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Burma: Internal displacement/forced migration of individual ethnic groups

  • Internal displacement/forced migration of Kachin

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: KACHIN emergency page
    Description/subject: Maps, Baseline data, Population, 3W
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 04 July 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: IDPs in Kachin State - List of IDPs as of 31 August 2012
    Date of publication: 31 August 3023
    Description/subject: By District, Camp; population figures by by age and gender
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Social Affairs Ministry office, KSG
    Format/size: pdf (55K)
    Date of entry/update: 10 September 2012


    Title: Humanitarian Situation in Kachin & Rakhine States (05 Nov 2012)
    Date of publication: 05 November 2012
    Description/subject: Text, maps and photos
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
    Format/size: pdf (646K)
    Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


    Title: From persecution to deprivation - International donors neglect 60,000 displaced Kachin on China-Burma border
    Date of publication: 02 October 2012
    Description/subject: "About 60,000 Kachin villagers fleeing Burma Army attacks and persecution, who are sheltering in Kachin-controlled territory along the China-Burma border, have received almost no international aid since conflict broke out in June 2011. Data compiled from local relief groups shows that international aid agencies, including the UN, have provided only 4% of basic food needs of this displaced population, who have been kept alive almost entirely by private donations from local and overseas compatriots. Over 2 million US dollars are needed a month for food. Lack of official access and fears of aid diversion have been cited by international donors as reasons for not responding to the crisis. However, well-established mechanisms exist to deliver aid accountably through local community-based organizations. Escalating conflict has caused numbers of displaced to triple over the past year, creating an untenable burden for local communities. International donors must immediately step in to coordinate a large-scale relief effort to address the needs of these displaced Kachin..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Kachin Women's Association Thailand (KWAT)
    Format/size: pdf (412K-OBL version; 1.5MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.kachinwomen.com/images/stories/publication/from_persecution_deprivation.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 04 October 2012


    Title: Fighting and Ongoing Displacement in Kachin State, Burma: Update
    Date of publication: 01 June 2012
    Description/subject: KEY DEVELOPMENTS: "While ceasefire negotiations are taking place in some ethnic areas, attacks continue in Kachin State, Northern Burma. The Burma Army is pressing its attacks in Kachin State with over 100 battalions deployed. There are over 50,000 Kachin people displaced, over 60 Kachin civilians killed and 100 Kachin soldiers killed. Burma Army casualties are unknown, but estimated at 1,000 wounded and killed. Along with the KIO, WPN, Partners and other organizations, the Kachin FBR teams are helping those in need"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers (FBR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2012


    Title: Kachin Response Plan March 2012-February 2013 (June 2012 revision)
    Date of publication: June 2012
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Instability that started in June 2011 across Kachin and northern Shan states has resulted in displace‐ ment, damage of infrastructure and loss of lives and livelihoods. Despite ongoing peace negotiations be‐ tween parties to the conflict, incidents continue to be reported.    The number of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) has been steadily increasing since the beginning of the conflict to an estimated 65,000 IDPs in July 2012. These people sought refuge in camps, in pub‐ lic buildings, with host families or in the forest. In addition, an estimated 6,000 to 7,000 persons have reportedly sought refuge in China. The numbers of IDPs continue to fluctuate and in some locations, a small number of IDPs temporarily returned to their villages to attempt savaging some of their liveli‐ hood, leaving some of their family members in camps or with relatives. Available information indi‐ cates that these returns are not permanent or sub‐ stantial in numbers, as IDPs continue to be con‐ cerned over ongoing tensions and instability as well as presence of landmines...In an effort to improve the level of assistance and co‐ ordination, local and international partners undertook an analysis of the situation in November 2011 and identified scenarios for the coming six months, against which sectoral plans and priorities were identified. The plan was revised in February 2012, and again in June 2012 taking into account the rapidly changing situa‐ tion, protracted displacement and ongoing discussions around return planning.   The revised planning document includes an analysis of the assistance provided to date, of the scenario in the coming year (March 2012‐February 2013), and a re‐ view of sectoral requirements, including those to cater for existing gaps and expected need for additional re‐ sources for the provision of life‐saving relief assistance as well as to support pockets of return for a total of up to 85,000 people affected by the ongoing instability. This follows the steady increase in the numbers of IDPs across Kachin and Northern Shan States, partly in re‐ sponse to ongoing incidents and insecurity in these areas. It also takes into consideration the additional needs caused by the monsoon rains.   Partners estimated that relief assistance would be re‐ quired even if the situation was to normalize in the coming months, as most of the IDPs lost their posses‐ sions, their sources of livelihood, the planting season and social services would take some time to become fully functional again. In addition, the monsoon season has an adverse impact on the already challenging shel‐ ter and WASH conditions in the IDP locations, as well as on the logistical situation. Road conditions are con‐ tinuously deteriorating due to the heavy rains, making the provision of assistance all the more important.   In line with the previous version of the document de‐ veloped in March 2012, the plan concentrates on the immediate relief requirements for one year (March 2012‐February 2013). The requirements articulated in the plan include remaining needs of up to 85,000 people either currently displaced or likely be dis‐ placed in the months to come. Humanitarian part‐ ners predict that a total of US$35.8 million are re‐ quired to cover the humanitarian needs for the pe‐ riod of March 2012 to February 2013. Priorities for sectoral interventions include:..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UN OCHA
    Format/size: pdf (987K)
    Date of entry/update: 28 September 2012


    Title: Burma Army Mortars Villages and Burns Homes in Kachin State; 50,000 people displaced
    Date of publication: 22 April 2012
    Description/subject: KEY DEVELOPMENTS: "Burma Army fighting continues in Kachin State since the original outbreak of violence on 9 June 2011, when Burma Army soldiers broke the ceasefire previously held with the Kachin Independence Army (KIA). As Burma Army attacks continue, the KIA attempts to defend the population and numerous clashes have occurred between Burma Army and KIA soldiers. Burma Army soldiers have also repeatedly attacked civilian villages, often occupying and looting the village afterwards and forcing villagers to flee. Free Burma Ranger teams have collected multiple reports of extrajudicial killing, imprisonment and torture. There are over 50,000 Internally Displaced People in camps on the border, with thousands more hiding in the jungle."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers (FBR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2012


    Title: Kachin plight reveals Burma's patchy progress
    Date of publication: 02 April 2012
    Description/subject: '"Welcome to our new Kachin townships," the camp administrator said sarcastically as he guided us down the muddy path leading to one of the dozens of refugee camps scattered through Kachin, the thin sliver of land which forms Burma's northernmost region. Makeshift shelters constructed from canvas and bamboo are now home for thousands of internally displaced people. The United Nations refugee agency say there are more than 50,000 displaced people here, the Kachin put the figure much higher..."
    Author/creator: Sue Lloyd Roberts
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: BBC Newsnight
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 April 2012


    Title: Untold Miseries - Wartime Abuses and Forced Displacement in Burma’s Kachin State
    Date of publication: 19 March 2012
    Description/subject: 'When Burmese President Thein Sein took office in March 2011, he said that over 60 years of armed conflict have put Burma’s ethnic populations through “the hell of untold miseries.” Just three months later, the Burmese armed forces resumed military operations against the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), leading to serious abuses and a humanitarian crisis affecting tens of thousands of ethnic Kachin civilians. “Untold Miseries”: Wartime Abuses and Forced Displacement in Kachin State is based on over 100 interviews in Burma’s Kachin State and China’s Yunnan province. It details how the Burmese army has killed and tortured civilians, raped women, planted antipersonnel landmines, and used forced labor on the front lines, including children as young as 14-years-old. Soldiers have attacked villages, razed homes, and pillaged properties. Burmese authorities have failed to authorize a serious relief effort in KIA-controlled areas, where most of the 75,000 displaced men, women, and children have sought refuge. The KIA has also been responsible for serious abuses, including using child soldiers and antipersonnel landmines. Human Rights Watch calls on the Burmese government to support an independent international mechanism to investigate violations of international human rights and humanitarian law by all parties to Burma’s ethnic armed conflicts. The government should also provide United Nations and humanitarian agencies unhindered access to all internally displaced populations, and make a long-term commitment with humanitarian agencies to authorize relief to populations in need.'
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: pdf (1.7MB - OBL version; 2.25MB - original))
    Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/burma0312ForUpload_1.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 20 March 2012


    Title: Humanitarian Situation and Response Plan in Kachin - March 2012 update
    Date of publication: 12 March 2012
    Description/subject: "...Between June 2011 and February 2012, instability across Kachin and northern Shan states resulted in displacement, damage of infrastructure and loss of lives and livelihoods. Despite ongoing peace negotiation between parties to the conflict, incidents continue to be reported. Additionally, there are indications that a number of people fled just across the Myanmar-China border and live with relatives or in temporary makeshift camps, but information is still unclear and cannot be independently verified. The number of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) steadily increased from September 2011 (approx 20,000 people) to an estimated 50-55,000 people at present. These people sought refuge in camps, in public buildings, in host families or in the jungle. The numbers of IDPs continue to fluctuate and in some locations, some IDPs temporarily return to their villages to attempt salvaging some of their livelihood, leaving some of their family members in camps or with relatives. Available information indicates that these returns are not permanent or substantial in numbers, as IDPs continue to be concerned over ongoing tensions and instability as well as presence of landmines. Whilst the Kachin State Government started a planning exercise encompassing return and recovery operations, the Union Government and the Kachin State Government have clearly stated that only those who wish to return should do so, and that assistance in camps must continue. The State Government indicated relief aid and recovery operations will require support from the aid community well into 2013. Whilst partners are able to provide a wide range of assistance to some 19,000 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) located in fully accessible towns of Myitkyina, Waingmaw, Bhamo, Mansi, Momauk, Putao and Shwegu, some (mostly local) partners do have some degree of access to population in other locations. Limited ability for a wide range of partners to reach all those in need resulted in further suffering, as gaps and inequality in assistance is a fact of life for a significant portion of the affected people..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UN OCHA
    Format/size: pdf (595K)
    Date of entry/update: 13 March 2012


    Title: Burma Army continues attacks, burns houses and kills one man and two women; over 40,000 Kachin people now displaced by attacks and more preparing to run
    Date of publication: 22 January 2012
    Description/subject: KEY DEVELOPMENTS: * The Burma Army is currently attacking within six miles of Mai Ja Yang, a city in Kachin State that is a refuge for over 1,000 displaced people * The Burma Army is firing an average of 100 mortar rounds per day into this area and is receiving reinforcements. * Over 40,000 Kachin people now displaced by attacks and more are preparing to run
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers (FBR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2012


    Title: Myanmar - Monthly Humanitarian Update. Issue: December 2011 / January 2012
    Date of publication: January 2012
    Description/subject: Key Developments: • Displacement and humanitarian needs continue to increase in Kachin State due to continued instability. A UN team visited Laiza in Kachin State and provided household family kits to IDPs... • Serious concern over southern Chin State Food insecurity.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UN OCHA
    Format/size: pdf (3.4MB)
    Date of entry/update: 17 February 2012


    Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Kachin State - 28 December 2011
    Date of publication: 28 December 2011
    Description/subject: HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: • Displacement and humanitarian needs continue to increase. The urgent needs include shelter, NFIs, WASH, vaccines and psychosocial support, among others... • The UN team visited Laiza and provided NFI assistance to IDPs. Advocacy for follow up missions across all affected areas continues
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UN OCHA
    Format/size: pdf (329K)
    Date of entry/update: 17 February 2012


    Title: Burma Army Kills Woman and Continues Attacks in Ba Maw District, Kachin State
    Date of publication: 27 December 2011
    Description/subject: The Burma Army continues to attack people in three townships of Ba Maw District, Kachin State: Mun Si Township, Shwegu Township and Ba Maw Township. On 16 December 2011, Burma Army soldiers killed a woman from Prang Kawng Village. The woman, 30-year-old Lamung Kaw Seng, suffered from a mental disability. As Burma Army troops approached the village, all the villagers fled except for Lamung Kaw Seng. When the soldiers found her, they killed her and threw her into a toilet pit.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers (FBR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2012


    Title: Burma Army Continues Attacks in Kachin State as of 14 December 2011
    Date of publication: 16 December 2011
    Description/subject: KEY DEVELOPMENTS: * The Burma Army continued attacks against the Kachin people and every day there is shelling from attacking Burma Army units. There has been no ceasefire by the Burma Army troops in this area. * There are over 30,000 displaced Kachin villagers now in hiding.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers (FBR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2012


    Title: Humanitarian Situation and Response Plan in Kachin - 13 December 2011
    Date of publication: 13 December 2011
    Description/subject: CURRENT SITUATION: "Instability in Kachin and Shan States restarted in early June 2011 and resulted in the displacement of populations, loss of lives and livelihoods and dam-ages to infrastructure. Following a Government invi-tation, an inter-agency rapid needs assessment was conducted from 20-26 September in 39 locations in some IDPs sites (camps, host families, public build-ings) of five townships (Bhamo, Momauk, Myitky-ina, Khaunglanhpu and Waingmaw) targeting 5,925 IDPs. Two townships Mansi and Shwegu could not be assessed due to security concerns. Of the as-sessed beneficiaries, some 4% were vulnerable, be-sides there were 56% children under 18 years of age, 17% of children under 5 and 12.5% female or child headed IDP families. Although figures of displaced population continue to fluctuate and are reportedly increasing on a daily basis, it is currently estimated that between 35,000 and 40,000 IDPs may have left their homes and sought refuge in camps, with friends and relatives or into the forest across the affected region. As an indication of the rapidly increasing caseload, accord-ing to the Kachin State authorities, between Sep-tember and the end of November 2011, the number of IDPs living in Myitkyina, Waingmaw, Bhamo, Mansi, Momauk and Shwegu has increased from 5,900 to 10,000 IDPs. Across all affected areas, available –albeit not independently verified - infor-mation indicate that, in the same period, the num-ber of displaced passed from 20,000 to 35-40,000 persons..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UN OCHA
    Format/size: pdf (765K)
    Date of entry/update: 17 February 2012


    Title: Burma Army Kills Villager and Burns Homes While 3000 Flee Ongoing Attacks in Kachin State
    Date of publication: 30 November 2011
    Description/subject: "The Burma Army has killed a villager and over 20 villages have fled attacks and mortar fire in Momauk Township, Kachin State. Light Infantry Battalion (LIB) 73 under Division 88 has been attacking villages, with troops from Divisions 33, 44, 66 also entering the area. At least 400 Burma Army soldiers have been involved in the attacks, using 120mm and 60mm mortars and machine guns. Fighting in the area has increased and the Burma Army is building at least four new camps, using forced labor. Over 3,000 people have been displaced."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers (FBR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2012


    Title: Troops raze Kachin villages, locals flee
    Date of publication: 11 November 2011
    Description/subject: "Burmese troops burned down around 50 homes in a village in eastern Kachin state two days ago as they prepare for an offensive against the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), despite assertions from fleeing residents that no rebels inhabit the village. In response, the KIA has told locals living in areas close to the town of Waingmaw to leave, prompting some 3,000 people to join those who fled the razed Aungja village as they make for the border with China. A DVB reporter in Kachin state said that Burmese army battalions were closing in on the KIA’s Brigade 3 in Sanpai, which was being fiercely defended by the rebels..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2012


    Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Kachin State - Humanitarian Update No. 1
    Date of publication: 26 October 2011
    Description/subject: • The instability in Kachin State that started in early June 2011 has resulted in the displacement of populations, loss of livelihoods and damages to infrastructure... • The recently-completed joint assessment in 39 locations in Kachin State reveals urgent needs in several sectors, including food, education, shelter, health, NFIs and water and sanitation... • Access and delivery of assistance remain challenging
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UN OCHA
    Format/size: pdf (218K)
    Date of entry/update: 17 February 2012


