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Drugs and Burma: general links, reports and articles

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: "BurmaNet News" Drugs archive
Description/subject: Up to October 2016
Language: English
Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 April 2012


Title: *Youtube search for Burma OR Myanmar - drugs* (video)
Description/subject: About 32,000 results
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Various sources via Youtube
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2017


Title: Drug Policy in Myanmar
Description/subject: Various documents on drugs and Burma, the region, global
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://www.tni.org/en/search?f[0]=dossiers%3A22267
Date of entry/update: 26 September 2015


Title: Shan Herald Agency for News (S.H.A.N.) drug pages
Description/subject: Drug-related articles from 1985
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shan Herald Agency for News (S.H.A.N.)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 September 2015


Title: Transnational Institute: Drugs and Democracy - Related websites and documents
Description/subject: Useful set of links on drugs - global, regional and Burma
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2009


Individual Documents

Title: Addressing drug problems in Myanmar: 5 key interventions that can make a difference (English, Burmese မန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 08 February 2017
Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "Myanmar’s drug policies are out-dated and inadequate to respond to the great challenges posed by problematic drug use and production in the country. The 1993 Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Law has failed to eliminate - or even reduce - drug use, trafficking and production. Worse, the implementation of harsh policies and penalties has caused immense additional harm to Myanmar people and communities. Thousands of people have been unnecessarily exposed to the risk of infectious diseases and premature death as a direct result of those policies. Myanmar prisons are filled with drug users serving long-term sentences for mostly non-violent small drug offenses, while major traffickers are left undisturbed. Entire villages of impoverished poppy farmers have been targeted by forced eradication campaigns and pushed further into poverty, without any viable livelihoods alternatives to survive and pay for healthcare and education of their children. Fortunately, successful interventions have also been conducted in the country. HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs started to decline following the implementation of health and harm reduction services for drug users. The lives of thousands of drug users and their families have hugely improved, thanks to the benefits of methadone programmes initiated by Myanmar Ministry of Health and Sports. Several isolated communities from Eastern Shan State that were included in alternative development programmes voluntarily abandoned opium cultivation and successfully transitioned towards licit livelihoods strategies. These domestic experiences add up to a growing body of evidence from all around the world, which indicate that policies grounded in public health, human rights and development, can yield an impressively wide range of benefits. Indeed, such policies not only improve people’s health and support livelihoods, they also lower levels of drug related crime and corruption, reduce violence, conflict, and pressure on the criminal justice system, and ultimately result in greater social cohesion. Existing good practices are no doubt positive steps but are yet to be implemented at scale. Overall, the lack of adequate response by previous Governments has led to great frustration among affected communities and the Myanmar population at large, as drug related problems have continued to mount and have become a key national concern. Time has come to learn from such failures, embrace a different approach and adopt policies that are based on public health, community safety, human rights and development. Only such policies will deliver on the promise to improve people’s lives; only such policies will truly allow Myanmar to reduce the harm caused by problematic drug use, trafficking and production."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute/Drug Policy Advocacy Group Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (English 1.1MB-reduced version; 6.1MB-original... Burmese: 2.7MB-reduced version)
Alternate URLs: https://www.tni.org/files/publication-downloads/drug_problem_in_myamar_final_feb8_english.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs23/tni-2017-02-12-drug_problem_in_myanmar-bu-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 March 2017


Title: People’s War on Drugs in Kachin State: Indication of Failed Policies (English, Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 16 March 2016
Description/subject: "Communities in the Kachin State have launched a ‘people’s war on drugs’. Known as Pat Jasan (‘Prohibit Clear’), a new organisation was formed two years ago to combat the worsening drug problem among the local population. The self-appointed committee decided to take law enforcement into their own hands as they feel the government is not doing enough to stop the flow of harmful drugs into their communities. The Pat Jasan vigilantes, often dressed in military-style uniforms and armed with stick and batons, have arrested and beaten drug users and put them into forced treatment camps, and they have sent teams into opium-growing areas to eradicate poppy fields. The Pat Jasan has been praised by some Kachin activists for finally addressing drug problems, but criticized by others for violating human rights and not providing any services to marginalized communities, including drug users and poppy farmers. Most recently, their poppy eradication efforts led to open conflict with opium farmers and local militia groups. The creation of Pat Jasan and its war on drugs have brought to light a number of key drug-related problems facing not only the Kachin State but also the rest of the country..."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
Format/size: html (32K-en; 62K-bu)
Alternate URLs: https://www.tni.org/en/article/peoples-war-on-drugs-in-kachin-state-indication-of-failed-policies?c...
Date of entry/update: 15 April 2016


Title: We Are Not Rebels… We Fight for Democracy: Ta’ang (TNLA) Soldiers
Date of publication: 13 July 2015
Description/subject: "Ta’ang National Liberation Army (TNLA), the armed wing of Palaung State Liberation Front (PSLF), is one of the ethnic resistance armed organisations that vows not to lay down arms until there is a guarantee of political negotiations. Burma Link spoke with two TNLA soldiers, Mai and Mai Main, who were sent by their leaders to study human rights and politics in Mae Sot, so that they could go back to Ta’ang land and educate other soldiers. These two soldiers studied in Mae Sot for a year, and believed it is their responsibility to go back to Burma to educate others and safeguard their people’s rights. In this interview, they share their story on how and why they became involved with the TNLA and why the Ta’ang people so strongly support their army. Mai and Mai Main, aged 23 and 26, are now back in the battle fields of northern Shan State." ..."END NOTE: Although TNLA is a member of the ethnic alliance United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC), the government has tried to exclude the group from the Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA) talks. TNLA is an ally of the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), and fights alongside the Arakan Army (AA) and the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (MNDAA) in northern Shan State, to obtain freedom and to establish a genuine federal union. TNLA also fights to eliminate cultivation, production, sale and use of drugs in their traditional lands. Read more."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Link
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 17 March 2016


