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Home > Main Library > Politics and Government > Elections (Burma) > The 2015 General Elections in Burma/Myanmar

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The 2015 General Elections in Burma/Myanmar

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Results of a Google site-specific search on "The Irrawaddy" for 2015 election
Date of publication: 17 July 2015
Description/subject: 11,100 results (17 July, 2015); 15,900 (11 November 2015)
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" via Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 July 2015


Title: 2015 Elections (on DVB site)
Description/subject: A collection of documents and articles from 2013 on the 2015 elections
Language: English
Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 05 June 2015


Title: Burmanet News - Election articles
Description/subject: From September 2010...Link to the original source at the foot of each article
Language: English
Source/publisher: Various sources via Burmanet News
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 July 2015


Title: Burmese general election, 2015 ( Wikipedia)
Description/subject: "The Burmese general election of 2015 is scheduled to take place in last week of October or first week of November. It will see voting take place in all the constituencies of Burma (Myanmar) excluding seats appointed by the Military, in order to appoint Members of Assembly to seats in the House of Nationalities, the upper house and House of Representatives, the lower house of the Assembly of the Union..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 May 2015


Title: Election Articles via "The Irrawwady"
Description/subject: Archive from 2012
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 17 July 2015


Title: Google site-specific search for "Myanmar" on ipu.org
Description/subject: About 1500 results
Language: English
Source/publisher: IPU via Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 August 2015


Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union - search
Description/subject: Search for "Myanmar"- about 1800 results (August 2015)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 29 August 2015


Title: My Pilar website
Description/subject: Elections... Parliaments... Political Parties... Government... State/Region.
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Enlightened Myanmar Research (EMR)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 June 2016


Title: Myanmar Now: Election News
Description/subject: http://www.myanmar-now.org/
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Now
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 October 2015


Title: Myanmar Now: Election News - ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲသတင္း
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Myanmar Now
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.myanmar-now.org/my/
Date of entry/update: 02 October 2015


Title: Results of a Google search for "Myanmar 2015 Elections"
Description/subject: 12,000,000 results (26 May 2015); 2,860,000 results, July 2015.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 May 2015


Title: Results of a Google site-specific search for "Myanmar election 2015" on asia.nikkei.com
Description/subject: About 383,000 results (November, 2015)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Nikkei Asian Review via Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 11 November 2015


Title: Results of a local search for "Myanmar Election" on asia.nikkei.com
Description/subject: Archives from 2013.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Nikkei Asian Review
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 11 November 2015


Title: Union Election Commission website (Burmese-ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Union Election Commission
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 11 November 2015


Individual Documents

Title: Observing Myanmar’s 2015 General Elections - Final Report
Date of publication: 16 August 2016
Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "On Nov. 8, 2015, Myanmar held the first general election under the 2008 Constitution in which all main political parties, including those that boycotted the election in 2010, chose to participate. The Carter Center observed the election process for over one year, from December 2014 through March 2016. Based on its in-depth observation, The Carter Center reaffirms its congratulations to the people of Myanmar, who exercised their political rights with pride and enthusiasm. Their empowerment and commitment to the democratic process was not only remarkable but crucial to counterbalancing the considerable structural impediments to fully democratic elections. Despite flaws observed, the post-election period confirms the Carter Center’s view that Myanmar appears to be on a positive trajectory toward a peaceful, democratic transition as a result of these elections. To maintain this trajectory, it is important for all actors to engage in a dialogue and consensus-seeking process to identify constructive steps toward lasting peace and national reconciliation. The Carter Center encourages the government, parliament, electoral authorities, and civil society of Myanmar to prioritize political and electoral reform based on internationally accepted democratic standards and offers its continued support for reform..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Carter Center
Format/size: pdf (559K-reduced version; 793K-original)
Alternate URLs: https://www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/news/peace_publications/election_reports/myanmar-2015-f...
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2016


Title: Myanmar Election Apps
Date of publication: 01 August 2016
Description/subject: "During Myanmar’s historic 2015 election, the only consistently available and reliable source of candidate information was via online mobile apps, and every one of those apps was powered by The Asia Foundation’s Mae Pay Soh (“Let’s Vote”) voter information database."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: pdf (651K- reduced version; 1.07MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://asiafoundation.org/publication/myanmar-election-apps/
http://asiafoundation.org/latest-by-location/?wpvcountries=Myanmar
Date of entry/update: 07 August 2016


Title: Thaton Situation Update: Bilin Township, October 2015
Date of publication: 25 February 2016
Description/subject: "This Situation Update describes events occurring in Bilin Township, Thaton District in October 2015, including updates on the 2015 general election, education, and development projects. - Villages under the administration of the Burma/Myanmar government are able to vote in the 2015 general election. However, villages located in Karen National Union (KNU) controlled areas have not been adequately informed ahead of the election. - Local Karen teachers selected to teach in villages have had to resign after Burma/Myanmar government teachers were sent to teach in Bilin Township, sparking concerns that Karen language education will be given less attention and taught outside of school hours. - Heavy rain and floods damaged paddies, and, combined with an increase in the paddy price, caused livelihood concerns among some villagers. - The main roads that have been under construction in Bilin Township since 2013 will be completed during 2016. Although useful for the villagers, the road construction has caused problems for some villagers whose lands have been damaged..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
Format/size: pdf (502K)
Alternate URLs: http://khrg.org/2016/02/15-100-s1/thaton-situation-update-bilin-township-october-2015
Date of entry/update: 10 April 2016


Title: The 2015 Elections and Beyond: Perspectives from villagers in rural southeast Burma/Myanmar
Date of publication: 23 February 2016
Description/subject: "This commentary highlights the experiences of villagers in southeast Burma/Myanmar during the 2015 general elections, as well as their perspectives on the electoral process as a whole and expectations from the incoming Government of the Union of Myanmar. Based on 21 interviews conducted with villagers shortly following the elections, KHRG considers the extent to which the 2015 poll can be deemed “free and fair,” by evaluating the transparency, inclusivity, and credibility of the electoral process as it unfolded in KHRG’s research areas in southeast Burma/Myanmar. KHRG notes that while the election was deemed as fairly transparent at the polls, questionable campaign practices in the lead-up to the election marred villagers’ experiences of this landmark in the country’s reform. In addition, serious concerns regarding the inclusivity of this election emerge from villager testimonies, including many instances of disenfranchisement of eligible voters due to negligence on the part of electoral staff, misinformation and lack of voter education, as well as ethnic discrimination against Muslim and Gurkha residents. Additional large-scale exclusion from the polls took place in Karen National Union (KNU) and mixed-control areas of southeast Burma/Myanmar, where many polling stations were removed by the Union Election Commission shortly prior to Election Day due to perceived security concerns, which villagers said did not correspond to the conditions on the ground. These experiences have left some villagers disillusioned, not only with the election itself, but with the democratic transition as a whole. Villagers call on the incoming government to engage with them and address their specific concerns, including transitioning into a fully civilian government, working towards justice and lasting peace in Karen ethnic regions, and developing their communities in terms of education, healthcare and infrastructure."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
Format/size: html, pdf (263K-English; 393K-Burmese)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/KHRG-2015-02-23-elections_commentary-en.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/khrg_2015-02-23-_elections_commentary-bu.pdf
http://khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg_2015_elections_commentary_english.pdf
http://khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg_2015_elections_commentary_burmese.pdf
Date of entry/update: 23 February 2016


Title: Que retenir des élections législatives de novembre 2015 en Birmanie?
Date of publication: 22 February 2016
Description/subject: "Trois mois après les élections, et avant le transfert effectif du pouvoir, Info Birmanie publie une brève analyse intitulée « Que retenir des élections législatives de novembre 2015 en Birmanie ?». Celle-ci revient sur le processus électoral birman : la campagne, le jour des élections, les irrégularités constatées, les réactions nationales et internationales, les résultats et l'échiquier post électoral. Sur les 10 élections générales organisées en Birmanie depuis l’Indépendance du pays, aucune n’a été aussi libre que les élections de 2015. Malgré les craintes du peuple birman et des analystes politiques, le scrutin n'a pas été marqué par des irrégularités faussant le processus électoral dans sa globalité. Le parti d'Aung San Suu Kyi a remporté une victoire écrasante marquant pour la Birmanie un tournant historique qui n’aurait pas été imaginable 5 ans auparavant. Pour en savoir plus, lire notre analyse ..."
Language: Français, French
Source/publisher: Info Birmanie
Format/size: pdf (917K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Info-Birmanie-2016-02-ANALYSE-DES-ELECTIONS.pdf
Date of entry/update: 23 February 2016