    Title: Kachin Rapid Assessment |1
    Date of publication: September 2011
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The instability in Kachin and Shan States that started in early June 2011 has resulted in the displacement of populations, loss of lives and livelihoods and damages to infrastructure. The Kachin State government, local and community]based organizations have been providing some assistance to the displaced since the outset of the conflict. International organizations have been providing limited assistance through support to local and community]based organizations, while continuing to advocate for humanitarian assistance to be provided to all civilians in need. Following a Government invitation, a rapid needs assessment was conducted in 39 locations in some areas of five townships: Bhamo, Momauk, Myitkyina, Khaunglanhpu and Waingmaw, and targeted 5,925 internally displaced persons (IDPs). Two townships ] Mansi and Shwegu ] could not be assessed due to security reasons. Of the total assessed population, the assessment findings indicate that 57% are female and 56% under]18. The IDPs are temporarily residing in community buildings, temporary camps/shelters or with host families. Most of the IDPs are located in urban areas, while those in rural areas are primarily being sheltered by host families. While the number of IDPs is fluctuating on a daily basis, the assessment found that a large majority of those assessed ] 4,026 ] has been displaced for over two months. Among people with special needs the survey identified 70 unaccompanied minors, 196 female] or child]headed households, 40 chronically ill and 36 persons with disabilities. In general, due to the easier accessibility and the presence of a larger number of aid agencies, the IDPs in Myitkyina and Waingmaw have been receiving more assistance than those in Bhamo and Momauk. Access and delivery of assistance for many of the locations continue to be a major challenge, particularly in the southern townships of Bhamo, Momauk, Mansi and Shwegu given the security situation and damage to infrastructure, including access routes. Living conditions, particularly in larger temporary camps/shelters and community buildings where the population density is high, are challenging. The assessment found that 20 of the 39 surveyed locations are in urgent need of additional shelter assistance. Temporary camps/shelters would need to be upgraded with improved roofing, more durable and safer shelters, additional numbers of tents to lessen the population density, allocation of cooking spaces and relocation of latrines further away from the living quarters. These measures would make the temporary camps/shelters healthier and safer for children and women. IDPs in community buildings such as churches and community halls also suffer from over]population and the resulting lack of adequate sleeping space as well as lack of privacy for families. I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY While some non]food items (NFIs) have been provided by the Government and local and community]based organizations, to date, most of the IDPs require additional NFI support, including plastic sheeting, cooking utensils, blankets and clothes. These needs are most urgent in Bhamo and Momauk. Over half of IDPs in temporary camps/shelters and community buildings are facing food access issues. While food assistance has temporarily alleviated concern over immediate food shortages in over half of the locations that reported food access difficulties, a number of camps have yet to receive food assistance. The food security situation in Khaunglanhpu]La Jar camp in Khaunglanhpu and AungThar Baptist Church in Bhamo is of concern, and food assistance should be considered. People staying in host families in Momauk, in Momauk Baptist Church and 3]mile Kachin Baptist Church in Bhamo are experiencing lack of food stocks, and the food security situation in these locations would need to be explored further. Overall, the IDPs indicated a need for more diversified food assistance, which should be explored given the reported observable malnutrition in the locations assessed. The assessment suggests that the nutritional status of children needs to be further investigated. While access to water for domestic and hygiene uses is sufficient, availability of drinking water is an issue, with only 40% of IDPs having access to sufficient quantities of safe drinking water. The issue is particularly critical in Bhamo where all locations reported insufficient access to drinking water. Latrine use is wide]spread and aid agencies have provided basic sanitary facilities in all temporary camps/shelters and community buildings. However, some of the locations with larger number of IDPs need more latrines. Some latrines would need to be upgraded for sanitary and safety reasons. Hygiene promotion would be needed in a majority of the assessed locations, along with provision of hygiene items. There has been no report of disease outbreak or mortality cases since June 2011 in surveyed locations. Over half of the sites currently have access to health care services provided by basic health staff, while the others Kachin Rapid Assessment |1 5 in 14 locations only receive minimal health support through community health workers. Measles immunization campaign is needed in 31 locations, where a limited number of under]2 children has records of having had measles vaccination. Bed nets are needed in a majority of the locations. Essential medical supplies are needed in 35 out of the 39 locations. Some 1,055 primary school children and 1,249 secondary to high school children were identified amongst the assessed IDPs. Primary school children in all locations have access to varying degree of schooling support ] either access to nearby school facilities or to temporary learning spaces ] which they regularly attend. However, only a few secondary and high school children seem to attend school, due to lack of access and their contribution to household chores, particularly in the absence of household heads. Education materials are in short supply at all locations. Temporary learning spaces are not sufficiently equipped. A majority of the schools do not have adequate water and sanitation facilities. Early Childhood Development (ECD) centers have been established in six locations, benefiting 201 or 20% of all under]five IDP children. Efforts to construct additional ECD centers are currently ongoing. The number of under]18 separated or unaccompanied children was 221 at the time of the assessment, while 12.5% of households are either female] or childheaded. This points to the need for preventative measures to mitigate potential risk factors. Extra measures for ensuring the safety of women and children would need to be taken, particularly in the temporary camps/ shelters, including improved lighting at night, separate bathing spaces and latrines for men and women and appointment of security focal points. Needs of those with special needs such as the elderly and persons with disabilities would need to be taken into account. Fear and anxiety over the current, uncertain situation were voiced."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNOCHA, Humanitarian Partners in Kachin
    Format/size: pdf (2.8MB)
    Date of entry/update: 02 December 2011


  • Internal displacement/forced migration of Karen villagers

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Displacement Monitoring: Regular updates on protection concerns for villagers in Dooplaya and Pa'an districts and adjacent areas in Thailand
    Date of publication: 21 October 2011
    Description/subject: "Civilians in Dooplaya and Pa'an districts continue to be impacted by conflict between the Tatmadaw and armed Karen groups, who have increased fighting since November 7th 2010. The situation remains highly unstable and civilians report a variety of human rights and security concerns related to ongoing conflict and conflict-related abuse. In order to provide as current information as possible on the fighting and related human rights and protection concerns, KHRG has developed this page as a 'Displacement Monitoring' section of the KHRG website. Immediate situation updates, news bulletins, field reports, maps and photo galleries regarding the situation for civilians in Dooplaya are accessible through links in the table at the bottom of this page."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 January 2012


    Title: "Inside News"
    Description/subject: 4 issues a year on landmines, forced relocation, Burma army attacks, IDP health, education and many other issues affecting Internally Displaced Karen People.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Committee for Internally Displaced Karen People (CIDKP)
    Format/size: pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.newsinside.wordpress.com/ ("Inside News" blog)
    Date of entry/update: 31 March 2009


    Individual Documents

    Title: Photo Set: More than 100 households displaced from Toh Boh Dam construction site in Toungoo
    Date of publication: 23 August 2012
    Description/subject: "This Photo Set presents 17 still photographs taken by a local community member who has been trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The photos were all taken in March 2012 at the Toh Boh Dam construction site in Tantabin Township within locally-defined Toungoo District. According to the community member who took these photos, more than 100 households have been relocated from the area now occupied by the dam construction site, where construction is ongoing."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (400K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b71.html
    Date of entry/update: 24 August 2012


    Title: Papun Situation Update: Lu Thaw Township, November 2011
    Date of publication: 17 January 2012
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in November 2011 by a villager living in a hiding site in northern Lu Thaw Township, Papun District. The villager described an incident that occurred in October 2011 in which Tatmadaw soldiers fired six mortar shells into an area in which civilians are actively seeking to avoid attacks by Tatmadaw troops; no one was killed or injured during the attack. This situation update places the occurrence of such incidents in the context of the repeated and prolonged displacement of villagers in northern Luthaw who continue to actively seek to avoid contact with government troops due to ongoing attacks against civilian objects. The villager who wrote this report raised concerns about food shortages in hiding site areas where the presence of Tatmadaw soldiers proximate to previously cultivated land has resulted in overcrowding on available farmland and the subsequent degradation of soil quality, severely limiting villagers' abilities to support themselves using traditional rotational cropping methods. For detailed analysis of the humanitarian situation in this area of Luthaw Township, see the previous KHRG report Acute food shortages threatening 8,885 villagers in 118 villages across northern Papun District, published in April 2011."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (274K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b3.html
    Date of entry/update: 18 January 2012


    Title: Papun Situation Update: Bu Tho Township, August 2011
    Date of publication: 06 October 2011
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in August 2011 by a villager describing events occurring in Papun District in January 2011 and human rights consequences for local communities. It contains updated information concerning Tatmadaw military activities and details the following human rights abuses: coordinated attacks on villages by Tatmadaw and Border Guard troops and the firing of mortars and small arms in civilian areas, resulting in displacement of the civilian population and the closure of two schools; the use of landmines by the Tatmadaw and non-state armed groups; and forced portering for the Tatmadaw and Tatmadaw Border Guards. The report also mentions government plans for a logging venture and the construction of a dam. Moreover, it documents villagers’ responses to human rights concerns, including strategic displacement to avoid attacks and forced labour entailing physical security risks to civilians; advance preparation for strategic displacement in the event of Tatmadaw attacks; and seeking the protection of non-state armed groups against Tatmadaw attacks and other human rights threats."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (266K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b35.html
    Date of entry/update: 31 January 2012


    Title: Tenasserim Interview: Saw T---, December 2010
    Date of publication: 05 October 2011
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted in December 2010 in Te Naw Th’Ri Township, Tenasserim Division by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The villager interviewed Saw T---, a 59-year-old village head who, at the time of interview, was in hiding from Tatmadaw troops in an area of Tenasserim Division beyond government control. Excerpts from Saw T---’s interview with KHRG have been published in the previous KHRG field report “Militarization, Development and Displacement: Conditions for villagers in southern Tenasserim Division” however, the full transcript of his testimony is now available below. Saw T--- described witnessing attacks on villagers by Tatmadaw soldiers and cited regular demands for villagers to serve as forced porters for the Tatmadaw and other forms of forced labour as one of the main factors which originally motivated him to go into hiding. Saw T--- explained that villagers in hiding employ a range of strategies to avoid Tatmadaw forces, including coordinating security strategies and sharing information with villagers at other hiding sites, maintaining contact with and seeking protection from non-state armed groups, cultivating crops that are easy to harvest quickly, travelling covertly to villages in mixed-administration areas in order to engage in trade and other livelihoods activities, and crossing vehicle roads during the night."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (158K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b34.html
    Date of entry/update: 31 January 2012


    Title: Tenasserim Interview: Saw K---, August 2011
    Date of publication: 15 September 2011
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted by a KHRG researcher in August 2011. The KHRG researcher interviewed Saw K---, a 30-year-old medic with the Backpack Health Worker Team (BPHWT), an organisation that provides health care and medical assistance to displaced civilians inside Burma. Saw K--- described witnessing a joint attack by Tatmadaw soldiers from three different battalions on a civilian settlement in Ma No Roh village tract, Te Naw Th'Ri Township, Tenasserim Division in January 2011. Saw K--- reported that mortars were fired into P--- village, causing residents and Saw K---, who was providing healthcare support in P--- village at that time, to flee. Saw K--- reported that Tatmadaw soldiers subsequently entered P--- village and burned down 17 houses, as well as rice barns and food stores belonging to villagers, before planting landmines in the village. According to Saw K---, the residents of P--- have not returned to their homes, and have been unable to coordinate to restart the school that was abandoned in P--- because most households now live at dispersed sites in the area."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (150K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b30.html
    Date of entry/update: 01 February 2012


    Title: Papun Incident Reports: November 2010 to January 2011
    Date of publication: 24 August 2011
    Description/subject: This report contains 12 incident reports written by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions, based on information provided by 12 different villagers living in hiding sites in Lu Thaw Township, Papun District between November 2010 and January 2011.[1] The twelve villagers described human rights concerns for civilians prior to and during displacement to their current hiding sites, including: deliberate firing of mortars and small arms into civilian areas; burning and destruction of houses, food and food preparation equipment; theft and looting of villagers' animals and possessions; and use of landmines by the Tatmadaw, non-state armed groups, and local gher der 'home guard' groups in civilian areas, resulting in at least one civilian death and two civilian injuries. The reports register villagers' serious concerns about food security in hiding areas beyond Tatmadaw control, caused by effective limits on access to arable land due to the risk of attack when villagers cultivating land proximate to Tatmadaw camps, depletion of soil fertility in cultivable areas, and a drought during the 2010 rainy season which triggered widespread paddy crop failure.[2] To address the threat of Tatmadaw attacks targeting villagers, their food stores and livelihoods activities, villagers reported that they form gher der groups to monitor and communicate Tatmadaw activity; utilise early-warning systems; and communicate amongst themselves and with non-state armed groups to share information about Tatmadaw troop movements. Two villagers stated that the deployment of landmines by gher der groups and KNLA soldiers prevents access to civilian areas by Tatmadaw troops and facilitates security for villagers to pursue their agricultural activities. Another villager described how his community maintained communal agricultural projects to support families at risk from food shortages. These reports were received by KHRG in May 2011, along with other information concerning the situation in Papun District, including 11 other incident reports, 25 interviews, 137 photographs and a general update on the situation in Lu Thaw Township.[3]
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (840K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b25.html
    Date of entry/update: 12 February 2012


    Title: The world's longest ongoing war (video)
    Date of publication: 11 August 2011
    Description/subject: "For more than 60 years, Karen rebels have been fighting a civil war against the government of Myanmar...In February 1949, members of the Karen ethnic minority launched an armed insurrection against Myanmar's central government. In pictures: Sixty years of war. Over 60 years later, the conflict continues, with more than a dozen ethnic rebel groups waging war against the army in their fight for self-rule. Now, the war is entering a new and bloody stage. Myanmar is the only regime still regularly planting anti-personnel mines. But it is not only the army that uses them. Rebel groups also regularly use homemade landmines or mines seized from the military. As the conflict escalates, civilians are trapped in the middle of some of the worst fighting in decades. 101 East travels to Myanmar, home to the world's longest running civil war."
    Language: English, Karen (English sub-titles)
    Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (101 East)
    Format/size: html, Adobe Flash (25 minutes)
    Date of entry/update: 27 December 2011


    Title: Dooplaya Interview: U Sa---, July 2011
    Date of publication: 22 July 2011
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted by a KHRG researcher in July 2011 with a villager from Kawkareik Township, Dooplaya District. The researcher interviewed U Sa---, who described how his family and other residents of Pa--- village faced threats and abuses from Tatmadaw soldiers after local DKBA forces captured a Tatmadaw soldier at his home on June 15th 2011. U Sa--- described the following abuses: threats to burn or shell civilian areas; shelling of civilian areas; indiscriminate use of small arms in civilian areas; the taking of civilians as hostages; threats to kill civilians; and the imposition of movement restrictions, including threats to shoot villagers violating restrictions on sight. U Sa--- explained that he and his family fled Pa--- on June 16th to avoid these threats; as of July 3rd, they did not yet feel safe to return to their home. This interview was conducted by a KHRG researcher in July 2011; other details on the situation in Pa--- village after June 15th, including a general situation update, one incident report, and three photographs were submitted by a different KHRG researcher in June and July 2011."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (322K)
    Date of entry/update: 19 February 2012


    Title: Toungoo Interviews: March and April 2011
    Date of publication: 20 July 2011
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcripts of three interviews conducted during March and April 2011 in Tantabin Township, Toungoo District by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The three female interviewees described the following abuses: attacks on villages, villagers and livelihoods; killing of villagers; theft and looting; taxation and demands; forced displacement; and forced labour, including the production and supply of building materials and forced portering. They also raised concerns regarding food shortage, the provision of education for children during displacement caused by Tatmadaw attacks, and access to healthcare. One of the women explained that villagers communicate with non-state armed groups and other villagers to share information about Tatmadaw movements, prepare secret caches of food in the forest outside their village in case of a Tatmadaw attack, and hold school classes outside of their village in agricultural areas during displacement caused by Tatmadaw attack. These interviews were received along with other information from Toungoo District, including a general update on the situation in Toungoo District, ten incident reports, seven other interviews and 350 photographs.Toungoo Interviews: March and April 2011
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (286K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b16.html
    Date of entry/update: 19 February 2012


    Title: Three villagers killed, eight injured during fighting in Kyaikdon area
    Date of publication: 17 May 2011
    Description/subject: "Research submitted by a KHRG field researcher indicates that fighting between DKBA and Tatmadaw troops between April 22nd and April 30th 2011 in Kya In Township has left at least three civilians dead and eight injured. The indiscriminate firing of mortars and small arms in civilian areas by armed groups involved in the conflict, and conflict related abuse including an explicit threat by Tatmadaw forces to burn civilians' homes, caused at least 143 villagers from Gkyaw Hta, Khoh Htoh, T'Aye Shay and Mae Naw Ah villages to seek refuge in the Ra--- area of Thailand between April 22nd and 30th 2011. As of May 13th 2011, KHRG confirmed that the firing of mortars and small arms was ongoing in the areas of K'Lay Kee and Noh Taw Plah, and that some villagers continued to seek refuge at discreet locations in Thailand."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (503K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b6.html
    Date of entry/update: 27 February 2012


    Title: Acute food shortages threatening 8,885 villagers in 118 villages across northern Papun District
    Date of publication: 11 May 2011
    Description/subject: "At least 8,885 villagers in 118 villages in Lu Thaw Township, Papun District have either exhausted their current food supplies or are expecting to do so prior to the October 2011 harvest. The 118 villages are located in nine village tracts, where attacks on civilians by Burma's state army, the Tatmadaw, have triggered wide scale and repeated displacement since 1997. As tens of thousands of civilians in northern Karen State have been displaced, over-population in hiding areas where civilians can more effectively avoid attacks has created shortages of arable land, depleted soil fertility and reduced potential crop yields. Civilians forced to cultivate land or live near Tatmadaw camps, meanwhile, have faced recent attacks, including indiscriminate shelling and attacks on food supplies, buildings and livelihoods. These existing obstacles to food security were compounded by an unusually dry rainy season in 2010, coupled with other environmental factors, causing the 2010 harvest to fail. The impact of acute food shortages on the civilian population is magnified by budgetary constraints of local relief organisations, which can access the affected area but are currently unable to provide emergency assistance to many of those facing food shortages. This regional report is based on research conducted by KHRG researchers in Lu Thaw Township in February and March 2011, including 41 interviews with villagers and village and village tract leaders in the affected areas. This research was augmented by interviews with members of local relief organisations in February, March and April 2011."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (1.31MB), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg1101.html
    http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg1101%20-%20Briefer.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 February 2012


