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Military (Tatmadaw), Military Intelligence and police

  • General/Strategic

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: "BurmaNet News" Military archive
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


    Title: Bookshop: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, ANU
    Description/subject: With its Working Papers and Canberra Papers, SDSC has more or less cornered the market in analyses of Burma's military. Studies by Andrew Selth, Des Ball and Maung Aung Myoe... The SDSC bookshop holds a full range of current SDSC publications in the Canberra Papers on Strategy and Defence series, SDSC Working Papers and a number of 'one-off' publications. [Full list here, with abstracts; many Burma-related papers]
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, ANU
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 December 2010


    Title: CIA World Factbook - Myanmar - Military
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: CIA
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Intelligence Bulletin Article List (1942-1945)
    Description/subject: The lists of articles include some on Burma military during WWII
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: military-info
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Jane's Information Group
    Description/subject: Search for Burma. Subscription needed for most full articles
    Source/publisher: Jane's
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw)
    Description/subject: The military of Myanmar, officially known as Tatmadaw ... is the primary military organisation responsible for the territorial security and defense of Union of Myanmar. The armed forces are administered by the Ministry of Defence and are composed of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. Auxiliary services include Myanmar Police Force, People Militia Units and Frontier Forces, locally known as Na Sa Kha. All service personnel are volunteers although the government is empowered to undertake conscription if considered necessary for Myanmar's defense. Tatmadaw has been engaged in a bitter battle with ethnic insurgents, political dissidents and narco-armies since the country gained its independence from Great Britain in 1948. Retaining much of the organizational structure established by the British, Myanmar Armed Forces continue to face challenges from aging weaponry and equipment and relying on foreign purchases of military equipment. However, the armed forces are an essential to Myanmar's strategic importance, power and capabilities in the region..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 08 October 2007


    Title: Myanmar Army
    Description/subject: "The Myanmar Army is the land component (army) of the Military of Myanmar, previously known as Burma. The Myanmar Army is the largest branch of the Armed Forces of Myanmar and has the primary responsibility of conducting land-based military operations. The Myanmar Army maintains the second largest active force in Southeast Asia. The Myanmar Army has a troop strength around 428,000. It is a completely voluntary service, the military draft never having been imposed in Myanmar. The army has rich combat experience in fighting insurgents in rough terrains, considering it has been conducting non-stop counter-insurgency operations against ethnic and political insurgents since its inception in 1948. The force is headed by the Commander in Chief (Army), currently Vice Senior General Maung Aye. The highest rank in the Myanmar Army is Senior General, equivalent to Field Marshal position in Western Armies and is currently held by Senior General Than Shwe. Defence budget of Myanmar Military is 7.07 billions US dollars..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 08 October 2007


    Title: Project Ploughshares - Armed Conflicts Report: Burma
    Description/subject: Details of armed conflict in Burma since 1988
    Language: English
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ploughshares.ca/libraries/ACRText/ACR-Burma.html
    Date of entry/update: 10 December 2010


    Title: The Burma Campaign
    Description/subject: These pages contain order of battle information for the Burma Campaign, 1941-1945, historical details and other items of interest.
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Burma Campaign - Burma Army 1937-1941
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Chinese Military
    Description/subject: Detailed analysis of the Chinese military and its foreign military cooperation
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Library of Congress
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS)
    Description/subject: Various publications covering military issues.
    Language: English
    Alternate URLs: http://www.iiss.org/publications/
    Date of entry/update: 10 December 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Burma schafft Freiwilligenarmee ab
    Date of publication: 10 January 2011
    Description/subject: In Burma soll es künftig ein Gesetz geben, wonach Männer und Frauen unter Strafandrohung zum Wehrdienst einberufen werden können. Wehrdienstverweigerern droht nach der neuen Regelung eine Haftstrafe von bis zu fünf Jahren.
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: NZZ Online
    Date of entry/update: 27 January 2011


    Title: Than Shwe's "The Art of War"
    Date of publication: April 2009
    Description/subject: Burmese generals have long sought to defend themselves from imagined external threats, masking their intense paranoia with a military shield... "ARMED ethnic insurgents pose little threat nowadays to the Burmese regime, but that doesn't deter the generals in Naypyidaw from continually strengthening their military capacity and spending the country's precious foreign reserves on more sophisticated weapons, such as jet fighters, an air defense system, naval ships and short and medium-range missiles. Analysts generally agree that the junta's modern military arsenal is ill-suited for combating guerilla warfare in a mountainous jungle, but is more realistically intended as a defensive shield against an external threat...Nowadays, in almost every speech to commanders and soldiers, the army leaders - including Than Shwe - remind them of the need for a people's war and to nurture the support of the masses. Than Shwe's call is for a "people's war under modern conditions," wrote Maung Aung Myoe. Interestingly, under Than Shwe's people's war, the concept of cyber warfare has also been launched. In 1998, the Tatmadaw held its first joint military exercises of the navy, the air force and the army to introduce counteroffensive strategies to the existing people's war doctrine. During these exercises, the fire brigade, the Myanmar Red Cross and the Union Solidarity Development Association were mobilized. "The exercises," Maung Aung Myoe wrote, "revealed that the purpose of such a counteroffensive was to counter low-level foreign invasion." According to the author, the new doctrine developed under the regime dictates that, should the standing conventional force fail to defeat an invading force on the beachheads or landing zones, resistance would be organized at the village, regional and national levels to sap the will of the invading force. When the enemy's will is sapped and its capabilities are dispersed and exhausted, the Burmese army would be able to muster sufficient force to wage a counteroffensive that would drive the invader from Burma..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 April 2009


    Title: Networks of Noncompliance: Grassroots resistance and sovereignty in militarised Burma
    Date of publication: 10 November 2008
    Description/subject: "...This paper examines state repression and state-society conflict in Burma through the lens of rural and urban resistance strategies. It finds very well developed 'networks of noncompliance' through which civilians evade and undermine state control over their lives, and that SPDC's brutal tactics represent not control, but a lack of control. Using concrete examples, the paper argues that outside agencies ignore this state-society struggle over sovereignty at their peril: by ignoring the interplay of intervention with local politics and militarisation, claiming a 'humanitarian neutrality' which is impossible in practice, and portraying civilians as helpless pawns, those who intervene and those who document the situation risk undermining the very civilians they wish to help, while facilitating further state repression. It calls for greater honesty and awareness in interventions, combined with greater outside engagement with villagers in their resistance strategies. Only days after this paper was first presented at the Yale University Agrarian Studies Colloquium, some of its cautions about the naïveté of claiming humanitarian neutrality in Burma's politicised and militarised context were tragically realised, when Cyclone Nargis devastated parts of the country and international aid agencies were forced to confront firsthand the SPDC's raw disdain for its own civilian population. Some gave in and chanelled aid through the Burmese military, much of which never reached the target populations...".....Paper for Agrarian Studies Colloquium, April 25, 2008 by Kevin Malseed, Advisor, Karen Human Rights Group Program Fellow in Agrarian Studies, Yale University
    Author/creator: Kevin Malseed
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Right Group (KHRG Articles & Papers)
    Format/size: pdf (426 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08w3.html
    Date of entry/update: 25 November 2009


    Title: Burma's armed forces: How loyal?
    Date of publication: 06 June 2008
    Description/subject: "It is always difficult to know what is happening inside Burma, and in particular inside the armed forces (known locally as the Tatmadaw). There are signs, however, that the military government’s power base is weakening. The regime is not likely to fall any time soon, but this development has implications for Burma’s future stability and possibly even the regime’s long term survival..."
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Interpreter" - weblog of the Lowy Institute for International Policy
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 December 2010


    Title: Burma: The limits of international action
    Date of publication: 07 April 2008
    Description/subject: "The demonstrations in Burma last August and September — dubbed the ‘saffron revolution’ due to the participation of many Buddhist monks — were initially spontaneous reactions to unexpected fuel price increases and the military government’s mistreatment of a few dissident monks. The demonstrations quickly developed, however, into an organised national protest against the regime’s brutal and inept rule. Since then, however, the international effort to resolve the crisis in Burma has run into the sand. Indeed, the unprecedented level of attention given to this issue last year, while clearly warranted at the time, may have achieved precisely the opposite of what was intended..."
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Interpreter" - weblog of the Lowy Institute for International Policy
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 March 2009


    Title: Chinese Whispers: The Great Coco Island Mystery
    Date of publication: January 2007
    Description/subject: How a single news agency report led to the accepted belief that China has a sophisticated intelligence post in Burmese waters For almost 15 years, there has been a steady stream of newspaper stories, scholarly monographs and books that have referred inter alia to a large Chinese signals intelligence (SIGINT) station on Burma’s Great Coco Island, in the Andaman Sea. Yet it would now appear that there is no such base on this island, nor ever has been. The explosion of this myth highlights the dearth of reliable information about strategic developments in Burma since the creation of the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) in 1988.
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 December 2006


    Title: Of kyay-zu and kyet-su: the military in 2006
    Date of publication: January 2007
    Description/subject: "...the Tatmadaw, like any large political institution anywhere in the world, is far from omnipotent. Its dominance in politics has not managed to create broad legitimacy at home or abroad, nor has its expanded power and size created a seamless or wholly unified institution. This chapter will explore the gap between the senior officers—who regularly perform acts of kyay-zu (which I translate in this context as ‘good deeds’)—and the rest of the military. Among their many often thankless tasks, soldiers and junior officers find themselves responsible for producing millions of kyet-su (physic nuts) to generate bio-energy..."
    Author/creator: Mary Callahan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: 2006 Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
    Format/size: pdf (115K)
    Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar/pdf_instructions.html
    http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar/pdf/whole_book.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


    Title: Chinese Military Bases in Burma: The Explosion of a Myth
    Date of publication: 2007
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: For 15 years, there has been a steady stream of newspaper stories, scholarly monographs and books that have referred inter alia to the existence of Chinese military bases in Burma. This apparent intrusion by China into the northern Indian Ocean has strongly influenced the strategic perceptions and policies of Burma’s regional neighbours, notably India. Reports of a large signals intelligence collection station on Great Coco Island in the Andaman Sea, for example, and a naval base on Hainggyi Island in the Irrawaddy River delta, have been cited as evidence that Burma has become a client state of China. Other observers have seen the existence of such bases as proof of China’s expansionist designs in the Indian Ocean region and its global ambitions. Few of these reports drew on hard evidence or gave verifiable sources to support their claims, but repeated denials of a Chinese military presence in Burma by Rangoon and Beijing were brushed aside. As these reports proliferated, they were picked up by respected commentators and academics and given fresh life in serious studies of the regional strategic environment. Each time they were cited in books and reputable journals they gained credibility, and it was not long before the existence of Chinese bases in Burma was widely accepted as an established fact. In 2005, however, the Chairman of the Indian Defence Force’s Chiefs of Staff Committee conceded that reports of a Chinese intelligence facility on one of Burma’s offshore islands were incorrect. At the same time, he announced that there were no Chinese naval bases in Burma. There are a number of possible explanations for these statements, but this remarkable about-face, on two issues that have preoccupied Indian defence planners for more than a decade, must throw doubt on the claims of other “Chinese bases” in Burma. It also raises a number of serious questions about current analyses of China’s relations with Burma, and of China’s strategic interests in the northern Indian Ocean region. It is possible to identify three schools of thought regarding China’s relations with Burma. The “domination” school believes that Burma has become a pawn in China’s strategic designs in the Asia–Pacific region, and is host to several Chinese military facilities. The “partnership” school sees a more balanced relationship developing between Beijing and Rangoon, but accepts that China has acquired bases in Burma as part of a long term strategy to establish a permanent military presence in the Indian Ocean. The “rejectionist” school, however, emphasises Burma’s strong tradition of independence and Rangoon’s continuing suspicions of Beijing. This school claims that, despite the conventional wisdom, Burma has been able to resist the enormous strategic weight of its larger, more powerful neighbour. Some members of this school argue that Burma has the whip hand in its relations with China, and has been able successfully to manipulate Burma’s sensitive geostrategic position to considerable advantage. While acknowledging the close bilateral ties that have developed since 1988, they are sceptical of claims that China has any military bases in Burma.
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Griffith Asia Institute
    Format/size: pdf (210K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.griffith.edu.au/search/cache.cgi?collection=Internet&doc=http%2Fwww.griffith.edu.au%...
    Date of entry/update: 31 May 2007


    Title: Burma's Regional Commanders
    Date of publication: June 2006
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Research Pages
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: A Growing Tatmadaw
    Date of publication: March 2006
    Description/subject: From its modest origins in the years following independence from Britain, Burma's Tatmadaw has pushed in recent years to modernize and expand - and to further secure the power of the country's ruling generals... "Burma"shotgun" diplomacy with respect to domestic matters. Since the failed democratic uprising in 1988 and the present regime's seizure of power, Burma's armed forces have steadily increased in size and sophistication, an expansion that has always been justified by appeals to national unity and independence. Put another way, Burma's military growth has been fueled by appealing to the fears of internal or external disruptions..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


    Title: Sleeping on the Job
    Date of publication: June 2005
    Description/subject: The junta’s inaction leaves Rangoon open to further attacks... "Absorbing the siege mentality that forms part of everyday life in Burma’s capital does not usually take a long time. Rangoon epitomizes military dictatorship: Barbed wire stretches along the walls of most residences, army jeeps and personnel carriers mingle with civilian traffic and guards cradle automatic weapons on street corners. Burma’s armed forces seem constantly on red alert. But when Rangoon suffered its worst terrorist act since independence, with official figures claiming 23 fatalities and more than 160 wounded, many in Burma felt the Tatmadaw, the country’s military forces, was left wanting. Sources in Rangoon say that instead of engaging with its own people, the private sector and the expatriate community to safeguard the country after May 7, the junta has resorted to haphazard security measures designed mainly to serve its own interests and thereby leaving the country open to further attack..."
    Author/creator: Clive Parker
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 April 2006


    Title: Desmond Ball Unbound: An Interview with Desmond Ball
    Date of publication: June 2004
    Description/subject: "Desmond Ball is a professor at the Strategic Defence Studies Centre of The Australian National University, Canberra. He is author or editor of several books and papers on Burma, Asia-Pacific security issues, and nuclear strategy. His books include The Ties That Bind, Burma’s Military Secrets and most recently, The Boys in Black, about Thailand’s para-military border guards. He spoke to The Irrawaddy about ethnic insurgency and intelligence gathering in Burma and neighboring countries... Over the last few years, although the overall strength of the various resistance armies has decreased, the military successes have in fact increased"...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 12, No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 October 2004


    Title: The Enemy Within (Review of Mary Callahan's "Making Enemies")
    Date of publication: May 2004
    Description/subject: "The early days of the Burmese military provide important clues to how it views society, progress and itself...Mary Callahan’s remarkable book, Making Enemies, is the closest study yet to reveal why the modern Tatmadaw has pursued violent state-building strategies, creating a huge gulf between itself as an institution and the society it purports to protect. Callahan explores just how these brutal, inept, and intellectually bankrupt elite can maintain such enduring military rule, by uncovering their growth as an institution and the creation of a Tatmadaw “ideology” in the 1950s. The military has gradually come to view all of society as “potential enemies” in its drive to mold the nation in its image and preserve the sovereignty of the state..."
    Author/creator: David Scott Mathieson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 12, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 August 2004