Title: “The Current State of Counternarcotics Policy and Drug Reform Debates in Myanmar”,
Date of publication: May 2015
Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:- Key Findings: "• Myanmar is the world’s second largest producer of opium after Aghanistan. Following a decade of decline, cultivation has more than doubled since 2006. The production and use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) is also rising. • Most of the opium is turned into heroin and exported via neighboring countries, especially to China. • Decades of civil war and military rule have stimulated drug production and consumption, and marginalized ethnic communities. • Myanmar has high levels of injecting drug users infected with HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C. • Drug policies in Myanmar are repressive and outdated, with an ineffective focus on arresting drug users and eradicating poppy fields. • The central government is unable to provide quality treatment for drug users. Past political repression and human rights violations by the military government caused an international boycott which prevented international donors from providing assistance. • The reform process by the new quasi-civilian government includes both a peace process to end the civil war and a review of the country’s drug laws, raising hope for more effective and humane drug policies...... Policy Recommendations: • Myanmar’s drug policies should shift focus and prioritize the provision of services for drug users and promote alternative livelihoods for opium growing communities. • Drug-related legislation should decriminalize drug use, reduce sentences for other drug-related offenses, and allow space for needle exchange programs. • The government should expand harm reduction projects and provide voluntary treatment programs for drug users. • The government should formulate a strategic plan to prioritize alternative development programs. Eradication of poppy farms should not take place unless people have sufficient access to alternative livelihoods. As such, China’s opium substitution policy should not continue in its present form. • Affected communities, especially drug users and opium farmers, need to be involved in drug policy making. • More attention should be paid to ATS-related problems, which are largely overlooked by current policies."
Author/creator: Tom Kramer
Language: English
Source/publisher: Foreign Policy at Brookings;Transnational Institute (TNI)
Format/size: pdf (320K-reduced version; 369K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.tni.org/sites/www.tni.org/files/download/drug_law_reform_myanmar_ungass2016.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2015


Title: TOWARDS A HEALTHIER LEGAL ENVIRONMENT - A REVIEW OF MYANMAR’S DRUG LAWS
Date of publication: February 2015
Description/subject: "This report reviews Myanmar’s drug laws and related policies, including the 1917 Burma Excise Act; the 1993 Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Law; and the 1995 Rules relating to Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. Since these laws were enacted several important changes have taken place inside and outside of Myanmar. The decision of the Myanmar Government to review the law is not only timely but also offers a prospect to improve the drugs legislation and to ensure that the laws address drug-related problems in the country more effectively. It is an opportunity to ensure that affected populations have access to health care and development, taking into account both national conditions and international developments and best practices. This review paper will first give an overview of Myanmar’s current legal and policy framework related to drugs, followed by an overall analysis. After that it will make specific comments on a number of key articles. In addition, the review will outline some international obligations and best practices. Finally, the paper will make some overall conclusions and recommendations.."
Author/creator: Martin Jelsma, Ernestien Jensema, Nang Pann Ei Kham, Tom Kramer, Gloria Lai and Tripti Tandon
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
Format/size: pdf (201K-reduced version; 245K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.tni.org/sites/www.tni.org/files/download/towards_a_healthier_legal_environment.pdf
Date of entry/update: 16 February 2015