    Title: Pa'an interviews: Conditions for villagers returned from temporary refuge sites in Tha Song Yang
    Date of publication: 06 May 2011
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcripts of seven interviews conducted between June 1st and June 18th 2010 in Dta Greh Township, Pa'an District by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The villager interviewed seven villagers from two villages in Wah Mee Gklah village tract, after they had returned to Burma following initial displacement into Thailand during May and June 2009. The interviewees report that they did not wish to return to Burma, but felt they had to do so as the result of pressure and harassment by Thai authorities. The interviewees described the following abuses since their return, including: the firing of mortars and small arms at villagers; demands for villagers to porter military supplies, and for the payment of money in lieu of the provision of porters; theft and looting of villagers' houses and possessions; and threats from unexploded ordnance and the use of landmines, including consequences for livelihoods and injuries to civilians. All seven interviewees also raised specific concerns regarding the food security of villagers returned to Burma following their displacement into Thailand."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (836K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b5.html
    Date of entry/update: 27 February 2012


    Title: Tatmadaw attacks destroy civilian property and displace villages in northern Papun District
    Date of publication: 08 April 2011
    Description/subject: "Tatmadaw forces continue to deliberately target civilians, civilian settlements and food supplies in northern Papun District. On February 25th 2011 shelling directed at communities in Saw Muh Bplaw, Ler Muh Bplaw and Plah Koh village tracts in Lu Thaw Township displaced residents of 14 villages as they sought temporary refuge at hiding sites in the forest. After villagers fled, Tatmadaw troops looted civilians' possessions, burned parts of settlement areas and destroyed buildings and food stores in Dteh Neh village. No civilian deaths or injuries were reported to result from this shelling; local village heads confirmed that all villagers affected managed to flee to safe locations during the shelling, many because of warnings received through a locally-developed system to alert community members of attacks. This report is informed by KHRG photo documentation, as well as interviews with and written testimony from a total of nine village heads, village tract leaders and village officials from communities located or hiding in the affected area. An additional 41 interviews conducted during February and March 2011 in Lu Thaw Township were also drawn upon."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (1.35MB) html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b4.html
    Date of entry/update: 27 February 2012


    Title: Human rights abuses and obstacles to protection: Conditions for civilians amidst ongoing conflict in Dooplaya and Pa'an districts
    Date of publication: 21 January 2011
    Description/subject: "Amidst ongoing conflict between the Tatmadaw and armed groups in eastern Dooplaya and Pa'an districts, civilians, aid workers and soldiers from state and non-state armies continue to report a variety of human rights abuses and security concerns for civilians in areas adjacent to Thailand's Tak Province, including: functionally indiscriminate mortar and small arms fire; landmines; arbitrary arrest and detention; sexual violence; and forced portering. Conflict and these conflict-related abuses have displaced thousands of civilians, more than 8,000 of whom are currently taking refuge in discreet hiding places in Thailand. This has interrupted education for thousands of children across eastern Dooplaya and Pa'an districts. The agricultural cycle for farmers has also been severely disrupted; many villagers have been prevented from completing their harvests of beans, corn and paddy crops, portending long-term threats to food security. Due to concerns about food security and disruption to children's education, as well as villagers' continuing need to protect themselves and their families from conflict and conflict-related abuse, temporary but consistent access to refuge in Thailand remains vital until villagers feel safe to return home. Even after return, food support will likely be necessary until disrupted agricultural activities can be resumed and civilians can again support themselves."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (Main text, 688K; Appendix 188K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11f2_appendixes.pdf (Appendix)
    http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11f2.html
    Date of entry/update: 26 February 2012


    Title: Villagers flee to avoid fighting and portering: Conflict continues to impact civilians in Dooplaya District
    Date of publication: 04 December 2010
    Description/subject: "Civilians in Dooplaya District continue to be impacted by conflict between the Tatmadaw and armed Karen groups, who have increased fighting in the area since November 7th 2010. The situation around Palu village remains highly unstable; in order to avoid conflict and conflict-related abuse, civilians are moving frequently between their homes and fields, more secure locations outside the village and along the Moei River, and both official and unofficial locations in Thailand's Phop Phra District. Residents of the community have told KHRG that they believe male villagers face a serious threat of being forcibly recruited as porters to support re-supply operations of Tatmadaw units deployed in the area, and that men in Palu are actively avoiding encountering Tatmadaw troops."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (494K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2010/khrg10b16.html
    Date of entry/update: 19 February 2012


    Title: Diagnosis: Critical – Health And Human Rights in Eastern Burma
    Date of publication: 19 October 2010
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report reveals that the health of populations in conflict-affected areas of eastern Burma, particularly women and children, is amongst the worst in the world, a result of official disinvestment in health, protracted conflict and the abuse of civilians..."Diagnosis: Critical" demonstrates that a vast area of eastern Burma remains in a chronic health emergency, a continuing legacy of longstanding official disinvestment in health, coupled with protracted civil war and the abuse of civilians. This has left ethnic rural populations in the east with 41.2% of children under five acutely malnourished. 60.0% of deaths in children under the age of 5 are from preventable and treatable diseases, including acute respiratory infection, malaria, and diarrhea. These losses of life would be even greater if it were not for local community-based health organizations, which provide the only available preventive and curative care in these conflict-affected areas. The report summarizes the results of a large scale population-based health and human rights survey which covered 21 townships and 5,754 households in conflict-affected zones of eastern Burma. The survey was jointly conducted by the Burma Medical Association, National Health and Education Committee, Back Pack Health Worker Team and ethnic health organizations serving the Karen, Karenni, Mon, Shan, and Palaung communities. These areas have been burdened by decades of civil conflict and attendant human rights abuses against the indigenous populations. Eastern Burma demographics are characterized by high birth rates, high death rates and the significant absence of men under the age of 45, patterns more comparable to recent war zones such as Sierra Leone than to Burma’s national demographics. Health indicators for these communities, particularly for women and children, are worse than Burma’s official national figures, which are already amongst the worst in the world. Child mortality rates are nearly twice as high in eastern Burma and the maternal mortality ratio is triple the official national figure. While violence is endemic in these conflict zones, direct losses of life from violence account for only 2.3% of deaths. The indirect health impacts of the conflict are much graver, with preventable losses of life accounting for 59.1% of all deaths and malaria alone accounting for 24.7%. At the time of the survey, one in 14 women was infected with Pf malaria, amongst the highest rates of infection in the world. This reality casts serious doubts over official claims of progress towards reaching the country’s Millennium Development Goals related to the health of women, children, and infectious diseases, particularly malaria. The survey findings also reveal widespread human rights abuses against ethnic civilians. Among surveyed households, 30.6% had experienced human rights violations in the prior year, including forced labor, forced displacement, and the destruction and seizure of food. The frequency and pattern with which these abuses occur against indigenous peoples provide further evidence of the need for a Commission of Inquiry into Crimes against Humanity. The upcoming election will do little to alleviate the situation, as the military forces responsible for these abuses will continue to operate outside civilian control according to the new constitution. The findings also indicate that these abuses are linked to adverse population-level health outcomes, particularly for the most vulnerable members of the community—mothers and children. Survey results reveal that members of households who suffer from human rights violations have worse health outcomes, as summarized in the table above. Children in households that were internally displaced in the prior year were 3.3 times more likely to suffer from moderate or severe acute malnutrition. The odds of dying before age one was increased 2.5 times among infants from households in which at least one person was forced to provide labor. The ongoing widespread human rights abuses committed against ethnic civilians and the blockade of international humanitarian access to rural conflict-affected areas of eastern Burma by the ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), mean that premature death and disability, particularly as a result of treatable and preventable diseases like malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory infections, will continue. This will not only further devastate the health of communities of eastern Burma but also poses a direct health security threat to Burma’s neighbors, especially Thailand, where the highest rates of malaria occur on the Burma border. Multi-drug resistant malaria, extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and other infectious diseases are growing concerns. The spread of malaria resistant to artemisinin, the most important anti-malarial drug, would be a regional and global disaster. In the absence of state-supported health infrastructure, local community-based organizations are working to improve access to health services in their own communities. These programs currently have a target population of over 376,000 people in eastern Burma and in 2009 treated nearly 40,000 cases of malaria and have vastly increased access to key maternal and child health interventions. However, they continue to be constrained by a lack of resources and ongoing human rights abuses by the Burmese military regime against civilians. In order to fully address the urgent health needs of eastern Burma, the underlying abuses fueling the health crisis need to end."
    Language: Burmese, English, Thai
    Source/publisher: The Burma Medical Association, National Health and Education Committee, Back Pack Health Worker Team
    Format/size: pdf (OBL versions: 5.3MB - English; 4.4MB Thai; 3.5MB-Burmese) . Larger, original versions on BPHWT site
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/Diagnosis_critical(th)-red.pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/Diagnosis_critical(bu)-red.pdf
    http://www.backpackteam.org/?page_id=208
    Date of entry/update: 05 September 2011


    Title: DKBA burns village and forces residents to relocate in Pa'an District
    Date of publication: 04 June 2010
    Description/subject: DKBA soldiers in Dta Greh Township, Pa'an District, have burnt the small village of Gk'Law Lu and forced its residents to relocate. This incident is the second time Gk'Law Lu has been burnt and relocated by DKBA soldiers: the village was first burnt and residents forcibly relocated in October 2008. Relocated families, meanwhile, may face serious threats to their livelihoods if potential DKBA travel restrictions and risks from landmines limit access to farm fields in their home village.
    Language: English, Karen
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2010-B9)
    Format/size: pdf (428K - English version; 501K - Karen version)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/reports/karenlanguage/khrg10b9_karen_language.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 10 October 2010


    Title: Attacks and displacement in Nyaunglebin District
    Date of publication: 09 April 2010
    Description/subject: "At least 2,000 villagers have been displaced by SPDC Army attacks on villages in northern and central Kyauk Kyi Township, Nyaunglebin District. At least four villagers have been killed, while abandoned villages have been burned, including one clinic. More than ten schools have also been abandoned, disrupting students during their exam period. SPDC Army battalions conducted resupply operations at the end of February and KHRG field researchers predict attacks will soon resume."
    Language: English, Karen
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2010-B6)
    Format/size: pdf (524K - English; 1040K - Karen; 312K - Appendix)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/reports/karenlanguage/khrg10b6_karen_language.pdf
    http://www.khrg.org/khrg2010/khrg10b6_Appendix.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 13 October 2010


    Title: Attacks on displaced villagers in Nyaunglebin District
    Date of publication: 22 January 2010
    Description/subject: "On January 17th 2010 the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) Army set up a camp at Kheh Der village tract, Kyauk Kyi Township, Nyaunglebin District. At least 1,000 residents of the ten villages that made up Khe Der tract have fled to avoid attack.[1] KHRG has also confirmed that these SPDC troops have killed two villagers, including a village head, from Kheh Der..." "At least 1,000 villagers have fled from ten villages during the last five days following the establishment of a new SPDC Army camp in central Nyaunglebin District. Two villagers in the area of the camp are confirmed to have been killed by soldiers from this camp. Three other villagers are missing after another SPDC battalion attacked a party of villagers that had escaped from an SPDC relocation site to tend to their farms..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2010 B-1)
    Format/size: pdf (492 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2010/khrg10b1.html
    Date of entry/update: 24 March 2010


    Title: Life in Burma’s Relocation Sites
    Date of publication: January 2010
    Description/subject: Abstract: :Widespread human rights violations have been occurring in ethnic areas of Burma since the late nineteen sixties. This report, based on a 2008/9 field survey, focuses on the government’s use of mass displacement and relocation designed to destabilize the ethnic populations of Karen State. The government first initiated a policy of ethnic relocation in Karen State in 1975 as part of what became known as the four cuts campaign, a policy intended to deprive the ethnic resistance movement of food, money, intelligence and recruits. While noting the existence of such earlier camps, this report specifically examines the lives of people living in sites after a further concerted effort to control the civilian population was initiated in 2006. This report identifies three types of site created by the military regime. The first, roughly translated from Burmese as ‘model’ villages, are some of the most recent examples and have been created under the guise of development; the second type, initiated in 1979, are primarily security driven and have resulted in highland villages being relocated to the plains; the third, which are also security initiated and mainly located in Taungoo, consists of villages cleared from areas of military infrastructure. Villagers in this latter type, unlike the previous two, have been given no provision for relocation; rather, the population was told to vacate the area with little regard as to where they would go. Relocated villagers, despite the fact that purported contact with resistance forces has all but been eradicated, continue to face severe abuses by Burmese authorities. Forced labour on infrastructure projects and military controlled business is widespread. Villagers are ordered to act as sentries, messengers, porters and minesweepers by the Burma Army. Corruption and illegal taxation is prevalent in all the sites assessed. In addition, the opportunity for making a living has been drastically reduced. Malnutrition, especially in infants, has increased and is exacerbated by army restrictions that prevent villagers from access to food, medicine and education. This report identifies serious issues of concern that continue to affect the ethnic populations of Burma. It highlights the government’s disregard for the rights of its people and its blatant use of the local population as little more than a captive workforce to be used as the military dictates."
    Author/creator: Paul Keenan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Ethnic Nationalities Council
    Format/size: pdf (3.6MB)
    Date of entry/update: 03 August 2010


    Title: Finding Food in Fear/Living in Fear (video)
    Date of publication: 2010
    Description/subject: Finding Food in Fear/Living in Fear Introduction for ‘one family’.... In February 2010, Burma Issues conducted a field trip inside Karen State to raise internally displaced persons’ (IDPs) awareness of the upcoming elections. While they were watching a video, the township where the IDPs were staying was attacked by the Burmese army. They had to flee into the jungle and our cameraman decided to follow. He became particularly interested in one family – a grandmother, 2 parents and 4 young children – who have endured permanent displacement for 3 generations. For 4 months he became deeply involved with them and managed to film an intimate portrait of their daily struggles. He then returned after a period of time to assess if their lives had improved. They hadn’t. As the family had to leave all of their possessions behind their life is now a cyclical nightmare. Every time they manage to build a hut for shelter, or manage to plant a basic crop, they have to flee from violence. Soldiers and landmines ensure that returning is out of the question. They manage to keep on building new shelters but never manage to make a home. Although shot in eastern Burma, this video highlights the plight of the countless millions of IDPs across the country who have to contend with extreme violence, food shortages and a lack of access to health care and education."
    Language: Karen (English sub-titles)
    Source/publisher: Burma Issues
    Format/size: Adobe Flash (duration 4 minutes 43 seconds)
    Date of entry/update: 04 October 2011


    Title: Living conditions for displaced villagers and ongoing abuses in Tenasserim Division
    Date of publication: 29 October 2009
    Description/subject: "Villagers in SPDC-controlled parts of Tenasserim Division, including 60 villages forced to move to government relocation sites in 1996, continue to face abuses including movement restrictions, forced labour and arbitrary demands for 'taxation' and other payments. In response, thousands of villagers continue to evade SPDC control in upland jungle areas. These villagers report that they are pursued by Burma Army patrols, which shoot them on sight, plant landmines and destroy paddy fields and food stores. This report primarily draws on information from September 2009. Because KHRG has not released a field report on the region since 2001, this report also includes quotes and photographs from research dating back to 2007..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2009-F19)
    Format/size: pdf (359 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg09f19.html
    Date of entry/update: 11 November 2009


    Title: Starving them out: Food shortages and exploitative abuse in Papun District
    Date of publication: 15 October 2009
    Description/subject: "As the 2009 rainy season draws to a close, displaced villagers in northern Papun District's Lu Thaw Township face little prospect of harvesting sufficient paddy to support them over the next year. After four straight agricultural cycles disrupted by Burma Army patrols, which continue to shoot villagers on sight and enforce travel and trade restrictions designed to limit sale of food to villagers in hiding, villagers in northern Papun face food shortages more severe than anything to hit the area since the Burma Army began attempts to consolidate control of the region in 1997. Consequently, the international donor community should immediately provide emergency support to aid groups that can access IDP areas in Lu Thaw Township. In southern Papun, meanwhile, villagers report ongoing abuses and increased activity by the SPDC and DKBA in Dwe Loh and Bu Thoh townships. In these areas, villagers report abuses including movement restrictions, forced labour, looting, increased placement of landmines in civilian areas, summary executions and other forms of arbitrary abuse. This report documents abuses occurring between May and October 2009..."
    Language: English, Karen
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2009-F18)
    Format/size: pdf (861 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg09f18.html
    http://www.khrg.org/reports/karenlanguage/khrg09f18_karen_language.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 24 October 2009