    Title: Reconciling Burma/Myanmar: Essays on U.S. Relations with Burma
    Date of publication: 03 March 2004
    Description/subject: Free access not available anymore! The document needs to be purchased. Foreword: "An intellectual “tectonic shift” is underway, making a precarious policy even harder to justify. This rather unusual issue of the NBR Analysis does not stem from an NBR-sponsored project or study. Instead, it emerged as an initiative from an extraordinary assemblage of Burma scholars, all of whom regard last year’s announcement of a “road map” for constitutional change, the ongoing progress toward cease-fires with ethnic insurgents, and the worsening impact of sanctions on the general populace, as an opportunity to re-examine U.S. relations with Burma. Recognizing that the current situation may be conducive to taking a fresh perspective, and noting the significance of so many top Burma specialists reaching similar conclusions and working together, we decided to publish their essays. The scholars in this volume represent a range of perspectives. What is especially notable is that they collaborated in this enterprise and concur that the U.S. policy of sanctions is not achieving its worthy objective—progress toward constitutional change and democratization in Burma. Moreover, as some of these authors argue, viewing U.S.-Burma relations solely through this lens, important as it is, may be harming other U.S. strategic interests in Southeast Asia, both in terms of the ongoing war against terrorism and long-term objectives regarding the United States’ role as a regional security guarantor. The desperate humanitarian situation in the country, as detailed in many of these essays, and concerns about possible WMD-related activities only underscore the importance of looking at this issue again. U.S. policymakers in particular ought to consider whether it is now appropriate to take a more realistic, engaged approach, while easing restrictions on humanitarian assistance, programs to build civil society, and the forces of globalization that are needed for the Burmese peoples’ socio-economic progress and solid transition to civilian government and democracy..." Richard J. Ellings, President, The National Bureau of Asian Research... "Strategic Interests in Myanmar" - John H. Badgley; "Myanmar’s Political Future: Is Waiting for the Perfect the Enemy of Doing the Possible?" - Robert H. Taylor; "Burma/Myanmar: A Guide for the Perplexed?" - David I. Steinberg; "King Solomon’s Judgment" - Helen James; "The Role of Minorities in the Transitional Process" - Seng Raw; "Will Western Sanctions Bring Down the House?" - Kyaw Yin Hlaing; "The Crisis in Burma/Myanmar: Foreign Aid as a Tool for Democratization" - Morten B. Pedersen;
    Author/creator: John H. Badgley (Ed.); Robert H. Taylor, David I. Steinberg, Helen James, Seng Raw, Kyaw Yin Hlaing, Morten B. Pedersen
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "NBR Analysis" Vol.15, No. 1, March 2004 (The National Bureau of Asia Research)
    Format/size: pdf (261K)
    Date of entry/update: 29 February 2004


    Title: The March of Folly (review of Andrew Selth's "Power without Glory")
    Date of publication: September 2003
    Description/subject: A Burma scholar traverses the history of Burma’s armed forces, its reasons for expansion and the complications facing the country’s most dominant institution... The Burma Army possibly has the worst press in Asia. Vilified as a regime of inept thugs who cosy up to drug dealers, whose foot soldiers perpetrate murder and rape on a major scale, who flesh out their ranks with children and waste money on planes that don’t fly at the expense of health and education, it would be hard to make them look good. Andrew Selth, the preeminent expert on the Burmese armed forces, the Tatmadaw, doesn’t attempt to improve their image, but he does provide the reader with a more in-depth perspective on this much-maligned organization. His book, Burma’s Armed Forces: Power Without Glory, provides a detailed study of the Tatmadaw, its dramatic expansion during the 1990s, and the ideological and practical impulses for its repressive behavior. It represents the most serious and erudite analysis of the Tatmadaw since its formation in the 1940s.
    Author/creator: David Scott Mathieson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


    Title: Myanmar: The Future of the Armed Forces
    Date of publication: 27 September 2002
    Description/subject: "It is estimated that the armed forces in Myanmar (the Tatmadaw) have doubled in size since 1988, and consume up to 45 per cent of the government's annual budget. This has important implications for any moves towards democratisation. The first question is whether the military leaders could ever contemplate a more open debate on defence and security questions. At this point the chances are remote. However ICG believes it is prudent to canvass possible ways in which an agreement with the Tatmadaw on transition to a civilian government might be encouraged. The best advice to foreign governments and international organisations is to focus on establishing an "enabling environment". The military leadership is more likely to compromise in an atmosphere of progress than it is under siege."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Crisis Group
    Format/size: PDF (163K) 20 pages
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma and superpower rivalries in the Asia-Pacific
    Date of publication: April 2002
    Description/subject: "The Western democracies have declared that their strong stances against the current military regime in Burma reflect principled stands against the 1988 massacres of pro-democracy demonstrators, the failure of the regime to recognize the results of the 1990 general elections (which resulted in a landslide victory for the main opposition parties), and the regime?s continuing human rights abuses. Yet it can be argued that such a strong and sustained position would have been less likely had the Cold War not ended and Burma?s importance in the global competition between the superpowers not significantly waned. Lacking any pressing strategic or military reason to cultivate Burma, and with few direct political or economic interests at stake, countries like the United States and the United Kingdom can afford to isolate the Rangoon regime and impose upon it pariah status. If this was indeed the calculation made in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it is possible that the changes that have occurred in the strategic environment since then may prompt a reconsideration of these policies. Burma lies where South, Southeast, and East Asia meet; there the dominant cultures of these three subregions compete for influence. It lies also across the ?fault lines? between three major civilisations?Hindu, Buddhist, and Confucian.1 At critical times in the past, Burma has been a cockpit for rivalry between superpowers. Today, in the fluid strategic environment of the early twenty-first century, its important position is once again attracting attention from analysts, officials, and military planners. Already, Burma?s close relationship with China and the development of the Burmese armed forces have reminded South and Southeast Asian countries, at least, of Burma?s geostrategic importance and prompted a markedly different approach from that of the West..." The PDF version (222K) has a map and a 4-page presentation of Burma's geostrategic position not contained in the html version.
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Naval War College Review, Spring 2002, Vol. LV, No. 2
    Format/size: html (Google cache), pdf (226K)
    Alternate URLs: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0JIW/is_2_55/ai_88174228
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Army I Remember, 1958
    Date of publication: November 2001
    Description/subject: An American doctor recalls his encounters with the Burmese army in the years before it seized power... Keith Dahlberg is a retired physician. This article is based on his experiences as mission doctor in Burma from 1957 to 1962. The conclusion is an excerpt from his novel, Flame Tree, based on more recent visits to Burma."
    Author/creator: Keith Dahlberg. M.D.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 8, October-November 2001
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Abuse under Orders: The SPDC and DKBA Armies Through the Eyes of their Soldiers
    Date of publication: 27 March 2001
    Description/subject: "This report looks at the armies of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) military junta ruling Burma and the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA), a Karen group allied with the SPDC, through the eyes of their own soldiers who have fled: the recruitment, the training, life in the battalions, relations with villagers and other groups, and their views on Burma’s present and future situation. What we find, particularly in the SPDC’s ‘Tatmadaw’ (Army), is conscription and coercion of children, systematic physical and psychological abuse by the officers, endemic corruption, and the rank and file of an entire Army forced into a system of brutality toward civilians. According to Tatmadaw deserters, one third or more of SPDC soldiers are children, morale among the rank and file is almost nonexistent, and half or more of the Army would desert if they thought they could survive the attempt. The Tatmadaw has expanded rapidly since repression of the democracy movement and the creation of the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC, former name of the SPDC) in 1988. The Armed Forces as a whole have expanded from an estimated strength of 180,000 to over 400,000, making it the second-largest military in Southeast Asia after Vietnam. Military camps and soldiers are now common all over Burma, especially in the non-Burman ethnic states and divisions. With this increased military presence has come a rise in the scale of abuses and corruption committed by the Army. To achieve this military expansion, children as young as nine or ten are taken into the Army, trained and sent to frontline battalions. Of the six SPDC deserters interviewed for this report, five were under the age of 17 when they joined the Tatmadaw..." The SPDC and DKBA Armies through the Eyes of their Soldiers.Symbolically released on the SPDC's 'Armed Forces Day', this report uses the testimony of former SPDC soldiers to document the deteriorating situation in the ever-expanding Army: the conscription and coercion of 13-17 year old children who now make up as much as 30% of the rank and file, the corruption of the officers and their brutal treatment of their own soldiers, the systematic abuse and exploitation of the civilian population, and the crumbling morale, desertions and suicides. Also looks at the declining relevance of the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) as the command structure weakens and units are left to pursue black market businesses to support themselves.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #2001-01)
    Format/size: pdf (2.8 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2001/khrg0101.html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma/Myanmar: How Strong is the Military Regime?
    Date of publication: 21 December 2000
    Description/subject: This report, the first in a proposed series, is a preliminary assessment of the strengths and vulnerabilities of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), the military regime ruling Burma/Myanmar. Its purpose is to provide essential background - not at this stage policy prescriptions - for policy makers addressing the prospects for non-violent democratic transition in the country and ways to achieve that transition.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Crisis Group
    Format/size: pdf (305K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Crossing the Line
    Date of publication: August 2000
    Description/subject: Defections in 1988. Two soldiers discuss their decision to leave an army that went too far.
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8, No.8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: China's Ambitions in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 27 July 2000
    Description/subject: While Myanmar remains shunned by the West, the country's two giant neighbours, India and China, are jockeying for influence in Yangon. China enjoys a considerable head start, but any major foreign-policy changes in Myanmar are unlikely as long as its two most important leaders, Ne Win and General Than Shwe, are still alive. But there are signs of a possible power struggle between their likely successors, the outcome of which could determine Myanmar's place in the context of broader regional security.
    Language: English
    Format/size: PDF(108.16 K)
    Date of entry/update: 10 December 2010


    Title: Myanmar's Military Links With Pakistan
    Date of publication: 01 June 2000
    Description/subject: Evidence of close ties between the armed forces and defence industries of Myanmar and Pakistan has led to concerns over the region's future stability.
    Author/creator: William Ashton
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Jane's Intelligence Review
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://forum.pakistanidefence.com/index.php?showtopic=21252&mode=threaded&pid=290942
    Date of entry/update: 10 December 2010


    Title: Asia-Child Soldiers
    Date of publication: 10 May 2000
    Description/subject: A coalition of social activists is scheduled to meet in Nepal next week to discuss ways to enact a global ban on the use of children as soldiers. The activists say the use of children in armed conflicts is widespread in Asia. As VOA correspondent Gary Thomas reports from Bangkok, they also say it is not just rebel opposition groups that indulge in the practice.
    Author/creator: Gary Thomas, Bangkok
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Voice of America
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Chinese Engineers to Help With Bases
    Date of publication: April 2000
    Description/subject: Two delegations of engineers from China's armed forces recently met with Burmese military officers at a navy base in Tenasserim Division from May 2 to 5, according to a report from Radio Free Asia. The meetings focused on the construction of two bases in the area with assistance from the Chinese Navy and Air Forces
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 4-5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Enemy Within
    Date of publication: March 2000
    Description/subject: The inner workings of the Tatmadaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8 No.3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Who Rules on the Ground? the Power of Myanmar's Area Commanders
    Date of publication: 03 September 1999
    Description/subject: THEY ARE TOUGH TO dialogue with, but they are not dinosaurs and they wield extraordinary power." The Yangon-based ambassador is talking about a low-profile but high-powered group who look after Myanmar's large, disparate, resource-rich - and often rebellious - regions: the area commanders. Together with seven better-known leaders like Than Shwe, Maung Aye and Khin Nyunt, the 12 regional generals sit on the ruling State Peace and Development Council. Their influence on national policy pales beside that of the Yangon hierarchy, but in the regions they rule.
    Author/creator: Roger Mitton, Yangon
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asiaweek, Vol. 25 No. 35
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 December 2010


    Title: Burma:The military digs in for the long haul
    Date of publication: 02 September 1999
    Description/subject: FOR WELL OVER A DECADE, the world has been calling on Burma's military dictatorship to hand over power to the civilians who won the country's last general election in 1990. For years, the generals have responded with promises of democratic progress and then done nothing despite protests at home, pleas from their neighbours, condemnation by the international community and sanctions from the United States and the European Union.
    Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Pacafic Media Services Limited
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 December 2010


    Title: ANU Paper Attacks [Australian] Government Stance on Burma's Regime
    Date of publication: 04 August 1999
    Description/subject: The federal government was attempting to gloss over the involvement of the Burmese leadership in the country's drug trade by using fine semantic distinctions, according to ANU defence strategist, Professor Desmond Ball.
    Author/creator: Tania Cutting
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ANU Reporter
    Format/size: PDF (843.71 K)
    Date of entry/update: 10 December 2010


    Title: Burma's Armed Forces: Preparing for the 21st Century
    Date of publication: 01 November 1998
    Description/subject: William Ashton examines the expansion of Burma's armed forces, concluding that the regime may well become one of the best-equipped in Southeast Asia.
    Author/creator: William Ashton
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Jane's Intelligence Review
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Tatmadaw Relives Glory Days With Attacks on Refugees
    Date of publication: April 1998
    Description/subject: March 27 marked the fifty-third anniversary of the "Japanese revolution" declared by Gen. Aung San, Burma's independence hero and founder of the Tatmadaw, or armed forces.
    Author/creator: By LJN
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6, No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: La destruction de l'économie birmane par les militaires
    Date of publication: September 1997
    Description/subject: "...La plupart des signes d'alerte précoce d'une déstabilisation radicale sont présents en Birmanie. Ils comprennent le déclin de l'économie, des dépenses disproportionnées pour la défense, une armée surdimensionnée et peu disciplinée, des violations généralisées des droits de l'Homme, l'accroissement de la polarisation des revenus, la dégradation de l'environnement et la guerre civile. La décision des dirigeants de l'armée en 1988 de rechercher des solutions militaires aux problèmes politiques, d'abandonner la tentative de gouverner en équilibrant les forces intérieures du pays et de chercher à la place des soutiens militaires et financiers de l'extérieur pour imposer leur ordre au peuple birman, a mal tourné. Les rentrées financières attendues ne se sont pas matérialisées. Après avoir liquidé les actifs disponibles de façon immédiate et après avoir échoué dans ses projets économiques tels que les exportations de riz et l'Année du Tourisme, le Slorc est à nouveau proche de l'insolvabilité. Si le Slorc ne peut pas écarter l'option militaire prise en 1988 et s'engager dans d'authentiques négociations tripartites avec l'opposition politique et avec les organisations des groupes d'ethnie non-birmane et demander ensemble une assistance internationale, une nouvelle détérioration économique et une déstabilisation aggravée semblent probables. Un scénario pourrait être une désintégration générale du pays en une mosaïque de seigneurs de la guerre et de troupes ethniques rebelles, en étendant le système déjà pratiqué dans les territoires frontaliers. Les implications de ce scénario doivent être prises au sérieux par le Tatmadaw, qui prétend maintenir l'unité nationale, mais aussi par les voisins de la Birmanie et par la communauté internationale."
    Author/creator: David Arnott
    Language: French, Francais
    Source/publisher: Relations Internationales & Stratégiques No. 27, Automne 1997.
    Format/size: pdf (119K)
    Date of entry/update: 24 August 2003


