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Home > Main Library > Land > Land in Burma > Description of land in Burma/Myanmar > Loss of land in Burma/Myanmar due to sea level rise, deforestation and other causes,

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Loss of land in Burma/Myanmar due to sea level rise, deforestation and other causes,

Individual Documents

Title: The Big (Coastal) Squeeze Myanmar’s Ayeyarwady Delta shoreline is at risk of getting squeezed out. Authored by Photos by Taylor Weidman Text by Shanna Baker
Date of publication: 25 April 2016
Description/subject: "Shorelines are meant to move. With the rhythm of the ocean, the beat of storms, and the pulse of river sediment streaming into the sea, the intertidal zone grows and shrinks and repositions itself like a dancer responding to music. But chop off her stage and suddenly that dancer can’t groove the way she’s meant to. Permanent barriers along the shore—sea walls, dikes, buildings, paved roads, and the like—prevent the intertidal ecosystem from responding to rising sea levels and storms by migrating inland. As a result, the intertidal zone erodes and coastal habitats compress. Flood risk rises and groundwater becomes contaminated with salt water. Some scientists call this phenomenon “coastal squeeze.”
Author/creator: Taylor Weidman, Shanna Baker
Language: English
Source/publisher: Hakai magazine
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 01 July 2018


Title: Scoping study of `Coastal Squeeze' phenomenon, Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar
Date of publication: 27 May 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Coastal squeeze is defined as the reduction in the space of coastal habitats to operate [1] and it is an important cause for (amongst others) coastline retreat, an increase in flood risk and salinity intrusion. Land use changes, such as deforestation and urbanization, reduce the space of natural habitats such as mangrove forests. This causes a deterioration of these habitats, which leads to a reduction of their natural protective and provisioning functions. Costs related to these function losses can be avoided by early recognition of coastal squeeze and early action against it. The coastal zone inMyanmar is subject to urbanization, extreme weather conditions (cyclones), increase in agri- and aquaculture and (illegal) felling of mangroves. TU Delft and partners are developing a research proposal in order to investigate the occurrence of coastal squeeze in Myanmar and to use this knowledge to develop a decision making tool that can operate within an integrated coastal zone management strategy. Our research is a scoping study to investigate how remote sensing analysis (using freely available Landsat imagery) can contribute to early recognition of coastal squeeze. This is applied on a case study of the lower Ayeyarwady delta in Myanmar, a crucial agricultural zone nicknamed the ‘Rice Bowl of Myanmar’. Analysis of Landsat imagery has been done to create a series of land use maps and determine coastline changes. This analysis has led to varying results. The use of recent Landsat imagery combined with data gathered by fieldwork has promising results to accurately calculate land use for large areas. Unfortunately this technique loses accuracy rapidly when applied to imagery from the past. Causes are the quality of the imagery (Landsat in general and the used techniques to obtain surface reflection images), the quality of the algorithm used for the classification and the quality and quantity of our ground truth data set. Extraction of the coastline for the past 30 years has been done with a reasonable accuracy of § 60 meters. Trends of coastline retrogradation and/or progradation along the coast of the delta have been identified and are presented in a map. Another output of this scoping study is an indicative map that identifies coastline types along the Ayeyarwady delta coastline".....Subject coastal squeeze Ayeyarwady Delta Myanmar remote sensing Landsat land use classification QGIS ground truthing coastline change
Author/creator: Kroon, M.E.N., Rip, J.
Language: English
Source/publisher: TU Delft Library
Format/size: pdf (4.35MB, reduced version; 232K-original)11.3MB)
Alternate URLs: https://repository.tudelft.nl/islandora/object/uuid:29ec675d-db8e-4f76-a5a1-f16a67eeb083?collection...
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs24/Scoping_study_on_coastal_change-Irrawaddy-232.pdf
Date of entry/update: 17 January 2018


