow" - English and Burmese texts, with notes on the poets
        Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
        Source/publisher: Asymptote
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 30 September 2013


        Title: The 'Great Guest' of Burmese Literature
        Date of publication: April 2007
        Description/subject: Burma's best-loved poet Tin Moe passed away in California. Until his last breath, poetry was his love and life... "Tin Moe served five years in prison for daring to write about Burma's democracy movement's ruling military dictatorship.
        Author/creator: Khin Maung Sok
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 4
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 04 May 2008


        Title: Interview & Poetry of U Tin Moe
        Date of publication: December 2000
        Description/subject: "One of the country's leading writers and a Poet Laureate of Burma, U Tin Moe has published over 30 books. Born in 1933, he began writing poetry and essays in 1959 and has won numerous literary awards throughout his career. U Tin Moe became involved in the pro-democracy movement during 1988. As a result, he was imprisoned in Insein jail from 1991 until February of 1995. All his published works are banned in Burma. U Tin Moe left the country in April of 1999 and currently lives abroad. The following interview was aired on Radio Free Asia (RFA) in September 2000, and conducted by RFA correspondent Dr. Kyi May Kaung. The interview and poetry were translated for Burma Debate by Dr. Kaung. It appears here with the permission of RFA."
        Author/creator: U Tin Moe, Dr. Kyi May Kaung
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Burma Debate" VOL. VII, NO. 4 WINTER 2000
        Format/size: pdf (287K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Stories

      Individual Documents

      Title: Deeper Truths (Review of Win Pe's "Barafi and Other Stories")
      Date of publication: January 2007
      Description/subject: Master storyteller Win Pe uses the framework of everyday life in Burma as a foundation for exploring the darker side of human nature...
      Author/creator: Khin Maung Soe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 26 July 2008


      Title: Just Desserts
      Date of publication: April 2001
      Description/subject: Translators note: The literal translation of the title of this story would be 'If you pull out a person's guts, his heart will feel immense pain' - that is, if you are viciously cruel to people they will feel such bitterness in their hearts that they will never forgive you. Although the events that have caused the old man in the story to be cast out by the villagers ostensibly occurred during the Japanese occupation in the 40s, most readers will easily draw parallels between his behavior and the behavior of the army and its ruling body, SLORC, during 1988-9, when this story was written. The author has succeeded in expressing the revulsion felt by vast numbers of ordinary Burmese towards the cruelty of the army, and indicates by the ending of the story her belief that those who choose to live by violence and cruelty can expect to die as violently as they live. The chosen companion of the old man is a tiger who turns on him, and in killing him, is itself killed. We can only assume that the censors failed to spot the subtext of this story, or else believed that it was sufficiently buried for them to let it through without being accused of incompetence."
      Author/creator: Daw San San Nweh (trans. Anna J. Allott)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Burma Debate" VOL. VII, NO. 3 SPRING 2001
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: INKED OVER, RIPPED OUT: Burmese Storytellers and the Censors
      Date of publication: September 1993
      Description/subject: A PEN American Center Freedom-to-Write Report, with a preface to the Internet edition, July 2003... Here are two versions of Anna Allott's 1993 book: an html version without pagination and a Word version which seeks to retain the original format and pagination. Both versions contain the preface to the Internet edition. "The purpose of this publication on Burmese writing and Burmese censorship is to enable the work of certain Burmese authors, writing since the imposi­tion of military rule in 1988, to be read by a much wider audience than is usually the case, and also to show, through their own words (in translation), how they are continuing to find ways to express their true feelings about what is happening in their country in spite of the very strict and repressive system of censorship that exists there. Of necessity, in a country where no direct criticism of government policy or of individuals who hold positions of power is permitted, writing is fre­quently allusive or ironical, so much so that even Burmese readers not keyed into the clues may not appreciate the point of a piece, still less those Burmese who have been living abroad for some time, and still less the foreign reader. A writer in Burma has, therefore, a constant dilemma: he is never quite certain how far he dare go, for, if his criticisms or his protest or his satire is too obvious it will not be approved by the censors and will be forced to lie unpublished in his desk drawer. Worse still, it may even bring about his arrest. On the other hand, if the work is too veiled, or couched in too allegorical or symbolic language, the message he is trying to convey will not be understood. Hence, in this selection for the English reader, it is necessary to provide background information about the writers and the works that have been included in this selection, setting them in the context in which they were written. And this context can be understood only with reference to Burma's recent history, and the system of government control and censor­ship that has evolved during the last thirty years. The stories and poems selected for translation have been brought to my attention by a number of lovers of Burmese writing. Some of them have been identified by the readers as carrying a political message, often hidden to the casual reader or to anyone unaware of the issues being addressed in them. Where these pieces have been published in Burma, one assumes the censors either failed to spot the subtext, or if they did not fail, believed that it was sufficiently buried for them to let the pieces through safely, without being accused of being incompetent. Many of the writers featured here already have their works subjected to close scrutiny by the censors and are identified as being persons to watch. The publication of their works in English, together with my interpretations of their works, may result in their future writings being submitted to even greater scrutiny for hidden meanings. I can only apologize for further adding to their difficulties and stress that the allusions and hidden meanings that I have identified in these stories are drawn from my own interpretation, supported by discussions with other readers, and do not represent explana­tions by the writers themselves. Inevitably, the stories represent a very small part of all works written since 1988. They are untypical, in that the majority of pieces published in Burma today do not have any overt or hidden political message, as most works with even a hint of such messages are refused publication. The consequent trivialization of Burmese imaginative literature has been im­mensely discouraging to all serious and independent-minded writers. Some feel that they can now only produce work that is intrinsically without worth. Others have abandoned original writing and confine themselves instead to translating works from Western literature..."
      Author/creator: Anna J. Allott
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: PEN American Center
      Format/size: html (572k), Word (341K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/INKED-OVER.doc
      Date of entry/update: 27 July 2003


    • Translations

      Individual Documents

      Title: In Other Words
      Date of publication: February 2010
      Description/subject: Publishers and writers debate how to resurrect Burma’s great translation tradition... "Although the days are long gone when Burma’s publishers could produce such politically charged works as George Orwell’s “Animal Farm” in the Burmese language, the country’s literati still dream of establishing a truly independent and effective translation society. Orwell and other Western authors were translated into Burmese when the country had an active Translation Society, founded in 1947 by the country’s first prime minister, U Nu, who also worked as a translator for a time at Rangoon’s Judson College. The Translation Society was renamed Sarpay Beikhman—“Building Great Literature”—in 1963, one year after the coup that brought Ne Win to power. But it has never lived up to its grandiose title. Although Sarpay Beikhman hands out annual awards, few translators are honored. No translation prize at all was awarded in 2008..."
      Author/creator: Arkar Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17706
      Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


  • Martial Arts

    Individual Documents

    Title: »Weg der stählernen Disziplin« oder die »Kunst des Kämpfens«
    Date of publication: June 2004
    Description/subject: Kampfkünste aus Myanmar und das unbekannte Thaing Byaung Pyan,welches ursprünglich nur Shan Prinzen unterrichtet wurde. key words: martial arts, shan
    Author/creator: Soe Moe Oo und Khin Myo Yu, Deutsch von Manuela Volkmann
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Südostasien Jg. 20, Nr. 2 - Asienhaus
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 01 March 2005


    Title: "A Glimpse into the Traditional Martial Arts in Burma"
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: The traditional martial arts are an aspect of Burmese culture that has been virtually ignored by Burma scholars. Yet these martial arts have a rich heritage dating back to the early days of Burma. Historic events, religion, political necessities, and, more have shaped them recently into economic realities. The traditional martial art came close to extinction during the British colonial period, but was revived during the Japanese occupation. In past times, they were utilized for warfare and self-defense. Today the self-defense element remains, while the combat element has been transformed into sports and artistic cultural expression. The present economic conditions and the spread of foreign martial arts pose a current threat to the survival of the Burmese traditional martial arts and require the attention of Burma scholars to document this important component of the historic cultural identity of Burma.
    Author/creator: Michael Martin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 6 (2001)
    Format/size: pdf (908K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol6/index.shtml
    Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