    Title: Once the Ricebowl of Asia
    Date of publication: September 1997
    Description/subject: "The Burmese military's linked objectives, expanded military control of the country and large-scale international investment to pay for it, are mutually incompatible. Following their suppression of the 1988 Democracy Movement, the generals decided to increase the size of the armed forces from 186,000 to 500,000 in order to have a permanent military presence in most parts of the country. This involved up to US$2 billion of arms imports, mainly from China, a large recruitment drive and a reordering of the military command structure. Lacking the necessary funds to pay for military expansion following the failure of the previous regime's economic autarchy (and/or seeking a credible source of income to launder the revenues from Burma's illegal exports, mainly heroin), the junta opened the country to international investment, but the increased militarisation of the state and the military's continued stranglehold on the main sectors of the economy impeded the economic liberalisation and institutional reform needed by investors. In the civil war, the enhanced capacity of the re-armed and enlarged Burma Army allowed it to move from a strategy of seasonal combat to one of occupation. However, lack of discipline and the low level of soldiers' pay have led to the army living off the land, destroying the local economy, carrying out massive violations of human rights, further alienating the local population and creating refugee flows to neighbouring countries. The combination of a sinking economy, a large, badly-paid army and a tradition of warlordism could lead to a break-up of the country into a number of fiefdoms run by regional commanders and ethnic chiefs. Such a scenario should be taken seriously by the Tatmadaw, the neighbours and the international community..." Published in French as "La destruction de l'economie birmane par les militaires" though it was originally written in English with the title "Once the Ricebowl of Asia".
    Author/creator: David Arnott
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Relations Internationales & Strategiques No. 27, Automne 1997.
    Format/size: html (52K)
    Alternate URLs: Download: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/ricebowl98.rtf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Building an Army: the Early Years of the Tatmadaw
    Date of publication: August 1997
    Author/creator: Mary Callahan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. IV, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Colonel Chit Myaing
    Date of publication: August 1997
    Description/subject: Interview. As a student activist and supporter of the independence movement, Colonel Chit Myaing served his country for nearly 34 years. A member of the Thamani Tat, the military wing of the All Burma Students' Union in 1941, he later joined the Burma Independence Army under General Aung San and fought in the anti-Japanese campaign. He never planned to remain a soldier after the war, but nonetheless stayed on in the military at the personal urging of Aung San. From 1946 to 1958, Colonel Chit Myaing was engaged in numerous anti-insurgency operations, serving as a brigade commander in Southern and Central Burma, Wa and Kachin States. Under the Caretaker Government of 1958-1960 he was given charge of the Ministry of Immigration, National Registration and Census by Ne Win and following the military coup d'etat in 1962, was named a member of the ruling Revolutionary Council. He was appointed minister for trade and industry in 1963 and retired from the army after 25 years of service in 1967. Colonel Chit Myaing was later named ambassador to Yugoslavia and then moved to London as Burma's ambassador to the Court of St. James. He currently lives in the United States.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. IV, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: No Childhood at All - Child Soldiers in Burma
    Date of publication: June 1997
    Description/subject: "...The phenomenon of child soldiers in Burma can only be understood within the context of militarization of the society as a whole. War in Burma has affected every segment of society, its fallout having severest repercussions for the most disadvantaged groups. The political instability engendered by civil war has left the country in economic crisis and has isolated rural conflict areas from receiving badly-needed development assistance. NGO activities have been severely curtailed, mitigating most attempts to correct the situation. Consequently, many children in Burma are living in grinding poverty, uneducated and in poor health, with under-age labour one of their few choices to make ends meet. The everpresent reality of armed conflict is also deeply embedded in the consciousness of all Burma's peoples. With 36% of all Burma's inhabitants under the age of l5,1 most of the country's population have grown up under the shadow of civil war. The rapid expansion of the armed forces since 1988 has both forced and encouraged recruitment of minors into the ranks. Army entrance is sometimes perceived by children, especially orphans, as offering a protective haven from hunger and abuse. Many children therefore see joining the armed forces of any of the warring parties as their only means of survival. Unfortunately, research suggests that they are likely to find it just the opposite. While Burma has acceded to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, as yet there is little indication that its provisions are being followed in good faith, or that recruitment of children into the Tatmadaw has decreased..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Images Asia, Thailand
    Format/size: pdf (513K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Hunting of the SLORC
    Date of publication: June 1993
    Description/subject: "The Chinese sage Sun Tsu says in The Art of War that "The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting". In its conduct of the civil war SLORC (State Law and Order Restoration Council, the martial law administration ruling Burma), is currently using Low Intensity Conflict strategies which avoid major military confrontation, but are designed to force a "political" (read "politico-military") settlement on the ethnic opposition and divide them from the political opposition. These strategies are closely tied to SLORC's attempts to acquire constitutional "legitimacy" by means of a National Convention, and are aided by the pressure which Burma's neighbors are putting on the non-burman ethnic groups to sign cease-fires. But no lasting solution to the country's problems will be achieved until the three main actors -- the military, the political opposition and the ethnic opposition -- meet on a basis of equality and with a strong political will to achieve national reconciliation and the restoration of democracy. The politico-military devices described in this paper must therefore be seen as measures by SLORC to retain power, reverse international criticism, especially at the UN General Assembly and the Commission on Human Rights, and attract foreign investment and development assistance..."
    Author/creator: David Arnott
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Peace Foundation
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Arms (Military Expenditure, Arms Transfers, Arms Production Etc)

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: "BurmaNet News" Guns archive
    Description/subject: Archive from 2004
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


    Title: Search results for Burma on the ICBL site
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    Title: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SIPRI
    Format/size: Register and look for tables of arms expenditure, etc.
    Alternate URLs: See also the SIPRI Military Expenditure Database
    http://milexdata.sipri.org/
    http://www.sipri.org/databases/milex
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Myanmar, North Korea stay brothers in arms
    Date of publication: 05 September 2013
    Description/subject: "If a press statement from the US Department of Defense is to be believed, President Barack Obama is quite pleased with the reform process underway in Myanmar, especially recent progress ''that's been made on human rights''. The message was conveyed by US Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel in late August when he met with his counterparts from the 10 member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in Brunei, including Lieutenant-General Wai Lwin, the current defense minister of Myanmar, a former pariah state turned darling of the West. But there was an important caveat in Hagel's statement that indicated Washington's main concern in Myanmar is not democracy and human rights. Rather, he stressed ''it's important that Myanmar sever ties with North Korea''. Evidently Myanmar has not rolled back relations with Pyongyang despite persistent pressure from Washington, including during then secretary of state Hillary Clinton's historic visit to Myanmar in December 2011, and believed behind-the-scenes prodding from Japan and South Korea..."
    Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 May 2014


    Title: Burma (Myanmar) country profile on Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor (Update 2012-10-02)
    Date of publication: 02 October 2012
    Description/subject: Mine Ban Policy; Casualties and Victim Assistance; Cluster Munition Ban Policy; Support for Mine Action; Mine Action; Complete Profile.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor (2 October 2012 update)
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.the-monitor.org/index.php/publications/display?url=lm/2006/burma.html
    http://www.icbl.org/index.php/icbl/content/view/full/2
    Date of entry/update: 11 December 2010


    Title: What's Behind Asean's Arms Race?
    Date of publication: February 2010
    Description/subject: Regional rivalry for energy resources and China’s growing shadow are driving massive spending on weapons in Southeast Asia...Burma is in dispute with neighboring Bangladesh over maritime boundaries in the Bay of Bengal, where both countries want to explore for gas. Their small navies have already confronted one another over an exploratory drilling rig authorized by the Burmese junta in waters claimed by the Bangladeshis...The Burmese regime, however, had bought 12 MiGs from Russia in 2001 following a border clash with Thailand, and announced its plan to purcahse a new fleet of MiG-29s only a few weeks after a trip to Burma by Chinese Vice President Xi Jinping, whose public comments about strengthening economic ties probably masked the real reason for his visit: to persuade the junta to buy Chinese planes instead of the Russian MiGs... Some have seen the move as part of an effort to reduce the regime’s reliance on Chinese support, particularly in the wake of last year’s attack on the Chinese-speaking Kokang ethnic minority, which sent some 37,000 refugees into China and earned the Burmese junta a rare rebuke from Beijing..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17689
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    Title: Exploring Claims about Secret Nuclear Sites in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 28 January 2010
    Description/subject: "...Overall, the lack of specifics about many of the sites mentioned in the reports from opposition groups and defectors makes independent analysis using commercial satellite imagery very difficult. Those reporting the existence of secret nuclear sites in Burma should provide more direct and specific evidence, in addition to geographical coordinates, in order for some of the sites to be further investigated. ISIS does not want to overweigh the importance of debunking a few claims about secret nuclear activities in Burma. There remain valid suspicions about the existence of undeclared nuclear activities in Myanmar, particularly in the context of cooperation between Myanmar and North Korea. But the methods used in the public so far to allege secret nuclear facilities are flawed. Identification of suspect nuclear sites requires a more rigorous basis than is currently evident..."
    Author/creator: Robert Kelley, Andrea Scheel Stricker and Paul Brannan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 February 2010


    Title: Junta Buys 230 Military Aircraft in 21 Years
    Date of publication: 26 December 2009
    Description/subject: With its recent purchase of 20 MiG-29 fighter jets, Burma's military junta has acquired a total of 230 military aircraft since seizing power in a bloody coup in 1988—nearly 100 more than the regime of former dictator Ne Win.
    Author/creator: Wai Moe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 December 2009


    Title: Myanmar: Beneath The Surface (video)
    Date of publication: 23 December 2009
    Description/subject: "Two years ago the world watched in dismay as Myanmar's military junta brutally crushed the so-called Saffron Revolution. It was the only show of mass opposition to have occurred inside the country in almost 20 years. Filmmaker Hazel Chandler entered the country undercover for People & Power to find out how Myanmar's people are fairing, and to investigate disturbing claims that the regime may be trying to develop nuclear weapons."
    Author/creator: Hazel Chandler
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (People and Power)
    Format/size: Adobe Flash (23 minutes)
    Date of entry/update: 25 December 2009


    Title: U.S.-UKRAINE NONPROLIFERATION MEETINGS SEPTEMBER
    Date of publication: 09 November 2009
    Description/subject: "... Nykonenko said that Ukraine had received the U.S. demarche and was no longer exporting weapons to Burma. Ukraine was just wrapping up existing contracts, and had been reducing its exports to Burma since 2005. In 2008 Ukrainian exports to Burma were ‘as good as zero’ in part due to previous U.S. warnings, and Ukraine had not signed any new contracts with Burma in the last two and one half years. Current exports were just spare parts. The remaining business was so small that the company involved had recalled all of its workers from Burma..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Kyiv, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 December 2010


    Title: Burma and North Korea: Smoke or fire?
    Date of publication: 24 August 2009
    Description/subject: Conclusion: "On security-related issues, Burma and North Korea are well known as information black holes. Given the isolated and secretive nature of both regimes, it is very difficult to determine the precise nature of their relationship. Also, both countries are at the centre of emotive and highly politicised debates about human rights, nuclear proliferation and regional security. The picture is clouded by rumours and speculative stories circulated in the news media and on activist websites. There is the danger too of individuals and groups deliberately encouraging anti-Naypyidaw or anti-Pyongyang sentiments, for partisan political reasons. Any suggestions of a secret WMD program, however, let alone one conducted by a rogue state like Burma, must be cause for serious concern. Some of the information that has leaked out of Burma appears credible, and in recent years other snippets of information have emerged which, taken together, must raise suspicions. Also, no-one underestimates the lengths to which Burma's military leaders will go to stay in power, and to protect the country from perceived external threats. With this in mind, many observers are looking to the IAEA or the Obama Administration to settle Burma's nuclear status once and for all. The Burmese JADE (Junta's Anti-Democratic Efforts) Act enacted by Congress in July 2008 stipulates that, within 180 days, the Secretary of State must issue a statement describing ‘the provision of weapons of mass destruction and related materials, capabilities, and technology, including nuclear, chemical, and dual'. Reports filtering out of Washington in recent months suggest that there have already been a number of confidential briefings to senior officials on this subject. However, the world is still waiting for an authoritative public statement from the US which will put all the rumours, blogs and newspaper stories into their proper perspective. There has always been a lot of smoke surrounding Burma's nuclear ambitions. Since June, the amount of smoke has increased, but still no-one seems to know whether or not it hides a real fire. As time passes, the need to find an answer to this important question can only increase."
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Australian Strategic Policy Institute Limited
    Format/size: pdf (249K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/Policy_Analysis47.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 25 August 2009


    Title: Burma's nuclear bomb alive and ticking/Time for a close look at Burma's nuclear programme
    Date of publication: 02 August 2009
    Description/subject: 2 linked articles.... Talk to regional security authorities or their embassy staff about Burma having a nuclear programme and it usually generates two responses - total disbelief or horror. Strategic defence studies expert Professor Desmond Ball and journalist Phil Thornton spent two years investigating rumours, speculation, misinformation and the small truths that all help to conceal the Burmese military regime's nuclear ambitions from serious examination
    Author/creator: Desmond Ball, Phil Thornton
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Bangkok Post" (Spectrum)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 August 2009


    Title: Burma's Missile Dream
    Date of publication: August 2009
    Description/subject: Naypyidaw appears to be intent on setting up a missile defense sytem to deter po tential enemies... "Is Snr-Gen Than Shwe delusional? Subordinates of Burma's paramount leader are said to have repeatedly heard him say how much he admires North Korea's use of missile technology to bully and defy its neighbors and the West. The bad news is that Than Shwe's hard-line military leaders and ministers may agree with him. However, Burmese opposition groups in exile suspect that army officers who disagree with Than Shwe's policy deliberately leaked secret documents to exiled media groups, including The Irrawaddy. These documents throw light on Burma's military ties with Pyongyang..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2009


    Title: “Strong and Fast”: German Arms in Burma
    Date of publication: November 2007
    Description/subject: "...The inner conflicts that have been ravaging Burma broke out long before its independence of 1948. Hundreds of Thousands got killed or maimed ever since, Millions were forced to flee their homes. All warring parties – government troops, a multitude of rebels and drug lords – recruit child soldiers; the so called small arms serve in fact as weapons of mass destruction. The recent commentaries of Western media criticise China as the most important arms supplier of the military dictatorship. Unfortunately, this criticism covers up the fact that West Germany used to be the main military partner of Burma for decades..." "Die inneren Konflikte Birmas begannen weit vor der Unabhängigkeit von 1948. Hunderttausende wurden seither getötet, Millionen vertrieben. Alle Kriegsparteien – Regierung, untereinander verfeindete Rebellen und Drogenbarone – setzen Kindersoldaten ein, gemordet wird in erster Linie mit "Kleinwaffen". In den jüngsten Berichten westlicher Medien wurde vor allem China als Waffenlieferant der Militärdiktatur kritisiert. Darüber wird aber vergessen, dass jahrzehntelang just die Bundesrepublik Deutschland Birmas wichtigster Rüstungspartner war:..."
    Author/creator: Roman Deckert
    Language: English, Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Berlin Information-center for Transatlantic Security (BITS)
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.bits.de/public/articles/kleinwaffen-nl11-07.htm
    Date of entry/update: 21 November 2007