    Title: Abuse, Poverty and Migration: Investigating migrants' motivations to leave home in Burma
    Date of publication: 10 July 2009
    Description/subject: "International reporting of the large-scale migration of those leaving Burma in search of work abroad has highlighted the perils for migrant during travel and in host countries. However, there has been a lack of research in the root causes of this migration. Identifying the root causes of migration has important implications for the assistance and protection of these migrants. Drawing on over 150 interviews with villagers in rural Burma and those from Burma who have sought employment abroad, this report identifies the exploitative abuse underpinning poverty and livelihoods vulnerability in Burma which, in turn, are major factors motivating individuals to leave home and seek work abroad..." _Thailand-based interviewees explained to KHRG how exploitative abuses increased poverty, livelihoods vulnerability and food insecurity for themselves and their communities in Burma. These issues were in turn cited as central push factors compelling them to leave their homes and search for work abroad. In some cases, interviewees explained that the harmful effects of exploitative abuse were compounded by environmental and economic factors such as flood and drought and limited access to decent wage labour.[17] While the individuals interviewed by KHRG in Thailand would normally be classified as 'economic migrants', the factors which they cited as motivating their choice to migrate make it clear that SPDC abuse made it difficult for them to survive in their home areas. Hence, these people decided to become migrants not simply because they were lured to Thailand by economic incentives, but because they found it impossible to survive at home in Burma. Clearly, the distinction between push and pull factors is blurred in the case of Burmese migrants. The concept of pull factors for migrants is further complicated because migrants are not merely seeking better jobs abroad, but are instead pulled to places like Thailand and Malaysia in order to access protection. For refugees and IDPs, protection is a service that is often provided by government bodies, UN agencies and international NGOs. For refugees in particular, protection is often primarily understood to mean legal protection against refoulement - defined as the expulsion of a person to a place where they would face persecution. Beyond legal protection against refoulement, aid agencies have implemented specific forms of rights-based assistance, such as gender-based violence programmes, as part of their protection mandates. However, for migrants from Burma the act of leaving home is overwhelmingly a self-initiated protection strategy through which individuals can ensure their and their families' basic survival in the face of persistent exploitative and other abuse in their home areas. This broader understanding of protection goes beyond legal protection against refoulement and the top-down delivery of rights-based assistance by aid agencies. It involves actions taken by individuals on their own accord to lessen or avoid abuse and its harmful effects at home.[18] KHRG has chosen to use the term self-initiated protection strategy, rather than a more generic concept like 'survival strategy', in order to highlight the political agency of those who choose such migration. By seeing this protection in political terms, one can better understand both the abusive underpinnings of migration from Burma as well as the relevance of such migration to the protection mandates of governments, UN agencies and international NGOs currently providing support to conventional refugee populations. Understanding protection in this way presents opportunities for external support for the many self-initiated protection strategies (including efforts to secure employment without exploitation, support dependent family members, enrol children in school and avoid arrest, extortion and deportation) which migrant workers regularly use._
    Language: English, Burmese, Thai
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #2009-03)
    Format/size: pdf (English Version: 2.6 MB), (Burmese Version: 383 KB, Thai version 991K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg0903.html
    http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/KHRG%20Migrant%20report-Thai%20translation.pdf
    http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg0903_burmese_lang.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 11 November 2009


    Title: Exploitation and recruitment under the DKBA in Pa'an District
    Date of publication: 29 June 2009
    Description/subject: "While recent media attention has focused on the joint SPDC/DKBA attacks on the KNLA in Pa'an District and the dramatic exodus of at least 3,000 refugees from the area of Ler Per Her IDP camp into Thailand, the daily grind of exploitative treatment by DKBA forces continues to occur across the region. This report presents a breakdown of DKBA Brigade #999 battalions, some recent cases of exploitative abuse by this unit in Pa'an District and a brief overview of the group's transformation into a Border Guard Force as part of the SPDC's planned 2010-election process, in which the DKBA has sought to significantly expand its numbers. Amongst those forcibly recruited for this transformation process was a 17-year-old child soldier injured in the fighting at Ler Per Her, whose testimony is included here..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2009-F11)
    Format/size: pdf (549 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg09f11.html
    Date of entry/update: 30 October 2009


    Title: IDP conditions and the rape of a young girl in Papun District
    Date of publication: 11 April 2009
    Description/subject: "This report describes SPDC operations in and around internally displaced person hiding sites in Lu Thaw Township, Papun District. Villagers in this area continue to face constant physical threats and food insecurity caused by SPDC patrols-indeed, residents have been prevented from consistently accessing their farm fields for so long that they now face a dire food crisis. This report also details the rape of a 13-year-old girl by an SPDC soldier in Dweh Loh Township and the local military commander's attempt to cover up the incident. This report examines cases of SPDC abuse from December 2008 to March 2009..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2009-F8)
    Format/size: pdf (881 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg09f8.html
    Date of entry/update: 31 October 2009


    Title: IDP responses to food shortages in Nyaunglebin District
    Date of publication: 10 April 2009
    Description/subject: "Since the beginning of 2009, SPDC troops have patrolled areas near displaced hiding sites in Nyaunglebin District. These patrols prevent displaced villagers from cultivating their secret crops or otherwise accessing food, which in turn exacerbates food insecurity for these civilians. Despite such hardships, villagers have responded by cooperating with each other-often sharing food or helping each other cultivate crops and sell goods in 'jungle markets'. This report describes the situation of displaced villagers in Nyaunglebin District from December 2008 to March 2009..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2009-F7)
    Format/size: pdf (881 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg09f7.html
    Date of entry/update: 31 October 2009


    Title: The Karen struggle (Video)
    Date of publication: 21 February 2009
    Description/subject: Untold stories in Myanmar obscured by the catastrophic Cyclone Nargis...based on a media trip organised by Burma Campaign UK
    Author/creator: Simon Ostrovsky (Director)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Al-Jazeera (Listening Post) via Youtube
    Format/size: Adobe Flash (9 minutes, 52 seconds)
    Date of entry/update: 23 February 2009


    Title: Attacks, killings and the food crisis in Papun District
    Date of publication: 04 February 2009
    Description/subject: "SPDC abuses against civilians continue in northern Karen State, especially in the Lu Thaw and Dweh Loh townships of Papun District. Abuses have been particularly harsh in Lu Thaw, most of which has been designated a "black area" by the SPDC and so subject to constant attacks by Burma Army forces. Villagers who decide to remain in their home areas are often forced to live in hiding and not only face constant threats of violence by the SPDC, but also a worsening food crisis due to the SPDC's disruption of planting cycles. This report covers events in Papun District from August 2008 to January 2009..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2009-F2)
    Format/size: pdf (578 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg09f2.html
    Date of entry/update: 31 October 2009


    Title: Cycles of Displacement: Forced relocation and civilian responses in Nyaunglebin District
    Date of publication: 12 January 2009
    Description/subject: "Over the past three years, the Burma Army has conducted an extensive forced relocation campaign in Nyaunglebin District. As part of the wider offensive in northern Karen State, the forced relocations in Nyaunglebin District have aimed to bring the region's entire civilian population into more easily controllable settlements in the plains, along vehicle roads and alongside army camps and bases. Local villagers, however, have resisted these efforts in numerous ways. Villagers' resistance strategies include: fleeing into hiding to evade forced relocation; negotiating with local SPDC commanders to avoid relocation or garner increased freedom of movement at relocation sites; and covertly leaving relocation sites to temporarily or permanently return to their former homes and lands. The Burma Army's attacks against civilian communities in hiding, combined with forced relocation efforts and civilian evasion in Nyaunglebin District, have created ongoing cycles of displacement..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #2009-01)
    Format/size: pdf (6.1 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg0901.html
    Date of entry/update: 11 November 2009


    Title: The “Everyday Politics” of IDP Protection in Karen State
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: Abstract: "While international humanitarian access in Burma has opened up over the past decade and a half, the ongoing debate regarding the appropriate relationship between politics and humanitarian assistance remains unresolved. This debate has become especially limiting in regards to protection measures for internally displaced persons (IDPs) which are increasingly seen to fall within the mandate of humanitarian agencies. Conventional IDP protection frameworks are biased towards a top-down model of politicallyaverse intervention which marginalises local initiatives to resist abuse and hinders local control over protection efforts. Yet such local resistance strategies remain the most effective IDP protection measures currently employed in Karen State and other parts of rural Burma. Addressing the protection needs and underlying humanitarian concerns of displaced and potentially displaced people is thus inseparable from engagement with the “everyday politics” of rural villagers. This article seeks to challenge conventional notions of IDP protection that prioritise a form of state-centric “neutrality” and marginalise the “everyday politics” through which local villagers continue to resist abuse and claim their rights..."..... ISSN: 1868-4882 (online), ISSN: 1868-1034 (print)
    Author/creator: Stephen Hull
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 28, 2, 7-21.
    Format/size: pdf (124K)
    Date of entry/update: 21 August 2011


    Title: Human minesweeping and forced relocation as SPDC and DKBA step up joint operations in Pa'an District (English and Karen)
    Date of publication: 20 October 2008
    Description/subject: "Since the end of September 2008, SPDC and DKBA troops have begun preparing for what KHRG researchers expect to be a renewed offensive against KNU/KNLA-controlled areas in Pa'an District. These activities match a similar increase in joint SPDC-DKBA operations in Dooplaya District further south where these groups have conducted attacks against villagers and KNU/KNLA targets over the past couple of weeks. The SPDC and DKBA soldiers operating in Pa'an District have forced villagers to carry supplies, food and weapons for their combined armies and also to walk in front of their columns as human minesweepers. This report includes the case of two villagers killed by landmines during October while doing such forced labour, as well as the DKBA's forced relocation of villages in T'Moh village tract of Dta Greh township, demands for forced labourers from the relocated communities and the subsequent flight of relocated villagers to KNLA-controlled camps in Pa'an District as a means to escape this abuse; all of which took place in October 2008."
    Language: English, Karen
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (English, 534K; Karen, 446K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/reports/karenlanguage/khrg08b11_karen_language.pdf
    http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08b11.html
    Date of entry/update: 13 March 2012


    Title: Mortar attacks, landmines and the destruction of schools in Papun District
    Date of publication: 22 August 2008
    Description/subject: "SPDC abuses against civilians continue in northern Karen State, especially in Lu Thaw township of Papun District. Because these villagers live within non-SPDC-controlled "black areas", the SPDC believes it has justification to attack IDP hiding sites and destroy civilian crops, cattle and property. These attacks, combined with the SPDC and KNLA's continued use of landmines, have caused dozens of injuries and deaths in Papun District alone. Such attacks target the fabric of Karen society, breaking up communities and compromising the educations of Karen youth. In spite of these hardships, the local villagers continue to be resourceful in providing security for their families and education for their children. This report covers events in Papun District from May to July 2008..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2008-F12)
    Format/size: pdf (687 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08f12.html
    Date of entry/update: 01 November 2009


    Title: Attacks, killings and the food crisis in Toungoo District
    Date of publication: 01 August 2008
    Description/subject: "SPDC troops have continued to target internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Toungoo District. Civilians continue be killed or injured by the attacks while many of the survivors flee their homes and take shelter in forest hiding sites. Some who have moved into SPDC forced relocation sites continue to secretly return to their villages to cultivate their crops, constantly risking punishment or execution by troops patrolling the areas. The SPDC's repeated disruption of regular planting cycles has created a food crisis in Toungoo, further endangering the IDPs living there. This report examines the abuses in Toungoo District from April to June 2008..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2008-F9)
    Format/size: pdf (880 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08f9.html
    Date of entry/update: 01 November 2009


    Title: Attacks, forced labour and restrictions in Toungoo District
    Date of publication: 01 July 2008
    Description/subject: "While the rainy season is now underway in Karen state, Burma Army soldiers are continuing with military operations against civilian communities in Toungoo District. Local villagers in this area have had to leave their homes and agricultural land in order to escape into the jungle and avoid Burma Army attacks. These displaced villagers have, in turn, encountered health problems and food shortages, as medical supplies and services are restricted and regular relocation means any food supplies are limited to what can be carried on the villagers' backs alone. Yet these displaced communities have persisted in their effort to maintain their lives and dignity while on the run; building new shelters in hiding and seeking to address their livelihood and social needs despite constraints. Those remaining under military control, by contrast, face regular demands for forced labour, as well as other forms of extortion and arbitrary 'taxation'. This report examines military attacks, forced labour and movement restrictions and their implications in Toungoo District between March and June 2008..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2008-F7)
    Format/size: pdf (880 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08f7.html
    Date of entry/update: 01 November 2009


    Title: Burma Army attacks and civilian displacement in northern Papun District
    Date of publication: 12 June 2008
    Description/subject: "Following the deployment of new Burma Army units in the area of Htee Moo Kee village, Lu Thaw township of northern Karen State, Papun District, during the first week of March 2008, at least 1,600 villagers from seven villages were forced to relocate to eight different hiding sites in order to avoid the encroaching army patrols. These displaced communities are now facing heightened food insecurity and an ongoing risk of military attack. This report is based on in-depth interviews with displaced villagers from Lu Thaw township regarding the recent Burma Army operations and the resultant effects on the local communities. It also includes information on the recent military attack on Dtay Muh Der village, Lu Thaw township, Papun District which Burma Army forces conducted during the first week of June 2008 and which led to the further displacement of over 1,000 villagers..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2008-F6)
    Format/size: pdf (537 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08f6.html
    Date of entry/update: 01 November 2009


    Title: Supporting IDP resistance strategies
    Date of publication: 23 April 2008
    Description/subject: "...Whether in hiding or living under military control, displaced villagers of Karen State and other areas of rural Burma have shown themselves to be innovative and courageous in responding to and resisting military abuse. They urgently need increased assistance but it is they who should determine the direction of any such intervention. This article, co-authored by two KHRG staff members, appears in issue number 30 of the journal Forced Migration Review (FMR), issued in April 2008 and is available on both the KHRG and FMR websites..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Right Group Articles & Papers (KHRG #2008-W1)
    Format/size: pdf (109 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08w1.html
    Date of entry/update: 25 November 2009


    Title: Village-level decision making in responding to forced relocation: A case from Papun District
    Date of publication: 07 March 2008
    Description/subject: "As part of its campaign of militarisation in Northern Karen State the SPDC has had as a principle strategy the forcible relocation of villagers from areas outside of its control to relocation sites close to Army camps or vehicle roads where civilian control can be firmly established. Over the years, villagers in Papun District and across Karen State have come to learn well that SPDC control means regular abuse and exploitation and, therefore, have sought to avoid such control wherever possible. This report presents one recent example from January to February 2008 of the courageous and varied response strategies villagers use to resist forced relocation and abuse and evade control by SPDC soldiers. Interestingly, this case also hints at some internal dissent and corruption within the SPDC ranks..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2008-F3)
    Format/size: pdf (650 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08f3.html
    Date of entry/update: 07 November 2009


    Title: Militarisation, violence and exploitation in Toungoo District
    Date of publication: 15 February 2008
    Description/subject: "While the SPDC leadership proposes dates for a constitutional referendum and eventual multiparty elections it nonetheless continues without the slightest hesitation the violent subjugation of villagers in northern Karen State. The area of Toungoo District is now saturated with SPDC troops and the local civilian population living under military control as well as those living in hiding are facing constricting options for their lives. The SPDC has continued to increase the military build-up of the area deploying more troops, building new camps and bases and constructing and upgrading vehicle roads to facilitate troop deployment and the stocking of army camps. In this context attacks on villages, arbitrary detentions, killings, forced labour and extortion have continued consistent with the regime's policy of civilian subjugation and in opposition to its claims of a potential return to civilian rule through the current constitution-vetting process..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2008-F2)
    Format/size: pdf (1.1 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08f2.html
    Date of entry/update: 07 November 2009


    Title: Attacks, killings and increased militarisation in Nyaunglebin District
    Date of publication: 11 January 2008
    Description/subject: "With the dry season in northern Karen State well under way, the SPDC continues to intensify its militarisation of the area. In Nyaunglebin District this intensification has come in the form of an increased troop build-up with the regime deploying new military units, establishing new camps and bases and attacking displaced civilian communities in hiding. Maintaining a shoot-on-sight policy SPDC soldiers operating in Nyaunglebin have shot and killed or otherwise severely injured displaced villagers and destroyed rice storage barns and civilian rice supplies across the district. In those areas more firmly under SPDC control, soldiers have ordered villagers to labour building army camps, porter mortar shells and army rations and repair SPDC-controlled vehicle roads in support of the region's growing military presence. This report looks at the human rights situation in Nyaunglebin District from October to December 2007..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2008-F1)
    Format/size: pdf (788 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08f1.html
    Date of entry/update: 07 November 2009