  • Music and musical instuments

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Burmese classical music
    Description/subject: "Burmese classical music is performed in a number of different instrumental ensembles.The Western piano has been an important instrument in Burmese music since the years shortly before World War II. At times it has been re-tuned to match the Burmese tuning system but it is often used, as is, in its Western tempered tuning. The Burmese piano is heard in modern Burmese ensembles which play new popular music based on Burmese traditions. It is also used as a solo instrument and in traditional Burmese musical style in which selections from the classical repertoire, collectively known as the Maha Gita, are performed and used as a basis for improvised variation. During the heyday of silent films in Burma the piano, played in this typical Burmese style, was used almost exclusively..."
    Language: Englilsh
    Source/publisher: cartage.org
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


    Title: myanmar-xbands.com
    Description/subject: "The only onlione (sic) access to the underground music world of myanmar" ... Downloads, profiles, photos etc.. Includes:- ALTERNATIVE: WAKIZZA; THE STUDENTS; PURPLE DUCK... METAL: 316; NAME; HOLY DEADZ; ODEZZY; OFFKEYS; PYIN SA GAN; TEMPER LEVEL VIII; TAH THAN LHYNN CHATE... MODERN ROCK: A.Z.O; IDIOT; THE SKOOL... POP: KWYAT... SINGLE ARTIST: DANIEL; B.B.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: myanmar-xbands.com
    Format/size: html, quicktime
    Date of entry/update: 23 August 2005


    Title: Youtube search results for "Burmese OR Myanmar Classical Music" (Video)
    Description/subject: Several hundred results. Try other combinations like "Myanmar traditional music" etc.
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: Youtube
    Format/size: Adobe Flash
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Rangoon Rocks to Reggae
    Date of publication: October 2010
    Description/subject: It’s taken more than 30 years, but reggae has finally arrived in Burma, joining rock, blues, rap and hip-hop on the country’s music scene.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 10
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 July 2012


    Title: Tiger Girls on the Loose in Burma
    Date of publication: September 2010
    Description/subject: The Tiger Girls, Burma’s answer to the celebrated Spice Girls, are clawing their way rapidly to the top of the Burmese pop scene... "Burma’s first all-girl band took to the stage last February and since then has built up a large fan base—which doesn’t include members of the country’s censorship board, who took exception to some of the group’s more daring English language lyrics..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


    Title: Burmese Band Rocks SEA
    Date of publication: August 2010
    Description/subject: A rock band from Burma, Unrivalled, won the second round of a rock music contest involving more than 3,000 bands from Southeast Asian nations held in Malaysia in June. The contest was organized by the Malaysia-based AirAsiaRedTix.com and MTV Asia.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 August 2010


    Title: Crocodile Fears
    Date of publication: May 2010
    Description/subject: Mon musicians throw the spotlight on a threatened traditional instrument... "It’s called a “crocodile” because of its shape, but all associations linking the feared predator and this ancient Mon musical instrument end there. Despite its name, the Mon crocodile is a thing of beauty, producing beautiful sounds. And, like so many remnants of the past, it’s under threat..."
    Author/creator: ASOHN VI
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 August 2010


    Title: Rapping the Regime
    Date of publication: March 2010
    Description/subject: Young activists turn a musical trend into a political weapon... "Hip-hop, rap and politics make strange bedfellows, but the young people of Burma have found ways of using their favorite musical styles to get their political message across..."
    Author/creator: Ko Htwe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17932
    Date of entry/update: 17 March 2010


    Title: Victoria's Ark
    Date of publication: February 2010
    Description/subject: One woman’s campaign to preserve the music of the Golden Triangle hill tribes... "A simple snowflake became a tantalizing clue for anthropologists tracing the origins of the ethnic groups that populate the Golden Triangle region where the borders of Burma, Thailand and Laos meet...A Lahu Shi man with his baby and his drum. Photos: VLCTORIA VORRELTER The songs of these people are their substitute for a written history, according to Victoria Vorreiter, who spent five years documenting and recording the music, poetry and songs of six major ethnic groups: the Akha, Hmong, Karen, Lahu, Lisu and Mien..."
    Author/creator: Jim Andrews
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17707
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    Title: A Major Career Change
    Date of publication: October 2009
    Description/subject: From army major to successful pop musician is a big leap, but Nay Ye Mann appears to have accomplished it with ease... "The former officer in the Burmese army’s engineering corps has engineered himself a front-ranking position on the Burmese music scene with clever promotional campaigns featuring glamorous models and handsome actors..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    Title: Lay Phyu Makes a Comeback
    Date of publication: February 2009
    Description/subject: "The good news for Burma’s music scene is that popular rock star Lay Phyu is back in the spotlight. Lay Phyu’s comeback performance with his backing band, Iron Cross, has been booked for Mandalay in late January and is sure to be a sellout. The enigmatic rock star mysteriously walked out on the band in 2006 after a concert celebrating the 15th anniversary of the band’s founding. He reappeared in August last year at a Cyclone Nargis fundraising relief concert, but has never explained why he stopped performing for two years. Lay Phyu’s new album, Bay of Bengal, has hit the top of the Burmese charts, which he has dominated for years..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 16 February 2009


    Title: From Rock to Romance
    Date of publication: December 2008
    Description/subject: Iron Cross: "Burma’s top rock band, also known as IC, is 17 years old but still hammering out a beat. When it was formed in 1991—by five musicians led by the late guitar virtuoso Saw Bwe Hmu, an ethnic Karen Christian—it played mostly cover versions of foreign numbers with Burmese lyrics. But songwriters Maung Maung Zaw Latt and L Phyu freed it from its reliance on such popular American bands as Metallica and won it critical acclaim and a wide public..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 12
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 December 2008


    Title: Burma’s Hip-hop Under Attack
    Date of publication: May 2008
    Description/subject: "BURMA’s hip-hop performers are now on the hit list of the authorities, who have grown increasingly nervous about their activities since the September 2007 demonstrations. Popular rap and hip-hop artist Yan Yan Chan is the latest to feel the regime’s displeasure. He was arrested in April, two months after the detention of his friend and fellow member of the ACID group, Zayar Thaw, who is being held in Rangoon’s Insein Prison. Where he is being held is unknown..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2008


    Title: Sai Htee Saing: More Than a Shan Songster (Obituary)
    Date of publication: April 2008
    Description/subject: " WHEN I heard of the death of Sai Htee Saing, his famous song “Nwe Ok Or” (“The Summer Cuckoo”) immediately echoed in my mind. Many of his fans thought this song best represented the frail-looking ethnic Shan singer whose sweet, simple tenor voice had charmed them for many decades..."
    Author/creator: Amporn Jirattikorn
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


    Title: Thangyat: Traditional Songs Hard to Suppress
    Date of publication: April 2008
    Description/subject: "Thangyat is one of the oldest examples of Burmese folk art. Usually amusing and satirical, Thangyat combines poetry, dance and music and is sung to the beat of a traditional drum on festive occasions. In the past, during the Burmese New Year water festivals, or Thingyan, young people would publicly recite humorous Thangyat lyrics, which freely criticize everything from politics to social behavior. But the Burmese military generals have changed all that. In 1989, a year after taking power, the generals lost their sense of humor and banned public performances of Thangyat. However, Thangyat is still kept alive by exiled Burmese communities..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


    Title: CD Marks 20th Anniversary of 8-8-88
    Date of publication: March 2008
    Description/subject: CD Marks 20th Anniversary of 8-8-88..."The journey of Burma’s democracy movement has inspired Burmese writer Yeni to produce a CD dedicated to the hopes, aspirations and struggles of the Burmese people in August 1988—and today. About 10 musicians based in the northern Thai city of Chiang Mai perform on the CD, titled “New Light Festival” and produced by Yeni, a writer and senior journalist at The Irrawaddy magazine. Jo Rangsan Rasri Dip, the two-time winner of Thailand’s Season Award, honoring the best of the country’s music industry, co-produced the album and recorded it at his Duem Dontri studio in Chiang Mai..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