    Title: Stark und schnell: Deutsche Waffen in Birma
    Date of publication: November 2007
    Description/subject: Dem Informationsdienst Jane´s zufolge setzt die birmanische Armee noch immer massiv auf die "Braut des deutschen Soldaten", die bis vor wenigen Jahren ihre Standardwaffe Nr. 1 war, und auf MG3-Maschinengewehre von Rheinmetall. Das FAL war nach Angaben des renommierten Experten Edward Ezell einst aus Altbeständen der Bundeswehr eingeführt worden; Waffenlieferungen nach Burma; Rolle Fritz Werners in Birma; Rolle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Birma; German Arms transfers to Burma; Role of German Government in Burma; Role of the Fritz Werner Company in Burma
    Author/creator: Roman Deckert
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Berliner Informationszentrum fur transantlantische Sicherheit (BITS)
    Format/size: html (10k)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.bits.de/public/articles/kleinwaffen-nl11-07.htm
    http://www.bits.de/frames/publibd.htm
    Date of entry/update: 05 December 2007


    Title: Burma and Nuclear Proliferation: Policies and perceptions
    Date of publication: May 2007
    Description/subject: Executive Summary" Before 2000, the idea that Burma might one day become a nuclear power was considered fanciful. Ever since it regained its independence in 1948, Burma had been a consistent supporter of global nuclear disarmament and had played an active role in international organisations dedicated to that end. Nor could it claim the strategic rationale, economic strength or technological expertise to support a nuclear industry, let alone develop a nuclear weapon. Yet, in 2000, the ruling State Peace and Development Council announced that it planned to purchase a small nuclear reactor from Russia. Construction was due to begin in 2003, but was repeatedly postponed, probably due to financial problems. A new agreement was signed in May 2007. The response to the regime’s announcement of a nuclear research program was almost uniformly negative. There was widespread scepticism that Burma could manage such a complex and demanding project, a sentiment shared by the International Atomic Energy Agency. There were also concerns that Burma would be unable to keep secure any radioactive materials produced by the program. There were even claims that the regime secretly planned to use the reactor to build a nuclear weapon. These claims were rightly dismissed as far-fetched and self-serving, but they seemed to be given some substance in 2003 by reports that Burma was developing close links with North Korea, a notorious proliferator of nuclear and ballistic missile technology. Despite the lack of any supporting evidence, some activist groups claim that Burma already possesses nuclear weapons and the means to deliver them. It is highly unlikely that Burma currently has any intention of acquiring nuclear weapons, from North Korea or anywhere else. Claims that it might try to do so in the future are equally speculative, but are made a little more credible by Burma’s exaggerated threat perceptions. Ever since the armed forces took back direct power in 1988, the regime has been the target of a range of external pressures, including from some of the world’s most powerful countries. The aggressive rhetoric that has accompanied these pressures, and the support openly shown for Burma’s opposition movement, has helped create a siege mentality among Burma’s leaders. Even now, they fear intervention by the United States and its allies – possibly even an invasion – to restore democracy to Burma. These concerns have already prompted the regime to consider the acquisition of ballistic missiles. There have also been suggestions that a few Burmese generals envy North Korea’s apparent ability to use its nuclear weapons capabilities to fend off its enemies and win concessions from the international community. It is important not to over-react to these reports. Even if confirmed, they probably reflect the views of a very small minority in Burma’s military hierarchy. Such reports, however, illustrate the scope for misperceptions, on both sides, which can lead in turn to policy errors and even more serious misunderstandings.
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Griffith Asia Institute
    Format/size: pdf (214K)
    Date of entry/update: 31 May 2007


    Title: India Woos Burma with Weapons for Gas
    Date of publication: January 2007
    Description/subject: New Delhi's eagerness to supply Burma with weapons highlights new quid pro quo policies... "Increased contacts between senior military chiefs o­n both sides of the Burma-India border, involving Indian weapons sales, are believed by analysts to have two primary objectives: to help flush out Burma-based Indian insurgents and to counter growing Chinese influence in Naypyidaw. But the sale of arms and related technical equipment is also likely to be linked to New Delhi"Look East" economic policy, including ambitions to buy huge quantities of Burma's offshore gas in the Bay of Bengal. If the gas bid—against rivals China and Thailand—is successful, it will also involve building a costly pipeline through rebel-infested areas of northwest Burma and northeast India..."
    Author/creator: Aung Lwin Oo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 July 2008


    Title: Landmine Monitor Report 2004: Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: October 2004
    Description/subject: Key developments since May 2003: Myanmar"atrocity demining,"Halt Mine Use in Burma."... * Mine Ban Policy * Use; * Production, Transfer, Stockpiling; * Non-State Actors Use; * NSA-Production, Transfer, Stockpiling; * Landmine Problem; * Mine Clearance and Mine Risk Education; * Landmine Casualties68; * Survivor Assistance90; * Disability Policy and Practice.
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: International campaign to ban landmines
    Format/size: html (English); pdf (Burmese, 157K)
    Date of entry/update: 20 November 2004


    Title: ALLEGED NORTH KOREAN INVOLVEMENT IN MISSILE
    Date of publication: 27 August 2004
    Description/subject: SUMMARY: "North Korean workers are reportedly assembling “SAM missiles” and constructing an underground facility at a Burmese military site in Magway Division, about 315 miles NNW of Rangoon, according to XXXXXXXXXXXX . This unsolicited account should not be taken as authoritative, but it tracks with other information garnered and reported via XXXXXXXXXXXX. End Summary."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Rangoon, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 December 2010


    Title: The Arms Keep Coming—But Who Pays?
    Date of publication: June 2004
    Description/subject: "The Burmese military’s appetite for weapons appears insatiable. William Ashton details the regime’s recent purchases..."
    Author/creator: William Ashton
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 October 2004


    Title: The Kiev Connection
    Date of publication: April 2004
    Description/subject: "The former Soviet republic of the Ukraine is helping to satisfy the Rangoon regime’s apparently insatiable demand for modern weapon systems..." In May 2003 the Malyshev HMB plant in Kharkov reportedly signed a contract with Rangoon to provide the Burma Army with 1,000 new BTR-3U light armored personnel carriers, or APCs. The APCs will be supplied in component form over the next 10 years, and assembled in Burma. The size of the deal is estimated to be in excess of US $500 million. It is not known if it will be paid in hard currency, or whether an element of barter trade is involved. Some of Burma’s other arms suppliers—for example Russia and North Korea—have accepted part payment in rice, teak and marine products..."
    Author/creator: William Ashton
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 4, April 2004
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 July 2004


    Title: Pariah Partners in Arms
    Date of publication: March 2004
    Description/subject: "It has long been suspected that North Korea supplies Burma with weapons. But recent unconfirmed reports that the two secretive states are negotiating a nuclear deal are unsettling... Bilateral relations between Burma and North Korea were severed in 1983, after Pyongyang sent agents to Rangoon to conduct a terrorist attack against a visiting South Korean presidential delegation. Diplomatic ties have still not been restored. Over the past few years, however, these two economically stricken but highly militarized pariah states seem to have found some common ground. Depending on how it develops, this relationship could extend beyond mutual support to have wider strategic implications. Reports that the Rangoon regime has sought to acquire strategic weapon systems like submarines and ballistic missiles from Pyongyang have aroused concern in regional capitals and in Washington. There have even been suggestions that North Korea is secretly helping Burma to build a nuclear reactor, raising the spectre of a future atomic weapons program that could be used by Rangoon as a bargaining chip against the United States..."
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 09 June 2004


    Title: Landmine Monitor Report 2003: Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 09 September 2003
    Description/subject: Key developments since May 2002: "Myanmar’s military has continued laying landmines. At least 15 rebel groups also used mines, two more than last year: the New Mon State Party and the Hongsawatoi Restoration Party. Nobel Peace Laureate Jody Williams and ICBL Coordinator Liz Bernstein visited the country in February 2003."..."Myanmar’s ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) has not acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty. Myanmar abstained from voting on the pro-Mine Ban Treaty UN General Assembly Resolution 57/74 in November 2002. SPDC delegates have not attended any of the annual meetings of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty or the intersessional Standing Committee meetings...Myanmar has been producing at least three types of antipersonnel mines: MM1, MM2, and Claymore-type mines...Myanmar’s military forces have used landmines extensively throughout the long running civil war...Nine out of fourteen states and divisions in Burma are mine-affected, with a heavy concentration in East Burma. Mines have been laid heavily in the Eastern Pegu Division in order to prevent insurgents from reaching central Burma. Mines have also been laid extensively to the east of the area between Swegin and Kyawgyi...No humanitarian demining activities have been implemented in Burma...SPDC military units operating in areas suspected of mine contamination have repeatedly been accused of forcing people, compelled to serve as porters, to walk in front of patrols in order to detonate mines..."
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 09 September 2003


    Title: Landmine Monitor Report 2002: Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 13 September 2002
    Description/subject: "Key developments since May 2001: Myanmar?s military has continued laying landmines inside the country and along its borders with Thailand. As part of a new plan to ?fence the country,? the Coastal Region Command Headquarters gave orders to its troops from Tenasserim division to lay mines along the Thai-Burma border. Three rebel groups, not previously identified as mine users, were discovered using landmines in 2002: Pao People?s Liberation Front, All Burma Muslim Union and Wa National Army. Thirteen rebel groups are now using mines. Myanmar?s ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) has not acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty. Myanmar abstained from voting on the pro-Mine Ban Treaty UN General Assembly Resolution 56/24M in November 2001. SPDC delegates have not attended any of the annual meetings of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty or the intersessional Standing Committee meetings. Myanmar declined to attend the Regional Seminar of Stockpile Destruction of Anti-personnel Mines and other Munitions, held in Malaysia in August 2001. Myanmar did not respond to an invitation by the government of Malaysia to an informal meeting, held on the side of the January 2002 intersessional meetings in Geneva, to discuss the issue of landmines within the ASEAN context (other ASEAN non-signatories, such as Vietnam, did attend). Myanmar was one of the two ASEAN countries that did not participate in the seminar, ?Landmines in Southeast Asia,? hosted by Thailand from 13?15 May 2002. However, two observers from the Myanmar Ministry of Health attended the Regional Workshop on Victim Assistance in the Framework of the Mine Ban Treaty, held in Thailand from 6-8 November 2001, sponsored by Handicap International (HI). One health officer attending the meeting acknowledged that if Myanmar joined the mine ban it would be a good preventative health measure..."
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Landmine chapter of the Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2001-2002
    Date of publication: September 2002
    Description/subject: "Landmines are weapons that kill and maim indiscriminately, whether it be civilians, soldiers, elderly people, women, children or animals. They cause injury and death long after the official end of a war. Contrary to trends in the rest of the world, rather than reduce or abolish the use of landmines, the SPDC has actually increased production of anti-personnel landmines and at least in the case of the Burma-Bangladesh border, is actively maintaining minefields. In Asia, Burma is currently second only to Afghanistan in the number of new landmine victims, surpassing even Cambodia. The SPDC has not signed the Mine Ban Treaty and abstained from the 1999 UN General Assembly vote on the treaty, saying, “A sweeping ban on landmines is unnecessary and unjustified. The problem is the indiscriminate use of mines, as well as the transfer of them.” Although the SPDC is not known to export landmines, mines from China, Israel, Italy, Russia and the United States have been found planted inside Burma, indicating past or present importation of them. By their own admission, accepting transferred (imported) landmines makes them part of the problem..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Landmine chapter of the Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000
    Date of publication: October 2001
    Description/subject: "Landmines are weapons that kill and maim indiscriminately, whether it be civilians, soldiers, elderly, women, children or animals and cause injury and death long after the official end of a war. Contrary to trends in the rest of the world, rather than reduce or abolish the use of landmines, the SPDC has actually increased production of anti-personnel landmines and at least in the case of the Burma-Bangladesh border, is actively maintaining minefields. In Asia, Burma is currently second only to Afghanistan in the number of new landmine victims, surpassing even Cambodia and the SPDC was one of only three government military forces in Asia to use anti-personnel landmines in 2000, the others being Sri Lanka and Pakistan..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: Yearbook main page: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/yearbooks/Main.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Landmine Monitor Report 2001: Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 12 September 2001
    Description/subject: "Key developments since May 2000: Myanmar government forces and at least eleven ethnic armed groups continue to lay antipersonnel mines in significant numbers. The governments of Bangladesh and Thailand both protested use of mines by Myanmar forces inside their respective countries. In a disturbing new development, mine use is alleged to be taking place under the direction of loggers and narcotics traffickers, as well as by government and rebel forces."
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: ICBL
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.the-monitor.org/lm/2001/print/lm2001_burma_burmese.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Shopping for
    Date of publication: July 2001
    Description/subject: An illegal trade in live ammunition is thriving in Burma, where soldiers—often traded like commodities themselves—are selling anything they can to supplement their meager incomes... "Sergeant Hla Maung wanders cautiously into Mingaladon market and walks toward a small shop run by a friend of his. His friend smiles at him when he stops in front of the shop, and the sergeant gives him an inquiring look. On display in the shop is a mass of military equipment, such as uniforms and boots, stored in a big dirty showcase..."
    Author/creator: Maung Maung Oo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 May 2008


    Title: Landmines in Burma, The Military Dimension
    Date of publication: November 2000
    Description/subject: "...A wide range of anti-personnel (AP) and anti-vehicle (AV) landmines have been used in Burma over the years. Details are hard to obtain, but it would appear that before 1988 the Burma Army had access to common Eastern-bloc stake-mounted fragmentation mines such as the Soviet-designed POMZ-2 and POMZ-2M.4 (China also makes versions of these mines, designated the Type 58 and Type 59 respectively.) Over the past few years the Tatmadaw's supplies of these mines have apparently been boosted by a locally produced version of the POMZ-2, designated the MM-1. Another kind of stake-mounted fragmentation mine, quite similar in appearance to the POMZ-2 and POMZ-2M, has also been made and used in Burma in the past, but has yet to be fully identified...". This is an excerpt from Working Paper No. 352 of the same title, published by the Strategic Defense Studies Centre of the Australian National University, Canberra, November 2000.
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. VII, No. 4, Winter 2000
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmar's Forgotten Minefields
    Date of publication: 01 October 2000
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Jane's Intelligence Review
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Landmine Monitor Report 2000: Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: August 2000
    Description/subject: "Key developments March 1999-May 2000: Government forces and at least ten ethnic armed groups continue to lay antipersonnel landmines in significant numbers. Landmine Monitor estimates there were approximately 1,500 new mine victims in 1999. The Committee Representing the People's Parliament endorsed the Mine Ban Treaty in January 2000." Includes chart of Ethnic Political Organizations with Armed Wings in Burma.
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
    Format/size: html (English); pdf (Burmese, 200K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/LandmineMonitor00Bur.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 25 July 2010