Title: The 2015 General Election in Myanmar: What Now for Ethnic Politics? (English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 21 December 2015
Description/subject: Key Points: "• The victory of the National League for Democracy (NLD) in the 2015 elections was a resounding mandate for democratic change after decades of military-dominated government. • The scale of the victory in ethnic nationality communities across the country highlighted the hopes of all Myanmar’s peoples for the NLD to help achieve a new era of peace and democracy. Both domestic and international expectations are now high, and the incoming government will enjoy initial goodwill. • Formidable challenges remain in key aspects of social and political life. These include transition from military-backed government, political reform and the agreement of a nationwide ceasefire that includes all groups and regions of the country. • Despite the NLD’s success, concerns remain among different nationalities that, unless the NLD pioneers a political breakthrough, conflict and the marginalisation of minority peoples will continue. The perception is widespread that the present structures of national politics and Myanmar’s “first-past-the-post” electoral system do not guarantee the equitable representation of all nationality groups. • In the coming months, the successful transition to a new era of democratic governance and the agreement of an inclusive nationwide ceasefire could provide the best opportunity for ethnic peace and deep-rooted reform in many decades. It is vital that the different sides work cooperatively together rather than seek self- advantage. "
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI) - Myanmar Policy Briefing, December 2015
Format/size: html, pdf (260K-Burmese; 272K-English)
Alternate URLs: https://www.tni.org/en/node/23065?content_language=en
https://www.tni.org/files/publication-downloads/bpb17_28012016_birm_web.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/TNI-2016-12-21-The_2015-Elections-Ethnic_Politics-bu.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/TNI-2016-12-21-The_2015-Elections-Ethnic_Politics-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 04 June 2016


Title: Democracy loading...Myanmar nach den Wahlen 2015
Date of publication: 18 December 2015
Description/subject: Sonderseiten in der Tageszeitung taz vom 18.12.2015. .....Die am 8. November 2015 abgehaltenen Parlamentswahlen auf nationaler und regionaler Ebene, aus denen die Oppositions-partei National League for Democracy (NLD) als Siegerin hervorging, wurden bereits im Vorlauf als die ersten freien und fairen Wah-len seit 1990 beworben. Damals errang die NLD unter der Führung von Aung San Suu Kyi einen Erdrutschsieg, der vom Militär jedoch nie anerkannt wurde. Dieses Mal räumte die Regierungspartei Union Solidarity and Deve-lopment Party (USDP), die unter dem ehemali-gen Militärregime als größte Massenorganisa-tion agierte, ihre Niederlage ein..."
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Burma & Burma-Initiative (Stiftung Asienhaus)
Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 19 January 2016


Title: The Myanmar Elections: Results and Implications (English)
Date of publication: 09 December 2015
Description/subject: Overview: "The 8 November elections were a major waypoint in Myanmar’s transition from authoritarian rule. Holding a peaceful, orderly vote in a context of little experience of electoral democracy, deep political fissures and ongoing armed conflict in several areas was a major achievement for all political actors, the election commission and the country as a whole. The victorious National League for Democracy (NLD) needs to use the four-month transitional period before it takes power at the end of March 2016 wisely, identifying key appointees early so that they have as much time as possible to prepare for the substantial challenges ahead. Its landslide victory, with almost 80 per cent of the elected seats, means Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi’s party will have an outright majority in both legislative chambers, even after the 25 per cent of unelected seats held by the armed forces is taken into account. This will give it control of law-making and the power to choose the president – a position that the constitution bars Suu Kyi from taking herself. The incumbent Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) suffered a crushing defeat, as did most parties representing minority ethnic groups. The vote represents a huge popular mandate for Aung San Suu Kyi and comes with equally high expectations that she and the NLD will deliver the needed political and economic changes. It will not be easy to meet those expectations. First, Suu Kyi will have to build a constructive working relationship with Commander-in-Chief Min Aung Hlaing. The military retains considerable executive power, with control of the defence, home affairs and border affairs ministries. Success in everything from the peace process to police reform and further political liberalisation will depend on the cooperation of the armed forces. With longstanding mutual suspicions, that relationship could easily get off to a bad start, particularly if Suu Kyi chooses a proxy president without the credibility and stature required for the top job, as she has suggested she would. Beyond this, the NLD will want to demonstrate that it can meet the expectations of the people by bringing tangible changes to their lives. It can tap into enormous domestic and international goodwill and support, but its limited experience of government, a shallow pool of skilled technocrats and the difficulty of reforming key institutions all constrain how much can be achieved quickly. This is particularly important given that the party has done very little policy development work to date. It also may prove difficult for the new administration to focus on producing positive changes, given the range of problems the country faces, any of which have the potential to spawn crises. Serious armed clashes continue in Shan and Kachin states, threatening to undermine a fragile peace process. There are signs of macro-economic turbulence, with weak policy tools available to mitigate it. And the situation in Rakhine state, where most Muslim Rohingya were disenfranchised, is intractable and potentially volatile; any moves the NLD government makes on this issue will come under particular nationalist scrutiny. There will also be international relations challenges. Suu Kyi and the NLD will need deft diplomatic skills to steer Myanmar’s continuing re-engagement with the West, while maintaining good relations with a more assertive China concerned that its interests are being harmed. They will have to be particularly adroit, given perceptions that they have an inherent pro-Western bias. Western countries must do their part to help make this rebalancing succeed. They have an important role to play in supporting positive change in Myanmar but need to be cognizant of domestic and regional sensitivities involved."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Asia Briefing N°147)
Format/size: pdf (355K-reduced version; 1.1MB-original; 550K-Burmese, reduced version)
Alternate URLs: http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/south-east-asia/burma-myanmar/b147-the-myanmar-electi...
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/ICG-2015-12-09-the-myanmar-elections-results-and-implications-bu...
Date of entry/update: 07 January 2016