    Title: Wild, Wild Wet
    Date of publication: April 2005
    Description/subject: "For the past 20 years or so, the movie Thingyan-moe has been an annual staple for Burmese celebrating their New Year Water Festival. It means ‘rain in the water festival’, and the strains of its musical score reverberate everywhere as Burmese throw water over each other. But the movie, stocked with traditional song and dance numbers from the northern capital of Mandalay, may now have a rival. This year, for the first time, bands representing the different cultures of Burma and the five other countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-Region performed in Mandalay. The bands—from Cambodia, China’s Yunnan province, Laos, Vietnam and northern Thailand, as well as Burma—were invited by the Ministry of Hotels and Tourism to take part in a special Thingyan traditional program there..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


    Title: Burma’s Unfinished Symphony
    Date of publication: October 2004
    Description/subject: "Is a national orchestra still just a midsummer night’s dream?... When the newly-constituted Burmese national symphony orchestra performed before an audience of dignitaries in Rangoon in September, the lifelong efforts of trailblazing musician Myo-ma Nyein were finally rewarded...
    Author/creator: Yeni
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 November 2004


    Title: An Interview with Ad Carabao
    Date of publication: September 2002
    Description/subject: "I think I can be more like a bullet they could use in fighting back."... The Irrawaddy spoke recently with Yuenyong "Ad" Ophakul, of the Thai folk-rock band Carabao, about his recent solo release, "Don�t Cry" (Mai Dtong Rong Hai). The album, which combines reggae rhythms with strong lyrics expressing support for the Shan struggle for independence, is the artist�s latest foray into Burmese politics. The artist spoke about music and free expression in an interview with Wandee Suntivutimetee..."
    Author/creator: Wandee Suntivutimetee
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: AND THE BAND PLAYED ON
    Date of publication: September 2002
    Description/subject: "The promotion of political ideas in a musical context has been a common feature of mass movements Southeast Asia. In Burma, where strict censorship prevails and military dictatorship still governs, the uneasy marriage of music and politics continues to be met with stiff resistance. Like other political movements in Southeast Asia, music has provided a rallying point for the masses during political upheavals in Burma. It has served as a potent response to the rapid political and social displacements brought on by neo-colonialism, industrialization, and dictatorship. At the same time, music has also been appropriated to serve the establishment by strengthening national cohesion, promoting entrenched power structures and spreading selected values and information to the multitudes..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10. No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burmese Pop Music: Identity in Transition
    Date of publication: September 2002
    Description/subject: "Dominated by cover songs derived from foreign imports, Burmese popular music continues to struggle to find its own voice. In a closed society like Burma, culture is all about preservation and less to do with innovation. Any creative breakthrough produces moral panic, not only in the minds of the powers that be, but also of the majority of folks. In a deep-down analysis, the structural interests of both politics and the market are the most decisive factors in shaping the creative capacity of the society at large. The 30-year-long journey of Burmese pop music can be seen in this light, since it is very much a product of this control culture and is still subject to the restrictive and exploitative political and market structure..."
    Author/creator: Min Zin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Straight Outta Rangoon
    Date of publication: September 2002
    Description/subject: "Rap music and Hip-Hop have gained a foothold in Rangoon, but many still prefer to step to a different beat. Sai Sai stands waiting backstage wearing his high-top Nike Air Jordans, both hands in the pockets of his oversized shorts that match his loose-fitting hooded sweatshirt. His friend, wearing a bandanna on his head beneath a New York Yankees baseball cap flipped backwards, talks to a fellow band-member sporting her favorite skintight jeans. They are waiting to perform along side some of Burma�s newest and hottest music stars in Rangoon at an outdoor concert�a rarity in a country where public gatherings of more than five people are officially prohibited..."
    Author/creator: Shawn L. Nance/Rangoon
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Tonal Structure in Burmese Music as Exemplified in the Piano Music of U Ko
    Date of publication: 05 November 1995
    Author/creator: Robert Garfias
    Language: English
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Performance Art

    Individual Documents

    Title: An Unfinished Painting
    Date of publication: March 2007
    Description/subject: How prison life honed Htein Lin’s skills as a performance artist... "Silence enveloped the room as about 30 people watched a man in a white robe meditating before them. Beside him, tubes of oil paint lay o­n a mat. The man looked around and raised his hands as if he were a captive touching an invisible wall. He then began to pour red paint o­n the mat, his movements becoming faster and more forceful. Green paint followed the red, and his movements became calmer. Using his hands and feet, he painted the mat, finally taking off his outer robe and laying himself o­n it, o­n the colored surface. The painted mat, the robe and the artist himself were fused into o­ne—in a creation called “Love and Anger” by Htein Lin, a pioneer of performance art in Burma..."
    Author/creator: Ampika Jirat
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 May 2008


  • Performing Arts

    Individual Documents

    Title: Motion Pictures
    Date of publication: February 2009
    Description/subject: "Burmese artist captures traditional dances on canvas... IN his latest solo exhibition, Nay Myo Say, one of Burma’s best known contemporary artists, has again demonstrated his outstanding skill in depicting the essence of Burmese classical dancing and Buddhist ritual..."
    Author/creator: Yeni
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 16 February 2009


    Title: Proud Dancers
    Date of publication: April 2005
    Description/subject: "Burma’s Rawang keep one ancient tradition alive...The arrival of other ethnic groups in the Rawang homeland, the Putao plains of northern Burma, also threatens the future of Rawang culture, confronting the remaining young people with an identity crisis. Tourism is also making inroads into this remote, mountain-ringed region of Kachin State... Happily, one Rawang tradition appears to be in no danger of dying: ceremonial dancing, or “azolom.” The dance is structured in a snail shape formation in which each circle describes Rawang migration from the flood. Interestingly, a civilization-threatening flood features in Rawang mythology as vividly as in Judeo-Christian texts. The dancers make waving motions with their arms like birds in flight, accompanied by cymbals and drums. The men wear colourful coats of white, red, green and black, colors that respectively represent purity, bravery, peacefulness and stability. They carry blunt swords edged with tiger teeth and wear rattan hats bearing wild boar tusks..."
    Author/creator: Elizabeth Kalnin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


    Title: Art for Politics’ Sake
    Date of publication: January 2002
    Description/subject: "Burmese and Thai officials are using an alluring tactic in an attempt to heal a rift in bilateral relations. Thailand’s government and members of its business sector have worked hard with the Burmese government to mend ties since relations deteriorated over a series of border skirmishes between the two countries last February. While the countries have engaged in several bilateral diplomatic exchanges, private initiatives sponsored by members of the government and business sector are employing cultural diplomacy as a means to promote business interests..."
    Author/creator: John S. Moncreif and Greta Khiel
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Culture, Society & Arts
    Date of publication: June 1999
    Description/subject: In terms of sheer dramatic interest, the performing arts of Burma are rivaled only by the country's long and complex history. Even today, our writer finds, Burma's leaders know how to put on a good show.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=1388
    http://www.irrawaddy.org/archives.php (Vol. 7. No. 5)
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


    Title: A Story of the Myanmar Marionette Theatre
    Description/subject: The Revival of a Dying Art_ Myanmar marionette theatre (Yoke They) -- once a highly esteemed royal pastime -- involves not merely stringed wooden dolls, but life-like human substitutes. The puppets are in fact wooden marionettes manipulated by of strings, but they can dance like subtle ballet stars. The Myanmar puppet theatre still retains its own national characteristics and its original Myanmar tradition as it embraces all the artistic products of Myanmar such as dance and music, sculpture, sequin embroidery, and painting....."
    Author/creator: Daw Naing Yee Mar
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


  • Print Media -- newspapers and magazines

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Chronology of the Press in Burma
    Description/subject: List from 1836
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 July 2007


    Individual Documents

    Title: A Parallax View
    Date of publication: March 2004
    Description/subject: "The Myanmar Times has boosted transparency and improved journalistic standards in Burma, says the newspaper’s editor..,."
    Author/creator: Ross Dunkley
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=922&page=1
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