    Title: EU Toughens Sanctions Against Burma
    Date of publication: 25 May 2000
    Description/subject: European Union (EU) foreign affairs ministers and the EU Commission have agreed to implement a range of "restrictive measures" against Burma, including strengthening an existing visa ban and freezing assets held abroad by persons to whom the ban applies.
    Author/creator: Brian Kenety
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Times
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Council Regulation (EC) No 1081/2000 of 22 May 2000 Prohibiting the Sale, Supply and Export to Burma/Myanmar of Equipment Which Might be Used for Internal Repression Or Terrorism, and Freezing the Funds of Certain Persons Related to Important Governmental
    Date of publication: 22 May 2000
    Description/subject: Full text
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: European Council
    Format/size: pdf (148K)
    Alternate URLs: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000R1081:en:NOT
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma Making Small Arms
    Date of publication: August 1998
    Description/subject: Despite economic crisis and simmering social unrest, Burma's military leaders have continued to purchase more arms and ammunition over the past decade. With over 300,000 soldiers, and no external threats, the generals are determined to expand and maintain the largest army in Southeast Asia. Burma has begun manufacturing small arms, and possibly ordnance... [Sources: Bangkok Post, The Nation]
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Israelis Helping to Produce Arms in Burma
    Date of publication: 28 July 1998
    Description/subject: Israeli consultants are helping Myanmar, formerly Burma, produce small arms and ordnance in a prefabricated factory built in Singapore, the London-based Jane's Defense Weekly said yesterday.
    Author/creator: Arieh O'Sullivan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Jerusalem Post
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 December 2010


  • Burma/Myanmar's alleged nuclear weapons programme

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: A Sourcebook on Allegations of Cooperation between Myanmar (Burma) and North Korea on Nuclear Projects
    Date of publication: 15 March 2010
    Description/subject: A collection of press and Internet articles.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Federation of American Scientists
    Format/size: pdf (9.97MB)
    Date of entry/update: 20 March 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: UN nuclear watchdog asks regime to allow inspections
    Date of publication: 22 December 2010
    Description/subject: "The United Nations’ nuclear watchdog, the International Atomic Energy Agency, wrote to Burma’s ruling military junta recently asking that it be allowed to visit alleged nuclear sites in Burma, according to a report in The Wall Street Journal on Friday that cited unnamed US officials..."
    Author/creator: Thomas Maung Shwe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Mizzima
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 December 2010


    Title: Nuclear Fallout ("Irrawaddy" interview with Dr. Robert E. Kelley)
    Date of publication: December 2010
    Description/subject: Nuclear scientist and former director of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Dr. Robert E. Kelley made headlines earlier in 2010 when he published a report claiming that Burma’s military junta was mining uranium and working toward developing a nuclear reactor. His report was commissioned by the exiled Burmese news agency Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB), which was, soon after, shortlisted for the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize. His analysis has since come under attack from Olli Heinonen, a former colleague at the IAEA, as well as from Dr. David Albright, with whom he co-authored a report in January on alleged Burma-North Korea nuclear links. Kelley discussed these issues with The Irrawaddy, both before and after disclosures surfaced about a sophisticated uranium enrichment operation at Yongbyon in North Korea.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 12
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2010


    Title: S Korean FM approaching Burma with caution
    Date of publication: 18 August 2010
    Description/subject: "South Korea has said it will raise the issue of controversial military ties between Burma and North Korea when a senior government official visits the pariah state next week."
    Author/creator: FRANCIS WADE
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 September 2010


    Title: South Korea to Discuss Nuke Rumors With Myanmar
    Date of publication: 18 August 2010
    Description/subject: South Korea's Foreign Ministry said Monday rumors about nuclear collaboration between North Korea and Myanmar would be discussed when a high-level envoy from Seoul travels to the Southeast Asian nation this week, the Yonhap News Agency reported (see GSN, July 23).
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: NTI
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 September 2010


    Title: Yonhap (South Korea): S. Korea to address suspected Myanmar, N. Korea nuclear issue: ministry
    Date of publication: 17 August 2010
    Description/subject: South Korea will talk about possible nuclear cooperation between Myanmar and North Korea when a senior diplomat visits the Southeast Asian country next week, the foreign ministry here announced Monday.Vice Foreign Minister Shin Kak-soo is scheduled to visit Myanmar from Aug. 19-21, where he will deliver Seoul’s message encouraging fair elections on Nov. 7, according to ministry spokesman Kim Young-son. The elections will be the country’s first in two decades.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "BurmaNet News"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 September 2010


    Title: Is Myanmar Working With North Korea on a Nuclear Weapons Program?
    Date of publication: 08 July 2010
    Description/subject: Evidence continues to surface suggesting Myanmar’s possible interest in launching a covert nuclear power program with potential North Korean assistance. As part of the continuing saga of North Korea’s deviant machinations, new information has surfaced on Pyongyang’s suspected assistance to Myanmar (Burma) to develop what may be a nuclear weapons program. To be sure, Pyongyang’s suspected complicity with Burma’s possible nuclear ambitions is not entirely new. A strategic dossier published by a high-profile think tank in late 2009 sought to determine if the country’s aspirations of having a civilian nuclear reactor had any military applications.
    Author/creator: Frank O'Donnell
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Oil Price_Geopolitics
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://oilprice.com/Geo-Politics/International/Is-Myanmar-Working-With-North-Korea-on-a-Nuclear-Wea...
    http://oilprice.com/pdf/Geo-Politics/International/Is-Myanmar-Working-With-North-Korea-on-a-Nuclear...
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    Title: Nuclear Pipe Dream?
    Date of publication: July 2010
    Description/subject: Burma’s emerging nuclear weapons program is met with an ambiguous international response... "Based on evidence accumulating over the the last several years, it appears that the Burmese generals have the intent, motivation and money to develop nuclear weapons. History also shows they have the mindset necessary to disregard their own people’s welfare, as well as the opinions of their regional neighbors and the international community. Yet analysts say it is clear that the military regime is nowhere near having the means—in terms of technology and expertise—to accomplish their nuclear objectives. So how will the region and the rest of the international community respond? Especially given the fact that sanctions, isolation and engagement have all previously failed to influence the regime? Thus far, outside reactions have been as ambiguous as the junta’s clandestine program. On June 4, the international spotlight was refocused on Burma’s nuclear ambitions when Al Jazeera broadcast a documentary produced by the Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB), which provided the strongest and most concrete evidence to date that the Burmese military junta is in the primitive stages of producing a nuclear weapon...."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 August 2010


    Title: Rogue Brothers in Arms
    Date of publication: July 2010
    Description/subject: Analysts have long suspected North Korea of supplying Burma with weapons and technology. Has the Dear Leader become a role model for Than Shwe as well? "Burma and North Korea, two of the world’s most oppressive, isolated and secretive nations, were previously not on speaking terms. But over the last two decades, Burma’s junta chief, Snr-Gen Than Shwe, and North Korea’s “Dear Leader,” Kim Jong Il, have formed a disconcerting partnership of convenience that, due to recent events, has garnered increased attention from the international community..."
    Author/creator: WI mOE
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 7
    Format/size: HTML
    Date of entry/update: 30 August 2010


    Title: Than Shwe Angry about Kelley Report
    Date of publication: 30 June 2010
    Description/subject: "The Burmese junta supremo, Snr-Gen Than Shwe, is reported to be angry at government officials who are responsible for the junta’s nuclear program after he read the report of Robert Kelley, the former director of the International Atomic Energy Agency, who described Naypyidaw's nuclear program as “unprofessional” and “quite primitive.”..."
    Author/creator: Wai Moe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 June 2010


    Title: 3 Statements in "The New Light of Myanmar" of 12 June 2010 on the Democratic Voice of Burma video, “Myanmar's military ambitions” broadcast on Aljazeera from 4 June 2010
    Date of publication: 12 June 2010
    Description/subject: 1) Press Statement of Ministry of Foreign Affairs on unfounded allegations against Myanmar regarding nuclear programme... 2) Press Statement of Ministry of Foreign Affairs on Myanmar’s relations with Democratic People’s Republic of Korea..."Al Jazeera airs incorrect news report saying Myanmar trying to possess nuclear weapons - News report based only on exaggerated fabrications of some deserters, fugitives, exiles"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar"
    Format/size: pdf (223K)
    Date of entry/update: 12 June 2010


    Title: Myanmar's military ambitions (video)
    Date of publication: 04 June 2010
    Description/subject: "Top-secret material reveals that Myanmar is trying to build rockets and nuclear weapons"..."About Film In a new investigative documentary produced by DVB we have discovered that Burma’s ruling generals have started a program to build nuclear weapons. It has long been suspected that Burma has been pursuing a nuclear programme but now, for the first time, DVB provides evidence of how, where and why they are pursuing this goal. With a combination of high quality colour photographs taken from the military’s own top secret files, expert analysis and witness accounts DVB’s documentary exclusively reveals the detailed nature of the regime’s intent. The huge amount of evidence collected by DVB over the last 5 years also reveals that the ruling junta are trying to develop long-range missiles and digging themselves in with a series of military bunkers. Experts agree Burma is a long way from achieving its goals. But many believe that with its stated intent to one day acquire nuclear weapons its ambitions should be taken seriously. This groundbreaking information reveals the paranoia of Burma’s ruling generals and gives us a glimpse into the minds of the Burmese military. Elections later this year are aimed at convincing the world Burma are moving towards democracy, but in reality, fearing attack from the United States and an uprising by their own people, Burma is trying to become the next nuclear- armed North Korea."
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB) via Aljazeera
    Format/size: Adobe Flash (45 minutes total - 4 parts)
    Date of entry/update: 07 June 2010


    Title: North Korea helps Burma begin nuclear weapons program
    Date of publication: 04 June 2010
    Description/subject: "MILITARY-ruled Burma has begun a nuclear weapons program with the help of North Korea, a new investigation revealed, citing an army major defector and years of "top secret material"."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: AFP
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 June 2010


    Title: Expert says Burma ‘planning nuclear bomb’
    Date of publication: 03 June 2010
    Description/subject: "A five-year investigation by DVB has uncovered evidence that Burma is embarking on a programme to develop nuclear weaponry. At the centre of the investigation is Sai Thein Win, a former defense engineer and missile expert who worked in factories in Burma where he was tasked to make prototype components for missile and nuclear programs..."
    Author/creator: ROBERT KELLEY
    Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma
    Format/size: English
    Date of entry/update: 04 June 2010


    Title: Myanmar's military ambitions
    Date of publication: 02 June 2010
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Aljazeera
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 June 2010


    Title: Asean's New Dilemma: Burma's Nuclear Ambition
    Date of publication: 30 May 2010
    Description/subject: "...Burma's nuclear ambition can further dampen Asean-US relations in the future. Already, there was the first casualty when the US downgraded the high-powered economic roadshow which was meticulously planned months ahead between the Office of US Trade Representatives and Asean economic ministers through the US-Asean Business Council..."
    Author/creator: Kavi Chongkittavorn
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 June 2010


    Title: Nuclear Related Activities in Burma -- Expert Analysis
    Date of publication: May 2010
    Description/subject: "The Democratic Voice of Burma has been accumulating information about a nuclear program in Burma for years, but recently they have come across a source with truly extraordinary information. He worked in special factories making prototype components for missile and nuclear programs. Like the Israeli technician, Mordecai Vanunu, he has brought hundreds of color photographs of the activities inside these factories. DVB has asked us to organize this information and analyze what it means. The goal of this report is to report our findings to DVB in support of their documentary film on Al Jazeera. We are also providing a great deal of raw data for the nonproliferation community to assess..."
    Author/creator: Robert E. Kelley, Ali Fowle
    Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 June 2010


    Title: Burma: A Nuclear Wannabe; Suspicious Links to North Korea; High-Tech Procurements and Enigmatic Facilities
    Date of publication: 28 January 2010
    Description/subject: "For several years, suspicions have swirled about the nuclear intentions of Burma’s secretive military dictatorship. Burma is cooperating with North Korea on possible nuclear procurements and appears to be misleading overseas suppliers in obtaining top-of-the-line equipment. Certain equipment, which could be used in a nuclear or missile program, went to isolated Burmese manufacturing compounds of unknown purpose. Although evidence does not exist to make a compelling case that Burma is building secret nuclear reactors or fuel cycle facilities, as has been reported, the information does warrant governments and companies taking extreme caution in any dealings with Burma. The military regime’s suspicious links to North Korea, and apparent willingness to illegally procure high technology goods, make a priority convincing the military government to accept greater transparency..."
    Author/creator: David Albright, Paul Brannan, Robert Kelley, Andrea Scheel Stricker
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS)
    Format/size: html, pdf (1.32 K)
    Alternate URLs: http://isis-online.org/uploads/isis-reports/documents/BurmaReport_28January2010.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 01 February 2010


    Title: Deep Connections between Myanmar’s Department of Atomic Energy and the DTVE
    Date of publication: 28 January 2010
    Description/subject: Summary: "Through internet searches, ISIS identified extensive links and associations between Myanmar’s Department of Technical and Vocational Education (DTVE) and Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), under the greater Ministry of Science and Technology. In particular, the Director General of the DAE, Dr. Ko Ko Oo was also at one point director of DTVE. In addition, directors and deputy directors of the DTVE have appeared regularly at nuclear conferences together, despite the lack of organizational justification for the DTVE’s apparent interest in nuclear energy. Significant personnel links exist within the Myanmar Ministry of Science and Technology between these two agencies. Internet searches establish that Dr. Oo was director of the DTVE as recently as 2004. Dr. Oo was Director General of the Ministry of Science and Technology as recently as 2006, a post that he may still hold. He often appears at conferences with different administrative titles, and therefore it is difficult to track changes in career position precisely. The DTVE and DAE also at one point shared an address, phone number, and fax number until the Department of Atomic Energy relocated to the new capital of Naypidyaw. The DTVE is also now located in Naypidyaw, but no current address can be found."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 February 2010


    Title: Exploring Claims about Secret Nuclear Sites in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 28 January 2010
    Description/subject: "...Overall, the lack of specifics about many of the sites mentioned in the reports from opposition groups and defectors makes independent analysis using commercial satellite imagery very difficult. Those reporting the existence of secret nuclear sites in Burma should provide more direct and specific evidence, in addition to geographical coordinates, in order for some of the sites to be further investigated. ISIS does not want to overweigh the importance of debunking a few claims about secret nuclear activities in Burma. There remain valid suspicions about the existence of undeclared nuclear activities in Myanmar, particularly in the context of cooperation between Myanmar and North Korea. But the methods used in the public so far to allege secret nuclear facilities are flawed. Identification of suspect nuclear sites requires a more rigorous basis than is currently evident..."
    Author/creator: Robert Kelley, Andrea Scheel Stricker and Paul Brannan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 February 2010


    Title: Myanmar: Beneath The Surface (video)
    Date of publication: 23 December 2009
    Description/subject: "Two years ago the world watched in dismay as Myanmar's military junta brutally crushed the so-called Saffron Revolution. It was the only show of mass opposition to have occurred inside the country in almost 20 years. Filmmaker Hazel Chandler entered the country undercover for People & Power to find out how Myanmar's people are fairing, and to investigate disturbing claims that the regime may be trying to develop nuclear weapons."
    Author/creator: Hazel Chandler
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (People and Power)
    Format/size: Adobe Flash (23 minutes)
    Date of entry/update: 25 December 2009