Title: The Myanmar Elections: Results and Implications ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံမွ ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲမ်ား-ရလာဒ္မ်ားႏွင္႔ ျဖစ္လာႏိုင္သည္႔ အက်ိဳးဆ
Date of publication: 09 December 2015
Description/subject: ျခံဳငံုသံုးသပ္ခ်က္ ... ႏိုဝင္ဘာ ၈ ရက္ ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲမ်ားသည္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏ အာဏာရွင္စနစ္မွ အသြင္ကူးေျပာင္းမႈ တြင္ အဓိကမွတ္တိုင္တစ္ခုျဖစ္သည္။ ဒီမိုကေရစီေရြးေကာက္ပြဲ အေတြ႔အႀကံဳနည္းပါးျခင္း၊ ႏိုင္ ငံေရးအကြဲအျပဲနက္ရိႈင္းျခင္း၊ ေနရာမ်ားစြာတြင္ လက္နက္ကိုင္ပဋိပကၡျဖစ္ပြါးေနျခင္း စေသာ အေျခအေနတြင္ ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္း၍ စနစ္က်ေသာ ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲကို က်င္းပႏိုင္ျခင္းသည္ ႏိုင္ငံေရးတြင္ အဓိကပါဝင္ေနသူအားလံုး၊ ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲေကာ္မရွင္ႏွင့္ တစ္ႏိုင္ငံလံုးအတြက္ အဓိကေအာင္ ျမင္မႈျဖစ္သည္။ ေအာင္ပြဲရ အမ်ဳိးသားဒီမိုကေရစီအဖြဲ႔ခ်ဳပ္ (NLD) သည္ ၂၀၁၆ မတ္လကုန္တြင္ အာဏာလႊဲေျပာင္းမယူမွီ ၾကားကာလေလးလကို ပါးပါးနပ္နပ္အသံုးခ်ရန္လိုအပ္ၿပီး အေရးႀကီး တာဝန္ေပးမည့္သူမ်ားကို ေစာစီးစြာသတ္မွတ္ေဖၚထုတ္ႏိုင္ခဲ႔လွ်င္ ေရွ႕တြင္ႀကိဳေနသည့္ ႀကီးမား ေသာ စိမ္ေခၚမႈမ်ားအတြက္ ျပင္ဆင္ရန္ ျဖစ္ႏိုင္သမွ်အခ်ိန္မ်ားမ်ား ရရွိေပမည္။ ေရြးေကာက္ခံေနရာ ၈၀ ရာခိုင္ႏႈန္းျဖင့္ ေသာင္ၿပိဳကမ္းၿပိဳအႏိုင္ရျခင္းသည္ လႊတ္ေတာ္ႏွစ္ ရပ္စလံုးတြင္ တပ္မေတာ္က ၂၅ ရာခိုင္ႏႈန္း ရယူထားသည့္တိုင္ေအာင္ ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္ ၏ပါတီက ေနရာအမ်ားစုရရွိမည့္သေဘာျဖစ္သည္။ ဤအေျခအေနသည္ သမၼတေရြးခ်ယ္ခြင္႔ အာဏာႏွင့္ ဥပေဒျပဳမႈအေပၚ ထိန္းခ်ဳပ္ခြင့္တို႔ကို ရရွိေစမည္ျဖစ္သည္။ သမၼတေရြးခ်ယ္ခြင္႔ အ တြက္မူ အေျခခံဥပေဒက ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္အား သမၼတမျဖစ္ႏိုင္ေအာင္တားဆီးထား သည္။ လက္ရွိအာဏာရ ျပည္ခိုင္ၿဖိဳးပါတီ (USDP) သည္ တိုင္းရင္းသားလူမ်ဳိးစု ကိုယ္စားျပဳ အျခားပါတီမ်ားကဲ့သို႔ပင္ အလဲထိုးခံရံႈးပြဲကို ခံစားသြားရသည္။ ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲသည္ ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္အတြက္ ႀကီးႀကီးမားမားေရပန္းစားေသာ အခြင့္အာဏာအပ္ႏွင္းျခင္းကို ထင္ဟပ္ကာ ၎ႏွင္႔အတူ သူႏွင္႔ NLD သည္ တိုင္းျပည္တြင္ လိုအပ္ေနေသာ ႏိုင္ငံေရးႏွင့္ စီးပြါးေရးေျပာင္းလဲမႈမ်ားကို ေဖၚေဆာင္လိမ္႔မည္ဟူေသာ ဆတူ ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ခ်က္မ်ားစြာျဖင့္ ေပၚထြက္လာခဲ့သည္။ ၎ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ခ်က္မ်ားျပည့္မွီရန္ မလြယ္ကူ လွပါ။ ပထမဦးစြာ ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္သည္ တပ္မေတာ္ကာကြယ္ေရးဦးစီးခ်ဳပ္ ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ မွဴးႀကီးမင္းေအာင္လိႈင္ႏွင့္ အျပဳသေဘာပူးေပါင္းေဆာင္ရြက္သည့္ ဆက္ဆံေရးကို ထူေထာင္ ရန္ လုိအပ္ေပလိမ့္မည္။ တပ္မေတာ္သည္ ကာကြယ္ေရး၊ ျပည္ထဲေရး၊ နယ္စပ္ေရးရာ ဝန္ႀကီး ဌာနမ်ားကို ထိန္းခ်ဳပ္ထားျခင္းျဖင့္ မ်ားျပားေသာ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေရးအာဏာကို ရယူထားဆဲျဖစ္ သည္။ ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရးလုပ္ငန္းစဥ္မွသည္ ရဲတပ္ဖြဲ႔ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲေရးႏွင့္ ႏိုင္ငံေရးေျဖေလွ်ာ့ မႈမ်ားအထိ အရာရာေအာင္ျမင္မႈရရွိေရးသည္ တပ္မေတာ္၏ ပူးေပါင္းေဆာင္ရြက္မႈအေပၚ မူ တည္လ်က္ရွိသည္။ အကယ္၍ ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္က သူလုပ္မည္ဟု ေျပာထားသည့္ အ တိုင္း ထိပ္တန္းရာထူးအတြက္လိုအပ္ေသာ သိကၡာႏွင့္ အမ်ားေလးစားသူကို ကိုယ္စားသမၼတ အျဖစ္ မေရြးခ်ယ္ႏိုင္ခဲ႔ပါက ကာလရွည္ၾကာ အျပန္အလွန္ သံသယႀကီးခဲ့ေသာ ဆက္ဆံေရး သည္ မလွပေသာ စတင္မႈအျဖစ္ အလြယ္တကူ ထြက္ေပၚလာႏိုင္သည္။ ထို႔အျပင္ NLD အေနႏွင့္ ျပည္သူတို႔၏ဘဝမ်ား သိသိသာသာေျပာင္းလဲေအာင္ ေဆာင္ ၾကဥ္းေပးျခင္းျဖင့္ ျပည္သူတို႔၏ ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ခ်က္မ်ားကို ျဖည့္ေပးႏိုင္ေၾကာင္း ျပသလိုေပလိမ့္မည္။ ျပည္တြင္းျပည္ပအားေပးမႈႏွင့္ ပံ့ပိုးမႈေျမာက္မ်ားစြာကို ရယူႏိုင္မည္ျဖစ္ေသာ္လည္း စီမံအုပ္ခ်ဳပ္မႈ အေတြ႔အၾကံဳနည္းျခင္း၊ ကြ်မ္းက်င္ေသာ ပညာရွင္စုဖြဲ႔မႈနည္းျခင္း၊ ေသာ့ခ်က္က်ေသာ အင္စတီ က်ဴးရွင္းမ်ားကို ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲရာတြင္ ခက္ခဲျခင္း စသည္တို႔အားလံုးက ျမန္ျမန္ဆန္ဆန္ ေအာင္ ျမင္မႈရႏိုင္မည့္အေရးကို ဟန္႔တားၾကေပလိမ့္မည္။ ပါတီသည္ ယေန႔ထိ မူဝါဒေရးဆြဲမႈ အနည္း ငယ္သာ လုပ္ေဆာင္ခဲ႔ဘူးေသာေၾကာင့္ ၎မွာအထူးသျဖင့္ အေရးႀကီးေနေပသည္။ ထိုမွ်သာမကပဲ ျပည္တြင္းတြင္ ကပ္ေဘးသင့္ႏိုင္ေျခရိွေသာ ျပႆနာမ်ားကို ရင္ဆိုင္ေနရ ေသာေၾကာင့္ အစိုးရအသစ္အေနႏွင့္ အေပါင္းလကၡဏာေဆာင္ေသာ ေျပာင္းလဲမႈမ်ား လုပ္ ေဆာင္ေပးႏိုင္ေရးအေပၚအာရံုစိုက္ရန္ အခက္အခဲေတြ႔ဖြယ္ရွိသည္။ ရွမ္းႏွင့္ ကခ်င္ျပည္နယ္ တြင္ ဆိုးဝါးေသာပစ္ခတ္တိုက္ခိုက္မႈမ်ား ဆက္တိုက္ျဖစ္ပြားေနျခင္းသည္ ယိုင္နဲ႔နဲ႔ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး လုပ္ငန္းစဥ္ အားနည္းေအာင္ ၿခိမ္းေျခာက္လ်က္ရွိသည္။ မက္ခရိုစီးပြားေရးရႈတ္ေထြးမႈ လကၡ ဏာမ်ားလည္းရွိေနၿပီး ၎တို႔ကို ေလ်ာ႔ခ်ရာတြင္ အသံုးျပဳမည္႔မူဝါဒမ်ားကလည္း အားနည္း ေနသည္။ ဘဂၤါလီမြတ္ဆလင္မ်ား မဲေပးခြင့္မရွိေသာ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္မွ အေနအထားသည္လည္း ကိုင္တြယ္ရခက္ခဲေသာ တင္းမာဆူပြက္မႈ ျဖစ္ႏိုင္ေခ်ရွိၿပီး ယင္းကိစၥႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္၍ NLD အစိုး ရ၏ လုပ္ေဆာင္မႈမွန္သမွ်မွာလည္း အထူးသျဖင့္ အမ်ဳိးသားေရးဝါဒီမ်ား၏ ေစာင္႔ၾကည္႔မႈကို ခံရ ဖြယ္ရွိေနသည္။ ထို႔အျပင္ ႏိုင္ငံတကာဆက္ဆံေရးႏွင့္ဆိုင္သည့္ စိန္ေခၚမႈမ်ားကလည္း ရွိေနျပန္သည္။ အက်ဳိးစီးပြားထိခိုက္ေတာ့မည္ဟု စိုးရိမ္ေနသည္႔ ရဲတင္းေသာ တရုတ္ႏိုင္ငံႏွင့္ ဆက္ဆံေရး ေကာင္းေအာင္ ထိန္းသိမ္းရင္း အေနာက္အုပ္စုႏွင့္ ျပန္လည္ထိေတြ႔ဆက္ဆံေရးကို ဆက္လက္ ထိန္းေက်ာင္းရန္အတြက္ ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္ႏွင့္ NLD ပါတီအေနႏွင့္ ပါးနပ္ေသာ သံတမန္ ေရးကြ်မ္းက်င္မႈမ်ားကို လိုအပ္ေပလိမ့္မည္။ အေနာက္အုပ္စုဖက္သို႔ ယိမ္းသည္ဟူေသာ သတ္မွတ္ယူဆခံရမႈမ်ားရွိေသာေၾကာင့္ အထူးပါးနပ္လိမၼာဖို႔ လိုလိမ့္မည္။ အေနာက္ႏိုင္ငံမ်ား ကလည္း ယင္းသို႔ဟန္ခ်က္ညီေအာင္ ျပန္လည္ထိန္းညိွမႈ ေအာင္ျမင္ရန္ မိမိတို႔ ကိုယ္စီအပိုင္းမွ ကူညီၾကရမည္ျဖစ္သည္။ အေနာက္အုပ္စုသည္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံတြင္ အေပါင္းလကၡဏာေဆာင္ ေသာ အေျပာင္းအလဲမ်ားကို ပံ့ပိုးအားေပးရာတြင္ အေရးႀကီးေသာက႑မွ ပါဝင္ေသာ္လည္း ျပည္တြင္းႏွင့္ ေဒသတြင္း အကဲဆတ္မႈမ်ား ပါဝင္ပတ္သက္ေနသည္ကို သိရွိနားလည္ရန္လို သည္။
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Asia Briefing N°147)
Format/size: pdf (550K-reduced version; 1.5MB-original; 355K-English, reduced version)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/ICG-2015-12-09-the-myanmar-elections-results-and-implications-bu...
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/ICG-2015-12-09-the-myanmar-elections-results-and-implications-en...
Date of entry/update: 07 January 2016


Title: The 2015 General Election: A New Beginning? 04 December 2015Article
Date of publication: 04 December 2015
Description/subject: "...In the coming months, ...citizens across the country are hoping that the NLD, with its countrywide mandate, is able to make a truly new beginning in initiating political, ethnic and institutional reform to bring the country together after decades of internal conflict, economic malaise and military rule. Popular momentum presently lies on the NLD side, and ethnic peace and justice are at the centre of its goals for national reform. But given Myanmar’s troubled history, uncertain and difficult times undoubtedly lie ahead"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 08 December 2015