  • Sports

    Individual Documents

    Title: Football Coach Gets the Boot
    Date of publication: March 2010
    Description/subject: After just a few months on the job, the head coach of Burma’s national football team was sacked on Feb. 4 by the Myanmar Football Federation (MFF) for failing to bring success to the team.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17935
    Date of entry/update: 17 March 2010


    Title: Get the Ball Rolling
    Date of publication: June 2009
    Description/subject: "Move over Liverpool and Man United! Burma’s first ever professional football league has kicked off THERE are no high-profile names like Cristiano Ronaldo or Leo Messi, and the stadiums might not generate the fever of an 80,000-crowd at Old Trafford or the Bernabeu. But the football-crazy Burmese public was finally given the chance to taste the atmosphere of live professional football matches when the new Myanmar National League Cup kicked off on May 16..."
    Author/creator: David Paquette
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 June 2009


    Title: Betting on Soccer
    Date of publication: April 2009
    Description/subject: "EIGHT of Burma's leading tycoons, including Te Za of Htoo Company and Htun Myint Naing of Asia World - both of whom were recently targeted on a US sanctions list - plan to fund soccer clubs to compete in a new league, which may include foreign coaches and players. Each team will be formed for around 200 million kyat (US $204,080), according to a press conference held in Rangoon in March. The new Myanmar National League is expected to kick off in 2010..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 April 2009


    Title: Stroke of Genius
    Date of publication: March 2008
    Description/subject: A Canadian filmmaker gets a kick out of a Burmese sport where every player wins... "...A Burmese academic once observed: ‘‘No wonder our political culture is very antagonistic. Look at the games we have in Burma, like kite fighting. Almost all games are designed to crush your opponent.’’ His hypothesis overlooks Burma’s national game chinlone, which is the subject of the award-winning documentary “Mystic Ball.” Its Canadian director Greg Hamilton says: ‘‘The most amazing thing about chinlone is that it is not competitive. There is no opposing team, no scoring, no winners or losers..."
    Author/creator: Ko Ko Thett
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


    Title: It’s Only a Game
    Date of publication: January 2008
    Description/subject: Chinlone is no competitive sport, but it’s winning prizes and accolades for Burma... "The spirited performance by Burma’s sepak takraw team in last month’s Asian Games in Doha o­n the Persian Gulf has swung the spotlight o­n to o­ne of the few sports in which the Burmese excel..."
    Author/creator: Geoffrey Walton
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 July 2008


  • Visual and Plastic Arts

    • The Art of Burma -- General studies

      Individual Documents

      Title: THE ART AND CULTURE OF BURMA (Table of Contents)
      Date of publication: 2002
      Description/subject: "The purpose of this on-line study-guide and course-outline is to make text and visual materials on the arts of Burma readily and inexpensively available, in particular to students and teachers. These materials assume college level reading skills so that the contents may be used for independent study courses, as a resource for teachers in secondary schools, as well as anyone interested in expanding and enriching their knowledge of the Arts and Cultures of Burma. Because the text is written for a general audience it does not contain the detail or footnotes that are found in scholarly publications. A select bibliography is provided at the end of each section for those who wish to pursue topics previously discussed. The illustrations are digitized from my own collection of color slides with the several exceptions are noted..." TOC: Overview: Purpose, Extended Contents, Acknowledgements, and Geographical Overview; Art History of Burma: Synoptic Overview; Chapter 1 - Prehistoric and Animist Periods c. 1100 BC to c. 200 AD: Paleolithic and Neolithic sites, Animism, and Karen Bronze Drums; Chapter 2 - The Pre-Pagan Period: The Urban Age of the Mon and the Pyu c.200 to c.800 AD: Mon and Pyu City states: Thaton, Beikthano, Halin, and Srikshetra; Chapter 3 - the Pagan Period c. 800 AD to 1287 AD; Part 1 - Introduction and City Plan of Pagan; Part 2 - Architecture 1 - General Characteristics and Stupas; Part 3 - Architecture 2 - Temples and Monasteries Part 4 - Sculpture, Conclusion, and Bibliography; Chapter 4 - The Post Pagan Period; Part 1 - Introduction and the Ava Period; Part 2 - The Konbaung Period: Amarapura; Part 3 - Mandalay Period; Special Section: 80 Scenes of the Life of Buddha.
      Author/creator: Richard M. Cooler
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Northern Illinois University
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Architecture

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Yangon Heritage Trust
      Description/subject: "The mission of the Yangon Heritage Trust is to protect and promote Yangon’s urban heritage within a cohesive urban plan by advocating for heritage protection, advising the government and developers on heritage issues, and undertaking preservation projects, studies, conferences, and training. The core of our current activities are described on the pages below:"
      Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Yangon Heritage Trust
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 September 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: Restoring Rangoon (video)
      Date of publication: 22 May 2013
      Description/subject: "Myanmar’s former capital, Yangon, boasts one of the most spectacular early-20th century urban landscapes in Asia. A century ago the country’s former capital was one of the world's great trading cities and the legacy of that cosmopolitan past remains today. Saved from the fate of other Asian cities due to the country's isolation under military rule, Yangon’s downtown area is a unique blend of cultural and imperial architecture, considered to be the last surviving "colonial core" in Asia. But as the country opens up, this unique heritage is under threat. Decades of neglect have left once grand buildings a crumbling mess and they are at grave risk of being demolished in favour of hastily built towers and condominiums..." Some of the damage has already been done as developers race to cash in on the country’s rapid pace of change. Myanmar historian and scholar, Thant Myint U, is leading the charge to preserve Yangon’s heritage and return many buildings to their former glory. He has founded the Yangon Heritage Trust, a group pushing for a cohesive urban plan for the city. The stories of the buildings and the people who lived - and still live in them today, are truly unique in the world. 101 East was granted rare access inside the famous Secretariat building, the site of Myanmar's independence ceremony in 1948 and the assassination of national hero, General Aung San, the father of pro-democracy campaigner Aung San Suu Kyi. This immense building, which housed the parliament from 1948-1962 has been closed to the public behind razor wire for more than half a century and few have ever seen inside it. Its greatest challenge may yet be surviving the modern era as Yangon embarks on its dramatic transition into a modern Asian city..."
      Author/creator: Aela Callan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (101 East)
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (25 minutes)
      Date of entry/update: 08 September 2013


      Title: Hort der weissen Elefanten und feldgrünen Könige
      Date of publication: 05 January 2011
      Description/subject: Vor fünf Jahren überraschte Burmas enigmatische Militärjunta mit der Ankündigung, im dünn besiedelten Landesinnern eine neue Hauptstadt zu bauen. Entstanden ist ein steriles Nebeneinander von Ministerien, Hotels und Wohnblöcken.
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: NZZ Online
      Date of entry/update: 27 January 2011


      Title: Tiffin Time Again
      Date of publication: January 2006
      Description/subject: Government involvement helps restore shine to Rangoon's Strand Hotel... "Rangoon is a picture book of architectural gems from the years of British colonialism. But visitors have a frustrating time discovering them. The city streets so carefully planned and built in the mid-19th century have been allowed by neglectful Burmese post-colonial governments to fade and crumble. Layers of soot and grime accumulated over the years make it difficult to detect exquisite art nouveau and solid Victorian and Edwardian features of buildings that, in their time, would not have looked out of place in bourgeois areas of London..."
      Author/creator: Jim Andrews
      Language: Engllish
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


      Title: Secrets of a Shan Palace
      Date of publication: May 2005
      Description/subject: Does a protective curse prevent the regime from pulling it down?... Yawnghwe Haw, the large wood and brick palace of Burma’s first president, Sao Shwe Thaike, near Inle Lake in southern Shan State, has survived the ravages of Burma’s turbulent history—unlike its ill-fated former occupant, who died in jail. Some suggest that the palace owes its survival to a protecting curse on anyone daring to pull it down. That was the fate of the famous Shan palace Haw Sao Pha Kengtung, demolished by the Burmese military junta in 1991. Now known as Yawnghwe (Nyaungshwe) Haw Museum, Sao Shwe Thaike’s palace has undergone superficial renovation to repair damage caused by years of neglect, when squatters occupied outbuildings and graffiti was scrawled on some of the walls. The exhibits themselves have been catalogued and explained by the museum’s curators with only a cursory nod to historical fact. Built in the Mandalay tradition and completed in the late 1920s, Yawnghwe Haw is a fine example of Shan palace architecture, though perhaps not as impressive as the demolished Haw Sao Pha Kengtung. The museum’s collection contains precious and beautiful artifacts—elaborate royal thrones, teak tables, divans, sedans and palanquins. Also included are numerous costumes belonging to the Shan sawbwas, or rulers, from Yawnghwe as well as Kengtung..."
      Author/creator: Tara Monroe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