Title: Bouncing Back - Relapse in the Golden Triangle - တစ္ေက်ာ့ျပန္။ ။ မူလအေျခအေနဆိုးသို႔ ျပန္လည္ဆိုက္ေရာက္လာသည့္ ေရႊႀတိဂံေဒသ
Date of publication: 14 June 2014
Description/subject: စကားခ်ီး။ ။ ဤပံုႏွိပ္ထုတ္ေ၀မႈသည္ TNI ၏ ၂၀၀၉ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ ထုတ္ ေ၀ခဲ့သည့္ ‘ေရႊၾတိဂံနယ္ေျမမွ ေဆးျပတ္စေ၀ဒနာမ်ား၊ ဖရိုဖရဲျဖစ္ေန သည့္ မူးယစ္ေဆး၀ါးေစ်းကြက္’ (Withdrawal Symptoms in the Golden Triangle: A Drugs Market in Disarray) ဟူသည့္ အစီရင္ခံစာ၏ ေနာက္ ဆကတ္ အဲြ က်ဳိးဆက ္တစခ္ ျုဖစသ္ ည။္ ဤအစရီ ငခ္ စံ ာသည ္အေရ႔ ွေတာင္ အာရွမူးယစ္ေဆး၀ါးေစ်းကြက္၏ ေျပာင္းလဲမႈကို ေလ့လာသံုးသပ္၍ အစား ထိုးအေျပာင္းအလဲ ျပဳလုပ္ႏိုင္မည့္ ေရြးခ်ယ္စရာမူ၀ါဒမ်ားကို ေရးဆြဲေဖာ္ ထုတ္ရန္ ႀကိဳးပမ္းခဲ့သည့္ ကနဦးအားထုတ္မႈတစ္ရပ္ျဖစ္သည္။ အစီရင္ခံ စာ၌အေရ႕ွ ေတာင ္ အာရေွ ဒသတစလ္ ာႊ းမ ွ ဘနိ း္အဓကိ စကုိ ပ္ ်ဳိးထတု လ္ ပု ္ လ်က္ရိွသည ့္ ေရၾႊတဂိ ဟံ ု လူသိမ်ားသည့္ ျမန္မာ၊ လာအိုႏွင့္ထိုင္းႏိုင္ငံ တို႔၌ ၁၉၉၈ မွ ၂၀၀၆ ခုနွစ္အတြင္း ဘိန္းစိုက္ပ်ိဳးထုတ္လုပ္မႈ သိသိ သာသာေလ်ာ့က်သြားေစခဲ့သည့္ အဓိကေမာင္းႏွင္အားမ်ားႏွင့္ ေနာက္ ဆက္တြဲသက္ေရာက္မႈမ်ားကို ဆန္းစစ္သံုးသပ္ထားျခင္း ျဖစ္သည္။ ထို႔ျပင္ အိမ္နီးခ်င္းတိုင္းျပည္မ်ားျဖစ္သည့္ အေရွ႕ေျမာက္အိႏိၵယႏွင့္ တရုတ္ႏိုင္ငံ၏ ယူနန္ျပည္နယ္မ်ားရွိ ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးလုပ္ငန္းမ်ား ႏွင့္လည္း ဆက္စပ္လ်က္ရွိသည္။ အစီရင္ခံစာအတြင္း ျမန္မာႏွင့္ လာအို ႏိုင္ငံရွိ ဘိန္းတိုက္ဖ်က္ေရးလုပ္ငန္းမ်ား၏ ေရရွည္တည္တံ့ခိုင္ၿမဲမႈကို ေမးခြန္းထုတ္ခ့ဲၿပီး အျခားေဒသမ်ားသ ႔ုိ ေရ႕ႊ ေျပာငး္ ပ်႕ံ ႏ႕ံွသာြ းခသ့ဲ ည ့္ ဘနိ း္ စိုက္ပ်ိဳးထုတ္လုပ္မႈလမ္းေၾကာင္းမ်ားကို မီးေမာင္းထိုးျပထားသည္။ ‘ေဆးျပတ္စေ၀ဒနာမ်ား’ (Withdrawal Symptoms) ကို ပံုႏွိပ္ ထုတ္ေ၀ခဲ့ခ်ိန္မွစ၍ အေရွ႕ေတာင္အာရွ မူးယစ္ေဆး၀ါးေစ်းကြက္အတြင္း သိသိသာသာ ေျပာင္းလဲမႈမ်ားကို ေတြ႕ရွိလာရသည္။ သိသာထင္ရွားမႈ အရွိဆံုးျဖစ္ရပ္တစ္ခုမွာ တစ္ေက်ာ့ျပန္ ဘိန္းစိုက္ပ်ိဳးထုတ္လုပ္မႈသည္ ၂၀၀၆ ခုႏွစ္ ထုတ္လုပ္မႈပမာဏထက္ ႏွစ္ဆေက်ာ္ ျမင့္မားလာခဲ့ျခင္း ျဖစ္သည္။ ဤသို႔ျမႇင့္တက္လာျခင္းေၾကာင့္ လက္ရွိတည္ဆဲ မူးယစ္ ေဆး၀ါးတားဆီးႏွိမ္ႏွင္းေရး မူ၀ါဒမ်ား၏ ထိေရာက္အက်ိဳးရွိမႈႏွင့္ အာဆီယံအဖြဲ႕၀င္ႏိုင္ငံမ်ား၏ ၂၀၁၅ မူးယစ္ကင္းစင္ေရးေဒသတြင္း ရည္မွန္းခ်က္ပန္းတိုင္ႀကီးကို လက္လွမ္းမီႏိုင္ျခင္းရွိမရွိ ေမးခြန္းထုတ္ စရာျဖစ္လာခ့ဲသည္။ ျခဳံငသုံ းုံသပရ္ မညဆ္ ပုိ ါက ေဒသတငြ း္ ရ ိွ မးူယစ္ ေဆး၀ါးဆုငိ ္ရာ ျပႆနာရပမ္ ်ားအေပၚ ကငုိ တ္ ယြ သ္ ည ့္ မ၀ူ ါဒမ်ားသည္ တားဆီးခ်ဳပ္ခ်ယ္မႈ တင္းက်ပ္လြန္းအားႀကီးသည္။ ယင္းမူ၀ါဒမ်ားသည္ မူးယစ္ေဆး၀ါးထုတ္လုပ္ျခင္း သို႔မဟုတ္ မူးယစ္ေဆး၀ါးသံုးစြဲလ်က္ရွိသည့္ လူအုပ္စုမ်ားအတြက္ ဆိုးရြားျပင္းထန္သည့္ ေနာက္ဆက္တြဲဆိုးက်ိဳးမ်ား သာျဖစ္ေပၚေစခဲ့သည္။ အထူးသျဖင့္ အပယ္ခံ လူ႔အသိုက္အ၀န္းမ်ားႏွင့္ အဆင္းရဲဆံုး ရပ္ရြာလူထုမ်ားအမ်ားဆံုး ထိခိုက္ခံစားၾကရသည္။ ‘တစ္ေက်ာ့ျပန္’ အစီရင္ခံစာသည္ ေဒသတြင္းရွိ မူးယစ္ေဆး၀ါး ထုတ္လုပ္မႈႏွင့္ သံုးစြဲမႈဆိုင္ရာအေျခအေနမ်ား၏ အေၾကာင္းတရား မ်ားႏွင့္ သက္ေရာက္ထိခုိက္မႈမ်ားကို ေလ့လာဆန္းစစ္ထားျခင္းျဖစ္သည္။ ျခငြ း္ ခ်ကမ္ ရိွ တားဆီးပိတ္ပင္ျခင္းႏွင့္ ရက္အကန္႔အသတ္အေပၚအေျခ ခံ၍ စဥ္းစားေတြးေခၚမႈသည္ မူးယစ္ေဆး၀ါးႏွင့္ပတ္သက္သည့္ ျပႆနာ ရပ္မ်ားကို ပိုမိုႀကီးထြားလာေစေၾကာင္း ေ၀ဖန္သံုးသပ္ထားျခင္းျဖစ္သည္။ အစီရင္ခံစာ၌အဆိုျပဳထားသည့္ ေရြးခ်ယ္စရာမူ၀ါဒမ်ားသည္ ႏိုင္ငံတကာ အေလ့အထေကာင္းမ်ား၊ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရးစံ သတ္မွတ္ခ်က္မ်ားႏွင့္ ကိုက္ညီမႈရွိသည့္ အျပင္ကရုဏာတရားႏွင့္ အေထာက္အထားအေပၚ အေျချပဳ၍ ယုတၱိက်က်ျဖင့္ ထိထိေရာက္ေရာက္အေကာင္အထည္ေဖာ္ ႏိုင္သည့္ မူ၀ါဒမ်ားလည္းျဖစ္သည္။
Author/creator: Tom Kramer, Ernestien Jensema, Martin Jelsma, Tom Blickman, Amira Armenta, Sophie Broach
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
Format/size: pdf (7.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 28 December 2015