    Title: Burma and North Korea: Smoke or fire?
    Date of publication: 24 August 2009
    Description/subject: Conclusion: "On security-related issues, Burma and North Korea are well known as information black holes. Given the isolated and secretive nature of both regimes, it is very difficult to determine the precise nature of their relationship. Also, both countries are at the centre of emotive and highly politicised debates about human rights, nuclear proliferation and regional security. The picture is clouded by rumours and speculative stories circulated in the news media and on activist websites. There is the danger too of individuals and groups deliberately encouraging anti-Naypyidaw or anti-Pyongyang sentiments, for partisan political reasons. Any suggestions of a secret WMD program, however, let alone one conducted by a rogue state like Burma, must be cause for serious concern. Some of the information that has leaked out of Burma appears credible, and in recent years other snippets of information have emerged which, taken together, must raise suspicions. Also, no-one underestimates the lengths to which Burma's military leaders will go to stay in power, and to protect the country from perceived external threats. With this in mind, many observers are looking to the IAEA or the Obama Administration to settle Burma's nuclear status once and for all. The Burmese JADE (Junta's Anti-Democratic Efforts) Act enacted by Congress in July 2008 stipulates that, within 180 days, the Secretary of State must issue a statement describing ‘the provision of weapons of mass destruction and related materials, capabilities, and technology, including nuclear, chemical, and dual'. Reports filtering out of Washington in recent months suggest that there have already been a number of confidential briefings to senior officials on this subject. However, the world is still waiting for an authoritative public statement from the US which will put all the rumours, blogs and newspaper stories into their proper perspective. There has always been a lot of smoke surrounding Burma's nuclear ambitions. Since June, the amount of smoke has increased, but still no-one seems to know whether or not it hides a real fire. As time passes, the need to find an answer to this important question can only increase."
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Australian Strategic Policy Institute Limited
    Format/size: pdf (249K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/Policy_Analysis47.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 25 August 2009


    Title: Burma's nuclear bomb alive and ticking/Time for a close look at Burma's nuclear programme
    Date of publication: 02 August 2009
    Description/subject: 2 linked articles.... Talk to regional security authorities or their embassy staff about Burma having a nuclear programme and it usually generates two responses - total disbelief or horror. Strategic defence studies expert Professor Desmond Ball and journalist Phil Thornton spent two years investigating rumours, speculation, misinformation and the small truths that all help to conceal the Burmese military regime's nuclear ambitions from serious examination
    Author/creator: Desmond Ball, Phil Thornton
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Bangkok Post" (Spectrum)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 August 2009


    Title: Burma's Missile Dream
    Date of publication: August 2009
    Description/subject: Naypyidaw appears to be intent on setting up a missile defense sytem to deter po tential enemies... "Is Snr-Gen Than Shwe delusional? Subordinates of Burma's paramount leader are said to have repeatedly heard him say how much he admires North Korea's use of missile technology to bully and defy its neighbors and the West. The bad news is that Than Shwe's hard-line military leaders and ministers may agree with him. However, Burmese opposition groups in exile suspect that army officers who disagree with Than Shwe's policy deliberately leaked secret documents to exiled media groups, including The Irrawaddy. These documents throw light on Burma's military ties with Pyongyang..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2009


    Title: Myanmar's secret military tunnel network - 25 June 09
    Date of publication: 25 June 2009
    Description/subject: "New images have emerged showing the construction of a series of secret tunnels in Myanmar, reportedly built with North Korean help. The images broadcast by the Democratic Voice of Burma in Oslo show tunnels large enough for heavy vehicles to drive through."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Aljazeera
    Format/size: Adobe Flash
    Date of entry/update: 04 June 2010


    Title: Is there a Burma-North Korea-Iran nuclear conspiracy?
    Date of publication: 26 February 2009
    Description/subject: "If the Obama Administration was looking for another foreign policy challenge, all it would have to do is take seriously the rumours circulating in Thailand that Burma is pursuing a secret nuclear weapons program, with help from North Korea and Iran. These stories have all the ingredients of a real security nightmare. The question is, are any of them true? ..."
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Interpreter" - weblog of the Lowy Institute for International Policy
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 March 2009


    Title: Unconventional wisdom on Burma
    Date of publication: 03 November 2007
    Description/subject: US intelligence believes Burma is seeking to develop nuclear weapons from technology provided by North Korea, according to two former senior US government officials.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Australian
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 October 2010


    Title: An Untimely Quest
    Date of publication: July 2007
    Description/subject: Regardless of Burma’s right to pursue peaceful nuclear technology, its capacity to do so safely and practically should be the most immediate concern... "As speculation mounts over Burma’s nuclear collaboration with Russia, perhaps o­ne fear can be laid to rest. The proposed research reactor will not allow Burma’s military leaders to produce nuclear weapons—at least not yet. So what benefits can be derived from such a facility, and what purpose might it serve in Burma? ..."
    Author/creator: Edward Blair
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


    Title: Burma Plays Nuclear Card
    Date of publication: July 2007
    Description/subject: Assurances of peaceful intentions arouse o­nly skepticism... "Burma’s confirmation of plans to build a 10-megawatt nuclear reactor with the help of Russia’s federal atomic energy agency Rosatom has created nervousness and anxiety among Burma observers. The regime in Naypyidaw, facing international isolation and sanctions, claims that the planned nuclear reactor is to be built for a “peaceful purpose.” Back in January 2002, then-deputy Foreign Minister Khin Maung Win declared that Burma’s “interest in nuclear energy for peaceful purpose is longstanding.” Such assurances have met with skepticism o­n the part of the international community and Burmese at home and abroad, however..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


    Title: Thein Oo Po Saw: Burma’s Spokesperson for Nuclear Power
    Date of publication: July 2007
    Description/subject: Burma’s nuclear ambitions have been the subject of serious discussions at the country’s constitution-drafting National Convention, which has convened intermittently since 1993. These discussions have been led by Thein Oo Po Saw, a US-trained nuclear scientist.
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=7737
    Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


    Title: Burma’s Nuclear Ambition
    Date of publication: June 2007
    Description/subject: The Irrawaddy charts the timeline on the evolution of Burma's efforts to create a nuclear research facility... "Burma’s nuclear ambitions, spotlighted by last month’s announcement that Russia has agreed to help the regime build a nuclear research facility, date back at least seven years. In December 1995, the junta signed the Bangkok Treaty, banning the development, manufacture, possession, control, stationing, transport, testing or use of nuclear weapons under the terms of the international Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Five years later, after a visit to Moscow by Burma’s minister for science and technology, U Thaung, the junta’s nuclear plans became clearer..."
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No.6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


    Title: Burma and Nuclear Proliferation: Policies and perceptions
    Date of publication: May 2007
    Description/subject: Executive Summary" Before 2000, the idea that Burma might one day become a nuclear power was considered fanciful. Ever since it regained its independence in 1948, Burma had been a consistent supporter of global nuclear disarmament and had played an active role in international organisations dedicated to that end. Nor could it claim the strategic rationale, economic strength or technological expertise to support a nuclear industry, let alone develop a nuclear weapon. Yet, in 2000, the ruling State Peace and Development Council announced that it planned to purchase a small nuclear reactor from Russia. Construction was due to begin in 2003, but was repeatedly postponed, probably due to financial problems. A new agreement was signed in May 2007. The response to the regime’s announcement of a nuclear research program was almost uniformly negative. There was widespread scepticism that Burma could manage such a complex and demanding project, a sentiment shared by the International Atomic Energy Agency. There were also concerns that Burma would be unable to keep secure any radioactive materials produced by the program. There were even claims that the regime secretly planned to use the reactor to build a nuclear weapon. These claims were rightly dismissed as far-fetched and self-serving, but they seemed to be given some substance in 2003 by reports that Burma was developing close links with North Korea, a notorious proliferator of nuclear and ballistic missile technology. Despite the lack of any supporting evidence, some activist groups claim that Burma already possesses nuclear weapons and the means to deliver them. It is highly unlikely that Burma currently has any intention of acquiring nuclear weapons, from North Korea or anywhere else. Claims that it might try to do so in the future are equally speculative, but are made a little more credible by Burma’s exaggerated threat perceptions. Ever since the armed forces took back direct power in 1988, the regime has been the target of a range of external pressures, including from some of the world’s most powerful countries. The aggressive rhetoric that has accompanied these pressures, and the support openly shown for Burma’s opposition movement, has helped create a siege mentality among Burma’s leaders. Even now, they fear intervention by the United States and its allies – possibly even an invasion – to restore democracy to Burma. These concerns have already prompted the regime to consider the acquisition of ballistic missiles. There have also been suggestions that a few Burmese generals envy North Korea’s apparent ability to use its nuclear weapons capabilities to fend off its enemies and win concessions from the international community. It is important not to over-react to these reports. Even if confirmed, they probably reflect the views of a very small minority in Burma’s military hierarchy. Such reports, however, illustrate the scope for misperceptions, on both sides, which can lead in turn to policy errors and even more serious misunderstandings.
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Griffith Asia Institute
    Format/size: pdf (214K)
    Date of entry/update: 31 May 2007


    Title: Burma’s Nuclear Program: Dream or Nightmare?
    Date of publication: May 2004
    Description/subject: "Burma has long been suspected of harboring nuclear ambitions...Perhaps the best example of the military junta’s questionable priorities is its determination to build a nuclear reactor. This project has caused considerable unease in the region, and in centers like Vienna and Washington. Over the past few months, this concern has begun to turn to alarm, as reports have emerged suggesting that the reactor may be built with the assistance of North Korea. This has raised the specter of a future nuclear weapons program that could intimidate Burma’s neighbors and be used as a bargaining chip against the US and its allies..."
    Author/creator: William Ashton
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 12, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 August 2004


    Title: Pariah Partners in Arms
    Date of publication: March 2004
    Description/subject: "It has long been suspected that North Korea supplies Burma with weapons. But recent unconfirmed reports that the two secretive states are negotiating a nuclear deal are unsettling... Bilateral relations between Burma and North Korea were severed in 1983, after Pyongyang sent agents to Rangoon to conduct a terrorist attack against a visiting South Korean presidential delegation. Diplomatic ties have still not been restored. Over the past few years, however, these two economically stricken but highly militarized pariah states seem to have found some common ground. Depending on how it develops, this relationship could extend beyond mutual support to have wider strategic implications. Reports that the Rangoon regime has sought to acquire strategic weapon systems like submarines and ballistic missiles from Pyongyang have aroused concern in regional capitals and in Washington. There have even been suggestions that North Korea is secretly helping Burma to build a nuclear reactor, raising the spectre of a future atomic weapons program that could be used by Rangoon as a bargaining chip against the United States..."
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 09 June 2004


    Title: BURMA: RUMORS OF CONSTRUCTION OF A NUCLEAR REACTOR
    Date of publication: 20 January 2004
    Description/subject: 'An expatriate businessman XXXXXXXXXXXX recently volunteered to an Embassy Officer that he had heard rumors that a nuclear reactor was being built near Minbu, in central Magway Division on the Irawaddy River. The businessman added that he personally had seen a “massive” barge containing large-sized rebar being unloaded on a trip to the area. After asking local residents about the rebar’s purpose, he was told that similar size barge shipments were arriving almost weekly and that the rebar was to be used in the construction of unnamed/unidentified factories. In the opinion of the businessman, the quantities involved as well as the diameter of the rebar suggested a project larger than “factories.” Along these lines, the businessman noted that there was a new airport near Minbu with a landing strip that, based on its length and thickness, seemed excessive, adding that “you could land the space shuttle on it.”...'
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Embassy, Rangoon, via Wikileaks
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 December 2010


    Title: US Warns Myanmar On Nuclear Reactor Aspirations
    Date of publication: 22 January 2002
    Description/subject: "The United States warned Myanmar on Tuesday that it must honor its obligations under the Non-Proliferation Treaty, after Yangon signalled that it intended to build a nuclear reactor with Russian help..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Space Daily
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Yangon's Nuclear Ambitions Alarm Asia And Europe
    Date of publication: 18 January 2002
    Description/subject: "Myanmar's wish to develop a nuclear research reactor has alarmed many of its Asian neighbours as well as the European community. 'Myanmar is committed to developing a nuclear research reactor for medical purposes,' Foreign Minister Win Aung said recently. While he said that 'it will be some time' before the reactor is built, his words have been startling nonetheless. This is especially so following numerous reports in recent weeks that Russia has signed a deal with Myanmar to supply a reactor..."
    Author/creator: Larry Jagan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Straits Times
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Russia Negotiating to Help Impoverished Nation With Reactor Project : Burma Seeks Nuclear Research Plant
    Date of publication: 14 July 2001
    Author/creator: Thomas Crampton
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Herald Tribune
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Military Intelligence

    Individual Documents

    Title: Burma Forms New Intelligence Unit
    Date of publication: 03 May 2011
    Description/subject: "RANGOON—Gen Min Aung Hlaing, Burma's new commander-in-chief of the armed forces, has formed a national intelligence unit and begun to function as the unit head, according to sources. Over 200 officers from different parts of the country have reportedly been appointed by Min Aung Hlaing to work for the new intelligence unit, which is tasked with investigating domestic political and security affairs. According to a military source in Naypyidaw, the officers selected rank from captain to colonel and are from the army, air force and navy. “They no longer have any duty at their mother units and instead they now have to complete assignments given by the intelligence unit alone,” said a source close to one of the chosen officers. Apart from military officers, the new intelligence unit reportedly involves officials from the Myanmar Police Force, which is under the Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA), Bureau of Special Investigation and the Ministry of Border Affairs..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 May 2011


    Title: Attacks on the Press 2007: Burma
    Date of publication: 05 February 2008
    Description/subject: Burmese journalists came under heavy assault in August and September when covering pro-democracy street protests and the military government’s retaliatory crackdown, marking significant deterioration in what was already one of the world’s most repressive media environments. The government banned coverage of the uprising and sought to isolate the nation by impeding Internet and phone service. Local and citizen journalists, however, proved innovative and persistent in circumventing the government’s electronic blockade.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Committee to Protect Journalists
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 December 2010


    Title: A Burmese Spy Comes in from the Cold
    Date of publication: June 2006
    Description/subject: A young counter-intelligence agent who has just defected from Rangoon talks to The Irrawaddy about his previous life and work
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 December 2006


    Title: Behind the Palace Walls - a review of "Intelligence in the Era of Burmese Kings" (in Burmese) by Col San Pwint
    Date of publication: October 2004
    Description/subject: A new book traces the history of the Burmese intelligence network... "Mandalay under King Thibaw—British spies and informants are hard at work collecting information on Burmese troop movements, the Irrawaddy River defenses and news of happenings inside the palace. The British, whose diplomatic mission had been closed down several years before the third Anglo-Burmese war, were desperate to know what was going on in Burma. The reason: British concern about a possible secret deal between Burma and Britain’s archrivals, the French, whose influence was growing within the palace. But the empire had no reason to worry very much. London’s undercover man in the palace, Chevalier Andreino, was doing a good job, delivering valuable information gleaned from his network of informants. The well-paid Italian spy, who had lived in Mandalay for almost 30 years, was one of probably many spies working for the British. It’s believed that, using his network inside the Palace, Andreino successfully stole the friendship treaty between Burma and France and a letter from the French Prime Minster to the Burmese king..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: See also "Burma's Spooky History" at http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=4019
    Date of entry/update: 28 April 2008


    Title: Moles in the Movement?
    Date of publication: July 2000
    Description/subject: When Burma's state-owned press announced recently that eleven "expatriate destructive elements" had been arrested in May and June for allegedly plotting a bomb attack on the Thai embassy in Rangoon, nobody, including officials in Thailand, took the charges seriously. Most suspected that the news of apurported conspiracy to discredit the country's ruling military junta and damage Thai-Burmese relations was little more than an attempt to ratchet up tensions between Burmese exiles and their Thai hosts ahead of a meeting of regional foreign ministers in Bangkok. But, according to opposition sources in Thailand, the story goes deeper than that.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddymedia.com/article.php?art_id=703
    Date of entry/update: 11 December 2010