      Title: Remaking Rangoon
      Date of publication: July 2003
      Description/subject: "Rangoon’s modernization drive in preparation for the 2006 Asean Summit is destroying the capital’s architectural heritage... A house of teak and brick in Botataung Township in Rangoon is being razed to make way for a taller, more modern skyscraper. The house was full of charm at the turn of the 20th century, and was one of many buildings that earned the Burmese capital the reputation as the "Pearl of the Orient". "My house was beautiful and in good condition considering it was nearly 100 years old," said the 50-year-old owner, as he watched his home being demolished. But now he is more pragmatic than sentimental. "As the new ones are coming, the old ones have to go," he added. In the first half of the last century Rangoon was a model for other Southeast Asian cities. Famed for its many buildings of religious, historical and architectural significance, the city was a hybrid of colonial charm and unique Burmese splendor. The great traditional houses of the city were built from teak, with grand spired roofs, decorated eaves and crafted paneling. But now much of that has been thrown into the dustbin of history..."
      Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


      Title: THE ART AND CULTURE OF BURMA (Table of Contents)
      Date of publication: 2002
      Description/subject: "The purpose of this on-line study-guide and course-outline is to make text and visual materials on the arts of Burma readily and inexpensively available, in particular to students and teachers. These materials assume college level reading skills so that the contents may be used for independent study courses, as a resource for teachers in secondary schools, as well as anyone interested in expanding and enriching their knowledge of the Arts and Cultures of Burma. Because the text is written for a general audience it does not contain the detail or footnotes that are found in scholarly publications. A select bibliography is provided at the end of each section for those who wish to pursue topics previously discussed. The illustrations are digitized from my own collection of color slides with the several exceptions are noted..." TOC: Overview: Purpose, Extended Contents, Acknowledgements, and Geographical Overview; Art History of Burma: Synoptic Overview; Chapter 1 - Prehistoric and Animist Periods c. 1100 BC to c. 200 AD: Paleolithic and Neolithic sites, Animism, and Karen Bronze Drums; Chapter 2 - The Pre-Pagan Period: The Urban Age of the Mon and the Pyu c.200 to c.800 AD: Mon and Pyu City states: Thaton, Beikthano, Halin, and Srikshetra; Chapter 3 - the Pagan Period c. 800 AD to 1287 AD; Part 1 - Introduction and City Plan of Pagan; Part 2 - Architecture 1 - General Characteristics and Stupas; Part 3 - Architecture 2 - Temples and Monasteries Part 4 - Sculpture, Conclusion, and Bibliography; Chapter 4 - The Post Pagan Period; Part 1 - Introduction and the Ava Period; Part 2 - The Konbaung Period: Amarapura; Part 3 - Mandalay Period; Special Section: 80 Scenes of the Life of Buddha.
      Author/creator: Richard M. Cooler
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Northern Illinois University
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: THE ART AND CULTURE OF BURMA - Chapter 3: The Pagan Period. Part 2 - Architecture 1 - General Characteristics and Stupas
      Date of publication: 2002
      Description/subject: "Stupas are solid structures that typically cannot be entered and were constructed to contain sacred Buddhist relics that are hidden from view (and vandals) in containers buried at their core or in the walls. Temples have an open interior that may be entered and in which are displayed one or more cult images as a focus for worship. Although this categorization between Stupa and temple is useful, the distinction is not always clear. There are stupas such as the Myazedei that have the external form of a stupa but are like a temple with an inner corridor and multiple shrines..."
      Author/creator: Richard M. Cooler
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Northern Illinois University
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.seasite.niu.edu/burmese/Cooler/BurmaArt_TOC.htm (Table of Contents)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: THE ART AND CULTURE OF BURMA - Chapter 3: The Pagan Period. Part 3 - Architecture 2 - Temples and Monasteries
      Date of publication: 2002
      Description/subject: "... Pagan temples may be divided into two basic types according to floor plan: one type has an open central sanctuary and the other has a solid core that is ringed by a corridor. The two types, however, were at times combined in a single structure in which the solid core was hollowed out to create a sanctuary that was then encircled by a corridor..."
      Author/creator: Richard M. Cooler
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Northern Illinois University
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.seasite.niu.edu/burmese/Cooler/BurmaArt_TOC.htm (Table of Contents)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Text and New Contexts: Shwedagon and Kyaikhtiyoe today
      Date of publication: December 2001
      Description/subject: "Texts and Contexts", December 2001 Conference, Universities' Historical Research Centre, Yangon University... Abstract: The paper discusses the use of texts in current renovation of pagodas in Myanmar, taking as examples aspects of work undertaken at the Shwedagon and Kyaikhtiyoe in the last two years. Different types of texts, from inscriptions and traditional accounts to contemporary technical reports, are used to illustrate the complex tradition found in the country today. These are presented in the context of past interaction including Mon influence and the Hsandawshin (Sacred Hair) heritage, as well as present links such as planetary aspects and the role of renovation in encouraging the sustenance of Theravada practice.
      Author/creator: Elizabeth Moore,
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Myanmar Historical Research Journal, University of Yangon [forthcoming]
      Format/size: pdf (747K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Mandalay Palace
      Date of publication: 1963
      Description/subject: Mandalay Palace - Historical Sites; Mandalay - Description and Travel; Mandalay - History; Myanmar - History - Later Konbaung Period; Contents: (1) Foundation of the Palace and City p. 10-15; (2) The City's Defensive Walls p. 16-19; (3) Building outside the palace platform p. 22-24; (4) The Buildings within the palace platform p. 25-35; (5) Appendix - Kings of the Alaungpaya Dynasty p. 37; This book was published with the grant of 1962 Asia; Foundation. Text by Mon C. Durosielle former Superintendent of the Directorate of Archaeological Survey. Supplemented with thirty one plates of photographs, plans and measured drawings of the palace structures and architectural motifs as preserved in the Archaeological Department.
      Author/creator: Mon C. Durosielle
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Directorate of Archaeological Survey
      Format/size: PDF (3.84MB) 57pages
      Alternate URLs: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Zh_zzAF5zUgJ:https://www.myanmarisp.com/ABR/Ma...
      Date of entry/update: 10 July 2010


    • Ceramics

      Individual Documents

      Title: Pottery in the Chin Hills
      Date of publication: 1999
      Description/subject: During my research on contemporary pottery villages in Burma, I was given the name of one such village, Lente, by a native now living in the United States. Lente is located in the Chin Hills, a remote area of western Burma difficult to access, inhabited by many tribes speaking a large number of languages. Foreigners are rarely given permission to visit the Chin Hills, and although I obtained permission to travel to Lente, I was ultimately prevented by the authorities from going further than nearby Falam. I was nevertheless able to collect data from Lente in three ways: first, my guide Daw Moe Moe was able to visit Lente and take photographs of the potters there; secondly, Daw Moe Moe was able to return to Falam with a potter from Lente village and with enough of the proper kind of clay to facilitate a demonstration which I photographed and documented; and thirdly, I was given a copy of a videotape showing the potters working in Lente village. This tape was taken by a young man from Falam who is interested in recording local crafts processes. The tape allowed me to observe a process of making pots with which I was totally unacquainted, and which has otherwise escaped recent photographic or video documentation. This was a true "discovery" concerning the ways in which pots can be made, and still another indication of the imagination and ingenuity of humankind.
      Author/creator: Charlotte Reith
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 4 (1999)
      Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
      Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