Title: Bouncing Back - Relapse in the Golden Triangle
Date of publication: 01 June 2014
Description/subject: "TNI's in depth examination of the illegal drug market in the Golden Triangle, which has a witnessed a doubling of opium production, growing prison populations and repression of small-scale farmers. This report details the failure of ASEAN's 'drug free' strategy and the need for a new approach..."The illicit drug market in the Golden Triangle – Burma, Thailand and Laos – and in neighbouring India and China has undergone profound changes. This report documents those changes in great detail, based on information gathered on the ground in difficult circumstances by a group of dedicated local researchers. After a decade of decline, opium cultivation has doubled again and there has also been a rise in the production and consumption of ATS – especially methamphetamines. Drug control agencies are under constant pressure to apply policies based on the unachievable goal to make the region drug free by 2015. This report argues for drug policy changes towards a focus on health, development, peace building and human rights. Reforms to decriminalise the most vulnerable people involved could make the region’s drug policies far more sustainable and cost-effective. Such measures should include abandoning disproportionate criminal sanctions, rescheduling mild substances, prioritising access to essential medicines, shifting resources from law enforcement to social services, alternative development and harm reduction, and providing evidence-based voluntary treatment services for those who need them. The aspiration of a drug free ASEAN in 2015 is not realistic and the policy goals and resources should be redirected towards a harm reduction strategy for managing – instead of eliminating – the illicit drug market in the least harmful way. In view of all the evidence this report presents about the bouncing back of the opium economy and the expanding ATS market, plus all the negative consequences of the repressive drug control approaches applied so far, making any other choice would be irresponsible."
Author/creator: Ernestien Jensema, Martin Jelsma, Tom Blickman, Tom Kramer
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
Format/size: pdf (3.6MB-reduced version; 4.6MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.tni.org/sites/www.tni.org/files/download/tni-2014-bouncingback-web-klein.pdf
http://www.tni.org/pressrelease/opium-cultivation-bounces-back-tni-report-shows-dramatic-failure-as...
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2014


Title: Thai Army Increases Troops by DKBA Border
Date of publication: 04 May 2012
Description/subject: "BURMA Thai Army Increases Troops by DKBA Border By LAWI WENG / THE IRRAWADDY| May 4, 2012 | Hits: 30 Share on facebook Share on twitter Share on email Share on print The Thai Army has increased troop numbers around Mae Sot. (Photo: Reuters) The Thai Army has deployed more troops at border towns around Mae Sot, in northern Thailand’s Tak Province, due to escalating tensions with the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) after a faction leader was accused of being a drug trafficker. Thai Army chief Gen Prayut Chan O Cha told Thai Rath news on May 3 that his soldiers are taking extra care by the frontier and the number of troops in the area has been increased. “We are already there, but the situation is not yet risky,” he said. The move comes after the Thai Office of the Narcotics Control Board (ONCB) placed Saw Lah Pwe, the leader of the Brigade 5 breakaway faction of the DKBA, in the top five of its list of Thailand’s 25 most wanted drug dealers..."
Author/creator: Lawi Weng
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 May 2012


Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2008 - Chapter 5: Production and Trade of Illicit Drugs
Date of publication: 23 November 2009
Description/subject: "...opium has now become an integral factor in the civil conflict and one that threatens to prolong the suffering of those involved in the cultivation of opium poppy...It is not merely the ethnic conflict regions that have suffered from the effects of drug use in Burma however. Rates of drug addiction, though difficult to quantify, appear to be increasing across the country. Two well documented shifts in drug habits also give cause for concern. Firstly, the transition from opium smoking to heroin smoking and finally to heroin injection, which has led in turn to HIV/AIDS rates increasing to match the levels of intravenous drug use...It is not merely the ethnic conflict regions that have suffered from the effects of drug use in Burma however. Rates of drug addiction, though difficult to quantify, appear to be increasing across the country. Two well documented shifts in drug habits also give cause for concern. Firstly, the transition from opium smoking to heroin smoking and finally to heroin injection, which has led in turn to HIV/AIDS rates increasing to match the levels of intravenous drug use human rights abuses have negated a good deal of the positive effects of this reduction. Forced relocation, deprivation of livelihoods and lack of viable alternatives for farmers who were forcibly evicted from their lands have all been the result of a push by the SPDC to make Burma drug free by 2014 (in line with ASEAN’s stated goal of a drug region by 2015). Thus, while the SPDC preens itself over the eradication of opium cultivation, and largely ignores the problems it has caused in the process, the nation has rapidly become addicted to alternative drugs, which pose just as dangerous a threat to Burma and its neighbours as opium ever did. These are factors which have brought the debate surrounding drug production and trafficking in Burma into the realm of human rights and developmental discourse, international relations and conflict resolution..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Docmentation Unit (HRDU)
Format/size: pdf (861K)
Date of entry/update: 05 December 2009