    Title: Villagers risk arrest and execution to harvest their crops
    Date of publication: 04 December 2007
    Description/subject: "The months of November and December which follow the annual cessation of the rainy season mark the traditional harvest time for the agrarian communities of Karen State when villagers must venture out into their fields in order to reap their ripe paddy crops. Across large areas of Toungoo District, however, where the SPDC lacks a consolidated hold on the civilian population, this time of year has become especially perilous as the Army enforces sweeping movement restrictions backed up by a shoot on sight policy in order to eradicate the entire civilian presence in areas outside its control and restrict the population to military-controlled villages and relocation sites where they can be more easily exploited for labour, money, food and other supplies. Displaced communities in hiding thus risk potential arrest and execution by venturing out into the relatively open area of their hill side agricultural fields where they are more easily spotted by SPDC troops who regularly patrol the area. Yet, because of the Army's persistent attacks against covert farm fields, food stores and displaced communities in hiding these villagers confront a severe food shortage which has increased pressure on them to tend to their covert fields despite the risks. As a consequence some villagers have already lost their lives; having been shot by SPDC soldiers while attempting to tend their crops and address their community's rising food insecurity..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2007-F11)
    Format/size: pdf (817 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2007/khrg07f11.html
    Date of entry/update: 07 November 2009


    Title: Born on the Run
    Date of publication: September 2007
    Description/subject: A photojournalist put aside his camera to comfort a young Karen woman at the birth of her son in a jungle hideout... "It was a makeshift village on the Thai side of the Moei River bordering Burma and Thailand, about 60 miles north of the Thai border town of Mae Sot. Around 100 Karen lived there, so-called “internally displaced persons,” refugees from the excesses committed by the Burmese army and the equally feared troops of the regime-backed Democratic Karen Buddhist Army..."
    Author/creator: Dai Kurokawa
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


    Title: Landmines, Killings and Food Destruction: Civilian life in Toungoo District
    Date of publication: 09 August 2007
    Description/subject: "The attacks against civilians continue as the SPDC increases its military build-up in Toungoo District. Enforcing widespread restrictions on movement backed up by a shoot-on-sight policy, the SPDC has executed at least 38 villagers in Toungoo since January 2007. On top of this, local villagers face the ever present danger of landmines, many of which were manufactured in China, which the Army has deployed around homes, churches and forest paths. Combined with the destruction of covert agricultural hill fields and rice supplies, these attacks seek to undermine food security and make life unbearable in areas outside of consolidated military control. However, as those living under SPDC rule have found, the constant stream of military demands for labour, money and other supplies undermine livelihoods, village economies and community efforts to address health, education and social needs. Civilians in Toungoo must therefore choose between a situation of impoverishment and subjugation under SPDC rule, evasion in forested hiding sites with the constant threat of military attack, or a relatively stable yet uprooted life in refugee camps away from their homeland. This report documents just some of the human rights abuses perpetrated by SPDC forces against villagers in Toungoo District up to July 2007..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2007-F6)
    Format/size: pdf (1.24 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2007/khrg07f6.html
    Date of entry/update: 08 November 2009


    Title: Provoking Displacement in Toungoo District: Forced labour, restrictions and attacks
    Date of publication: 30 May 2007
    Description/subject: "The first half of 2007 has seen the continued flight of civilians from their homes and land in response to ongoing State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) military operations in Toungoo District. While in some cases this displacement is prompted by direct military attacks against their villages, many civilians living in Toungoo District have told KHRG that the primary catalyst for relocation has been the regular demands for labour, money and supplies and the restrictions on movement and trade imposed by SPDC forces. These everyday abuses combine over time to effectively undermine civilian livelihoods, exacerbate poverty and make subsistence untenable. Villagers threatened with such demands and restrictions frequently choose displacement in response - initially to forest hiding sites located nearby and then farther afield to larger Internally Displaced Person (IDP) camps or across the border to Thailand-based refugee camps. This report presents accounts of ongoing abuses in Toungoo District committed by SPDC forces during the period of January to May 2007 and their role in motivating local villagers to respond with flight and displacement..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2007-F4)
    Format/size: pdf (527 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2007/khrg07f4.html
    Date of entry/update: 08 November 2009


    Title: Road construction, attacks on displaced communities and the impact on education in northern Papun District
    Date of publication: 26 March 2007
    Description/subject: "In the ongoing offensive against villagers in northern Karen State, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) has been working to develop infrastructure supportive of increased military control. The construction of new bases and vehicle roads serve this objective as they obstruct the efforts of local communities to evade army patrols and sustain their livelihoods in areas beyond the reach of SPDC forces. Increased control, in turn, allows the SPDC to more easily exploit rural communities for labour, food and other supplies in support of military structures. This report examines how military deployment and the construction of new roads and bases further into Papun District have led local villagers to respond by evading encroaching army units despite the increasing difficulty of this tactic, and how the subsequent displacement has affected children's access to education..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2007-F3)
    Format/size: pdf (806 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2007/khrg07f3.html
    Date of entry/update: 08 November 2009


    Title: Bullets and Bulldozers: The SPDC offensive continues in Toungoo District
    Date of publication: 19 February 2007
    Description/subject: "The first two months of 2007 have done nothing to lessen the intensity of attacks against the villagers of Toungoo District. SPDC forces continue to send in more troops and supplies, build new camps and upgrade older ones using forced village labour, convict porters and heavy machinery brought in for this purpose. Local villagers have been the ones to suffer from the increased military build-up and infrastructure 'development' as such programmes have put the SPDC in a stronger position to enforce their authority over civilians in rural areas and undermine the efforts of local peoples to evade military forces and maintain their livelihoods. Employing the new roadways and camps to shuttle troops and supplies deeper into areas beyond military control, SPDC forces continue to expand their reach in terms of extortion of funds, food and supplies; extraction of forced labour; and restriction of all civilian movement, travel and trade. These abuses have combined to exacerbate poverty, worsen the humanitarian situation and restrict the options of villagers living in these areas..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2007-F1)
    Format/size: pdf (819 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2007/khrg07f1.html
    Date of entry/update: 08 November 2009


    Title: Papun Update: SPDC attacks on villages continue
    Date of publication: 06 October 2006
    Description/subject: "As the rainy season nears its end, SPDC operations in northern Papun District persist. Civilians living in Lu Thaw township in northern Papun District who fled from military attacks on their villages earlier in the current offensive have been joined by those more recently displaced. So long as military forces remain active in the area of their abandoned homes, these villagers are unable to return to tend their crops, collect possessions and reclaim their land. In these situations of displacement, villagers confront daily food shortages, unhygienic conditions and the constant threat of detection by military forces. With the establishment of new army camps, the likely construction of more roads and a possible large-scale relocation site at Pwah Ghaw, the ability of displaced villagers to maintain their livelihood, evade military forces and retain some measure of control over their land is becoming highly restricted. Nevertheless, the threat of regular abuse and ceaseless demands in military-controlled areas prompt villagers living in hiding to continue to evade capture and military subjugation..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2006-F10)
    Format/size: pdf (671K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2006/khrg06f10.html
    Date of entry/update: 06 October 2006


    Title: SPDC military begins pincer movement, adds new camps in Papun district
    Date of publication: 09 August 2006
    Description/subject: "KHRG continues to monitor the activities of large SPDC military columns which are systematically destroying villages in Papun, Nyaunglebin and Toungoo districts. We have just received information from a KHRG researcher in the field that in the past week SPDC Military Operations Command #15 has launched its expected pincer operation in northern Papun district, trying to catch Karen villagers between its Tactical Operations Command #2 coming from the south and Tactical Operations Command #3 coming from the north. These two large multi-battalion columns, with several hundred soldiers each, are attempting to force all villagers out of the hills west of the Yunzalin River (Bway Loh Kloh) in northern Papun district of Karen State. Tactical Operations Command #2 has pushed north from Naw Yo Hta and has now set up a new base at Baw Ka Plaw, just north of Kay Pu; while Tactical Operations Command #3 has approached the same area from the north, coming down from Bu Sah Kee and establishing themselves at a new camp at Si Day. This pincer movement and the establishment of these two new Army camps ensure that the hill villagers in the northern tip of Papun district will remain displaced for the coming months and will lose their entire rice harvest, creating serious concerns about their food security and survival over the coming year."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2006-B10)
    Format/size: html, pdf (459K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2006/khrg06b10.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2006


    Title: Forced Relocation, Restrictions and Abuses in Nyaunglebin District
    Date of publication: 10 July 2006
    Description/subject: "This report presents information on ongoing abuses in Nyaunglebin (Kler Lweh Htoo) District, Karen State committed by SPDC forces during the period of March to May 2006. Attacks on hill villagers have continued as SPDC units seek to depopulate the hills and force all villagers to relocate to military-controlled villages in the plains and along roadways. However, those villagers living in SPDC-controlled areas are subject as well to continued abuses including arbitrary arrest and detention, extortion, restricted movement and forced labour..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2006-F6)
    Format/size: pdf (645 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2006/khrg06f6.html
    Date of entry/update: 09 November 2009


    Title: New SPDC military moves force more villagers to flee
    Date of publication: 04 July 2006
    Description/subject: "The SPDC is continuing its attacks on Karen hill villages throughout northern Karen State, trying to entirely depopulate the northern hills. SPDC columns have regrouped and resupplied and are now launching attacks into hill regions not previously reached by the offensive. If successful, this offensive threatens to completely annihilate the unique way of life and culture of the hill Karen, a distinct group within the Karen population, by either forcing them into relocation sites where they cannot practice their culture and livelihood, or simply killing them off and destroying all remnants of their existence..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (555K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2006/khrg06b9.html
    Date of entry/update: 04 July 2006


    Title: Without Respite: Renewed Attacks on Villages and Internal Displacement in Toungoo District
    Date of publication: 12 June 2006
    Description/subject: "With the annual monsoon rains now falling over Karen State, the SPDC’s military offensive against civilian villagers in northern Karen State would normally be drawing to a close. However, quite the opposite is happening. The resumption of SPDC Army attacks on villages and the increased patrols in Toungoo District shows that the offensive is far from over. Thousands more landmines have been reportedly deployed across Toungoo District to isolate certain parts of the district and restrict villagers’ movements. An analysis of SPDC Army troop movements and tactics suggests that the offensive is now set to expand eastward across the Day Loh River where it can be expected that SPDC units will soon commence shelling and destroying villages. In addition to this, the situation in the southeast of the district has become dire as the villagers are now caught between two advancing columns and have nowhere left to flee. It is likely that dozens more villages will be destroyed and thousands more villagers will be displaced in the coming months. Civilian villagers living in Toungoo District (Taw Oo in Karen), the northernmost of the seven Karen districts in eastern Burma, have been under attack since November last year. In its latest military offensive against the civilian population, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) military junta has been targeting Karen villagers living in the hills of northern Karen State in the ongoing attempt to consolidate its control and bring the whole of the population under its rule. Over the past six months, thousands of villagers have been displaced and dozens of villages have been abandoned and/or destroyed. The wet season has now commenced, but the attacks show no sign of slowing down. Unlike in previous years, when offensive activities would cease with the onset of the rains, the SPDC has actually recently intensified its activities against Karen civilians in Toungoo District. The situation for the villagers is now growing increasingly desperate as more and more troops flood into the district to inflict wholesale human rights violations..."... Table of Contents: The Scope of Displacement: Implications for Health and Education; Increased Isolation of Villages in the Region; Examining the Motives behind the Offensive.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2006-F5)
    Format/size: pdf (1.7MB), html (260K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2006/khrg0602a.html
    Date of entry/update: 14 June 2006


    Title: Offensive columns shell and burn villages, round up villagers in northern Papun and Toungoo districts
    Date of publication: 07 June 2006
    Description/subject: "...SPDC troops in northern Papun district continue to escalate their attacks, shooting villagers, burning villages and destroying ricefields. Undefended villages in far northern Papun district are now being shelled with powerful 120mm mortars. Three battalions from Toungoo district have rounded up hundreds of villagers as porters and are detaining their families in schools in case they're needed; this column is now heading south with its porters, apparently intending to trap displaced villagers in a pincer between themselves and the troops coming north from Papun district. A similar trapping movement is being performed along the Bilin river, as 8 battalions come from two directions to wipe out every village in their path. Up to 4,000 villagers in Papun district's far north have been displaced in the past week, and 1,500 to 2,000 more along the Bilin River..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2006-B7)
    Format/size: html, pdf (800K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2006/khrg06b7.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 08 June 2006


    Title: An Uncertain Fate
    Date of publication: June 2006
    Description/subject: A savage onslaught by the Burmese army in Karen State has displaced thousands and seriously undermined any government talk‑ about democratic reform... "Up to four families squash into half-finished bamboo structures of three or four rooms built into the side of a mountain. Those on the other side of the mountain still wait for suitable shelter. Under these thatched roofs, various cooking utensils lie scattered among tired, poorly clothed and underfed Karen refugees just arrived from northern and eastern Karen State in Burma. They were driven out of their homes by an aggressive campaign by the Burmese army, which targets civilians as well as armed ethnic rebels..."
    Author/creator: Shah Paung/Mae Ra Moo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 December 2006


    Title: Rising Waters
    Date of publication: June 2006
    Description/subject: As thousands of displaced Karen fill temporary shelters along the Salween River in Burma, their plight has yet to mobilize the international community... "A large boat churns through the coffee-colored waters of the Salween River that separates Burma from Thailand. Sitting among plastic wrapped bundles of mosquito nets, tins of sardines, boxes of iron nails, plastic buckets, hammers and floor mats, a small chunky man stares at the fast-gathering rain clouds smothering the hot sun. “There are already 670 people in the camp and hundreds more on their way,” says Hla Henry. “If we don’t get shelters and clinics built before the heavy rains come, it will be a disaster.” He is the secretary for the Committee for Internally Displaced Karen People and says his job is to get help and support for Karen people forced from their homes by the Burmese army..."
    Author/creator: Phil Thornton
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 December 2006


    Title: Toungoo District: Update on the Dam on the Day Loh River
    Date of publication: 30 May 2006
    Description/subject: "...Over the past ten years the SPDC has undertaken numerous 'development projects' across Karen State, consistently claiming that these are purely for the good of the people. Such projects however are anything but, invariably bringing with them an increase in human rights violations in the area surrounding the development site. Villages are typically forcibly relocated and their inhabitants are used as forced labour. One such project is a hydroelectricity power plant that is to be built on the Day Loh River in Toungoo District. In 2005, KHRG examined the activities of 2,000 SPDC Army troops who moved into the region to secure the area surrounding the dam site. This report serves as an update of the dam situation, incorporating information which may be possible evidence of the complicity of foreign corporations, and explores the possibility that the imminent construction of this project and others like it are part of the motivation behind the current offensive underway in northern Karen State..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2006-B5)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 31 May 2006


    Title: "We have hands the same as them": Struggles for local sovereignty and livelihoods by internally displaced Karen villagers in Burma
    Date of publication: 29 May 2006
    Description/subject: "...For the past thirty years hundreds of thousands of Karen villagers in Burma have been living a precarious existence, regularly moving between their villages and displacement in the forests or state-controlled relocation sites, struggling to retain access to their land and livelihoods against a military-run state determined to exert absolute control over their movements, their land, their cropping methods, their produce, and all other aspects of their lives. Outside attention on this situation tends to focus on the armed conflict between the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) and the state military junta, and concludes that this is a simple case of 'conflict-induced displacement' which requires a peace agreement between combatants and 'return' of displaced villagers with help from the state. This paper challenges this analysis. It examines the nature and dynamics of Karen internal displacement through perspectives expressed by villagers themselves, and finds it to be an ongoing and fluid process of villagers evading state control while attempting to retain access to their land and livelihoods, rather than a spatial displacement from zones of armed conflict. The primary cause of displacement is not armed conflict, but state efforts to consolidate territorial sovereignty over civilians who are used to local-level sovereignty and 'non-state' identities. Villagers respond with survival strategies which in themselves constitute resistance to state control of their land, livelihoods, and lives. These 'weapons of the weak' used by Karen villagers have arguably weakened the state more than all the battles fought by the armed resistance, and the state has responded with brutal campaigns against their villages. The 2004 ceasefire between the state and Karen armed forces, which the state has used to further penetrate and militarise Karen areas, has only created further displacement and has made this conflict more open and urgent. The paper argues that the solution to Karen internal displacement is not the 'return', 'reintegration' and state-directed aid espoused by the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement and by some international actors, which would only represent victory for the state in this conflict; instead, it advocates recognising and supporting villagers' efforts to resist state control and retain local sovereignty over their lands and livelihoods. (This paper was presented at the Land, Poverty, Social Justice and Development conference in The Hague, The Netherlands in January 2006. It updates and refines the ideas presented in the earlier paper Sovereignty, Survival and Resistance: Contending Perspectives on Karen internal displacement in Burma [KHRG Working Paper #2005-W1])..." _A Paper for Presentation to the Workshop on ‘Urban Lands, Territoriality and Other Issues’, as part of the International Conference on Land, Poverty, Social Justice and Development_
    Author/creator: Kevin Heppner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Right Group (KHRG Articles & Papers)
    Format/size: pdf (651 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/papers/wp2006w1.htm
    Date of entry/update: 26 November 2009