      Title: Comparison of Three Pottery Villages: Shan State Burma
      Date of publication: 1997
      Description/subject: During my visit from 1991-1994 to three pottery-producing villages in Shan State, I was struck by the differences in technology and product. Contrary to my assumption that this small area would evidence a shared technology and similar products, I found three distinctly differing pottery traditions. In some places in the world, membership in the same ethnic group seems to be an important factor in determining the techniques and products of the potters belonging to that group. However, two of these villages, Compani and Awe Yaw, are both populated by Danu and have distinctly different ways of making pots. While it is primarily concerned with the pottery-making processes in the three villages, this article is also interested in the lives of the potters and how they face the challenges inherent in their craft.
      Author/creator: Charlotte Reith
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 1 (1997)
      Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
      Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


    • Films and film-making

      Individual Documents

      Title: Wanted: Actor to Play Aung San
      Date of publication: September 2009
      Description/subject: Soe Moe, one of Burma’s best-known film directors, says he plans to make a movie about the Tatmadaw, the Burmese army, but he hasn’t yet chosen the actor who will play its founder, Aung San, father of Aung San Suu Kyi... "The proposed film, which will carry the title “Kye Zin Maw Goon” (“Star of History”), will trace the Tatmadaw’s history back to the years of Burma’s independence struggle and the civil war that broke out shortly after British colonial rule came to an end in 1948..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 January 2010


      Title: Actor's Chilly New Film Project
      Date of publication: August 2009
      Description/subject: "Burma's award-winning screen actor Lwin Moe is moving once again from in front of the camera to make a documentary film about the glaciers of northern Kachin State. If the film proves as popular as his previous ventures into documentary production, Lwin Moe says he may ditch his acting career and become a full-time producer and director. For now, he is managing to combine all three areas of work..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 26 December 2009


      Title: Burma's Father of Political Cinema
      Date of publication: August 2009
      Description/subject: Businessman, filmmaker, patriot "Parrot" U Sonny made a profound mark on Burma's early film industry... "In Burma's modern history, there have been many artists who have taken great risks to tackle such challenging themes as nationalism, religion and social injustice. Some confronted the authorities of the day to produce works of art that reflected their political views, while others faced financial ruin to remain true to their convictions. Among the many artistic risk-takers who have had a major impact on Burmese culture, one name stands out from all the rest: the acclaimed filmmaker U Sunny, whose company, Parrot Film Productions, was a pioneer in the field of politically inspired cinema, producing 92 films from 1931 to 1957..."
      Author/creator: Arkar Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 26 December 2009


      Title: The Rambo approach to Burma
      Date of publication: 20 June 2008
      Description/subject: "Sylvester Stallone has claimed that his movie, Rambo 4, released internationally in February and available to Australians on DVD next month, has a serious purpose — to draw attention to the Burmese government’s long record of human rights abuses and to mobilize action against the military regime. Yet, its dubious entertainment value aside, this movie in fact has the potential to do Burma’s opposition movement considerable harm..."
      Author/creator: Andrew Selth
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Interpreter" - weblog of the Lowy Institute for International Policy
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 04 March 2009


      Title: Populism, Politics and Propaganda: Burma and the Movies
      Date of publication: June 2008
      Description/subject: Abstract: "For almost a century, movies set in or about Burma, particularly those made by the major American studios, have had a number of elements in common. While emphasizing its more colourful and exotic characteristics, they have either greatly romanticized the country or depicted it as a savage and untamed wilderness. Also, Burma has usually served as a backdrop for dramatic Occidental adventures, in which the local inhabitants played little role. More recent movies pay the Burmese people greater attention, but they are still secondary to the main plot, even when the movies consciously draw attention to the current military regime’s human rights abuses. In recent films like Beyond Rangoon and Rambo 4, however, complex issues are over-simplified, or exaggerated to the point of unreality. While these movies have proven effective at planting vivid images in the popular mind and helping to mobilize support for the opposition movement, crude and misleading messages such as those sent by Rambo 4 can actually hinder the resolution of Burma’s many problems."
      Author/creator: Andrew Selth
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Southeast Asia Research Centre Working Paper Series, No. 100, 2008 (City University of Hong Kong)
      Format/size: pdf (208K)
      Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


      Title: A Sad Cinema Scenario
      Date of publication: August 2006
      Description/subject: Burma’s movie industry is in decline while an illegal video business booms... In the heyday of Burma’s film industry about 80 movies were produced annually, enjoyed a golden heyday, some of them jointly with foreign production companies. But that was 50 years ago. Today, the industry is in the doldrums, with very few films making any money, cinemas struggling to survive and artistic standards at an all-time low..."
      Author/creator: Yeni
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 May 2007


      Title: Lights, Camera—But Where’s the Action?
      Date of publication: September 2005
      Description/subject: Burma’s B movie scene, where B stands for Bad... "...Government participation in one form or another is inevitable in an industry so sadly lacking in outside investment. According to actors and directors, there are currently only two or three businessmen interested in producing films. Even the most popular Burmese-made films make little profit, if any. In what might be seen as an enlightened bid to upgrade the quality of Burmese films, the regime is actually encouraging directors and film technicians to get overseas training and enter their films in international festivals. Industry insiders say the Burmese military hope that film festival success will help to attract investors and draw people back to the cinema, where audiences have reportedly dwindled by up to 50 percent in the past two years. While few directors would risk trying anything political or religious, many want the opportunity to write scripts that deal with serious social issues; or at least something a little more experimental. They believe this would give local audiences new material and show international critics that Burmese films can be creative and make their mark on world screens..."
      Author/creator: Toby Hudson
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


      Title: Celluloid Disillusions
      Date of publication: March 2004
      Description/subject: "Given that Burma’s movie industry is tightly directed by the government, suffers from a deficit of technical skills and technology—not to mention financing problems—it’s a small miracle anything gets produced at all... Aye Aye, in her 40s, does not bother to hide her dislike of made-in-Burma m ovies. "Burmese films are not natural, their themes are boring and they never change plots. I hate to watch them." She prefers Hollywood movies. Other members of her family like the Chinese and Korean soap operas that air on state-run TV. "In fact," she said, "karaoke is ahead of the [Burmese] movie." Many educated Burmese in Rangoon told The Irrawaddy that they stopped watching Burmese films many years ago..."
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 June 2004


      Title: Digital Killed the Celluloid Star
      Date of publication: March 2004
      Description/subject: "Burma’s film industry has lagged behind that of its neighbors as a result of outdated technology, government censorship, hackneyed screenwriting and mediocre acting. But a humble piece of plastic may soon change all that: the DVD..."
      Author/creator: Min Zin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 June 2004


      Title: Escapist Entertainment: Hollywood Movies of Burma
      Date of publication: March 2004
      Description/subject: "Hollywood representations of Burma paint the country as an exotic, cruel land that serves as a backdrop for daring occidental adventurers and patriots... The earliest Hollywood imaginings of Burma were romantic melodramas about white women in jeopardy, using the Southeast Asian landscape as an exotic backdrop. These and subsequent films about Burma have relegated Burmese characters to the sidelines. A lurid, silent thriller about prostitution and murder, Road to Mandalay (1926), set the tone. Eight years later saw the release of Mandalay, in which the Sacramento Delta in California plays the part of the Irrawaddy River. It is a sordid tale of revenge, murder, a Rangoon nightclub hostess, and a drunken doctor on his way to a "black fever" outbreak. The Girl from Mandalay (1936) featured another nightclub entertainer, another epidemic, and a tiger attack. Moon Over Burma (1940) is Dorothy Lamour’s turn as the nightclub chanteuse, with Burma depicted as a jungle paradise, the usual setting for her popular "sarong movies"—romances in which she sang, swathed in form-fitting batik. The central character in these early pictures was always the victimized, yet plucky, Western—or part-Asian—woman adrift in the mysterious Orient..."
      Author/creator: Edith Mirante
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 June 2004