Title: Substance Abuse, Drugs and Addictions: Guidebook
Date of publication: September 2009
Description/subject: "Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. It can also be simply defined as a pattern of harmful use of any substance for mood-altering purposes. Generally, when most people talk about substance abuse, they are referring to the use of illegal drugs. But illegal drugs are not the only substances that can be abused. Alcohol, prescribed medications, inhalants and even coffee and cigarettes, can be used to harmful excess. Substance abuse can lead to dependence syndrome - a cluster of behavioural, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated use including a strong desire to take the drug, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, increased tolerance, and a physical withdrawal state. In this guidebook, based upon the situation in our community, we present the most common substances that are often abused, how they are used, their street names, and their intoxicating and health effects.".....CONTENTS:- Part I: Alcohol... Amphetamine, Yaba, Ecstasy... Benzodiazepines... Betel Nut and Betal Leaf (Kwan-ya)... Cannabis... Cocaine - (Crack)... Codeine... Heroin... Volatile Substance or Inhalants ... Methadone... Opium... Tobacco..... PART II:- General Views of Substance Abuse... Chronic Effects of Alcoholism... Management in Substance Abuse Overdose... Psycho-Counselling for Substance Abuse.
Language: English, Burmese
Source/publisher: Aide Médicale Internationale, UNHCR
Format/size: pdf (13MB - reduced version; 15 MB - original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/DrugGuidebook-LowReso-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 09 September 2009


Title: Withdrawal Symptoms - Changes in the Southeast Asian drugs market
Date of publication: August 2008
Description/subject: The Golden Triangle is closing a dramatic period of opium reduction”, wrote UNODC Executive Director Antonio Maria Costa in his preface to the 2007 survey on Opium Poppy Cultivation in South East Asia. “A decade long process of drug control is clearly paying off.” According to the survey, the region produced one-third of world opium production in 1998, now down to only about 5 percent. The once notorious region “can no longer be called Golden Triangle on the reason of opium production alone.” There has clearly been a significant decline in opium production in Southeast Asia over the past decade in spite of a resurgence in Burma (Myanmar) in the last two years. In this study, we try to assess the causes and consequences, and come to the conclusion that the region is suffering a variety of ‘withdrawal symptoms’, leaving little reason for optimism. The rapid decline has caused major suffering among former poppy growing communities in Burma and Laos, making it difficult to characterise developments as a ‘success story’. Meanwhile, the market of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) has increased rapidly and higher heroin prices are leading to shifts in consumer behaviour. While the total numbers of opium and heroin users may be going down, many have started to inject and others have shifted to a cocktail of pharmaceutical replacements, representing largely unknown health risks. Confronted with harsh domestic repression and little support from the international community, both farmers and users in the region are struggling to find coping strategies to deal with the rapid changes. Drug control officials have presumed that reducing opium production would automatically lead to a reduction in drug consumption and drugrelated problems. The reality in Southeast Asia proves them wrong. Had quality treatment services been in place, more drug users may have chosen that option. In the absence of adequate health care and within a highly repressive law enforcement environment, however, most are forced to find their own ‘solutions’. Harm reduction services are still only accessible to a tiny proportion of those who need them in the region, even though most countries have now adopted the basic principles in their policy framework. China, especially, has started to significantly scale up needle exchange and methadone programmes to prevent a further spreading of blood-borne infections. In 1998, the ASEAN Ministerial Meeting signed the declaration for a Drug-Free ASEAN by 2020 and two years later even decided to bring forward the target year to 2015. Countries elaborated national plans to comply with the deadline putting huge pressure on rural communities to abandon poppy cultivation and traditional opium use and on police to arrest as many users and traders as possible. This also led to the 2003 ‘war on drugs’ in Thailand in which thousands of drug users and small-scale traders were killed. The 2008 status report on progress achieved towards making ASEAN and China drug-free, “identifies an overall rising trend in the abuse of drugs”, however, and acknowledges that “a target of zero drugs for production, trafficking and consumption of illicit drugs in the region by 2015 is obviously unattainable”. This TNI publication makes extensive use of the research carried out by our team of fifteen researchers working in Burma, Thailand, Laos and Yunnan province in China. Hundreds of interviews were conducted with farmers, users and traders. We cannot thank them enough for their motivation and courage. Most prefer to remain anonymous and continue their research to detect new trends and help fill gaps in knowledge that have become apparent while writing this first report. A more detailed publication incorporating their latest findings is due at the end of this year. We intend to discuss our outcomes with authorities, civil society and researchers in the region with a view to contributing to a better understanding of the changes taking place in the regional drugs market and to design more effective and humane drug policy responses for the future.
Author/creator: Tom Kramer, Martin Jelsma
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI) Debate Papers No. 16
Format/size: pdf (688K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.idpc.net/publications/changes-in-southeast-asian-drugs-market
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2010


Title: King of the Highlands
Date of publication: July 2007
Description/subject: Few know where he is, but nobody can forget aging drug lord Khun Sa
Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 7
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