Title: After election victory comes the hard part
Date of publication: 17 November 2015
Author/creator: Richard Horsey
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Nikkei Asian Review" via International Crisis Group
Format/size: pdf (43), html
Date of entry/update: 20 November 2015


Title: BURMA/MYANMAR POST-ELECTION OUTLOOK: TRIALS FOR TRIUMPH
Date of publication: 13 November 2015
Description/subject: "Results announced on 13 November confirmed the overwhelming victory of the National League for Democracy (NLD) in the 8 November elections, which decided 75% of seats in Burma/Myanmar’s National and Regional Parliaments. While the military will retain its allotted 25% of parliamentary seats, the NLD now holds an overall majority in the National Parliament, giving it the power to form Burma/Myanmar’s next government and select a President. As results are finalized, the next steps for both Aung San Suu Kyi’s NLD and the country’s ruling military will take shape, while a final session of the current Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) dominated National Parliament will convene on 16 November. While the NLD will now be able to form a government, Burma’s military will retain its grip on power in key areas. This briefer summarizes post-election issues, including; the presidential selection process; the military power preserved in the 2008 Constitution; Aung San Suu Kyi's call for "reconciliation talks" with President Thein Sein, Commander-in-Chief Sr Gen Min Aung Hlaing and Parliamentary Speaker Shwe Mann; and the final parliamentary session for sitting MPs. "
Language: English
Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
Format/size: pdf (232K)
Date of entry/update: 03 December 2015


Title: Dateline Irrawaddy: 'Current Military Leaders Are Different from Those in 1990'
Date of publication: 13 November 2015
Description/subject: "On this week’s edition of Dateline, the panel discusses the NLD’s landslide victory and what to expect from the weeks to come: Aung Moe Zaw: First of all, everyone should congratulate the people. They have clearly shown their desire for democracy. Personally, I expect that the current government and the military will seriously acknowledge and respect this desire. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi has clearly said that her party would form a government of national reconciliation for the country to move forward. Under the 2008 Constitution, a new government is likely to be a coalition. If Daw Aung San Suu Kyi herself or her party, the NLD, can work together with ethnic parties like the Shan Nationalities League for Democracy [SNLD] or the Arakan National Party [ANP], a government of national reconciliation can surely be formed, as she said. Whether this is done largely depends on the military. As the leader of the winning party, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi should firstly take steps toward holding talks with the current president and the military.....Yan Myo Thein: Regarding the election, there was a problem of advance votes in some places. Besides that, generally, the election was free and fair across the country. I think Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the NLD should officially release a statement and say that they are grateful to the people and acknowledge their support for the party. At the same time, democratic forces need to take a practical approach and figure out how they can cooperate with the government and the military to smooth the democratization process in Myanmar, I think. There are certain things that are different from the post-election period in 1990. The major difference is that in the 1990 election, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi was under house arrest. But at present, she is an elected lawmaker and the chairwoman of the NLD. Again, some people believed that because Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s NLD demanded a dialogue to transfer power, the military government at that time refused to hold such a dialogue. But the truth is that the NLD back then demanded an all-inclusive dialogue, and the dialogue was not actually intended to demand a transfer of power. The military leaders at that time were completely unwilling to have dialogue, and that’s why they rejected it..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 November 2015


Title: Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development: Burma/Myanmar Elections Preliminary Findings
Date of publication: 12 November 2015
Description/subject: "(Yangon, 10 November 2015) From 2-10 November 2015, the Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA), together with its Thai member, the People’s Empowerment Foundation (PEF) conducted an election observation mission in Yangon, Burma/Myanmar. The objective was to observe the final week of before the historic elections of 8 November 2015. First of all, FORUM-ASIA congratulates the people of Burma/Myanmar on holding the first freest elections in their country’s history. It reaffirms the commitment to political reform. We hope the elections will contribute to a more democratic, peaceful and prosperous future for the people of the country. However, although the electoral process was the freest and fairest in Burma/Myanmar’s history, the FORUM-ASIA still observed several problems that are reason for concern. The following update presents an overview of the preliminary findings of the mission. A full-report will follow shortly..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development via Burma Partnership
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 13 November 2015


Title: Elections just the beginning
Date of publication: 11 November 2015
Description/subject: "The cold hard reality is that Sunday was just the beginning of the next round of political competition. Once the votes are in, the heavy business of negotiation and repositioning will rumble forward...What it all means is that from today onward there will be no point in expecting everything to flow smoothly. Not only is that unrealistic, but it may not even provide an outcome in the best interests of the Myanmar people. The fact that Daw Aung San Suu Kyi has sat at the same table as Thura U Shwe Mann and U Khin Aung Myint on so many occasions over these recent years needs our attention. She will have to draw on all that experience of dealing with military men if politics in the months ahead is going to work in her favour."
Author/creator: Nicholas Farrelly
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2015


Title: Myanmar moves forward
Date of publication: 11 November 2015
Description/subject: "Myanmar’s election have successfully taken place without a major hitch let alone violence and conflict – a remarkable achievement considering the country’s protracted civil war and decades of political confrontation. The resounding victory for the opposition National League for Democracy represents a clear expression of the enormous popular support for the NLD and its leader, Aung San Suu Kyi. Not only was the outcome to the satisfaction of most people, inside and outside the country, but the processes were also deemed by most of the 11,000 or more election monitors, to have been “free and fair” and credible. With more than 30 million voters, the 2015 election was a major undertaking by any measure. Its success means that the years of efforts and dedication by parties, candidates, support staff and the media have been vindicated, and the result is a new government with its legitimacy confirmed, unlike the outcome of the flawed and fraudulent 2010 elections. Before the elections, many problems with voter registration lists were discovered. A number of complaints about voting procedures on polling day have been lodged with Myanmar’s Election Commission, but it is doubtful that any errors would have made much difference to the results..."
Author/creator: Trevor Wilson
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2015


Title: [Statement from the President's Office regarding the election results] "မိဘပြည်သူများသို့ ကျေးဇူးတင်ရှိကြောင်း သတင်းထုတ်ပြန်ချက်"
Date of publication: 11 November 2015
Description/subject: "၁။ ၂၀၁၅ ခုနှစ် ၊ နိုဝင်ဘာ ၈ ရက်နေ တွင် မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတစ်ဝှမ်းလုံး ပါတီစုံ ဒီမိုကရေစီ အထွေထွေ ရွေးကောက်ပွဲကို တည်ငြိမ် အေးချမ်း အောင်မြင်စွာ ကျင်းပနိုင်ခဲ့ပါသည်။ ထိုသို့အောင်မြင်စွာ ကျင်းပနိုင်ရေးအတွက် နိုင်ငံသားတာဝန် ကျေပွန်စွာ ပါဝင်မဲပေးခဲ့ကြသော တိုင်းရင်းသား မိဘပြည်သူများအားလုံး၊ အောင်မြင်သော ရွေးကောက်ပွဲများ ကျင်းပနိုင်ရန် တာဝန်ဆောင်ရွက်ခဲ့ကြသော ပြည်ထောင်စုရွေးကောက်ပွဲကော်မရှင်နှင့် အဆင့်ဆင့်သော ကော်မရှင်များ၊ ရွေးကောက်ပွဲများ အောင်မြင်စွာ ကျင်းပနိုင်ရေး တတ်နိုင်မျှ ပံ့ပိုးကူညီဆောင်ရွက်ခဲ့ကြသော တပ်မတော် တပ်ရင်းတပ်ဖွဲ့များ၊ ဌာနဆိုင်ရာများ၊ လုံခြုံရေးတပ်ဖွဲ့ဝင်များ၊ မဲရုံတာဝန်ထမ်းဆောင်ခဲ့ကြသော ဝန်ထမ်းများ၊ ရွေးကောက်ပွဲအထူးရဲများ၊ လေ့လာစောင့်ကြည်မှုများ ဆောင်ရွက်ခဲ့ကြသော ပြည်တွင်း၊ ပြည်ပ အဖွဲ့အစည်းများ၊ ဂုဏ်သိက္ခာ ရှိရှိ ပါဝင်ယှဉ်ပြိုင်ခဲ့ကြသော နိုင်ငံရေးပါတီများနှင့် ကိုယ်စားလှယ်လောင်းများ အားလုံးကို နိုင်ငံတော်နှင့် နိုင်ငံသားများ ကိုယ်စား ကျေးဇူး ဥပကာရ အထူးပင် တင်ရှိပါသည်။ ၂။ လက်ရှိအချိန်အထိ ပြည်ထောင်စု ရွေးကောက်ပွဲ ကော်မရှင်က ထုတ်ပြန်ခဲ့သည့် ရလဒ်များအရ အမျိုးသား ဒီမိုကရေစီ အဖွဲ့ချုပ်ပါတီက လွှတ်တော် နေရာ အများစုဖြင့် ဦးဆောင်နေသဖြင့် ပြည်သူလူထု၏ ထောက်ခံမှုကို ရရှိစေရန် စွမ်းဆောင်ခဲ့သော ပါတီဥက္ကဌ ဒေါ်အောင်ဆန်းစုကြည်နှင့် အမျိုးသားဒီမိုကရေစီအဖွဲ့ချုပ်ပါတီ၏ အောင်မြင်မှုကို လှိုက်လှဲဝမ်းမြောက်စွာ ချီးကျူးဂုဏ်ပြုအပ်ပါသည်။ ၃။ နိုင်ငံတော် အစိုးရအနေဖြင့် မဲဆန္ဒရှင် တိုင်းရင်းသား ပြည်သူများ၏ ရွေးချယ်မှုနှင့် အဆုံးအဖြတ်ကို လေးစားလိုက်နာပြီး သတ်မှတ်အချိန်များ အတိုင်း အေးချမ်း တည်ငြိမ်စွာ လွှဲပြောင်းနိုင်ရေးကို ဆောင်ရွက်သွားမည် ဖြစ်ပါသည်။ ၄။ ဒေါ်အောင်ဆန်းစုကြည် အဆိုပြုသည့် တွေ့ဆုံ ဆွေးနွေးရေးနှင့် ပတ်သက်ပြီး ပြည်ထောင်စု ရွေးကောက်ပွဲ ကော်မရှင်၏ ရွေးကောက်ပွဲ လုပ်ငန်းများ ပြီးဆုံးချိန်တွင် နှစ်ဘက် ညှိနှိုင်း ဆောင်ရွက်မည် ဖြစ်ပါသည်။ ၅။ ရွေးကောက်ပွဲအလွန် ကြားကာလ တည်ငြိမ် အေးချမ်းမှု ရှိစေရန် အတွက် အားလုံး ပူးပေါင်း ဆောင်ရွက်သွားမည် ဖြစ်ပါကြောင်း သိရှိနိုင်ပါရန် ထုတ်ပြန်အပ်ပါသည်။"
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: President Office Website
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2015