    • Painting

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Burma Border Children's Art Project
      Description/subject: - Improving the lives of migrant children through art...About us: As its primary goal, the Burma Border Children's Art Project has sought to introduce art into the curriculum of migrant schools for the fun, enjoyment and creative outlet that it offers all students, as well as aiming to develop the artistic skills of potential future artists. In addition, through the exhibition and sale of work, the project has worked to develop an appreciation that art is a viable income-generating supplement or alternative to working as an unskilled labourer. In pursuing these goals, the project has paid special attention to encouraging young female artists.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Border Children's Art Project
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 25 December 2008


      Title: Htein Lin's site
      Author/creator: Htein Lin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Htein Lin
      Format/size: html etc
      Date of entry/update: 19 December 2007


      Title: Pansuriya (Pansodan and Suriya galleries) website and blog
      Description/subject: "Pansodan and Suriya galleries are a project of Aung Soe Min and Nance Cunningham. Find Pansodan Gallery on the upper block of Pansodan Street in the heart of downtown Yangon, just a few doors down from the Panorama Hotel. We're on the first floor. Find Suriya Gallery in Chiang Mai on Huay Kaew. No. 2, Hotel Bua Luang, Soi Bua Luang (the same soi as Holiday Garden, off Huay Kaew Road. Look for the spray-paint Suriya Art Gallery sign before you get to the hotel gate, or park in the Nice Nails/Mr Chan and Miss Pauline's Pizza parking lot and walk through the gate to No. 2)"
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Pansuriya
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 April 2009


      Individual Documents

      Title: Art for Rangoon's Sake
      Date of publication: 26 January 2012
      Description/subject: "On the first floor of a dilapidated building in downtown Rangoon, a narrow staircase leads up to a small space that probably houses more contemporary art per square meter than anywhere else in the city: the Pansodan Gallery. Unlike other galleries, such as those at Bogyoke Aung San market that only sell paintings with “exotic” themes to satisfy the wildt Orientalist fantasies of tourists, Pansodan reveals an art scene far richer than one would expect in a country like Burma/ Myanmar—mired in poverty, isolated for years from the rest of the world, and tightly controlled by one of the most repressive dictatorships in the world. In its three years, the gallery, open every day of the week until six in the evening, has become a meeting place for artists and art enthusiasts. Burmese and foreigners all visit the gallery, not only to buy or sell pieces of art, but to have a tea, exchange ideas, attend a poetry reading, or simply to relax for a while. The gallery’s owner, Aung Soe Min, is a gentle and kind man that welcomes visitors with Burmese hospitality, and is always relaxed and happy to answer any questions..."... Originally published in Spanish in the website FronteraD under the title “El galerista de Rangún”. See Alternate URL
      Author/creator: CARLOS SARDINA GALACHE
      Language: English, Español, Spanish
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://fronterad.com/?q=el-galerista-de-Rangun (original Spanish, published 2012-01-05)
      Date of entry/update: 15 August 2012


      Title: Shan Exile Exhibits Art in Chiang Mai
      Date of publication: July 2010
      Description/subject: "A Burmese artist from a prominent Shan family is currently exhibiting his paintings in Chiang Mai in northern Thailand. Sawan Yawnghwe is the grandson of Sao Shwe Thaik, the first president of the Union of Burma following independence in 1948, who was assassinated following Gen Ne Win’s military coup in 1962. Fleeing persecution in Burma, Sawan’s family went into exile when he was an infant, first in Chiang Mai, then in Canada..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 August 2010


      Title: Burmese Artists Exhibit in Kyoto
      Date of publication: December 2009
      Description/subject: "Three Burmese artists, including The Irrawaddy’s cartoonist and illustrator Harn Lay, will show their work this month at an exhibition in Kyoto, Japan. The other two are Yei Myint and Kaung Su. Yei Myint, who studied at the State School of Fine Arts in Mandalay, has exhibited extensively abroad and currently has a one-man show, entitled “Van Gogh Visits Pagan,” at the Suvannabhumi Gallery in Chiang Mai. Kaung Su studied at the State School of Fine Arts in Rangoon and is well known for his “Black Face” series. Gallery owner Mar Mar selected the works of the three artists for the Kyoto exhibition, which runs from Dec. 18—23."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17329
      Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


      Title: The ‘Galapagos Islands of Art’
      Date of publication: November 2009
      Description/subject: First comprehensive history of Burmese painting uncovers an aesthetic treasure house... "When his diplomat father died in the early 1990s, Andrew Ranard inherited a small collection of Burmese paintings, and in a visit to Burma in 1994 he acquainted himself firsthand with the artists and their work. His research took him into an artistic world that was then little known outside Burma..."
      Author/creator: Jim Andrews
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17144
      Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


      Title: Graffiti Gains Ground
      Date of publication: October 2009
      Description/subject: Graffiti artists move further into the mainstream in Burma with an exhibition of their work opening at the end of September at Rangoon’s New Zero Space Gallery... "“We want to promote graffiti as an artistic movement,” said the gallery’s Ko Aye Ko. The young artist, whose work will also be on show, said graffiti in Burma reflected the tensions and despair felt by the country’s youth. Contemporary artists such as Nyein Chan Suu and Kaung Suu will display their work inside the gallery, while an outside wall will provide a surface for other spray painters to show their talent. The graffiti phenomenon first surfaced in Burma about nine years ago and won followers in Burma’s pop art and music scene and in commercial design. Although a successful exhibition of graffiti was held at the French Cultural Center in Rangoon in 2007, it remains an underground art movement..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


      Title: Naked Defiance
      Date of publication: June 2009
      Description/subject: "Artists pay scant attention to regime restrictions by tackling a taboo genre... ENCOURAGED and emboldened by an increasing interest in their work among Western art enthusiasts and collectors, some Burmese artists are venturing into a genre that breaks with the past and bravely flouts official disapproval. It’s literally naked defiance. These artists are tackling an aesthetic subject that has been treated openly in the West for centuries—the nude..."
      Author/creator: Jim Andrews
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 24 June 2009


      Title: Motion Pictures
      Date of publication: February 2009
      Description/subject: "Burmese artist captures traditional dances on canvas... IN his latest solo exhibition, Nay Myo Say, one of Burma’s best known contemporary artists, has again demonstrated his outstanding skill in depicting the essence of Burmese classical dancing and Buddhist ritual..."
      Author/creator: Yeni
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 February 2009


      Title: Tears and Paint
      Date of publication: August 2007
      Description/subject: Migrant artist shares his earnings with the refugees who people his canvases... "Suffering from depression and weighed down by the hardships of life in Burma, Maung Maung Tinn finally decided to leave his home town, Moulmein, capital of Mon State. That was in 1994. “I felt I had no future there, so I left my home,” the soft-spoken painter said. The child of a Shan father and Karen mother, Maung Maung Tinn felt hopelessness at not being able to help his parents and grandparents. They were helping to pay for his studies at Moulmein University, while he did his best to lighten the load o­n them by working as a clerk in a government-owned electricity plant. Like many other Burmese, he made for Mae Sot, in Thailand, where he rapidly found employment at Dr Cynthia Maung’s Clinic, working at first as a chef, preparing meals for patients and medical staff, and then becoming a trained medic and health worker in the clinic’s outpatient department. His real talent surfaced, however, during his free time—hours he spent drawing and painting. He had shown promise at school, inspired by such famous Burmese artists as Wa Thone and Myo Myint..."
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


      Title: Art in Captivity
      Date of publication: May 2006
      Description/subject: Burma’s political prisoners find some measure of freedom in jail through resourceful self-expression
      Author/creator: Yeni
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 December 2006


      Title: Modern Burmese Painting According to Bagyi Aung Soe
      Date of publication: 2006
      Description/subject: Abstract: "Rangoon-based artist Bagyi Aung Soe (1924-1990) has been regarded by fellow artists as a pioneer of modern art in Burma. Influenced by precepts practiced at Rabindranath Tagore's Å¡antiniketan, he elaborated an original painting approach and style synthesizing diverse artistic approaches, which neither adhered exclusively to the European or Burmese artistic tradition nor regurgitated twentieth-century Western artistic innovations. Despite his renown within Burma, his idiom remains little understood both within and beyond Burma because of a lack of awareness of his motivations and their context. This article attempts to elucidate Bagyi Aung Soe's interpretation of modernity in Burmese painting, and with reference to his works and writings, examine the modernity of his art."
      Author/creator: Yin Ker
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 10, (2005/06)
      Format/size: pdf (6.2; 13.2MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol10/index.shtml (original, heavy file -- the main URL is to a version reduced by the Adobe reduce file size function)
      Date of entry/update: 31 December 2008