Title: HIV/AIDS and drug use in Burma/Myanmar
Date of publication: May 2006
Description/subject: "...The simultaneous spread of HIV/AIDS and the growing number of injecting drug users is fuelling the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Current pro-grammes reach only a small proportion of IDUs with harm reduction interventions. There are no existing programmes available for IDUs who are sexually active to protect themselves and their sexual partners from HIV. The second major risk group are sex workers. Current programmes reach only a very small number of them, and the number of AIDS deaths among them is estimated to be high. In order to effectively address the spiralling numbers of HIV/AIDS infected drug users, is it extremely important for all stakeholders involved to acknowledge the HIV/AIDS epi-demic and the need for harm reduction poli-cies. It is key for all sides to de-politicise HIV/AIDS. The international community needs to make a firm international commitment to stem and reverse the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Burma. It should ensure sufficient and long-term financial support for HIV/AIDS and harm reduction programmes. The SPDC needs to provide adequate space for humanitarian aid to take place. The new guidelines that have been proposed by the government should be amended to ensure direct and unhindered access for interna-tional aid agencies to local communities. The space for initial harm reduction initiatives is encouraging, but needs to be scaled up in order to be effective. Perhaps the most serious shortcoming how-ever is the fact that local community-based organisations in Burma have not been able to participate in the debate about interna-tional humanitarian aid to Burma. In parti-cular, in the discussions about the funding for programmes on HIV/AIDS, People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), and drug users or the organisations that represent them, have not been consulted or been able to partici-pate in the formulation of polices and deci-sion-making processes that have such tre-mendous impact on their health, livelihoods and lives. The international community should also support and strengthen efforts by drug us-ers and PLWHA to organise themselves. This will enable them to voice their opinion and represent their interests better at the local as well as international level. It will also contribute to civil society building and de-mocratisation in the country."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute/Burma Centre Netherlands
Format/size: pdf (354 KB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.tni.org/sites/www.tni.org/files/download/brief17.pdf
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2010


Title: The Wa Conundrum - review of "Trouble in the Triangle"
Date of publication: November 2005
Description/subject: Research into Burma’s drug situation provokes different views on how to handle main offenders the Wa, who claim they are stopping opium production... "Trouble in the Triangle: Opium and Conflict in Burma, edited by Martin Jelsma, Tom Kramer and Pietje Vervest. Silkworm Books, Chiang Mai; 2005. P231. Despite decades of drug enforcement activities and costly crop substitution programs, the Burmese sector of the infamous Golden Triangle remains one of the world’s foremost sources of illicit drugs. First, it was opium and its derivative heroin; then, in more recent years, synthetic drugs such as methamphetamines and a low-grade type of ecstasy have been flooding local and world markets. Much of this production takes place in northeastern areas controlled by the United Wa State Army, an offshoot of the now defunct insurgent Communist Party of Burma, which made peace with the Rangoon regime in 1989. To discuss the way forward, and alternative policies to those which had failed, the Amsterdam-based Transnational Institute and the Burma Center Netherlands in 2003 jointly started a drugs and conflict project in Burma, and held an international conference to discuss engagement with Burma on drugs policies. This book is a collection of 10 papers which were presented at that conference, but the outcome is a mixed bag of views and assessments..."
Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 11
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


Title: A Pipe Dream?
Date of publication: October 2005
Description/subject: “Every day I pray I could provide morphine to some of my patients so they could at least die in dignity” —a Burmese doctor... Burma could free its seized opium for medicinal use... "It is one of the most baffling ironies in this age of globalization that while developing countries like Burma are being urged to destroy their opium stocks and poppy fields, others in the developed world are being encouraged to produce the drug for use in pharmaceuticals...Yet, doctors in one of the major producing countries—Burma—complain of a critical shortage of drugs for pain relief. In hospitals across the country, terminal cancer and AIDS patients, and also people recovering from surgery, are suffering unnecessary pain. There are even doctors who advise the relatives of AIDS patients who can no longer bear to see family members or friends suffer in their final weeks to buy illegal heroin to alleviate their pain..."
Author/creator: Martin Jelsma (TNI
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 10
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


Title: Drugs Bust Blunder?
Date of publication: May 2005
Description/subject: Arrest of “narcotics informant” raises many questions... "A wealthy 60-year-old Wa businessman who reportedly worked for US and Thai anti-narcotics squads is sitting in a northern Thai remand cell, accused of being heavily involved in drugs trafficking. Maha Seng—scion of a leading family in Shan State, former Wa prince, anti-communist fighter, founder of the Wa National Army and vice chairman of Burma’s National Democratic Front armed ethnic alliance—was arrested in Chiang Mai in early April. Maha Seng’s capture came shortly after an arrest warrant was issued by a provincial court in Mae Hong Son, the mountain resort town close to the Thai-Burma border region where he reportedly had free rein as an operative, providing information to Thai and US anti-drugs agencies. Relatives and associates of Maha Seng are asking themselves why an apparently valuable anti-drugs operative has been removed from the arena at such a critical stage of the fight against drugs-trafficking. Was his cover blown deliberately or accidentally? Was he betrayed? Is he guilty of using his special status to make money from a dirty business he was employed to help destroy?..."
Author/creator: Yeni
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 5
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


Title: Business as Usual
Date of publication: April 2005
Description/subject: Wa drug lords dodge US legal action... "Legal action taken in New York against a suspected Wa drugs lord and seven fugitive members of his gang appears to have done nothing to dent the success of their business ventures in Burma. Wei Hsueh-kang and his comrades control the Hong Pang group of companies, which are involved in jewelry and gems, communications, electrical goods, agriculture, mining, textiles and large construction projects...For decades ethnic suppression, opium wars, narcotics and the Shan separatists and pro-democracy movements have created a complex patchwork of problems, which many believe have only one solution. Khuensai Jaiyen, editor of the Shan Herald News Agency, summed it up: “Without democratic change there is no solution to the drug problem. Democracy, development and an end to the flow of narcotics are all linked.”"
Author/creator: Tom Fawthrop
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 4
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