Title: Myanmar's Aung San Suu Kyi: NLD has won election majority (video)
Date of publication: 10 November 2015
Description/subject: "Early results point to a sweeping victory for her National League for Democracy (NLD), but final official results will not be known for days. The election was seen as the most democratic in Myanmar for 25 years. In an interview with the BBC's Fergal Keane, Ms Suu Kyi said the polls were not fair but "largely free". She said there had been "areas of intimidation". A quarter of Myanmar's 664 parliamentary seats are set aside for the army, and for the NLD to have the winning majority it will need at least two-thirds of the contested seats. But Ms Suu Kyi told the BBC that her party has surpassed that, and has won around 75%. The military-backed Union Solidarity Development Party (USDP) has been in power in Myanmar since 2011 when the country began its transition from decades of military rule to a civilian government..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: BBC
Format/size: SMPFlash (1.26minutes)
Date of entry/update: 11 November 2015


Title: Analysis Report of the Study on Myanmar Political Party Alliances - "ႏုိင္ငံေရးပါတီမဟာမိတ္အဖြဲ႕မ်ားအေပၚ ေလ့လာ သုံးသပ္မႈစာတမ္း" (Burmese မ
Date of publication: 07 November 2015
Description/subject: "In this real moment of excitement, EMR would like to share the "ႏုိင္ငံေရးပါတီမဟာမိတ္အဖြဲ႕မ်ားအေပၚ ေလ့လာ သုံးသပ္မႈစာတမ္း" (The Analysis Report of the Study on Myanmar Political Party Alliances"). The report is available only in Myanmar language. We intended mainly for the CSOs, the people of Myanmar and the political parties, believing that reliable information will enhance citizen's awareness and interest in participating political process and performing civic duties. We hope that this study can make valuable contributions in the democratic transition and the emergence of a true federalism in Myanmar. ".....Unfortunately, we cannot share the report through EMR's website as it was hacked recently..."
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Enlightened Myanmar Research (EMR)
Format/size: pdf (877K)
Date of entry/update: 11 November 2015


Title: Myanmar: Free and Fair? (video)
Date of publication: 05 November 2015
Description/subject: "Ahead of Myanmar's historic election, we meet activists refusing to buckle under a campaign of harassment and arrest...Standing by her husband's grave, Ma Thanda is looking for answers. It has been one year since her spouse, a journalist and activist, disappeared while in military custody. Meanwhile, Po Po, a student protest organiser, is still reeling from one of Myanmar's bloodiest crackdowns in years. After attacking her fellow demonstrators in March, police filed dubious charges that could land her in prison for nine years. Myanmar is set to hold what is could be the country's first legitimate election in half a decade. But government hardliners are waging their own hidden campaign to silence dissidents. And the law is on their side. 101 East meets activists being harassed, arrested and imprisoned in plain sight, setting back Myanmar's march toward democratic freedom..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (101 East)
Format/size: Adobe Flash (25 minutes)
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2015


Title: BURMA 2015: BALLOT DENIED - DISENFRANCHISED VOTERS IN KYAR INN SEIK GYI TOWNSHIP, KAREN STATE
Date of publication: November 2015
Description/subject: "On November 8, 2015, millions of voters across Burma went to the polls. Citizens seized the opportunity to exercise their right to vote in the freest election the country had seen for at least 25 years. In many ways this was an astonishing moment for democracy in Burma. However, as international media coverage praised largely successful election processes and excitement abounded at the poll’s outcome, relatively few column inches were dedicated to those left behind as this historic event took place. In Burma 2015: Ballot Denied the Human Rights Foundation of Monland (HURFOM) aims to elevate the voices of disenfranchised Mon and Karen ethnic citizens in non-state armed group (NSAG) controlled areas of Kyar Inn Seik Gyi Township, Karen State. Drawing on 60 interviews conducted in October 2015, HURFOM documents the voices of some of the tens of thousands of citizens in Kyar Inn Seik Gyi Township disenfranchised during this year’s election. In the aftermath of the election, it is important that enthusiasm concerning its outcome does not diminish the significance of these complaints. This report aims to show that concerns over disenfranchisement embody clear violations of citizens’ rights, represent political exclusion of already marginalised populations and constitute clear infractions of international good practices for democratic elections..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Foundation of Monland - Burma (HURFOM)
Format/size: pdf (2.98MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.rehmonnya.org/reports/Ballot-Denied-Full-Report-Eng.pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 January 2016


Title: Half Empty: Burma’s political parties and their human rights commitments
Date of publication: November 2015
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "On 8 November 2015, Burma's electorate will vote for the representatives who will sit in Parliament from 2016 to 2021. The polls are anticipated to usher in a Parliament that will be markedly different from the body that was installed as a result of the November 2010 election and the April 2012 by-elections. This will be due to the significant number of seats that the National League for Democracy (NLD), the party led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, is expected to win. The November 2010 election was tainted by a flawed legal framework, a lack of inclusiveness, widespread corruption, irregularities, and voter fraud, and was boycotted by the NLD. As expected, the military-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) overwhelmingly won the polls. Dominated by the USDP and military-appointed members of Parliament (MPs), Parliament failed to amend or repeal many of Burma’s oppressive laws and blocked key constitutional amendments. In many cases, newly enacted legislation contained provisions that ran counter to international human rights standards. Other new laws prioritized political and economic interests over human rights. In addition, MPs rejected numerous proposals aimed at addressing important human rights issues. The likelihood that the next Parliament’s make-up will be substantially different from the current one does not necessarily mean that lawmakers will be more effective in addressing key human rights issues. This report, based on a survey of the human rights commitments of Burma’s political parties, found that parties generally favored actions aimed at tackling critical issues that have a negative impact on human rights. However, in several of those instances, the report shows that parties failed to identify and prioritize the specific measures that would address key human rights concerns in a direct and effective way. This was particularly true in the areas of legislative reform, ethnic minority rights, and women’s rights, where political considerations seemed to take precedence over human rights concerns. The report’s findings also reflect the disturbing situation regarding religious intolerance in Burma. Forty-two percent of the political parties refused to make any commitments on ways to address discrimination against Muslim Rohingya. More troubling was the fact that several parties aligned themselves with the government’s official position that denies the existence of Rohingya as one of Burma’s ethnic groups. In the final analysis, the alarming result was that almost three quarters of the political parties refused to support the amendment of the 1982 Citizenship Law to give Muslim Rohingya equal access to citizenship rights. In addition, responses in favor of the repeal of recently enacted legislation, misleadingly labeled 'Race and Religion Protection Laws,’ garnered little support among the political parties. The report provides numerous recommendations to MPs, based on statements and reports issued by various UN special procedures as well as resolutions adopted by the UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC) and the UN General Assembly (UNGA). These recommendations provide a clear agenda for parliamentary action to deal with important human rights issues that, if left unaddressed by the newly elected MPs, risk seriously undermining the country’s reform process."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH)
Format/size: pdf (731K-reduced version; 4.55MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/burma-bat-5_report.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 November 2015


Title: The quiet Americans
Date of publication: 22 October 2015
Description/subject: "At Naypyidaw’s invitation, the Carter Center and European Union have come to Burma to observe the general election. DVB speaks to Frederick Rawski, the Myanmar Field Office Director of the Carter Center, and asks him about his team’s mandate and how it will assess Burma’s polls."
Author/creator: COLIN HINSHELWOOD
Language: English
Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 23 October 2015