    Title: Attacks on the Press 1999: Burma
    Date of publication: 1999
    Description/subject: "Report by the Committee to Protect Journalists" ...... Forcing their citizenry to live behind a wall of repressive ignorance, Burma's military leaders have shown no signs of liberalizing one of the world's harshest regimes.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Committee to Protect Journalists
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma's Intelligence Apparatus
    Date of publication: October 1997
    Description/subject: An excerpt from a Working Paper published by the Strategic & Defense Studies Center of the Australian National University, Canberra, June 1997. The author is a former Visiting Fellow of the Center and the author of "Transforming the Tatmadaw: The Burmese Armed Forces Since 1988".
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. IV, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Rangoon's UN-Intelligence Show [Accusations Against NLD]
    Date of publication: June 1997
    Description/subject: Burma's military intelligence chief Lt Gen Khin Nyunt accused the U.S. of sponsoring terrorist attacks against top figures in the ruling junta. Lt-Gen Khin Nyunt told reporters that U.S. government funds for supporting the Burmese pro-democracy movement had been used to finance terrorist activities by exile-led opposition groups.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 5. No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Air Force

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Myanmar Airforce
    Description/subject: "The Myanmar Air Force (Tatmdaw Lei) was formed on 24 December 1947. In 1948, the order of battle for The Burmese Air Force include 40 Airspeed Oxfords, 16 de Havilland Tiger Moths, 4 Austers and 3 Supermarine Spitfires with a few hundred personnel. The Mingaladon Air Base headquarters was formed on the 16 June 1950. No.1 Squadron, Equipment Holding Unit and Air headquarters - Burma Air Force, and the Flying Training School, were placed under the base. A few months later, on 18 December 1950, No. 2 Squadron was formed with nine Dakotas as transport squadron. In 1953, the Advanced Flying Unit with De Havilland Vampire Mark T55s was formed under the Mingaladon Air Base and by the end of 1953, The Burmese Air Force has 3 Airbase headquarters (Mingaladon, Hmawbi and Meiktila). In late 1955, The Burmese Air Force formed a Maintenance Air Base in Mingaladon, No. 501 Suadrop Group (Hmawbi Airbase) and No. 502 Squadron Group (Mingaladon Air Base). Five years later, No. 503 Squadron Group was formed with No. 51 Squadron (de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otters and Cessnas) and No. 53 Squadron (Bell 47Gs/Huskys and Alouettes) in Meiktila. In 1962, The Burmese Air Force opened a radar station in Mingaladon and a mobile radar station in Lwemwe (near Tachileik). In December 1964, The Burmese Air Force had 323 officers and 5677 other ranks and it acquired T-33 Shooting Star Jet trainers and a new radar station, which could operate within a 120-mile radius was opened in Namsang. In 1966, new radar stations were opened and existing stations were upgraded. The Namsang Radar station was upgraded to cover about a 200-mile radius and renamed to No.71 Squadron. In the same year The Burmese Air Force formed No. 1 Airborne Battalion with 26 officers and 750 other rank..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 08 October 2007


    Individual Documents

    Title: Reaching for the Sky
    Date of publication: August 2009
    Description/subject: "The Tatmadaw lacks trained pilots and air-to-air combat experience, but its goal is to launch a modern air force Burma's military leaders want to have parity, if not air superiority, over neighboring countries, but it is still very much a dream. Regional defense analysts believe Burma has bought more than 100 jet fighters and aircraft from China since 1990. The Air Force currently has around 200 aircraft..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2009


    Title: Indochina Database - Burma/Myanmar, 1948-1999
    Date of publication: 13 November 2003
    Description/subject: Shortly after the Burman Union became independent, on 4 January 1948 - parallel to India and Pakistan - a civil war between the communists and the conservative government broke out in the country. This conflict could not even properly develop when in August of the same year also the powerful Karen tribe revolted against the federal government, initiating another civil war that was to last for the following 50 years. Finally, only a year later also the civil war in China reached its high point, with a large number of Chinese nationalists fleeing over the border into Burma. As if all of this would not be sufficient, the Americans started to mix in the situation and the CIA started to organize both, an anti-Communist opposition in Burma and the Chinese Nationalists. With the help of the American secret service from former members of the nationalist Kuomintang Party (KMT) the National Salvation Army (NSA) was created and became active in the north of the Burmese Union. The units of the NSA were regularly supplied a fleet of un-marked C-46 transports belonging to the CIA front companies, foremost the �Civil Air Transport� (CAT) operating from Formosa and Thailand.
    Author/creator: Tom Cooper
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ACIG
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 December 2010


    Title: Myanmar Air Force Aircraft Types
    Description/subject: The purpose of this document is to provide information on all the aircraft that have been operated by the Union of Burma Air Force/Tamdaw Lay since its establishment in 1947/1948 until the present day. Any errors and omissions is the sole responsibility of the author.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Aeroflight
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 December 2010


  • Army

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Commanders of Myanmar Regional Military Commands
    Date of publication: 26 February 2012
    Description/subject: Not all that much information, but it's a start on this important part of the Burma Army
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
    Format/size: pdf (51K)
    Date of entry/update: 26 February 2012


    Title: Myanmar Army Commanders of Regional Military Commands
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 February 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: Military expansion and exploitation in Nyaunglebin District
    Date of publication: 05 August 2008
    Description/subject: "With the SPDC Army's continued expansion in Nyaunglebin District, local villagers not under military control have had to once again flee into the surrounding forest while troops have forcibly interned other villagers in military-controlled relocation sites. These relocation sites, typically in the plains of western Nyaunglebin, alongside army camps or SPDC-controlled vehicle roads, serve as containment centres from which army personnel appropriate labour, money, food and supplies to support the military's ongoing expansion in the region. Extortion by military officers operating in Nyaunglebin District has included forced 'donations' allegedly collected for distribution to survivors of Cyclone Nargis in the Irrawaddy Delta. This field report looks at the situation in Nyaunglebin up to the end of May 2008..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2008-F10)
    Format/size: pdf (697 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08f10.html
    Date of entry/update: 01 November 2009


    Title: Burma Army
    Date of publication: 15 July 2007
    Description/subject: Die Armee der SPDC Militärdiktatur ist mittlerweile auf eine Truppenstärke von 500.000 Soldaten angewachsen und jetzt selbst nur noch durch ein System der Angst zu kontrollieren. Fast jeder hat einen Vorgesetzten und die Exekution ist nur einen Schuß entfernt. Der militärische Geheimdienst ist überall und selbst die höheren Ränge werden oft ‘Reinigungen’ nach sowietischem Vorbild unterzogen. Karen; Flüchtlinge; Burma Army; Refugees
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Burma Riders
    Date of entry/update: 21 August 2007


    Title: "MY GUN WAS AS TALL AS ME" - Child Soldiers in Burma
    Date of publication: 16 October 2002
    Description/subject: "Burma is believed to have more child soldiers than any other country in the world. The overwhelming majority of Burma's child soldiers are found in Burma's national army, the Tatmadaw Kyi, which forcibly recruits children as young as eleven. These children are subject to beatings and systematic humiliation during training. Once deployed, they must engage in combat, participate in human rights abuses against civilians, and are frequently beaten and abused by their commanders and cheated of their wages. Refused contact with their families and facing severe reprisals if they try to escape, these children endure a harsh and isolated existence. Children are also present in Burma's myriad opposition groups, although in far smaller numbers. Some children join opposition groups to avenge past abuses by Burmese forces against members of their families or community, while others are forcibly conscripted. Many participate in armed conflict, sometimes with little or no training, and after years of being a soldier are unable to envision a future for themselves apart from military service. Burma's military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), claims that all of its soldiers are volunteers, and that the minimum recruitment age is eighteen.4 However, testimonies of former soldiers interviewed for this report suggest that the vast majority of new recruits are forcibly conscripted, and that 35 to 45 percent may be children. Although there is no way to establish precise figures, data taken from the observations of former child soldiers who have served in diverse parts of Burma suggests that 70,000 or more of the Burma army's estimated 350,000 soldiers may be children..."
    Author/creator: Kevin Heppner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html (in sections); pdf (570K) 214 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/reports/2002/burma/Burma0902.pdf
    http://www.hrw.org/press/2002/10/burma-1016.htm (press release and other links)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Better the Devil You Don't Know
    Date of publication: July 1999
    Description/subject: "A steady trickle of defectors from the Burmese army continues to flow into neighboring countries. Their numbers are small because the penalty for trying to escape from the frontline is execution..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7, No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Slaughter of the Innocent Soldiers
    Date of publication: September 1997
    Description/subject: Recruitment • Roles And Duties • Treatment and experiences. They are about 13 or 15 years old, wear army uniforms and carry war weapons. By all other measures they are still children, but it is not war games they play. Burmese history is full of stories of different kings at war with each other and the modern period since 1948 -- when the British surrendered their colonial rule -- has been little different. Almost from the day the British lowered the Union Jack, Burma has been home to a continuous civil war described by some observers as one of the most complicated conflicts in the world.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Testimony of SLORC Army Defectors
    Date of publication: 07 August 1994
    Description/subject: "TOPIC SUMYARY:SLORC recruiting methods (p.2,5,7,8,10111), drafting old men and teenagers (p.2,6,7,8,10), abuse during military training (p.3,6,8), theft of food, medicines & salary by officers (p.3,6,9,11), censorship of letters (p.4,6-7,8), beating/torture of soldiers (p.3,6,8,9,10), officers ordering their own wounded shot (p.4,6,10), execution Karen POWs (p.4), execution, enslavement and abuse of villagers (p.4-5,7,9,10,11,), using porters in battle (p.4), situation inside Burma (p.5,7,9,10)..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Comments by SLORC Army Defectors
    Date of publication: 20 June 1994
    Description/subject: "The following comments were made recently in independent interviews with defectors from the SLORC Army in Mergui/Tavoy District, in the Tenasserim Division of southern Burma. Some of them defected earlier this year, while others defected over a year ago. However, all of their comments still apply because as the SLORC Army continues to rapidly expand, conditions continue to deteriorate for both civilians and rank-and-file soldiers. In fact, as the comments of these former soldiers make clear, it seems that only the senior officers are deriving any benefit at all from the systematic oppression of the civilian population. The monthly salary before deductions of a private soldier, 450 Kyat, is not even enough to buy milled rice for two people for a month at current prices - not to mention that people also need other food to eat with their rice. Meanwhile, inflation continues to rage throughout the country as the Kyat becomes increasingly worthless..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Myanmar Army (Wikipedia)
    Description/subject: "The Myanmar Army (Burmese: တပ်မတော်(ကြည်း)), pronounced [taʔmədɔ̀ tɕí]) is the land component of the Military of Myanmar. The Myanmar Army is the largest branch of the Armed Forces of Myanmar and has the primary responsibility of conducting land-based military operations. The Myanmar Army maintains the second largest active force in Southeast Asia after Vietnam's Vietnam People's Army. The Myanmar Army has a troop strength around 492,000. The army has extensive combat experience in fighting insurgents in rough terrains, considering it has been conducting non-stop counter-insurgency operations against ethnic and political insurgents since its inception in 1948..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: pdf (58K), html
    Date of entry/update: 26 February 2012


  • Navy

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Myanmar Navy
    Description/subject: "The Myanmar Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of Myanmar with 16,000 men and women. The Myanmar Navy currently operates more than 122 vessels. Before 1988, the Myanmar Navy was small and its role in the many counterinsurgency operations against insurgents was much less conspicuous than those of the army and air force. Yet the navy has always been, and remains, an important factor in Myanmar's security and it was dramatically expanded in recent years to a provide blue water capability and external threat defence role in Myanmar's territorial waters..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 08 October 2007


    Individual Documents

    Title: Myanmar, North Korea stay brothers in arms
    Date of publication: 05 September 2013
    Description/subject: "If a press statement from the US Department of Defense is to be believed, President Barack Obama is quite pleased with the reform process underway in Myanmar, especially recent progress ''that's been made on human rights''. The message was conveyed by US Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel in late August when he met with his counterparts from the 10 member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in Brunei, including Lieutenant-General Wai Lwin, the current defense minister of Myanmar, a former pariah state turned darling of the West. But there was an important caveat in Hagel's statement that indicated Washington's main concern in Myanmar is not democracy and human rights. Rather, he stressed ''it's important that Myanmar sever ties with North Korea''. Evidently Myanmar has not rolled back relations with Pyongyang despite persistent pressure from Washington, including during then secretary of state Hillary Clinton's historic visit to Myanmar in December 2011, and believed behind-the-scenes prodding from Japan and South Korea..."
    Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 May 2014


    Title: Full Steam Ahead
    Date of publication: August 2009
    Description/subject: Burma plans to expand its "Blue Water" fleet..."Burma's naval officers are not trusted in the armed forces. They are considered to be liberal and more educated than army officers. During the 1988 uprising, several navy officers joined the student protesters. Burma's naval officers are also often outspoken in complaining about the comparatively low share of the military budget allotted to the maritime force and the modest size of the fleet. However, this may change. Since early 1990, Burma has bought 10 Hainan-class sub-chasers and six Houxian-class missile escorts from China. The missile escorts are armed with four surface-to-surface missiles. With Chinese help, Burma has also built fast patrol craft and two corvettes. In the past, Burma bought ships and patrol craft from the US, UK, Australia, Denmark, Japan and Singapore. According to a leading Burmese researcher on defense matters, Maung Aung Myoe, Burma plans to build a frigate, and to this end has begun upgrading its ship-building facilities at the naval dockyard. In the 1990s, the regime planned to purchase Chinese frigates to help curtail incursions in Burmese waters by fishing vessels from neighboring countries, but at the time the regime could not afford to buy them even at "friendship prices." The junta is also acquiring technical know-how on the construction and repair of the Burmese fleet's warships, and some unconfirmed reports suggest that North Korea has proposed to sell Burma a small submarine. It is not known, however, whether Burma plans to acquire submarines in the near future..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2009


    Title: Trends in Naval Power in South Asia and the Indian Ocean
    Date of publication: January 1996
    Description/subject: During the past year (1995), there was no change in the order of naval forces in South Asia and the Indian Ocean, in terms of the strengths of their principal combatants (Table I). Amongst the twelve indigenous navies of the region possessing major surface and sub-surface combatants, India continued to remain the largest, followed by Pakistan, Australia, Indonesia, Iran, and Thailand. In view of the number and nature of major warships planned to be acquired in the near future by countries such as Australia, Thailand, and Singapore, the position of naval forces is expected to change next year.
    Author/creator: Rahul Ray-Choudhury
    Source/publisher: Security & Political Risk Analysis (SAPRA) India think tank
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Police

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Myanmar Police Force
    Description/subject: "[The] Myanmar Police Force, formally known as The People's Police Force, was established in 1964 as independent department under Ministry of Home Affairs. It was reorganised on 1 October 1995 and informally become part of Tatmadaw. Current Director General of Myanmar Police Force is Brigadier General Khin Yi with its headquarters at Yangon. Its command structure is based on established civil jurisdictions. Each of Myanmar's seven states and seven divisions has their own Police Forces with headquarters in the respective capital cities..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 08 October 2007