Title: A Failing Grade - Burma's drug eradication efforts
Date of publication: November 2004
Description/subject: "...Since the assumption of power of the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) in September 1988, Burma has experienced a dramatic rise in the production and export of illegal narcotics. Since 1996, opium and heroin production doubled. In the years since there has been a steady decline in opium production and the export of heroin. Far from being the result of government and international efforts, this has been largely the cause of a production and market shift, from opiates to amphetamine type stimulants (ATS). The drug trade in Burma is conducted predominantly by Chinese criminal organizations, protected at every step by ethnic militia armies with links to transnational criminal networks. They are routinely and systematically assisted by members of the Burmese Army (Tatmadaw) in a network that has no official approval, but which is so widespread and deep as to be systemic and multi-layered, from the troops on the ground to the generals in Rangoon....The SPDC has failed to resolutely interdict the narcotics trade in Burma. Efforts so far to accord with its stated aims and international obligations have been insufficient to increase the current level of United Nations funding, or for the United States Government to certify the regime as cooperating fully on stopping the drug trade. Narcotics eradication efforts cannot be depoliticized or sequestered from the SPDC's wider aims, which includes the pacification of ethnic people. The humanitarian crisis facing opium farming communities in the Shan State must be urgently addressed by the international community. This should entail greater lobbying of the SPDC to slow down their eradication drive and take a more gradual, sustainable approach to eradication. The regime must demonstrate that their war on drugs is one conducted with greater respect for human rights, providing sustainable alternative incomes and more positive development for the communities. Other communities affected by drug eradication projects, such as Shan displaced by UWSA and UNODC sponsored forced relocations should also be recognized and assisted..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Altsean-Burma
Format/size: html, pdf (7.18MB - 250 pages)
Date of entry/update: 14 December 2004


Title: Abusing Aid, Eliminating Trust
Date of publication: February 2004
Description/subject: "Proponents of increased counter-narcotics assistance for Burma should be reminded of how it was misused in the past. As the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, or UNODC, lobbies governments to increase their contributions to opium eradication projects, it is worth looking back on the last major phase of international funding of narcotics suppression, to be reminded of what Burma’s military government did with it. In particular, the misuse of US aid should provide a cautionary tale to any bilateral or multilateral donors..."
Author/creator: David Scott Mathieson
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 2
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 June 2004