    Title: Toungoo district: Civilians displaced by dams, roads, and military control
    Date of publication: 19 August 2005
    Description/subject: "...Burma’s State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) military junta claims to be implementing peace and development in Karen regions, but civilians in Toungoo District of northern Karen State say they are facing instead brutal treatment aimed at asserting military control. An example of SPDC-led ‘development’ is a new dam project on the Thauk Yay Ka (Day Loh) river in western Toungoo District. Villagers in the area of this proposed dam say that it has brought a new military access road to their area and that large SPDC military columns now patrol their villages, looting their belongings and forcing them into labour. Security checkpoints along all roads in the area have proliferated, restricting the movements of villagers and extorting heavy ‘taxes’ on all goods they try to take to market. Increased military presence along the roads has occurred throughout the district, from the Than Daung Gyi – Leit Tho road in the north to the Kler Lah – Bu Sah Kee road in the southeast, and close to 300 acres of villagers’ farmland has been confiscated for the establishment of a large military base at Leit Tho in the north. This continues the campaign of control already exposed in KHRG’s March 2005 report from the district (see ‘Peace’, or Control?, KHRG Report from the Field #2005-F3). SPDC troops burn farmfields and plantations adjacent to vehicle roads for military security, while destroying the villagers’ food security. People who have been forced from the hills into SPDC-controlled villages struggle against disease, food scarcity and restrictions on their movement, while those who have chosen to evade SPDC control in the hills must remain mobile to evade SPDC patrols who destroy their rice fields and landmine the pathways. In the relocation villages and in the forests, people are facing a difficult struggle against food scarcity, deteriorating health conditions, and SPDC human rights abuses..."...Dam security; Road security; New Army base at Leit Tho; Destruction of villages and livelihoods; Relocation sites and roadsides; Villagers in hiding; Health; Children and education
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2005-F7)
    Format/size: html, pdf (58K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2005/khrg05f7.pdf (without maps)
    Date of entry/update: 20 August 2005


    Title: A Life in Hiding
    Date of publication: July 2005
    Description/subject: Karen Internally Displaced Persons wonder when they will be able to go home... "Sitting in his new bamboo hut in Ler Per Her camp for Internally Displaced Persons, located on the bank of Thailand’s Moei River near the border with Burma, Phar The Tai—a skinny, tough-looking man of 60 who used to hide in the jungles and mountains of Burma’s eastern Karen State—waits for the time when he can return home. “We are living in fear all the time,” he says about the lives of IDPs. His words reflect the general feeling among IDPs from Karen State, which has produced the largest number of displaced people in Burma..."
    Author/creator: Yeni
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


    Title: "They Came and Destroyed Our Village Again"-- The Plight of Internally Displaced Persons in Karen State
    Date of publication: 09 June 2005
    Description/subject: "...While the nonviolent struggle of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi against the Burmese military government’s continuing repression has captured the world’s attention, the profound human rights and humanitarian crisis endured by Burma’s ethnic minority communities has largely been ignored.4 Decades of armed conflict have devastated ethnic minority communities, which make up approximately 35 percent of Burma’s population. The Burmese army, or Tatmadaw, has for many years carried out numerous and widespread summary executions, looting, torture, rape and other sexual violence, arbitrary arrests and torture, forced labor, recruitment of child soldiers, and the displacement and demolition of entire villages as part of military operations against ethnic minority armed opposition groups. Civilians bear the brunt of a state of almost perpetual conflict and militarization. Violations of international human rights and humanitarian law (the laws of war) by the Tatmadaw have been particularly acute in eastern Karen state, which runs along the northwestern border of Thailand...One result of the Tatmadaw’s brutal behavior has been the creation of large numbers of internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees among Burma’s ethnic minority communities. Conflict and its consequences have been going on for so long that in many ethnic minority-populated areas, continuous forced relocations and displacement––interspersed with occasional periods of relative stability––have become a fact of life for generations of poor villagers. The scale of the IDP problem in Burma is daunting. Estimates suggest that, as of late 2004, as many as 650,000 people were internally displaced in eastern Burma alone. According to a recent survey, 157,000 civilians have been displaced in eastern Burma since the end of 2002, and at least 240 villages destroyed, relocated, or abandoned. The majority of displaced people live in areas controlled by the government, now known as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), or by various ethnic armed groups that have agreed to ceasefires with the government. But approximately eighty-four thousand displaced people live in zones of ongoing armed conflict, where the worst human rights abuses continue. Many IDPs live in hiding in war zones. Another two million Burmese live in Thailand, including 145,000 refugees living in camps. Karen State is the location of some of the largest numbers of IDPs in Burma. Since 2002, approximately 100,000 people have been displaced from Karen areas,which include parts of Pegu and Tenasserim Divisions. Though a provisional ceasefire was agreed in December 2003 between the SPDC and the Karen National Union (KNU), sporadic fighting continues. Tatmadaw military operations against the KNU’s army, the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA), in the first months of 2005 caused numerous deaths and injuries to civilians in poor villages along the Thai border. They also forced many civilians to flee internally or to Thailand. For example, at least 9,000 civilians were displaced in Toungoo District, in the far north of Karen State bordering Karenni State, and in Nyaunglebin District in northwest Karen State, during major Tatmadaw offensives between November 2004 and February 2005. The majority of Karen IDPs have been forced out of their homes as a direct result of the Tatmadaw’s “Four Cuts” counter-insurgency strategy, in which the Burmese army has attempted to defeat armed ethnic groups by denying them access to food, funds, recruits, and information from other insurgent groups..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html, pdf (2.3MB., 415K) 72 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://hrw.org/reports/2005/burma0605/burma0605.pdf (text and maps)
    http://hrw.org/reports/2005/burma0605/burma0605text.pdf (text only)
    Date of entry/update: 09 June 2005


    Title: Nyaunglebin District: Food supplies destroyed, villagers forcibly displaced, and region-wide forced labour as SPDC forces seek control over civilians
    Date of publication: 04 May 2005
    Description/subject: "Between October 2004 and January 2005 SPDC troops launched forays into the hills of Nyaunglebin District in an attempt to flush villagers down into the plains and a life under SPDC control. Viciously timed to coincide with the rice harvest, the campaign focused on burning crops and landmining the fields to starve out the villagers. Most people fled into the forest, where they now face food shortages and uncertainty about this year's planting and the security of their villages. Meanwhile in the plains, the SPDC is using people in relocation sites and villages they control as forced labour to strengthen the network of roads and Army camps - the main tools of military control over the civilian population - while Army officers plunder people's belongings for personal gain. In both hills and plains, increased militarisation is bringing on food shortages and poverty..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2005-F4)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


    Title: Sovereignty, Survival and Resistance: Contending Perspectives on Karen Internal Displacement in Burma
    Date of publication: 01 March 2005
    Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper examines the nature and dynamics of Karen internal displacement in Burma through perspectives expressed by villagers themselves, and then contrasts their view of the situation with that projected by international labels and definitions. Initially, it contrasts the prevalent way of viewing internal displacement, which it argues is built upon state sovereignty, and a ‘popular sovereignty’ perspective which attempts to understand displacement by beginning from the viewpoint of local people rather than internationally-accepted definitions. It then looks at Karen internal displacement using the latter perspective and finds it to be an ongoing and sociocultural process rather than a spatial displacement from ‘home’. Though occurring in a context of armed conflict, it is not caused by armed conflict but by state efforts to consolidate territorial sovereignty over civilians who are used to local-level sovereignty and ‘non-state’ identities. Villagers therefore respond with survival strategies which in themselves constitute resistance to state authority. International perspectives, however, ignore this when they apply misleading assumptions and oversimplifications like ‘conflict-induced displacement’ and overdetermine people’s identities with labels like ‘IDP’ which depict people as helpless bystanders to their own context. Such labels ignore people’s capacities to respond to their own situation and the resistance aspect in their responses, and lead to top-down relief-based solutions which favour the repressive state and weaken the position of displaced people themselves. The importance of which epistemology is chosen to understand internal displacement situations is illustrated by the contrast between covert local-level aid to Karen village survival strategies, which is unabashedly political and empowers people in their resistance to state control, versus UNHCR’s agreement with Burma’s military junta to prepare the ground for refugee repatriation, which claims ‘humanitarian neutrality’ but strengthens the state, ignores local perspectives and poses a serious threat to the lives and livelihoods of the internally displaced. The paper concludes that most interventions in internal displacement situations fail to improve conditions for the displaced because they apply internationally-developed labels to people and situations which ignore local perspectives and dynamics, and calls for a new look at ‘internal’ displacement which is much more politically engaged and gives much greater weight to local visions."
    Author/creator: Kevin Heppner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Working Paper #2005-W1)
    Format/size: pdf (727K) 52 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/papers/wp2005w1.htm
    Date of entry/update: 19 June 2005


    Title: Damming at Gunpoint (Burmese)
    Date of publication: November 2004
    Description/subject: BURMA ARMY ATROCITIES PAVE THE WAY FOR SALWEEN DAMS IN KAREN STATE... "As Thailand proceeds with plans to join Burma’s military regime in building a series of dams on the Salween River to gain “cheap” electricity, this report reveals the atrocities being inflicted on the people of Northern Karen State to pave the way for two of the planned dams. The Upper Salween (Wei Gyi) Dam and Lower Salween (Dar Gwin) Dam are planned to be built on the river where it forms the border between Thailand’s Mae Hong Son province and Burma’s Karen State. Together they will produce about 5,300 MW of electricity. It is estimated that the reservoir for the Upper Dam will stretch for 380 kilometers inside Karen and Karenni States of Burma. Both dams are located at the eastern edge of Papun district in Karen State. Once a Karen liberated area, during the last decade Papun has been the site of repeated military offensives and anti-insurgency campaigns by the regime’s troops to crush the Karen resistance. Before 1992, there were only ten Burma Army garrisons in Papun district. Today there are fifty-four garrisons, including twelve along the Salween river bank, fortified with heavy artillery. The military campaigns have decimated the local population. 210 villages have been destroyed, and villagers forcibly relocated to 31 relocation sites, where movement has been strictly controlled, and villagers are subject to forced labour and other human rights abuses. Tens of thousands of villagers have fled to Thailand as refugees; others live in hiding in the jungle, where they live in constant fear of being found and tortured or killed. In 1992, there were estimated to be about 107,000 people in Papun district. Now this has been halved to about 54,000, of whom about 35,000, or 60%, are internally displaced in the jungles. The rest have fled to Thailand or other parts of Burma. Out of 85 original villages in the mountainous area of Eastern Papun directly adjoining the planned dam sites, only a quarter remain. Most of the communities who had farmed and traded along the Salween River have fled to Thailand, and many farms in the fertile tributary valleys have been lying fallow for over a decade. Over 5,000 villagers remain hiding in the jungle, facing severe food shortages and health problems. Roads to the planned dam sites have been built using forced labour, and landmines have been planted alongside the roads. There has been no consultation with local communities about the dam plans. If the dams are built, the floodwaters will permanently displace many of the communities currently in hiding or living as refugees in Thailand. The increased military security for the dam sites will also inevitably mean further abuses against local populations. The Salween dams fit into the ongoing strategy of the Burmese military regime to use “development” projects to gain funding and collusion from neighbouring countries to subjugate ethnic resistance movements, and exploit the natural resources in the ethnic areas. Karen Rivers Watch makes the following recommendations:..."
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Karen Rivers Watch
    Format/size: pdf (1.4MB - OBL version; 3.23MB - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmariversnetwork.org/images/stories/publications/burmese/dammingatgunpoint.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 23 February 2012


    Title: Damming at Gunpoint (English)
    Date of publication: November 2004
    Description/subject: BURMA ARMY ATROCITIES PAVE THE WAY FOR SALWEEN DAMS IN KAREN STATE... "As Thailand proceeds with plans to join Burma’s military regime in building a series of dams on the Salween River to gain “cheap” electricity, this report reveals the atrocities being inflicted on the people of Northern Karen State to pave the way for two of the planned dams. The Upper Salween (Wei Gyi) Dam and Lower Salween (Dar Gwin) Dam are planned to be built on the river where it forms the border between Thailand’s Mae Hong Son province and Burma’s Karen State. Together they will produce about 5,300 MW of electricity. It is estimated that the reservoir for the Upper Dam will stretch for 380 kilometers inside Karen and Karenni States of Burma. Both dams are located at the eastern edge of Papun district in Karen State. Once a Karen liberated area, during the last decade Papun has been the site of repeated military offensives and anti-insurgency campaigns by the regime’s troops to crush the Karen resistance. Before 1992, there were only ten Burma Army garrisons in Papun district. Today there are fifty-four garrisons, including twelve along the Salween river bank, fortified with heavy artillery. The military campaigns have decimated the local population. 210 villages have been destroyed, and villagers forcibly relocated to 31 relocation sites, where movement has been strictly controlled, and villagers are subject to forced labour and other human rights abuses. Tens of thousands of villagers have fled to Thailand as refugees; others live in hiding in the jungle, where they live in constant fear of being found and tortured or killed. In 1992, there were estimated to be about 107,000 people in Papun district. Now this has been halved to about 54,000, of whom about 35,000, or 60%, are internally displaced in the jungles. The rest have fled to Thailand or other parts of Burma. Out of 85 original villages in the mountainous area of Eastern Papun directly adjoining the planned dam sites, only a quarter remain. Most of the communities who had farmed and traded along the Salween River have fled to Thailand, and many farms in the fertile tributary valleys have been lying fallow for over a decade. Over 5,000 villagers remain hiding in the jungle, facing severe food shortages and health problems. Roads to the planned dam sites have been built using forced labour, and landmines have been planted alongside the roads. There has been no consultation with local communities about the dam plans. If the dams are built, the floodwaters will permanently displace many of the communities currently in hiding or living as refugees in Thailand. The increased military security for the dam sites will also inevitably mean further abuses against local populations. The Salween dams fit into the ongoing strategy of the Burmese military regime to use “development” projects to gain funding and collusion from neighbouring countries to subjugate ethnic resistance movements, and exploit the natural resources in the ethnic areas. Karen Rivers Watch makes the following recommendations:..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Rivers Watch
    Format/size: pdf (617K - OBL version; 1.82MB - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmariversnetwork.org/images/stories/publications/english/dammingatgunpointenglish.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 23 February 2012


    Title: Damming at Gunpoint (Karen)
    Date of publication: November 2004
    Description/subject: BURMA ARMY ATROCITIES PAVE THE WAY FOR SALWEEN DAMS IN KAREN STATE... "As Thailand proceeds with plans to join Burma’s military regime in building a series of dams on the Salween River to gain “cheap” electricity, this report reveals the atrocities being inflicted on the people of Northern Karen State to pave the way for two of the planned dams. The Upper Salween (Wei Gyi) Dam and Lower Salween (Dar Gwin) Dam are planned to be built on the river where it forms the border between Thailand’s Mae Hong Son province and Burma’s Karen State. Together they will produce about 5,300 MW of electricity. It is estimated that the reservoir for the Upper Dam will stretch for 380 kilometers inside Karen and Karenni States of Burma. Both dams are located at the eastern edge of Papun district in Karen State. Once a Karen liberated area, during the last decade Papun has been the site of repeated military offensives and anti-insurgency campaigns by the regime’s troops to crush the Karen resistance. Before 1992, there were only ten Burma Army garrisons in Papun district. Today there are fifty-four garrisons, including twelve along the Salween river bank, fortified with heavy artillery. The military campaigns have decimated the local population. 210 villages have been destroyed, and villagers forcibly relocated to 31 relocation sites, where movement has been strictly controlled, and villagers are subject to forced labour and other human rights abuses. Tens of thousands of villagers have fled to Thailand as refugees; others live in hiding in the jungle, where they live in constant fear of being found and tortured or killed. In 1992, there were estimated to be about 107,000 people in Papun district. Now this has been halved to about 54,000, of whom about 35,000, or 60%, are internally displaced in the jungles. The rest have fled to Thailand or other parts of Burma. Out of 85 original villages in the mountainous area of Eastern Papun directly adjoining the planned dam sites, only a quarter remain. Most of the communities who had farmed and traded along the Salween River have fled to Thailand, and many farms in the fertile tributary valleys have been lying fallow for over a decade. Over 5,000 villagers remain hiding in the jungle, facing severe food shortages and health problems. Roads to the planned dam sites have been built using forced labour, and landmines have been planted alongside the roads. There has been no consultation with local communities about the dam plans. If the dams are built, the floodwaters will permanently displace many of the communities currently in hiding or living as refugees in Thailand. The increased military security for the dam sites will also inevitably mean further abuses against local populations. The Salween dams fit into the ongoing strategy of the Burmese military regime to use “development” projects to gain funding and collusion from neighbouring countries to subjugate ethnic resistance movements, and exploit the natural resources in the ethnic areas. Karen Rivers Watch makes the following recommendations:..."
    Language: Karen
    Source/publisher: Karen Rivers Watch
    Format/size: pdf (1.5MB - OBL version; 2.17MB - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmariversnetwork.org/images/stories/publications/dammingatgunpointkaren.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 23 February 2012