    Individual Documents

    Title: Burma's cheap muscle
    Date of publication: 13 March 2009
    Description/subject: "Police stations around Burma have a sign at their gates saying, “May I help you”, but for most citizens the hope is not so much for the police to help them as to do them no harm. That the police force in Burma today is both abusive and corrupt is unsurprising given its history and role as an auxiliary agency serving the interests of a parade of military leaders. Nor is it remarkable among countries in Asia, where police in many parts are both feared and despised, or among former British colonies in Africa, like Nigeria and Ghana. But what stands out is the extent to which abusive and corrupt policing has been openly and officially discussed for so long with so little discernible improvement..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 November 2010


  • Command, Control & Comms (3C)

    Individual Documents

    Title: Burma/Cyberwar
    Date of publication: 14 August 1998
    Description/subject: As a result of the internet -- and especially the worldwide web -- awareness of the political and human rights situation in Burma has increased. Aung Hla (pron: oung lah) of v-o-a's Burmese service reports the Burmese military is reported to have established a special electronic warfare center to counter the success democratic groups have had in spreading their information on the internet.
    Author/creator: Aung Hla, Washington
    Source/publisher: Voice of America
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Intelligence Stations at [Burma] Embassies
    Date of publication: 30 July 1998
    Description/subject: Burma is operating a major signals intelligence station at its embassy in Bangkok and has similar capabilities in Bangladesh and at least one other overseas diplomatic mission, Jane's Defence Weekly reported yesterday.
    Source/publisher: The Bangkok Post
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: China-Burma-India Intelligence
    Date of publication: 21 May 1998
    Description/subject: Indian defense analysts say China is developing a presence on islands off Burma for access to the Indian ocean and what will be a vital trade route in the 21st century. New Delhi correspondent Douglas Bakshian talks with Indian defense experts about the matter.
    Author/creator: Douglas Bakshian
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Voice of America
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Coco Islands
    Description/subject: Chinese Intelligence Agencies
    Source/publisher: Federation of American Scientists
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Sittwe
    Description/subject: Chinese Intelligence Agencies
    Source/publisher: Federation of American Scientists
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Deployment of Tatmadaw in border areas

    Individual Documents

    Title: Pa'an Situation Update: April 2011
    Date of publication: 21 September 2011
    Description/subject: "This report contains a situation update submitted to KHRG in April 2011 and written by a villager describing events occurring in Lu Pleh and Dta Greh townships in Pa'an District between February and April 2011. It contains information on incidents of forced labour by the Tatmadaw, including the use of villagers to build huts, deliver palm leaves for thatching buildings and provide unpaid forced labour during gold-mining and logging operations. It also documents the forced relocation of villagers from upland areas, and relates an incident in which a Tatmadaw deserter, who was later summarily executed by Tatmadaw troops, shot and injured a 53-year-old woman in Tantabin Township, Toungoo District. In response to human rights and related humanitarian concerns, including access to health care, the researcher reported that villagers travel covertly to seek medical care from cross-border groups, sell betel leaves to supplement incomes and laminate currency in plastic to prevent it from becoming damaged. This situation report also contains updated information on military activity in Pa'an District, specifically the defection of Tatmadaw Border Guard soldiers in February 2011 to a breakaway faction of the DKBA that had previously refused to transform into Border Guard battalions, and to the KNLA."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (763K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b31.html
    Date of entry/update: 01 February 2012


    Title: Papun Situation Update: Dweh Loh Township, May 2011
    Date of publication: 02 September 2011
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in May 2011 by a villager describing events occurring in Dweh Loh Township, Papun District between January and April 2011. It contains information concerning military activities in 2011, specifically resupply operations by Border Guard and Tatmadaw troops and the reinforcement of Border Guard troops at Manerplaw. It documents twelve incidents of forced portering of military rations in Wa Muh and K'Hter Htee village tracts, including one incident during which villagers used to porter rations were ordered to sweep for landmines, as well as the forced production and delivery of a total of 44,500 thatch shingles by civilians. In response to these abuses, male villagers remove themselves from areas in which troops are conducting resupply operations, in order to avoid arrest and forced portering. This report additionally registers villagers' serious concerns regarding the planting of landmines by non-state armed groups in agricultural workplaces and the proposed development of a new dam on the Bilin River at Hsar Htaw. It includes an overview of gold-mining operations by private companies and non-state armed groups along three rivers in Dweh Loh Township, and documents abuses related to extractive industry, specifically forced relocation and land confiscation."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (628K - OBL version; 1.1MB - original), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b26.html
    http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b26.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 01 February 2012


  • Staff and command positions

    Individual Documents

    Title: Is Burma looking for a new Army Chief?
    Date of publication: January 2007
    Description/subject: "The “dark horse” advance in recent years of Burma’s Gen Thura Shwe Mann has fed rumors that he has been groomed to become the country’s next armed forces commander-in-chief, o­ne of the posts currently held by junta chief Snr-Gen Than Shwe..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 July 2008


  • Child soldiers
    See the Child Soldiers section under Internal Armed Conflict

  • History of the Tatmadaw

    Individual Documents

    Title: Heroes and Villains
    Date of publication: March 2007
    Description/subject: "When the soldiers of the Burma Independence Army, led by the Thirty Comrades, infiltrated Burma from neighboring Thailand in a brave action to oust the British, the modern history of the Burmese armed forces was born. The fragile, inexperienced and ill-equipped army had faced many ups and downs in Burma’s often turbulent political history. A year before independence in 1948, Aung San, the founder of the BIA and Burma’s independence hero, was gunned down by rivals, aided by British army officers. The country descended into turmoil and civil war. The legendary Thirty Comrades were also divided, dominated by two political factions. Gen Ne Win led and united the army, while his comrades went into hiding in the jungle, joining “multi-color insurgent groups” aiming to topple the government. Ne Win, also a prominent member of the Thirty Comrades, o­nce proudly said that the Burmese army was founded by farmers, workers and other people of Burma, not by mercenaries. But he later fell victim of his own words, when he quelled street protests and dissent in the country by ordering troops to shoot and kill just to prolong his rule. So it’s no surprise to hear Burmese people saying that the armed forces were Ne Win’s pocket army. When the country was rocked by nationwide protests in 1988, Ne Win warned the nation in a state television address: “If in future there are mob disturbances, if the army shoots, it hits—there is no firing into the air to scare.” Historians note that Ne Win and Aung San had entirely different views o­n the army, with the latter wanting to steer it away from politics. Thus, throughout the history of the army, we have learned that things are not black and white. There are military leaders who adhered to the wishes of the people and sided with them. Burmese will definitely remember and admire them. In this issue, we have singled out a number of the country’s fine, professional soldiers who were admired by the people. There are many more unnamed and unknown heroes who sacrificed themselves for the country and its people—too many for us to name all. We have also chosen some military leaders who have stubbornly stuck to their guns, driving the country into limbo. They definitely fall into the category of the villainous. However, all in all, we hope you will enjoy this special feature, marking the 62nd anniversary of Burma’s Resistance Day, now officially called Armed Forces Day..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 May 2008


    Title: Rangoon’s Deserted Museums
    Date of publication: July 2005
    Description/subject: Where guards shadow visitors and tout for tips... "... The Defense Services Museum on Shwedagon Pyay road is one of several in Rangoon displaying exhibits that range from the bizarre to the outrageous. The gloomy Soviet-style structure stands out from the old colonial buildings surrounding it not least because of the armed guards at the front. Welcoming visitors from the high wall of the entrance hall are portraits of Burma’s generals, organized in a tree graph with Snr-Gen Than Shwe suitably at the top. Beyond the grand but musty entrance hall is a series of cavernous rooms housing exhibits ranging from armored cars and heavy artillery to photos of bridges and Burmese gas and oil plants
    Author/creator: Toby Hudson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


    Title: An Enduring Legacy Written in Blood
    Date of publication: March 2005
    Description/subject: "Burma’s Armed Forces Day now has a new meaning, different from that envisaged by founding father Aung San and his comrades who took an oath in blood in 1941 It was a crucial meeting. Young Burmese men were on a high as they talked enthusiastically about freeing their homeland from its colonial yoke. They all drew blood from their arms and drank it in an oath of loyalty... This is not fiction, but an historic milestone in Burma’s modern political history...Burma’s armed forces now claim that they remain “the only institution that has discipline, loyalty, unity and deep commitment to protect the sovereignty and independence of the country.” Founding father Aung San would have rejected such a view. Today’s military leaders appear intent on maintaining their grip on the country, while paying lip-service to democratic reform in the future. Aung San wanted the armed forces to be an honorable institution, incorrupt, driven by self-sacrifice and self-discipline dedicated to serving the country. Many ordinary Burmese remember the founding father’s words: “There are others who are not soldiers who have suffered and made all kinds of sacrifices for their country. You must change this notion that only the soldiers matter..."
    Author/creator: Yeni
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 August 2005


  • Political role of the Tatmadaw

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: New roles and relations for Myanmar's military
    Date of publication: 06 June 2014
    Description/subject: "Speaking Freely is an Asia Times Online feature that allows guest writers to have their say. Please click here if you are interested in contributing. There remains widespread skepticism that reforms underway in Myanmar, despite their expediency and comprehensiveness, are simply cosmetic, civilian window dressing masking the institutionalization of military rule in its latest incarnation. Given the longevity and durability of the generals' hold on power in various regime types, this is not an unjustified perspective. Indeed, the military, or Tatmadaw, remains the most powerful actor in the political system but its role has changed significantly. The military has changed from being a hegemonic player, previously in exclusive control of all levers of state power, to being a veto player, retrenching from the day-to-day administration of the country but with the power to ensure that - regardless of other changes to the state and society - the military's core interests remain preserved. These interests include maintaining its status as an autonomous entity beyond civilian oversight, exclusive purview over security portfolios, immunity for former and current military members for past deeds, and, most importantly, a veto via parliamentary representation over any proposed constitutional amendments. The national security narrative, entrenched in the 2008 constitution as safeguarding the territorial integrity and sovereignty of the state, is the major declaratory rationale of the Tatmadaw historic control over the political apparatus. In this vein, the Tatmadaw portrays itself as the only institution capable of fending off international intrusions and preventing internal collapse. Significant changes in the military's relations with civilian opposition parties, ethnic groups and foreign actors, however, are transforming these previously demonized and persecuted entities into partners within new pathways and processes. Even though mistrust and weariness still exist, the future trajectory of these relations will be crucial in the way Myanmar's political transition evolves..."
    Author/creator: Adam P MacDonald
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 July 2014


    Title: Military can still be good state-builders for Myanmar
    Date of publication: 15 October 2013
    Description/subject: "Since 1988, worldwide public opinion has been firmly against Myanmar’s Armed Forces, the Tatmadaw. The Tatmadaw have been pressed to let civil society take control of the country’s administration. Nobody would claim that the ‘Burmese Way to Socialism’ was a success, not even the military officials wanted to be linked to the old government’s policies in the nineties. Likewise, most ex-military holding posts in the current quasi-civilian state don’t want to be linked to the former regime. Acknowledging these views, I argue the military might be and should be of great importance to policy making in Myanmar. Nowadays the Tatmadaw is adjusting itself to protect the country against excessive dependence, or even domination, by foreign powers’ interests and agendas. This could be achieved through national reconciliation, with both civilian and military groups acknowledging each other’s role and making policies together. Also, the country needs to prepare for undesirable but possible outcomes of the liberalization, such as financial instability and lack of competitiveness. For all these challenges, the military can still be important as ‘guardians’ of stability in Myanmar. Attempting to avoid and alienate the Tatmadaw from government would only bring back the politicization that plagued the institution for many decades. Given the abrupt socio-economic changes that are being experienced, the political elites should stay together to repel political turmoil and religious fundamentalism (e.g. the 969 movement)..."
    Author/creator: Erik H. Ribeiro
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 15 July 2014


    Individual Documents

    Title: Return of the Myanmar Military?
    Date of publication: 17 November 2014
    Description/subject: "...In the initial phase of liberalization, the military tended to follow Mr. Thein Sein’s reform initiatives. The generals rarely defied the political agenda of the president, himself a career army bureaucrat, except to defend their economic and tactical interests. But according to several senior aides to Mr. Thein Sein, relations between the president and the commander in chief, Senior Gen. Min Aung Hlaing, are increasingly out of sync. Several sources close to both men told me that General Min Aung Hlaing’s tougher tactics of late were reminiscent of the style of Senior Gen. Than Shwe, Myanmar’s military leader from 1992 to 2011, suggesting that General Than Shwe may still be pulling the strings behind the scenes. Lately, the military leadership has called for expanding the role of the National Defense and Security Council, a military-dominated 11-member body that holds wide-ranging powers, including the right to take over from the civilian government in a state of emergency. During the parliamentary debates last week, military representatives argued that the N.D.S.C. should be able to dissolve Parliament if one-third of the seats become vacant..."
    Author/creator: Min Zin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New York Times"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 November 2014


    Title: Myanmar - Von der Kolonie zum Armenhaus
    Date of publication: 07 September 2007
    Description/subject: Die knapp 60 Jahre mit ständigem Wechsel von bewaffneten Konflikten, BürgerInnenkriegen und "sozialistischer" Militärdiktatur sind der Grund für die heutige Lage eines der ärmsten Länder der Welt. Der Artikel schildert die ethnischen KOnflikte, den Terror des Militärs und die Lage der Menschenrechte in Myanmar; Ethnic minorities; terror; human rights; education; Karen;
    Author/creator: Sebastian Nagel
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Grüne Jugend
    Format/size: Html (47kb)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.gruene-jugend.de/show/382223.html
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: An Assured Political Future
    Date of publication: March 2006
    Description/subject: Under the guise of national reconciliation, the Tatmadaw tightens its hold on the State... "The National Convention went into recess at a critical phase for the junta at the beginning of February, but most observers suspect they know which way the pendulum will swing once the constitution-drafting body reconvenes later this year. After 13 years of stop-start deliberation, delegates are on the brink of finalizing exactly what role the Tatmadaw (armed forces) will play in Burma's future. Unsurprisingly, the military's prospects look very good. One of their objectives is to have the armed forces play a leading role in politics. The National Convention Convening Committee's Secretary-1 Lt-Gen Thein Sein—has proposed 14 principles concerning the role of the Army which look certain to be approved in the next session..."
    Author/creator: Clive Parker
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No3
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=5536
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


    Title: Cabinet of Burma
    Date of publication: July 2005
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Research Pages
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma's Military Politics
    Date of publication: December 1997
    Description/subject: "Burma's ruling military junta caught everyone by surprise when the ruling generals declared the SLORC dissolved and announced the formation of a new junta under the name of the SPDC. The 19-member SPDC consists of four generals who held top positions in SLORC and a host of new generals. They include the heads of the navy and air force and, most crucially, the commanders of military zones (sit taing). There was also a cabinet reshuffle and the formation of a "new" 39-member cabinet, and a 14-member Advisory Council..."
    Author/creator: By Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No.7
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/archives.php
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • The Tatmadaw's view of the world

    Individual Documents

    Title: Burma's continuing fear of invasion
    Date of publication: 28 May 2008
    Description/subject: Even before 1988, when the armed forces crushed a massive pro-democracy uprising and took back direct political power, Burma’s military government feared an invasion of the country. In those days, the greatest danger was seen to emanate from China, but over the past 20 years the US and EU have been viewed as Burma’s greatest military threat. Even the UN is distrusted.
    Author/creator: Andrew Selth
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Interpreter" - weblog of the Lowy Institute for International Policy
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 05 March 2009