Title: Les territoires de l
Date of publication: October 2002
Description/subject: "Quelles réalités économiques, politiques et militaires se cachent derrière les phénomènes de société que sont la production de drogues illicites dans les pays du Sud et leur consommation dans les pays industrialisés? Si l'opium est produit et consommé depuis la plus haute Antiquité, sa production à large échelle en Asie est, quant à elle, étroitement liée à la colonisation britannique d'abord et à la guerre froide par la suite. En effet, après la Deuxième Guerre mondiale, les troupes nationalistes chinoises dans le Triangle d'Or et, plus récemment, les moudjahidins afghans puis les talibans dans le Croissant d'Or, ont eu recours à l'économie de l'opium pour financer leurs guerres, en bénéficiant de l'appui bienveillant de la CIA dans leurs luttes contre le communisme. Aujourd'hui, ces groupes, ayant perdu leurs motivations et apparences idéologiques, ont donné naissance à d'autres groupes, bien organisés et puissamment armés et qui, à travers leur rôle dans l'économie des drogues illicites, demeurent plus actifs que jamais. En Asie, l'opium, du nerf de la guerre en est devenu l'enjeu, avec ses multiples conséquences géopolitiques dans les pays du Sud et ses retombées sociales et économiques dans nos sociétés occidentales. En comparant l'Afghanistan et la Birmanie, à travers les deux espaces majeurs de production d'opium et d'héroïne que sont le Croissant d'Or et le Triangle d'Or, l'auteur a effectué un véritable travail d'investigation et d'analyse pour identifier les acteurs, localiser les réseaux, évaluer les enjeux géopolitiques et expliquer les logiques fondamentales d'une production qui alimente un marché aux profits vertigineux et aux implications mondiales..." Table des matieres, Introduction, cartes, Compte-rendus et critiques et liens a d'autres documents de l'auteur.
Author/creator: Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy
Language: Francais, French
Source/publisher: Editions d
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.pa-chouvy.org/territoiresopium.htm
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: QUAND LE MYANMAR CULTIVERA-T-IL SON JARDIN?
Date of publication: October 2002
Description/subject: "Notre propos en publiant nouveau cet article n'est pas de remettre encore une fois les litanies simplistes sur le trafic de drogue la une, les journalistes, touristes-crivains et autres spcialistes en herbe s'en chargent avec beaucoup plus de succs que nous ne saurions le faire. Ce n'est pas non plus de rcrire l'histoire ou les pripties du dveloppement dans les tats du nord-est du Myanmar de la culture du pavot opium, non, car ici aussi de vritables spcialistes savent mieux que nous citer des douzaines de noms de groupes rebelles ou officiels, les noms, alias et sobriquets des protagonistes et, pour certains, peuvent mme recrer une chronologie des faits. Non, notre intention est de faire partager en peu de mots une vision plus globale, qui mette en perspective le dveloppement de la culture du pavot dans le dveloppement de l'insatisfaction des peuples du Myanmar, et l'chec conomique d'une gestion centralise et militarise des tats peupls de minorits nationales. Nous pensons aussi ncessaire de dresser en quelques chiffres un portrait plus technique de l'importance pour la rgion de la culture de l'opium. Enfin, et pour situer cette publication par rapport sa premire version, nous y avons apport quelques modifications de franais et des complments dans le domaine de la collusion entre le pouvoir et les trafiquants, un thme qui s'est particulirement toff ses dernires annes, bien qu'il reste trs confus. Le texte toutefois n'a pas subit de modification profonde, il reste celui de 1989, et seules quelques notes bibliographiques font rfrences un des nombreux ouvrages publis en rapport avec notre sujet depuis 6 ans. ..."
Author/creator: Pierre Lopold
Language: Francais, French
Source/publisher: Centre d'tudes et de Documentation sur le Karenni (CdoK)
Format/size: html (189K), Word (108K) 23 pages
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/0pium-Jardin.doc
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Drugs, Generals and Neighbors
Date of publication: June 2001
Description/subject: Drug production, once the domain of insurgents fighting against Rangoon, has become the cornerstone of the mainstream economy. Burma's reputation as a major drug producer is well earned, despite the ruling junta's insistence that it is doing everything in its powers to combat the trade in narcotics. Aung Zaw finds out from drug-industry insiders how the business flourishes under military rule, and examines its impact on relations with Burma's neighbors.
Author/creator: Aung Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 5
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Drug Trade Booming in Rangoon
Date of publication: May 2001
Description/subject: At the end of a three-day meeting held under the auspices of the United Nations International Drug Control Program in early May, Burma's military rulers once again demonstrated their commitment to winning the war on drugs with aceremonial drug-burning bonfire. But while the generals were incinerating what they claimed was $ 920 million worth of narcotics, sources familiar with Rangoon's drug scene were reporting that the trade in heroin for domestic consumption showed no signs of being under fire.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 4 (Intelligence section)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Drugs, Lies and Videotape
Date of publication: June 2000
Description/subject: Internal conflict and ideological differences have taken their toll on the decades-old Karenni insurgency, but the Karenni National Progressive Party remains one of the few ethnic-based political organizations in Burma still actively engaged in armed resistance against the Rangoon regime. Now, reports Neil Lawrence, the KNPP is facing a new challenge, as opium and other narcotics once confined to neighboring Shan State make their way into territory controlled by Rangoon's Karenni allies.
Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8, No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: A War of Figures
Date of publication: October 1999
Description/subject: The Shan Herald Agency for News (S.H.A.N.) examines the facts and figures behind heroin production in Shan State, and concludes that both the Burmese military regime and its critics have got it wrong about the scale of the drug trade in the strife-torn area.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 8
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Burma's Phony Drug War
Date of publication: February 1998
Description/subject: "Rangoon needs to show its sincerity in tackling its drug problem and should fully cooperate with neighbouring countries writes Sai Lu..."
Author/creator: Sai Lu
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6. No. 1
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Birmanie, la dictature du pavot
Date of publication: 1998
Description/subject: La drogue, petrole, la junte birmane, la France...Le livre de Francis Christophe (moins Introduction et Annexe). DU ROI THEBAW A LA FRENCH-SLORC-CONNECTION; LA MONTEE DE l'OPIUM EN BIRMANIE; L'ARRIVEE EN FORCE DU SLORC; LA REDDITION-REHABILITATION DE KHUN SA; LE SLORC, REINCARNATION DE LA DICTATURE PRECEDENTE; PARRAINAGES ET RESEAUX; LE PARAVENT DE L'ENGAGEMENT CONSTRUCTIF; LES AMIS DU SLORC; INDE-BIRMANIE: L'HEROINE BOUSCULE LE STATU-QUO; NARCO-REACTION EN CHAINE; EXCEPTION FRANCAISE; LA CHUTE de MANDALAY; MIRAGE ET TABOU SUR LA DROGUE; DIPLOMATIE PETROLIERE TOTAL EN BIRMANIE, L'IMPLANTATION; LE FARDEAU BIRMAN; SUCCES SUR LE TERRAIN, DIFFICULTES MEDIATIQUES; LES CIRCUITS POLITIQUES ET ECONOMIQUES; UNE FRENCH-SLORC-CONNECTION? UN ENGAGEMENT DESTRUCTEUR.
Author/creator: Francis Christophe
Language: Francais, French
Format/size: 270K
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Opium Kings
Date of publication: 20 May 1997
Description/subject: Film by Adrian Cowell
Author/creator: Adrian Cowell
Source/publisher: "Frontline", PBS USA
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: LI: RIGHT DECISION FOR WRONG REASON
Date of publication: May 1997
Description/subject: "Burma has returned accused heroin trafficker Li Yun-chung to Thai control. Li absconded after he was released on bail by a Thai judge in February as his trial for extradition to America was drawing to a close. Burma said publicly it had no knowledge of Li or his whereabouts. That statement has been proved to be false. Our thanks must go to Prime Minister Chavalit Yongchaiyudh. He has regained the confidence of many that the government is serious about battling big-time narcotics trafficking. By refusing to accept Burma’s word it knew nothing of the accused fugitive heroin smuggler, Gen Chavalit and Army Commander-in-Chief Chettha Thanajaro have succeeded in restoring Thailand’s damaged image..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Bangkok Post via "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 5, No. 2
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 February 2009


Title: Opium and Heroin Production in Burma
Date of publication: 1996
Description/subject: Based on Ronald Renard's "The Burma Connection" UNRISD 1996
Author/creator: Ronald Renard
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Global Hangover Guide
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2010


Title: The Burmese Connection: Illegal Drugs and the Making of the Golden Triangle
Date of publication: 1996
Description/subject: "An assessment of the historical, economic and contemporary impact of illicit drugs on the people, economy and international relations of Burma/Myanmar. This study discusses previous attempts to curb the cultivation of drugs and points out the financial/social costs of such a situation."...Overview of Narcotics in Burma 1 opium, Khun Sa, SLORC Drug Use in British Burma ... Kokang, cannabis, Kachin Narcotics Use in Independent Burma ... Kokang, Khun Sa, Tatmadaw National and International Consequences ... heroin, opiates, morphine Partial History of Decisions Dealing with ... Opium Act, Lower Burma, Karenni Acronyms ... Drug Abuse, Vienna, United Front » Index ...
Author/creator: Ronald Renard
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNRISD, UNU
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 27 March 2008


Title: The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia (full text)
Date of publication: 1972
Description/subject: The classic 1972 study, subsequenstly updated and expanded in McCoy's "The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade" (NY 1991).
Author/creator: Alfred W. McCoy
Language: English
Source/publisher: Drugtext.org
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Politics_of_Heroin_in_Southeast_Asia
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2010