Title: Burma's 2015 Elections and the 2008 Constitution
Date of publication: October 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "Elections due on 8th November are obviously significant, but they are unlikely to be the major turning point in a transition to democracy that many hope for or have talked them up to be. Rather, they will be another step in the military’s carefully planned transition from direct military rule and pariah status to a hybrid military and civilian government which is accepted by the international community and sections of Burmese society. Burma’s 2008 Constitution is designed to present the appearance of democracy, while maintaining ultimate military control. It is also specifically designed for the eventuality of the National League for Democracy (NLD) winning elections and forming a government, without this being a threat to military control. They were not prepared, however, to risk having Aung San Suu Kyi, the most popular and influential politician in Burma, head that government. Clauses were put in the Constitution to prevent this. A government which is predominantly made up of genuine civilians, which is largely, if indirectly, chosen by citizens, and which has some level of accountability to its citizens, will be an improvement over direct military rule or a military backed government packed full of former generals. But even if the NLD does win the election and forms a government, the Constitution ensures it will be severely hamstrung, and unable to deliver fundamental democratic reforms which reduce the control of the military over every level of Burmese politics and the economy..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Campaign, UK
Format/size: pdf (1.55MB)
Date of entry/update: 11 November 2015


Title: DISENFRANCHISEMENT AND DESPERATION IN MYANMAR’S RAKHINE STATE: Drivers of a Regional Crisis
Date of publication: October 2015
Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The situation in Myanmar’s Rakhine State is driving a regional crisis. Systematic discrim-ination against Rohingya Muslims has contributed to the largest regional outflow of asylum seekers by sea in decades. Humanitarian conditions in Rohingya villages and internally displaced persons (IDP) camps are dire, and Rohingya suffer frequent abuses at the hands of Myanmar authorities. In May 2015, the region was forced to grapple with the results of these conditions, as thousands of Rohingya asylum seekers were stranded on boats in the Andaman Sea, making international headlines. ASEAN leaders met at the time in the hopes of resolving the crisis, but failed to craft a regional response to the drivers of the outflow, which are rooted in Rakhine State. In the months since, these underlying drivers have been compounded by an increasing sense of desperation among Rohingya, driven principally by political exclusion. The disenfranchisement of an estimated one million Rohingya voters, as well as the rejection of dozens of Rohingya parliamentary candidates in advance of the 8 November general election, has led many Rohingya to believe that there is little hope for their future in Myanmar. With no opportunity to take part in perhaps the most consequential election in Myanmar’s history and no hope of any political representation, Rohingya feel they are being forced out of the country. Furthering this perception is the proliferation of anti-Muslim hate speech and sentiment across Myanmar and the government’s failure to address this growing threat. If left unchecked, Buddhist extremists will continue to vilify Rohingya for political purposes, and further episodes of inter-communal violence could erupt in Rakhine State and other areas, driving still more Rohingya to flee their homes. During 2015, ASEAN Parliamentarians for Human Rights (APHR) undertook two fact-finding missions to Myanmar to assess the situation and further investigate the root causes of the Rohingya exodus. APHR’s team of parliamentarians and researchers met with government officials, religious leaders, civil society representatives, and UN agencies, as well as Rohingya and Rakhine community members and IDPs. The findings were clear: ASEAN risks another full-blown crisis as a result of unresolved conditions in Myanmar. Unless serious steps are taken to address the situation of depri-vation and despair in Rakhine State, many Rohingya will have no other option but to flee in search of asylum elsewhere. The next wave of refugees is coming. Tens of thousands of Rohingya have already fled by sea, but nearly a million more are still undergoing heavy persecution throughout Rakhine State. When the remaining Rohingya begin to leave, they will be extremely vulnerable to human trafficking to Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: ASEAN PARLIAMENTARIANS FOR HUMAN RIGHTS via ALSEAN-BURMA
Format/size: pdf (1.20MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.altsean.org/Docs/PDF%20Format/Burma%20Bulletin/October%202015%20Burma%20Bulletin.pdf
Date of entry/update: 06 November 2015


Title: Elections for Ethnic Equality? A Snapshot of Ethnic Perspectives on the 2015 Elections
Date of publication: October 2015
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "In the context of the 2015 elections, this report aims to provide a summary of what these elections mean and how the elections are perceived in ethnic nationality areas of Burma. Given that up to 40% of the population of Burma are not ethnically Burman, it is vital to present the perspectives and attitudes, as well as the political situation, in these ethnic areas in the run up to this much anticipated event. This report finds that ethnic political parties and ethnic civil society broadly agree on fundamental issues: the need for peace, ethnic equality, self-determination, and a federal system of governance. Given the centralized governance structure and the overbearing presence and power of the Burma Army, an institution that has been at war with ethnic nationality actors for over 65 years, it is fundamental structural changes in the way that Burma is governed that will address peace, ethnic equality, self-determination and federalism, not the 2015 elections. The report finds that the State and Region level Parliaments simply do not have power to make essential changes in the lives of ethnic communities. The stipulations in Schedules One and Two of the 2008 Constitution allocate very few responsibilities to the local level while the Chief Minister of the State or Region Parliament is chosen by the President. Both ethnic communities and ethnic political parties feel the impotence of this centralized structure of governance and most stated that they need this to change before they are able to develop policy platforms on issues such as education, health, drugs, and other issues. Furthermore, the Burma Army has entrenched its power through the control of day to day administration through the General Administration Department (GAD), its allocation of 25% seats in Union, and State and Region level Parliaments, as well as control over key ministries. The 2015 elections will not change either of these two structural impediments to ethnic equality - military domination and centralization of governance - and both ethnic political parties and ethnic civil society expressed this in the research conducted. It is important not to forget that there is another ongoing process that seeks to realize aspirations of ethnic equality and self-determination - the peace process. For many ethnic communities, this is the most important political process in Burma today. This is not to state that the 2015 elections are unimportant or irrelevant for ethnic areas. They will serve to develop the political maturity of ethnic political parties that are either very new or have been operating underground or in exile for many years. But amid the hype and optimism surround this historic event, the aspirations of many ethnic communities will remain unfulfilled unless fundamental, structural, institutional changes in governance take place."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Partnership (BP)
Format/size: pdf (677K-reduced version; 1MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmapartnership.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Elections-for-Ethnic-Equality-Layout-11-...
Date of entry/update: 11 October 2015


Title: Carter Center Issues Statement on Candidate Scrutiny Process and Campaign Environment in Myanmar
Date of publication: 25 September 2015
Description/subject: "The Carter Center election observation mission has deployed field teams to observe the electoral campaign, which officially started on Sept. 8. The first week of campaigning, as observed by the Center in three states, was peaceful, and parties report being able to conduct their campaign activities without significant difficulty. The Center remains concerned that strict enforcement of campaign regulations, and recently announced limitations on political speech, could have a negative impact on pre-election political space. The Carter Center also monitored the candidate nomination, scrutiny, and appeals process, including meeting with election commission officials and disqualified candidates. Overall, the process facilitated the registration of a large number of candidates across a broad range of political parties. However, candidate scrutiny lacked due process in some districts, and disqualification of candidates had a disproportionately negative impact on ethnic and religious minorities, in particular on Muslim candidates. Commendably, the Union Election Commission (UEC) intervened and reinstated some candidates, including some from minority groups. Not all such cases were reviewed, though, and almost all Muslim candidates in Rakhine state remain disqualified..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Carter Center
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 29 September 2015


Title: Interview: 'The Political Weather is not Good' in Myanmar Now
Date of publication: 17 September 2015
Description/subject: "In an interview with reporter Myo Zaw Ko of RFA’s Myanmar Service, Ashin Wirathu of the Committee for the Protection of Nationality and Religion (Ma Ba Tha), lays out his Buddhist nationalist group's views on the Nov. 8 general elections, national security and communal relations in a country torn by strife between majority Buddhists and minority Muslims."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Radio Free Asia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 September 2015


Title: Ethnic Politics and the 2015 Elections in Myanmar (English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 08 September 2015
Description/subject: Conclusion: "Myanmar goes to the polls in 2015 in a very different political context to the general elections in 2010 or 1990. Indeed, provided that political campaigning and the conduct of the polls are genuinely free and fair, it should become the most broadly contested election since independence in 1948. Yet, while political space has opened up and there have been many reforms since President Thein Sein assumed office in 2011, core ethnic aspirations have yet to be realized – either through parliament or the national peace process. The country and its politics remain polarized and ethnicity highly politicized. For this reason, while the elections have the potential to be reasonably credible and inclusive (although far from uniformly so) and ethnic parties may fare reasonably well, it is not clear that the structures and processes in Myanmar politics are at present capable of effectively addressing the legacy of decades of ethnic conflict and discrimination that continue to leave many communities in the country neglected and marginalised. It is therefore vital that the election is closely monitored and openly pursued and that, whatever the outcome, it is not perceived as an end itself but another step in a reform process that still has a long way to run in bringing peace, equality and democratic rights to all the country’s peoples. A historic challenge awaits Myanmar’s leaders through the 2015 polls. As with the peace talks towards a nationwide ceasefire, they provide the opportunity for different parties to work constructively together in building a democratic future for the country. The question remains: will the 2015 election become the platform from which the issues of ethnic peace and inclusive reform are really grappled with, or will they result in another failed opportunity to do so?"
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
Format/size: pdf (256K-en; 2.7-bu-reduced; 3.32MB-bu-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/TNI-2015-09-2015_elections-en.pdf
https://www.tni.org/files/publication-downloads/policy-brief_myanmar-elections-2015.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/TNI-2015-09-2015_elections-bu-red.pdf
(Burmese version dated 16 September 2015)
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2015