      Title: Art in Exile
      Date of publication: June 2005
      Description/subject: Burmese paintings find their home in a Chiang Mai gallery... "It’s a sad reflection on the Rangoon regime’s restrictive policies on artistic expression that one of Southeast Asia’s finest collections of contemporary Burmese art isn’t to be found in Burma, but in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. All the works in Lashio-born Mar Mar’s collection—more than 400 paintings, drawings and collages by 50 or so artists—were created in Burma, but many of them could never be displayed publicly there. They include paintings deemed “political” and nudes that would offend the puritanical tastes of the Rangoon generals..."
      Author/creator: Jim Andrews
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No.6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 April 2006


      Title: A Very Burmese Way
      Date of publication: May 2005
      Description/subject: Harry Priestley goes to Rangoon to take a look at the development and current state of modern art in Burma and finds that there is life beyond the buffalo... "The man wipes his brow and studies the painting. Two robed monks are disappearing into a melting pastel-orange sunset while in the foreground a buffalo, head cocked quizzically, stares out. After a brief conversation with his companion, the man asks the stall holder to wrap the piece and pulls out a fan of fifty dollar bills. He takes the package and before the pair have climbed into a taxi, the empty wall space has been filled with another, almost identical painting. In Rangoon, where the average wage is somewhere in the region of a dollar a day, art can mean good business. Kyaw Zay Yar sells his paintings from his brother’s stall at downtown Rangoon’s Bogyoke Market and, despite it being only April, reckons to have already sold nearly 150 pieces this year. Passionate in declaring his love for contemporary abstract artists like Nyein Chan Su (“So strong and free, he’s the best”), Kyaw Zay Yar is first and foremost a man looking to provide for his young family—and churning out monks and sunsets helps him do just that. “I paint like this because it’s good business,” he says. “Foreigners like to buy beautiful scenes, so that’s what I paint..."
      Author/creator: Harry Priestley
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


      Title: Kunst (um) zu leben - Ein Reise- und Ausstellungsbericht aus und zu Burma
      Date of publication: December 2004
      Description/subject: »Identities versus Globalisation? Positionen zeitgenössischer Kunst aus Südostasien«, von der Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung organisierten Kunstausstellung mit fast sechzig Werken aus zehn südostasiatischen Ländern. key words: art, globalisation, galleries in Burma
      Author/creator: Andrea Fleschenberg
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: Südostasien Jg. 20, Nr. 4 - Asienhaus
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 01 March 2005


      Title: Creation in Isolation: The Life and Career of Bagyi Aung Soe
      Date of publication: May 2004
      Description/subject: "Solitary and destitute throughout his life, Bagyi Aung Soe probably never imagined the impact of his work on future Burmese artists and the success many now enjoy... Today, more than a decade after the death of illustrator, actor, teacher, and, above all, artist Bagyi Aung Soe (1923-1990), paintings by Burmese artists are fetching record prices in the local and international markets. Bagyi (Burmese for “painting”) Aung Soe did not live to see his own work on display in museums and private galleries or to see his fellow artists shine in international art exhibitions. It probably never occurred to him that it could be so. When he passed away in Rangoon in 1990, he had just witnessed some of the most appalling events in recent Burmese history. Hope in his homeland’s future was bleak; the health of the country’s art community was the furthest thing on most people’s minds. Yet, he continued to express and create—if only on any scrap of paper that he could get his hands on..."
      Author/creator: Yin Ker
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 12, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 August 2004


      Title: The Renaissance of Burmese Art
      Date of publication: February 2004
      Description/subject: "Under the authoritarian government that lasted from 1962 to 1988, Burma’s artists were down and out. But with Burmese paintings now fetching tens of thousands of US dollars on international markets, Burmese art is up and coming..."
      Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 June 2004


      Title: Mentor and Tormentor
      Date of publication: September 2001
      Description/subject: "Paw Thit could have taught Kyaw Win much about the meaning of art; instead Burma's best-loved art critic is behind bars, a victim of the system the inscrutable Kyaw Win represents. No Burmese artist or art lover could ever fail to recognize the title of A Quest for Beauty, a celebrated book of art criticism by a writer of rare gifts named Paw Thit. This excellent handbook of Burmese art history, covering every imaginable "ism", has earned the admiration of countless aficionados of the fine arts in Burma. Certainly, a passionate amateur painter like Maj-Gen Kyaw Win, deputy to Military Intelligence (MI) chief Lt-Gen Khin Nyunt, could be counted among those who can truly appreciate Paw Thit�s sensitivity to line and color, light and shade, perspective and depth of artistic vision. And if Paw Thit ever had a chance to review Kyaw Win's work on display at the G. V. Gallery, in Rangoon's exclusive Golden Valley suburb, he would no doubt offer words of encouragement to this dedicated dilettante. Cutting a dignified but kindly figure, he might make a critical comparison to the work of U Lun Kywe, Burma's most famous impressionist painter, while acknowledging that Kyaw Win had true talent and an eye for beauty. Sadly, however, this encounter is unlikely to ever take place. For Paw Thit, Burma's most respected art critic, is none other than U Win Tin, a veteran journalist who was once one of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's most valued advisors's role that has cost him his freedom. For a dozen years now, U Win Tin, a.k.a. Paw Thit, has been a political prisoner in Rangoon's infamous Insein Prison. Held in solitary confinement for more than a decade, but unbent in his convictions, he continues to exert inestimable influence on Burma's artistic community..."
      Author/creator: San San Tin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Burmese Contemporary Modern Arts and Paintings from Burma
      Description/subject: "Showcasing work from contemporary artists in Myanmar,Burma.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Thavibu Gallery
      Format/size: html, jpg
      Alternate URLs: http://www.thavibu.com/burma/
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Photography

      Individual Documents

      Title: Political Prisoners Remembered
      Date of publication: September 2009
      Description/subject: A photographer documents Burmese former political prisoners and those who remain in jail... "A British photographer has set out on a personal mission to publicize the plight of Burma’s more than 2,100 political prisoners by photographing former prisoners of the regime who now live in refugee camps or have emigrated..."
      Author/creator: David Paquette
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 January 2010


      Title: Focusing on Harmony and Understanding
      Date of publication: February 2008
      Description/subject: "A program offering photography courses to children from marginalized Burmese and Thai ethnic communities in Thailand is producing some promising talent. Apart from teaching useful skills, the program aims to foster friendship between children and build bridges of peace and understanding, according to Jeanne Hallacy, director of Thailand-based InSIGHT Out, the organization that began the program three years ago...
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


    • Sculpture

      Individual Documents

      Title: Brothers in Bronze
      Date of publication: April 2009
      Description/subject: AMERICAN sculptor Jim McNalis has added Mandalay's comedy trio, the Moustache Brothers, to his gallery of Burmese personalities.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 02 April 2009


      Title: Images of Steel
      Date of publication: June 2007
      Description/subject: Burmese sculptors show they’re not out of touch with the world of modern art... "Burma has a surprising number of outstanding sculptors, producing work of unexpected modernity and sophistication. But these are mostly big, heavy pieces. Moving them out of the country is a laborious, expensive undertaking—risky, too, if the work is judged by Burma’s government censors to have political undertones. For those practical reasons alone, Burma’s sculptors have a hard time achieving the international renown they deserve. They are so thinly represented o­n the world art scene that when an exhibition of modern Burmese sculpture is mounted anywhere outside Burma it’s a big event. Big in every sense. One Burmese sculptor, Sonny Nyein, is currently showing a selection of his work at important venues in Thailand, including Chiang Mai University..."
      Author/creator: Jim Andrews
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No.6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008