    Title: Enduring Hunger and Repression: : Food Scarcity, Internal Displacement, and the Continued Use of Forced Labour in Toungoo District
    Date of publication: September 2004
    Description/subject: "This report describes the current situation faced by rural Karen villagers in Toungoo District (known as Taw Oo in Karen). Toungoo District is the northernmost district of Karen State, sharing borders with Karenni (Kayah) State to the east, Pegu (Bago) Division to the west, and Shan State to the north. To the south Toungoo District shares borders with the Karen districts of Nyaunglebin (Kler Lweh Htoo) and Papun (Mutraw). The westernmost portion of the district bordering Pegu Division consists of the plains of the Sittaung River, which are heavily controlled by the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) military junta which presently rules Burma. The rest of the district to the east is covered by steep and forested hills that are home to Karen villagers who live in small villages strewn across the hills. For years, the SPDC has endeavoured to extend its control through the hills, but their efforts thus far have been hampered by the continued armed resistance of the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA). Within the areas that are strongly controlled by the SPDC, the villagers must live with constant demands for forced labour, food, and money from the SPDC battalions that are based in the area. Villages that do not comply with SPDC demands risk being relocated and burned. Many villages have been burned and their inhabitants forcibly relocated to sites where the SPDC may more easily control and exploit them. Those villagers who do not move to the relocation sites flee into the jungles where they live as internally displaced persons (IDPs). Several thousand villagers now live internally displaced in the mountains of Toungoo District. These villagers live in almost constant fear of SPDC Army units, and must run for their lives if they receive word that a column of soldiers is approaching. SPDC Army columns routinely shoot displaced villagers on sight. The villagers here continue to suffer severe human rights violations at the hands of the SPDC Army soldiers, including, but not limited to summary arrest, torture, forced labour, extortion, extrajudicial execution, and the systematic destruction of crops and food supplies. Although a verbal ceasefire is in place between the Karen National Union (KNU) and the SPDC, not much has changed for the villagers in the district. KNLA and SPDC military units still occasionally clash. The SPDC has taken advantage of the ceasefire to move more troops into the area and to build new camps. These new camps and troops have meant that the villagers now have to do forced labour building the new camps and portering supplies up to the camps. There are also more troops and camps to demand food and money from the villagers. The many new camps have made it more difficult for internally displaced villagers work their fields or to go to find food..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (9.5MB), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2004/khrg0401a.html
    Date of entry/update: 16 November 2004


    Title: Broken Trust, Broken Home
    Date of publication: February 2004
    Description/subject: "Fifty-five years of civil war have decimated Burma’s Karen State, forcing thousands of civilians to flee their homes. Most would like to return—by their own will when the fighting stops. By Emma Larkin/Mae Sot, Thailand When Eh Mo Thaw was 16 years old, a Burmese battalion marched into his village in Karen State and burned down all the houses. Eh Mo Thaw and his family were herded into a relocation camp where they had to work for the Burma Army, digging ponds and growing rice to feed the Burmese troops. They had no time to grow food for themselves and many were not able to survive. Villagers caught foraging for vegetables outside the camp perimeter were shot on sight. "Many people died," says Eh Mo Thaw. "I also thought I would die." Eh Mo Thaw managed to escape from the camp with his family. For 20 years, he hid in the jungle, moving from place to place whenever Burmese troops drew near. Eventually he found himself on the Thai border and, when Burmese forces stormed the area, he had no choice but to cross the border into Thailand and enter a refugee camp..."
    Author/creator: Emma Larkin
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 12, No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 09 June 2004


    Title: Expansion of the Guerrilla Retaliation Units and Food Shortages
    Date of publication: 16 June 2003
    Description/subject: KHRG Information Update #2003-U1 June 16, 2003 "The situation faced by the villagers of Toungoo District (see Map 1) is worsening as more and more parts of the District are being brought under the control of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) through the increased militarisation of the region. At any one time there are no fewer than a dozen battalions active in the area. Widespread forced labour and extortion continue unabated as in previous years, with all battalions in the District being party to such practices. The imposition of constant forced labour and the extortion of money and food are among the military’s primary occupations in the area. The strategy of the military is not one of open confrontation with the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) – the armed wing of the Karen National Union (KNU) - but of targeting the civilian population as a means of cutting all lines of support and supply for the resistance movement. There has not been a major offensive in the District since the SPDC launched Operation Aung Tha Pyay in 1995-96; however since that time the Army has been restricting, harassing, and forcibly relocating hill villages to the point where people can no longer live in them. Many of the battalions launch sweeps through the hills in search of villagers hiding there in an effort to drive them out of the hills and into the areas controlled by the SPDC. Fortunately, the areas into which many of them have fled are both rugged and remote, making it difficult for the Army to find them. For those who are discovered, once relocated, they are then exploited as a ready source for portering and other forced labour..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 July 2003


    Title: After the 1997 Offensives: The Burma Army's Relocation Program in Kamoethway Area
    Date of publication: April 2003
    Description/subject: "Mass Displacement by the Burmese Army's forced relocation program in Tenasserim division first rose to awareness when multi-national companies started to build the Yadana gas pipeline. What followed was a Burmese Army offensive in 1997 to KNU controlled areas to secure more of the area for their business interests. After the arrival of foreign companies and the Yadana gas pipeline the Kamoethway area became a refuge for those fleeing from the gas pipeline area. Later Kamoethway area itself became another target for Burmese troops trying to gain better access to the gas pipeline. In 1997 the Karen in Kamethway area were forcibly relocated by Burmese troops to their designated relocation sites where they were under strict control.This report focuses on the forced relocation program in Kamoethway area: how the villagers survive in the relocation sites, what is the current situation of the forced relocation sites and how the Burmese troops control the villagers..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Issues
    Format/size: pdf (419K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmaissues.org/En/reports/1997offensive.html
    Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


    Title: IDPs in Burma: A short summary
    Date of publication: April 2003
    Description/subject: "Burma has a population of 50 million people, recent estimates place 2 million of those people as Internally Displaced Persons (IDP). They live precarious and transient lives in the jungles of Burma’s ethnic border areas and in the more urban central plains. They are denied the stability of having a home and a livelihood and are forced into a constant state of movement: never having the opportunity to maintain a home, their farms, access to education and medical facilities and peace of mind..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Issues (Peaceway Foundation)
    Format/size: pdf (219 K)
    Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


    Title: Flight, Hunger and Survival: Repression and Displacement in the Villages of Papun and Nyaunglebin Districts
    Date of publication: 22 October 2001
    Description/subject: "This report documents in detail the plight of villagers and the internally displaced in these two northern Karen regions. Since 1997 the SPDC has destroyed or relocated over 200 villages here, forcing tens of thousands of villagers to flee into hiding in the hills where they are now being hunted down and shot on sight by close to 50 SPDC Army battalions. The troops are now systematically destroying crops, food supplies and farmfields to flush the villagers out of the hills, making the situation increasingly desperate. Meanwhile, those living in the SPDC-controlled villages and relocation sites are fleeing to the hills to join the displaced because they can no longer bear the heavy burden of forced labour, extortion, restrictions on their movement and random torture and executions. KHRG's most intensive research effort to date, this report draws on over 300 interviews with people in the villages and forests, thousands of photographs and hundreds of documents assembled by KHRG researchers in the past 2 years." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2001-03)
    Format/size: PDF version 9770K (yes, almost 10 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2001/khrg0103.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: On the Trail of Burma's Internal Refugees
    Date of publication: June 2001
    Description/subject: An American dentist travels deep into the world of Burma's Internally Displaced Persons, and discovers a people driven by fear into an uncertain future. Armed with a Colt .45, American dentist Shannon Allison is on a dangerous mission of mercy: to bring emergency medical assistance to Internally Displaced Persons inside Burma. Veteran photojournalist Thierry Falise reports from Burma's war-torn jungles on efforts to assist these victims of endemic conflict.
    Author/creator: Thierry Falise
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Papun and Nyaunglebin Districts: Internally displaced villagers cornered by 40 SPDC Battalions; Food shortages, disease, killings and life on the run.
    Date of publication: 09 April 2001
    Description/subject: Food shortages, disease, killings and life on the run.Based on new interviews and reports from KHRG field researchers, this update summarises the increasingly desperate situation for villagers in these two districts. In the hills, the people of several hundred villages are still in hiding, their villages destroyed by SPDC troops. Their survival situation is now desperate as 40 SPDC Battalions continue to systematically destroy their rice supplies and crops and landmine their fields, and shoot them on sight. In the villages under SPDC control, people suffer under an impossible burden of many kinds of forced labour and extortion.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG (Information Update #2001-U3)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma: Displaced Karens. Like Water on the Khu Leaf
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: "War disrupts the normal relationship between people and place. Displaced by war, people must adapt to survive, both physically and socially. When people are displaced for a long time, these adaptations become normal; thus displacement starts as an aberration but becomes a constant way of life. In eastern Burma, 'normal' displacement has led to significant changes in the political, cultural and economic relationships between Karen people and their 'place' - both the physical space they occupy and their position in society. Those changes, and particularly the Karens' own revised perceptions of their place in the world, provide insights into how they, and others in Burma, cope with displacement. In Burma,1 population displacement is widespread, though little understood. Armed conflict, disputes over land and natural resources, and poverty drive people from their homes; but there has been little research on displacement's effect on people's lives.2 Many internally displaced persons live in remote areas that are also theatres of war; and the government of Burma denies permission to researchers or aid workers hoping to visit these contested regions. Furthermore, until a few years ago, Burma's displaced population attracted little international attention. Few, apart from a handful of Thailand-based aid organisations, knew about conditions in the war zones. By the late 1990s, however, the world became more aware of conditions inside Burma, thanks to reports of displacement, increasing numbers of would-be refugees seeking asylum in Thailand, the controversial repatriation of Burmese refugees from Bangladesh, deteriorating tolerance for refugees in Thailand, and the burgeoning influence of Burma's democracy movement..."
    Author/creator: Chris Cusano
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Caught Between Borders" - Norwegian Refugee Council (with kind permission)
    Format/size: pdf (197K)
    Date of entry/update: 10 June 2006


    Title: Karen IDPs Report: The Plight of Internally Displaced Karen People in Mu Traw District of Burma
    Date of publication: December 2000
    Description/subject: "...The report pin points the dismal conditions for the Karen people throughout the district, but the desperate situation of specific group in worst hit areas. It was always the intention to build on the BERG report, Forgotten Victims of a Hidden War: Internally Displaced Karen in Burma, published in 1998, which provided the background and general description of the displacement of the Karen in Kawthoolei. The Mu Traw report has been the first attempt by the CIDKP to provide more detailed information focussing on a single district. It is hoped that the report will lead to future publications regarding the situation in the other Karen districts..."
    Author/creator: Saw Klo Wah Moo, Saw Ternder, Saw La Thwe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Committee for Internally Displaced Karen People
    Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
    Date of entry/update: 11 April 2005