Title: Holding Back the Tide: can Myanmar’s democratic political leaders prevent a de facto religious test for full citizenship rights?
Date of publication: 25 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "In 2010 Myanmar held its first elections for two decades, transitioning from direct military rule to a notionally civilian form of government. Accompanying this political transition has been increased political and media freedom. Democracy means public opinion is more important than ever to the country’s political leaders, while reforms to Myanmar’s media censorship regime have allowed previously suppressed opinions to be widely disseminated through the media. While pro-democracy political groups have taken the opportunity to organise, this paper is concerned with the opportunities these freedoms have provided to Myanmar’s more divisive political figures. Ethnic relations in Myanmar have been a long-standing source of domestic conflict. Ethnicity can be a test for citizenship and ethnic identity is often closely linked with religion. Communal conflict between elements of the country’s Buddhist majority and the Muslim minority since 2012 have exposed previously suppressed staunch anti-Muslim voices from within the Buddhist community. Notably, the 969 Movement, activist monk Ashin Wirathu and the Ma Ba Tha have argued it is in Myanmar’s national interest to protect the Buddhist religion from a perceived Muslim threat, calling for restrictions to Muslims’ political and civil freedoms. This paper suggests that the success of U Wirathu and the Ma Ba Tha’s political agenda would add another layer of complexity to how Myanmar’s citizenship laws operate in practice since existing citizens would have their rights restricted on the basis of religion. This would amount to the creation of a de facto religious tes t for full Myanmar citizenship rights. In the context of Myanmar’s limited democracy (Kingsbury 2014), this paper asks, can Myanmar’s national political leaders hold back the apparent tide of popular support for the creation of a de facto religious state? The author will argue that Myanmar’s political leaders, facing a national general election in November 2015, will not take the necessary steps to hold back this tide of support for discriminatory policies and the consequence, while perhaps unintended, will be the creation of a de-facto official state religion.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Ronan Lee
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (412K)
Date of entry/update: 07 August 2015


Title: Myanmar’s National Election of 2015
Date of publication: 21 July 2015
Description/subject: "...This article first aims to set the scene by providing a glimpse of Myanmar’s parliament and capital in Naypyitaw. Second, it focuses on the key players and institutions involved in the elections. Third, it clarifies the complicated mechanics of the Parliament, how it will determine which political party will hold the confidence of the electorate, and how that body elects the President. Fourth, it reflects on key social and microeconomic issues which will impact the electorate, in particular the dark side of Buddhist nationalism, and the role of Aung San Suu Kyi as a national leader in whatever office she finally achieves. Fifth, I provide a brief reflection on what implications the elections might have for Canada. I conclude by arguing that democratic advances will be made in the election, but that the real moment of truth will unfold in the days ahead as key public and armed forces personalities work out a balance of power. Myanmar has made huge progress in liberalizing its political environment, but it will take decades for the military to retire from its long-promoted image as the singular embodiment of the nation’s ruling force..."
Author/creator: Bruce Matthews
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 28 September 2015


Title: Negotiations on draft Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA) deadlocked
Date of publication: 01 July 2015
Description/subject: "In Myanmar, a summit of ethnic armed group leaders rejected the NCA text agreed in March, making it almost certain that the agreement will not be signed before the country goes to elections later this year. This makes it highly unlikely that there will be further progress on talks to end the decades-long conflict for the next twelve months, and increases the risk of armed conflict over the coming year. It also means more areas could be declared too insecure for elections to take place..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Crisiswatch No. 143)
Format/size: pdf (54K)
Date of entry/update: 02 July 2015


Title: Free and fair elections in Myanmar?
Date of publication: 19 June 2015
Description/subject: "2015 Myanmar/Burma Update: military and international observers will be key to ensuring elections run smoothly. Myanmar’s upcoming election serves to highlight the role of the parliament in conflict resolution, the role of the election in ongoing conflict, and the relationship between law and conflict. That was the view of specialist panel on electoral politics at the 2015 Myanmar/Burma Update..."
Author/creator: Amy Doffegnies & Cecile Medail
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 June 2015


Title: Listen in to the 2015 Myanmar/Burma Update
Date of publication: 17 June 2015
Description/subject: "For those of you not fortunate enough to get to Canberra for the 2015 Myanmar/Burma Update, we’ve got the next best thing. You can listen to seven of the eight conference sessions in the playlist above. Recordings cover the keynote address by Speaker of Myanmar’s Upper House, HE U Khin Aung Myint, the political update by Mary Callaghan, the economics update, two panels on borderland conflicts and the peace process, communal and sectarian violence in Rakhine State (featuring testimony from long-time Rohingya politician U Kyaw Min), and a wrap up on the many other forms of conflict in the country."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 June 2015


Title: ‘The perfect storm’
Date of publication: 05 June 2015
Description/subject: "2015 Myanmar/Burma Update: how national elections and the peace process in Myanmar may clash in the coming year. International observers should manage their expectations about elections and peace in Myanmar, says leading expert Professor Mary Callahan. Speaking at the 2015 Myanmar/Burma Update at the ANU Coral Bell School of Asia Pacific Affairs, Callahan argued that the coming year will see two key ‘macro processes’ in the country. On one hand will be the first national elections in the country in 25 years. And on the other hand the peace process – and the hope for a National Ceasefire Agreement. She suggests that the combination of elections and the peace process – in the context of so much other flux – is the making of a ‘perfect storm’. The two processes may be mutually harmful and disappointing, and yet they may also have some unexpected positive consequences. This caution about a ‘perfect storm’ comes from the fact national elections and the peace process may be in tension. On one hand, elections are by nature ‘about contestation and polarisation. Winners take all and the losers go home,’ said Callahan. So political parties will likely inflame tensions as they attempt to garner support and undermine the positions of opponents. On the other hand, a peace process by nature is about ‘building bridges, expanding inclusion, moving away from zero sum politics and trying to develop respect for alternative visions and aspirations,’ she said. In this sense, the process of the peace negotiations is very different to that of elections..."
Author/creator: Tamas Wells
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 July 2015


Title: Myanmar’s Electoral Landscape
Date of publication: 28 April 2015
Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "Myanmar is preparing to hold national elections in early November 2015, five years after the last full set of polls brought the semi-civilian reformist government to power. The elections, which are constitutionally required within this timeframe, will be a major political inflection point, likely replacing a legislature dominated by the Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP), established by the former regime, with one more reflective of popular sentiment. The opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) party of Aung San Suu Kyi is well-placed to take the largest bloc of seats. There have been major improvements in election administration since the deeply flawed 2010 elections and the more credible 2012 by-elections. While the election commission is still widely perceived as close to the government and the USDP, the transparent and consultative approach it has adopted and the specific decisions it has taken suggest it is committed to delivering credible polls. This includes major efforts to update and digitise the voter roll; consultation with civil society and international electoral support organisations on the regulatory framework; invitations to international electoral observers for the first time, as well as to domestic observers; changing problematic provisions on advance voting; and reducing the costs of a candidacy. The broader political environment is also more conducive to credible elections, with a significantly freer media and much improved civil liberties. There remain major challenges to a credible, inclusive and peaceful election. Much of the periphery of the country is affected by armed conflict, and though there have been important steps toward bringing the six-decade civil war to a close, the process remains fragile and incomplete. The vote could be marred by violence in some areas and will not be possible in others. In central Myanmar, rising Burman nationalism and anti-Muslim sentiment have exploded sporadically into violence, something that could happen again in the politically charged context of an election. In Rakhine state, minority Muslim communities have been disenfranchised by a decision to cancel their identification documents. Electoral security and risk management preparations have become a critical priority of the election commission. Capacity constraints will also come into play. The country has very limited experience of democratic polls, including government staff, security services and election commission staff at the local level. Understanding among the electorate is also very low, and major education efforts will be required. For the elections to be successful, there must also be broad acceptance of the results. In a context of divergent expectations and, inevitably, winners and losers, this will be a challenge. While reformist government leaders appear reconciled to the prospect of the NLD winning the most seats, it is unclear whether this sentiment is shared by a majority of the old elite. Similarly, it is unclear whether the NLD’s base fully understands likely post-election scenarios. With Aung San Suu Kyi constitutionally barred from the presidency and no obvious alternative within its ranks, it is probable that even if the party wins a landslide, it will have to select a compromise candidate for president – potentially a reformist member of the old regime. The some three months between the elections and the presidential electoral college’s decision will be a time of considerable uncertainty, possible tension, and intense behind-the-scenes negotiation. The outcome, and the extent to which it is broadly accepted, will determine whether there is a smooth transfer of power and whether the next administration will have the broad support necessary to govern or have its legitimacy constantly questioned. Probably the most important factor will be the support – or at least acquiescence ­– of the military, which retains strong influence over the process. The commander-in-chief has voiced support for the democratic electoral process and has undoubtedly foreseen the prospect of strong support for the NLD. But this does not mean he would be comfortable with all the potential implications of such an outcome. The elections are coming less than five years into what will continue to be a long and difficult transition for Myanmar. They create a moment of political competition and polarisation in a transition process that requires compromise and consensus. If credible and inclusive, they can help to build confidence that the country is on a new political path and thereby inject fresh momentum into the reforms. Equally, they could damage the delicate set of compromises that has so far kept the process broadly on track. It behoves political leaders on all sides to ensure that they keep this larger prize foremost in their minds."
Language: English
Source/publisher: (International) Crisis Group
Format/size: pdf (423K)
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2015