Title: Vulnerability and Resilience Assessment of the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar - Full assessment report
Date of publication: February 2015
Description/subject: Contents: 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Context 1 1.2 Results Phase 1 3 1.3 Proposal for phase 2 4 1.4 Undertaken activities 5 1.5 Guide to this report 6 2 Methodology 7 2.1 Vulnerability and Resilience Assessment 7 2.2 Stakeholder participation and multi-criteria analyses 10 2.2.1 Introduction to the stakeholders participation and multi-criteria analyses 10 2.2.2 Methodology 11 3 Base Layer 14 3.1 Description current situation 14 3.1.1 Geographical Situation 14 3.1.2 Climatic Conditions 15 3.1.3 Soils and Sediment 15 3.1.4 Subsidence (natural or human-induced) 15 3.1.5 Water resources 16 3.1.5.1 River system 16 3.1.5.2 Drinking water resources 17 3.1.5.3 Water resources for agriculture 18 3.1.5.4 Water resources for fisheries and aquaculture 19 3.1.5.5 Surface water quality and pollution 20 3.1.5.6 Groundwater 22 3.1.6 Flood hazard in the Ayeyarwady Delta 22 3.1.6.1 Types of floods 23 3.1.6.2 Historical riverine floods 24 3.1.6.3 Coastal floods by cyclones and storm surges / Cyclone Nargis 26 3.1.7 Tsunami’s 26 3.1.8 Salinity intrusion 27 3.1.9 Coastal and river bank erosion 28 3.1.10 Nature and Wetlands 28 3.1.10.1 Mangrove forests 28 3.1.10.2 Functions of mangroves 29 3.1.10.3 Degradation of the mangroves in the Ayeyarwady Delta 30 3.2 Drivers of change 32 3.2.1 Climate change (temperature, precipitation, sea level rise) 34 3.2.2 Subsidence (natural or human-induced) 36 3.2.3 Research gaps 36 3.3 Pressures 37 4 Network Layer 42 4.1 Description current situation 42 4.1.1 Importance of the network layer 42 4.1.2 Roads, ports and waterways in Myanmar 42 4.1.3 Polders: Embankments, Sluices and Drainage System 43 Full Assessment of the Vulnerability and Resilience of the Ayeyarwady Delta Delta Alliance - GWP / BOBLME project v 4.1.4 Irrigation infrastructure 44 4.1.5 Energy 45 4.1.6 Drinking water supply systems 45 4.2 Drivers of change 46 4.3 Pressures 48 5 Occupation layer 51 5.1 Description current situation 51 5.1.1 Population 51 5.1.2 Political Changes/History in Delta Management 51 5.1.3 Economic Development 52 5.1.4 Agriculture 52 5.1.4.1 Importance of the Agricultural Sector 52 5.1.4.2 Farm size and high percentage of landless people in the Delta 53 5.1.4.3 Problems on Livelihood and Income Sources 54 5.1.4.4 Land acquisition 54 5.1.4.5 Cropping patterns 56 5.1.4.6 Crop Yields and Prices 57 5.1.4.7 Irrigation development 58 5.1.4.8 Agricultural Practices 62 5.1.4.9 Agricultural credit 63 5.1.4.10 Agricultural Damage by Cyclone Nargis 64 5.1.4.11 Constraints for Farming 64 5.1.5 Fisheries and aquaculture 65 5.1.5.1 Fisheries important for livelihood 65 5.1.5.2 Fish consumption in Myanmar 67 5.1.5.3 Zoning of fishery and aquacultural activities 67 5.1.5.4 Impact of cyclone Nargis 69 5.1.5.5 Fishing practices and developments 69 5.1.5.6 Capture Fisheries 70 5.1.5.7 Fishing Gears in the Delta. 72 5.1.5.8 Aquaculture 74 5.1.5.9 Production and fisheries values chains 76 5.1.5.10 Constraints for the fishery and aquaculture sector 79 5.1.5.11 Research on fisheries and aquaculture: MYFish project 81 5.1.6 Industry 82 5.2 Drivers of change 83 5.3 Pressures 84 6 Governance 90 6.1 Administrative system 91 6.1.1 Land and water management 91 6.2 Governance 93 6.2.1 Key trends in governance. 93 6.2.2 Implications of the trends for policy and for developments cooperation 94 7 Results from the stakeholders participation and multi-criteria analyses 96 8 Vulnerability assessment and score card assessment 105 9 Overview of adaptive measures in the Ayeyarwady Delta 112 vi Full Assessment of the Vulnerability and Resilience of the Ayeyarwady Delta Delta Alliance - GWP / BOBLME project 9.1 Flood management at national level 112 9.2 Disaster Risk Reduction and flood mitigation in Myanmar 112 9.3 Disaster Risk Reduction in the ASEAN region 114 9.4 Forest conservation and restoration 115 9.5 Early Forecasting, Warning Systems and Mitigation Measures 115 9.6 Adaptive measures mentioned in the NAPA 117 10Overview of technical methods and tools to support delta management and development in the Ayeyarwady Delta 124 11Knowledge gaps 125 12Comparative assessment of 14 deltas including Ayeyarwady 127 12.1 The 14 deltas assessed 127 12.2 Drivers of change 127 12.3 Pressures 128 12.3.1 Base layer (Natural resources) 128 12.3.2 Network layer (Infrastructure) 129 12.3.3 Occupation layer (land and water use) 130 12.4 Governance 131 12.5 Adaptive measures 131 12.6 Comparison of delta score cards 132 12.7 Research gaps and opportunities for knowledge exchange and collaboration 134 13Summary of Findings 137 14References 138 Annex A: Comparative assessment of 14 deltas 147 Annex B: Main indicators for drivers, pressures and governance 148
Author/creator: Driel, W.F. van & T.A. Nauta,
Language: English
Source/publisher: Delta Alliance
Format/size: pdf (4.5MB-reduced version; 8.7MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs24/DA-2015-02-Vulnerability+Resilience+Assessment-Ayeyarwady_Delta-...
http://www.delta-alliance.org
Date of entry/update: 24 July 2018