Title: From Novelty to Normalcy: Polling in Myanmar’s Democratic Transition
Date of publication: April 2015
Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "This report examines the state of opinion research in Myanmar,, identi5es challenges, and makes recommendations for improvements. Since the government of Myanmar announced a transition from military rule to democracy in 2010, both domestic and international stakeholders have turned to polling to discover public opinion on a range of issues. Polling is critical in transitioning countries. Polls can provide parties with data to understand the needs and desires of the electorate and serve as a check on government excesses. 6ey make information on public views widely available and can represent both the diversity of existing opinions and positions of minority populations. Finally, they show a road to political compromise and prepare parties and the public to deal with election outcomes. 6e Western public accepts and expects polling on a regular basis, but we did not 5nd that always the case in Myanmar. Although Myanmar has a decades-long history of market surveys, political polling is a relatively new phenomenon. Organizations operating in this 5eld face four major challenges. 6e 5rst is selecting a sample in a country that lacks reliable census or voter registration data, and lacks comprehensive access to telephones or the internet. 6e second is how to provide survey questionnaires in several languages to accommodate Myanmar’s numerous ethnic groups. 6e third challenge relates to interviewers, both to their training and to accounting for possible response bias based on the interaction between the interviewer’s socio-demographic background and the respondent’s. Finally, polling groups and interviewers must ensure respondents’ con5dentiality. 6ese problems are not unique to Myanmar. Pollsters around the world regularly grapple with similar dilemmas. What makes their task more challenging in Myanmar is the novelty of polling. Few people (even in civil society and political parties) understand its nature, and many are quick to dismiss the whole exercise when they do not like some of a poll’s results. 6e report examines and refutes several of their criticisms, perhaps the most common being that a sample, no matter how large, cannot capture the full diversity of opinions in a country as large and heterogeneous as Myanmar. It is possible to tackle these misperceptions and improve practices. Our recommendations for immediate actions can be implemented ahead of the parliamentary election this year. 6ey include suggestions on conducting polls, providing frameworks for their interpretation, and training potential users to understand polling data. Long-term change will require consistent attention and investment from polling groups, those who commission them, and users of polling data to strengthen the polling 5eld. Most importantly, polling organizations should continue making their data publicly available. 6ose who conduct and commission public surveys need to do so on a regular basis. Both practices will teach the public to see polls as a normal element of a democratic process and become another step in Myanmar’s transition to a full-7edged democracy."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Open Society Foundations (OSF)
Format/size: pdf (413K)
Date of entry/update: 07 April 2015


Title: Preliminary Findings of The Carter Center Expert Mission to Myanmar December 2014 – February 2015
Date of publication: March 2015
Description/subject: "The general elections in Myanmar planned for late 2015 could mark a major step forward in the political reform process that began in 2011. Despite a high level of mistrust in government, the general public appears to have an overall positive view of elections and overwhelmingly intends to vote.1 Significantly, the government has made a public commitment to inviting international and national election observation organizations to monitor the election process, a notable difference from the 2010 and 2012 elections. The Carter Center, at the invitation of the Union Election Commission (UEC), is conducting an assessment of the pre-election environment in preparation for the deployment of a larger election observation mission. This is the Carter Center’s first statement since deploying staff to the states and regions in December 2014. In this preliminary assessment, The Carter Center finds that there are efforts underway to make the electoral process more transparent and less vulnerable to manipulation. However, a number of key challenges need to be addressed in order to ensure that the elections earn the confidence of voters, political parties, and civil society organizations. The main findings include:..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Carter Center
Format/size: pdf (447K)
Date of entry/update: 16 May 2015


Title: Myanmar’s Troubled Path to Reform Political Prospects in a Landmark Election Year
Date of publication: February 2015
Description/subject: SUMMARY: "• Myanmar’s transition from military rule to democracy is far from complete, and its successes to date remain fragile. Given the chronic inertia and isolation of the previous half-century, there has been remarkable progress since 2011. But more work is needed to consolidate democracy, improve governance and promote stability. • Legislative elections due by the end of 2015 promise to be pivotal for the country’s political development. The elections are likely to be the freest in decades, but the opportunity for constitutional reform ahead of the polls appears to have been missed. • A political compromise between the military-dominated Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) and the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) no longer looks feasible before the elections. • Ceasefires with ethnic minorities in recent years have improved the security situation, but a national peace settlement has proven elusive. Armed groups may prefer to await the outcome of the elections rather than negotiate with the current government. • Sectarian rivalry and the legacy of prolonged government neglect are fuelling continued instability in Rakhine state. Domestic and international actors must address the crisis in the state urgently, or risk the emergence of a situation that threatens national unity as well as regional stability.".....CONCLUSION: A CRITICAL YEAR: "Myanmar faces enormous challenges, with the elections at the end of the year likely to be a turning point in its history. They could herald a new era that sees a diminishing role for the military, better relations with the outside world – including the West – and a country at peace with itself and embracing its many minorities. There are other futures too. A reform process that stumbles badly is clearly imaginable – not least over the position of Aung San Suu Kyi in national life; ceasefires that do not hold with increasingly restless minorities; and the emergence of Rakhine state as potentially a new flashpoint in a rising global Islamist agenda. These dangers are all too real. In all likelihood Myanmar will find itself caught between these two scenarios. The elections will almost certainly proceed; abandoning reform is simply not an option now, even for military hardliners. Although much of institutional life is still dominated by the military, a real politics has emerged in Myanmar in recent years. Any attempt to put the democratic genie back in the bottle is unlikely. But the potential for unrest, and even violence, remains considerable. At the same time, other Southeast Asian histories offer alternative possibilities. While the military appears to be firmly back in charge in neighbouring Thailand, Indonesia has evolved into one of the more robust democracies in Southeast Asia. In doing so, the country has overcome a toxic legacy of 33 years of military rule (from 1965 to 1998) and has successfully fended off threats of internal secession and Islamist extremism. Indonesia’s example is one that many in Myanmar still hope their country can follow."
Author/creator: Michael C. Williams
Language: English
Source/publisher: Chatham House
Format/size: pdf (270K-reduced version; 296K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/files/chathamhouse/field/field_document/20150226Myanmar.pdf
Date of entry/update: 26 May 2015


Title: Myanmar 2014: Civic Knowledge and Values in a Changing Society (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ )
Date of publication: 11 December 2014
Description/subject: "Burmese version. A survey to document public knowledge and awareness of new government institutions and processes, and to gauge the political, social, and economic values held by people from diverse backgrounds, to inform the country's long-term development. The survey included face-to-face interviews with more than 3,000 respondents across all 14 Myanmar states and regions.."
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: pdf (14MB-reduced version; 18.7MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/FullMyanmar2014MM.pdf
Date of entry/update: 05 January 2015


Title: Myanmar 2014: Civic Knowledge and Values in a Changing Society (English)
Date of publication: December 2014
Description/subject: "A survey to document public knowledge and awareness of new government institutions and processes, and to gauge the political, social, and economic values held by people from diverse backgrounds, to inform the country's long-term development. The survey included face-to-face interviews with more than 3,000 respondents across all 14 Myanmar states and regions."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-reduced version; 1.7MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs20/AF-2014-MyanmarSurvey-en-red.pdf
http://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/MM2014SurveySummaryReportENG.pdf
Date of entry/update: 05 January 2015


Title: Road to Democracy - Myanmar's election struggle (video)
Date of publication: 04 November 2013
Description/subject: "...After half a century of brutal military rule, Myanmar is undergoing an impressive transition to democracy. But with ongoing political arrests and ethnic tensions, the country is anxious not to veer off course...."We dared not speak up in the past. Now we dare to because we have been given the right", says a protester campaigning against land grabs in south-east Yangon. Relaxed censorship has translated into a boom in newspaper readership, comedians free to criticise the government and even a saucy girl band fighting gender stereotypes. But while hundreds of political prisoners have been released, protesters who fail to secure a protest permit face years in prisons. With Aung San Suu Kyi still constitutionally barred from becoming president, many laws need to be rewritten. The President's spokesman openly admits the government's shortcomings. Activist Ko Moe Thwa vigilance is paramount: "the country has changed but we need to watch carefully where this change is leading"...."
Author/creator: Anjali Rao
Language: English (spoken and sub-titles; Burmese)
Source/publisher: Journeyman Pictures
Format/size: Adobe Flash (21 minutes)
Alternate URLs: http://www.journeyman.tv/?lid=66116&bid=2 (video, further information + transcript)
Date of entry/update: 11 November 2015


Title: 2015 Burma Elections
Description/subject: 56 reports on 2015 Burma election.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Burma Partnership"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 November 2015


Title: Results of a local search for "Myanmar Election 2015" on edition.cnn.com
Description/subject: 784 results (November 2015)...Search by either relevance or date.
Language: English
Source/publisher: CNN
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2015