    Title: KHRG Commentary #2000-C2
    Date of publication: 17 October 2000
    Description/subject: The worsening situation of the internally displaced in all northern Karen districts, forced labour and convict porters, rice quotas, the desperate situation of rank-and-file SPDC soldiers, forced repatriation of refugees in Thailand, and the SPDC's persistence in denying that there is any problem whatsoever.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Peace Villages and Hiding Villages: Roads, Relocations, and the Campaign for Control in Toungoo District
    Date of publication: 15 October 2000
    Description/subject: Roads, Relocations, and the Campaign for Control in Toungoo District. Based on interviews and field reports from KHRG field researchers in this northern Karen district, looks at the phenomenon of 'Peace Villages' under SPDC control and 'Hiding Villages' in the hills; while the 'Hiding Villages' are being systematically destroyed and their villagers hunted and captured, the 'Peace Villages' face so many demands for forced labour and extortion that many ofthem are fleeing to the hills. Looks at forced labour road construction and its relation to increasing SPDC militarisation of the area, and also at the new tourism development project at Than Daung Gyi which involves large-scale land confiscation and forced labour. Keywords: Karen; KNU; KNLA; SPDC deserters; Sa Thon Lon activities; human minesweepers; human shields; reprisals against villagers; abuse of village heads; SPDC army units; military situation; forced relocation; strategic hamletting; relocation sites; internal displacement; IDPs; cross-border assistance; forced labour; torture; killings; extortion, economic oppression; looting; pillaging; burning of villages; destruction of crops and food stocks; forced labour on road projects; road building; restrictions on movment; lack of education and health services; tourism project; confiscation of land and forced labour for tourism project;landmines; malnutrition; starvation; SPDC Orders. ... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #2000-05)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: SPDC & DKBA Orders to Villages: Set 2000-B
    Date of publication: 12 October 2000
    Description/subject: Pa'an, Dooplaya, Toungoo, Papun, & Thaton Districts. Over 250 orders dating from mid-1999 through late September 2000, the vast majority of them from the latter half of that period. Includes restrictions on the movement of villagers, forced relocation, demands for forced labour, extortion of money, food, and materials, threats to villagers and other demands, as well as documents related to rice quotas which farmers are forced to give, education and health. Also contains one order #174 which directly shows the role of a Dutch timber importing company in causing the SPDC to threaten all non-government controlled timber traders. ... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Orders Reports (KHRG #2000-04)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Interview Annex to "Starving Them Out"
    Date of publication: 31 March 2000
    Description/subject: Forced Relocations, Killings and the Systematic Starvation of Villagers in Dooplaya District
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG (#2000-02A)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Starving Them Out: Forced Relocations, Killings and the Systematic Starvation of Villagers in Dooplaya District
    Date of publication: 31 March 2000
    Description/subject: "This report consists of an Introduction and Executive Summary, followed by a detailed analysis of the situation supported by quotes from interviews and excerpts from SPDC order documents sent to villages in the region. As mentioned above, an Annex to this report containing the full text of the remaining interviews can be seen by following the link from the table of contents or from KHRG upon approved request..." Forced Relocations, Killings and the Systematic Starvation of Villagers in Dooplaya District
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #2000-02)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Central Karen State: villagers fleeing forced relocations and other abuses forced back by Thai troops
    Date of publication: 29 September 1999
    Description/subject: Over the past four months, villagers from southeastern Pa'an District in Karen State have been steadily arriving at areas along the Thai border 35-60 km north of the Thai town of Mae Sot. They have risked treacherous travelling conditions during the rainy season to make the journey, camping in makeshift shelters along the way with little food or clothing. Testimonies collected from recent refugees indicate that the SPDC is intensifying its operation from August-December 1999 to clear all villages in the southeastern corner of Pa'an District in order to undermine Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) activities in the region.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Information Update)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Central Karen State: New Refugees Fleeing Forced Relocation, Rape and Use as Human Minesweepers
    Date of publication: 27 August 1999
    Description/subject: Since mid-August, new flows of refugees have begun arriving at the Thai border from Karen villages in southeastern Pa'an District, central Karen State. Over 100 families, totalling well over 500 people, have arrived thus far and they say that many more will follow. Those who have arrived so far come from the villages of Pah Klu, Taw Oak, Tee Hsah Ra, Kyaw Ko, Tee Wah Thay, Tee Khoh Taw, Tee Wah Klay, B'Naw Kleh Kee and Ker Ghaw, most of which are within 2-3 days' walk of the border. . . According to Karen National Union (KNU, the main Karen opposition group) sources, troops from as many as 5 different SPDC Light Infantry Divisions have been sent into the area for an operation to run from August to December 1999, intending to subjugate the area with a special focus on clearing landmines by using villagers as human minesweepers. ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Information Update)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Death Squads and Displacement - Systematic Executions, Village Destruction and the Flight of Villagers in Nyaunglebin District
    Date of publication: 24 May 1999
    Description/subject: "This report is a detailed analysis of the current human rights situation in Nyaunglebin District (known in Karen as Kler Lweh Htoo), which straddles the border of northern Karen State and Pegu Division in Burma. Most of the villagers here are Karen, though there are also many Burmans living in the villages near the Sittaung River. Since late 1998 many Karens and Burmans have been fleeing their villages in the area because of human rights abuses by the State Peace & Development Council (SPDC) military junta which currently rules Burma, and this flight is still ongoing. Those from the hills which cover most of the District are fleeing because SPDC troops have been systematically destroying their villages, crops and food supplies and shooting villagers on sight, all in an effort to undermine the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) by driving the civilian population out of the region. At the same time, people in the plains near the Sittaung River are fleeing because of the ever-increasing burden of forced labour, cash extortion, and heavy crop quotas which are being levied against them even though their crops have failed for the past two years running. Many are also fleeing a frightening new phenomenon in the District: the Sa Thon Lon Guerrilla Retaliation units, which appeared in September 1998 and since then have been systematically executing everyone suspected of even the remotest contact with the opposition forces, even if that contact occurred years or decades ago. Their methods are brutal, their tactics are designed to induce fear, and they have executed anywhere from 50 to over 100 civilians in the District since September 1998..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports(KHRG #99-04)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Nyaunglebin District: Internally Displaced People and SPDC Death Squads
    Date of publication: 15 February 1999
    Description/subject: Nyaunglebin (known in Karen as Kler Lwe Htoo) District is a northern Karen region straddling the border of northern Karen State and Pegu Division. It contains the northern reaches of the Bilin (Bu Loh Kloh) River northwest of Papun, and stretches westward as far as the Sittaung (Sittang) River in the area 60 to 150 kilometres north of Pegu (named Bago by the SPDC). The District has 3 townships: Ler Doh (Kyauk Kyi in Burmese), Hsaw Tee (Shwegyin), and Mone. The eastern two-thirds of the district is covered by forested hills dotted with small Karen villages, and the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) operates extensively in this region. The western part of the district is in the plains of the Sittaung river basin; here there are larger villages of mixed Karen and Burman population, and this area is under strong SPDC control. For several years now SLORC/SPDC forces have tried to destroy Karen resistance in the eastern hills, largely by forcing villagers to move and wiping out their ability to produce food. Many villages in the parts of these eastern hills bordering PapunDistrict have been destroyed since 1997 as part of the SPDC campaign to wipe out Karen villages in northern Papun and eastern Nyaunglebin Districts (see "Wholesale Destruction", KHRG, April 1998). According to reports by KHRG monitors in the region and interviews with internally displaced villagers and new refugees, the situation continues to worsen for villagers in eastern and western Nyaunglebin, particularly with the recent creation of SPDC 'Dam Byan Byaut Kya' death squads.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Information Update)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Displacement of Villagers in Southern Pa'an District ( Information Update)
    Date of publication: 19 September 1998
    Description/subject: "The region commonly known as Pa’an District forms a large triangular area in central Karen State, bounded in the west and north by the Salween River and the town of Pa’an (capital of Karen State), in the east by the Moei River where it forms the border with Thailand, and in the south by the motor road from Myawaddy (at the Thai border) westward to Kawkareik and Kyone Doh. Pa’an District is also known as the Karen National Liberation Army’s (KNLA’s) 7th Brigade area. The western parts of Pa’an District and the principal towns have been controlled by the SLORC/SPDC military junta for 10 years or longer, while the eastern strip adjacent to the Thai border has come largely under their control over the past 3 years. The easternmost strip of Pa’an District near the Moei River is separated from the rest of the district by the main ridge of the steep Dawna Mountains ..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Forgotten Victims of a Hidden War: Internally Displaced Karen in Burma
    Date of publication: April 1998
    Description/subject: 1. The Karen and Kawthoolei: The Karen; Kawthoolei; The Kawthoolei districts || 2. Displacement and counter-insurgency in Burma: Population displacement in Burma; Protracted ethnic conflict in Burma; Counter-insurgency: the four-cuts || 3. The war in Kawthoolei: Seasonal offensives: the moving front line and refugee flows, 1974-92; Cease-fires (1992-94) and the renewal of offensives (1995-97) || 4. Internal displacement in Kawthoolei: Counter-insurgency and displacement in Kawthoolei; Displacement in Kawthoolei; The situation of IDPs in Kawthoolei districts; Extent of population displacement in Kawthoolei; Patterns of displacement; Factors preventing the IDPs returning home; Factors preventing the IDPs becoming refugees in Thailand; Vulnerability of IDPs; Note on forced relocations sites || 5.Assistance: International responses to IDPs; International responses to IDPs in Burma; Responses inside Burma; The response from the border area to Karen IDPs || 6.Protection: Refugees on the Thai-Burma border: international assistance with limited protection; The case of the repatriation of the Mon; The Karen: the problem of security; Assistance and protection: refugees and IDPs; The need for leverage; Transition from armed conflict || Appendix III: Interview at Mae La (This version lacks the maps and tables)
    Author/creator: Brother Amoz, Steven Lanjouw, Saw Pay Leek, Dr. Em Marta, Graham Mortimer, Alan Smith, Saw David Taw, Pah Hsaw Thut, Saw Aung Win, Saw Kwe Htoo Win
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Ethnic Research Group (BERG) and Friedrich Naumann Foundation
    Format/size: PDF (570K, 505K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.internal-displacement.org/8025708F004CE90B/(httpDocuments)/0787CA1BCAB95999802570B700599932/$file/Berg+Karen+IDP+report.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: CLAMPDOWN IN SOUTHERN DOOPLAYA: Forced relocation and abuses in newly SLORC-occupied area (Information Update)
    Date of publication: 18 September 1997
    Description/subject: "Forced relocation and abuses in newly SLORC-occupied area. KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports(KHRG #97-11)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmar: Ethnic Minority Rights under Attack
    Date of publication: 22 July 1997
    Description/subject: This report focuses . . . human rights violations against members of ethnic minority groups. These abuses, including extrajudicial executions; ill-treatment in the context of forced portering and labour; and intimidation during forcible relocations occur both in the context of counter-insurgency operations, and in areas where cease-fires hold. The State Law and Order Restoration Council SLORC, Myanmar's military government) continues to commit human rights violations in ethnic minority areas with complete impunity. This high level of human rights violations and the attendant political instability in Myanmar pose a major regional security issue for the country's new ASEAN partners. One dimension of this is the unprecedented numbers of refugees from Myanmar now in Thailand: a conservative estimate of some 200,000 refugees live in Thai cities and in camps along the Thai-Myanmar border. All of the refugees whom Amnesty International recently interviewed, and whose testimonies form the basis of this report, said that they had fled because they could no longer survive under the harsh forced labour and relocation practices of the SLORC. ... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English and French
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/20/97)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/020/1997/en
    http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/020/1997/en/cfed5a5a-ea43-11dd-8810-c1f7ccd3559e/asa160201997fr.html (French)
    Date of entry/update: 24 November 2010


    Title: Tenasserim Division: Forced Relocation and Forced Labour (Information Update)
    Date of publication: 09 February 1997
    Description/subject: "SLORC's campaign of forced relocations and forced-labour road building in the Palauk-Palaw, Mergui and Tenasserim regions, which began in September 1996, is now being accelerated ... Almost every village between the Tavoy-Mergui-Kawthaung car road in the west and the Tenasserim River in the east, from Palauk in the north to Tenasserim town in the south has been ordered to move one or more times between September 1996 and January 1997..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Forced Relocation in Papun District
    Date of publication: 04 March 1996
    Description/subject: "SLORC has seriously stepped up its campaign to clear the entire rural population out of Papun District and make the entire area a free-fire zone. Since December 1995, orders have been issued to every rural village under SLORC control from Kyauk Nyat in the north to Ka Dtaing Dtee in the south, from the Salween River (the Thai border) in the east to at least 10 km. west of Papun - an area 50-60 km. north to south and 30 km. east to west. This area is rugged hills dotted with small villages, averaging 10-50 households (population 50-300) per village. Estimates are that 100 or more villages may be affected. Every village has been ordered to move either to SLORC Army camps surrounding Papun, such as Papun, Kaw Boke, Par Haik, or Ka Hee Kyo (all along the Papun - Kyauk Nyat road route) or to DKBA headquarters far to the south at Khaw Taw (Myaing Gyi Ngu) in Pa'an District. The orders have all been issued by SLORC. Generally a SLORC column enters the village with only a few DKBA soldiers accompanying them, and the SLORC officer issues the order. Villagers confirm that DKBA never operates in the area by themselves anymore - DKBA soldiers only appear in small groups as part of SLORC columns. SLORC units involved in the operation include Light Infantry Battalions (LIB) 340, 341, 434, and Infantry Battalion (IB) 5..." KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #96-11)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Papun District: Mass Forced Relocations
    Date of publication: 18 February 1996
    Description/subject: SLORC has seriously stepped up its campaign to clear the entire rural population out of Papun District and make the entire area a free-fire zone. Since December 1995, orders have been issued to every rural village underSLORC control . . .
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Forced Relocation in Kyauk Kyi Township
    Date of publication: 10 June 1993
    Description/subject: "Nyaunglebin District. Feb 93. Karen men, women: Forced relocation to undrained land; Only Karen villages made to move; SLORC's control of rice to control the population; forced labour (incl. portering). Description of the difficult economic conditions. Extortion; ransoming; looting. Translation of an official SLORC Relocation Order; economic oppression..." _ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced_
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Statements by Internally Displaced People: Karen Civilians Displaced by SLORC Activities in Thaton District
    Date of publication: 28 April 1993
    Description/subject: "Pa'An Township, Thaton District. Late 92-early 93. Karen M,F,C: Difficulty supporting children under SLORC oppression; Looting; pillaging (incl. killing of 30 cows);EO; rape; torture; ransoming; forced relocation; beating of children; forced labour, incl. portering; extortion; disappearances..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Forced Relocation in Thaton District (Preliminary Report)
    Date of publication: 09 January 1993
    Description/subject: "Bilin and Pa'an Townships of Thaton Dist. Dec 92-Jan 93. Karen men, women and children: SLORC's official announcement of its "Key Village" or strategic hamleting strategy for its Border Areas Development Plan. Analysis by KHRG of the implications of the strategy, followed by interview and list of villages forced to relocate since 5 Dec 92. Forced relocation; Threat of shooting for non-compliance; detention; forced labour incl. forced portering; inhuman treatment(beating); extortion; looting; economic oppression; killing..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The SLORC'S New Forced Relocation Campaign: Translations of Some SLORC Orders Received So Far
    Date of publication: 08 January 1993
    Description/subject: "Papun, Pa'an, Thaton Townships. Nov-Dec 92. Five orders requiring the relocation of villages comprising many thousands of people (5,000-7000 in Papun Township alone) establishing free-fire zones at the original sites, along with other threats of severe action in the case of non-compliance. One order informs the village head that if the villagers run away on meeting a military column they will be shot..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Orders Reports (KHRG)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Current Situation in Mudraw Papun District
    Date of publication: 13 November 1992
    Description/subject: The current SLORC Offensive and Displaced People "From July 92. Karen men, women, children: Air-raids on civilian villages (20 civilians killed); precarious economic life of people hiding in jungle; children die of malnutrition; Saw Hta offensive; list of villages and numbers of the people displaced; economic oppression..." Area: Tee Moo Khee Area, Kaw Lu Der Area, Saw Hta
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Forced Relocation of Villages in Htan Ta Bin Township, Toungoo District by SLORC
    Date of publication: 16 August 1992
    Description/subject: KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Internal displacement/forced migration of Karenni villagers

    Individual Documents

    Title: Living Ghosts - The spiraling repression of the Karenni population under the Burmese military junta
    Date of publication: March 2008
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The people of Karenni State are living ghosts. Their daily survival is an achievement; however, it also signifies their further descent into poverty and a spiralling system of repression. Whilst this report documents the deteriorating situation in Karenni State over the past six years, this is nothing new for the ethnically diverse population of this geographically small area. They have been living in a protracted conflict zone for over 50 years with no respite from decades of low-intensity conflict and frequent human rights abuses. All the while both State and Non-State actors have marginalised the grassroots communities’ voices, contributing to the militarisation of their communities and societies. Burmese soldiers oppress Karenni villagers on a daily basis. Villagers are isolated from members of their own communities, and other ethnic groups; they report daily to local Burmese troops about Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP) troop movements and other activities in their areas; community members spy on one another, reporting back to the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); and they are punished by the SPDC in retaliation for the actions of the KNPP. All of these strategies create an environment of fear and mistrust between ethnic groups, communities, and even family members. These tactics successfully oppress the villagers, as they are too fearful and busy to think beyond daily survival. Further exacerbating the situation is the fact that villagers face oppression not only from the Burmese army, but also ceasefire groups and the KNPP. Soldiers from both the KNPP and ceasefire groups physically maltreat villagers and undermine their livelihoods. While these occurrences are certainly less frequent and less severe than similar acts by the SPDC, they still oppress the civilian population and undermine their ability and capacity to survive. Additionally the presence of many different actors has resulted in the militarisation of Karenni State. Thousands of landmines have been indiscriminately planted throughout the state, without adequate mapping or markings to minimise civilian causalities. The SPDC, ceasefire groups and the KNPP all recruit and have child soldiers in their armies. The Burmese army has the largest number of child soldiers anywhere in the world, and approximately 20 per cent of the KNPP’s troops are under 18 (the minimum age for recruitment into the armed forces under Burma’s national law). The increased militarisation of Karenni State has resulted in increases in human rights abuses. However villagers are staging their own non-violent resistance movement. They have developed and implemented a number of early warning systems and household and village-wide risk management strategies so as to minimise the impact of the SPDC and other armed groups violence and abuses. These resistance strategies have become the biggest threat to local and regional authorities; consequently the villagers are increasingly becoming the targets of hostilities from the Burmese army. Most people in Karenni State rely on agriculture as their primary source of income and are living a subsistence existence. Despite the villagers’ best efforts to secure their livelihoods, their ability and capacity to do so is constantly undermined by the SPDC and, to a lesser extent, ceasefire groups and the KNPP via crop procurement, forced production of dry season crops, arbitrary taxation and fines, theft and destruction of property and food, forced labour and land confiscation. This is further exacerbated by the drought that has been occurring in Karenni State for the past decade, which affects crop yields. When coupled with skyrocketing commodity prices, villagers’ ability to ebb out a living is further eroded – to the point of impossibility in some cases. The abject poverty in Karenni State prevents villagers from accessing basic health and education services. Whilst the SPDC claims to provide free health care and education, in reality this does not occur. Health and education services provided by the state are extremely expensive and are well-below international standards. As a result, for most people education and medical treatment becomes a luxury they simply cannot afford. As a result of poverty some villagers are turning to illegal activities in order to survive - mainly poppy production. In Karenni State there are two areas where villagers are growing poppies with the permission of ceasefire groups. Farmers can earn a significantly higher monetary return on their poppy yields than for other crops using the same quantity of land. Poppy growers can earn up to 300,000 Kyat per 1.5 kilogram package of raw opium they produce (a 1.5 kilogram package of raw opium can be produced in four months). A teacher supported by the SPDC would have to work for 60 months in order to earn the same amount. Additionally amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) are being produced in Karenni State. Three factories producing ATS in Karenni State have been identified, again in areas controlled by ceasefire groups; however as it is difficult to distinguish between factories and ordinary dwellings it is possible that there are many other ATS factories in Karenni State that have not been identified. Each factory can produce between 250,000 and 300,000 pills per month. From the three known factories in Karenni State between 9 million and 10.8 million ATS pills are being produced and released into the international drug market each year. Today over a quarter of the population in Karenni State have been forced from their homes as a direct result of the actions of the Burmese military junta. Between 70 and 80 per cent of those displaced are women and children. Displacement has increased 42 per cent since 2002 and represents eight per cent of the total population in Karenni State. Karenni State has the highest level of displacement to population ratio in all of eastern Burma. When similar comparisons are made to the five countries with the largest displaced populations in the world (Sudan, Colombia, Uganda, Iraq and the Democratic Republic of Congo) the percentage of displaced persons in Karenni State is alarmingly higher. Over 12 per cent of Sudan’s population is displaced – less than half that of Karenni State. Internally displaced persons (IDPs) in eastern Burma receive very little assistance, if any at all, primarily due to the policies of the SPDC, which severely restrict humanitarian agencies accessing these vulnerable populations. The SPDC deems IDPs as enemies of the state and implements a shoot on sight policy, which includes children and the elderly. IDPs are vulnerable to human rights abuses, exploitation and violence from the SPDC, as well as food shortages and have severely limited access to education and health care services. The most pressing need of the people and the IDP population is physical security. Most people have the capacity to earn a livelihood mitigating food shortages, to educate their children, establish a medical clinic and develop their communities; however, they lack the security necessary to do so. There are humanitarian organisations working in Karenni State, including local community based organisations (CBOs), nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) and international agencies such as the United Nations Development Programme. Despite this presence the humanitarian situation in Karenni State continues to deteriorate and people are finding themselves slipping further and further into the poverty abyss – with no foreseeable escape. The impacts from the situation in Karenni State are not confined to the State’s boundaries - they spill over into other states and divisions in Burma and also across international borders, especially into Thailand. These spill over effects include, but are not limited to: the mass exodus of people from Burma to neighbouring countries as refugees and migrant workers; illegal trafficking of drugs and people and associated health concerns, especially HIV/AIDS. These non-traditional security threats impinge on Burma’s neighbours economies and social welfare systems, affecting regional stability and security. The situation in Karenni State cannot be rectified without genuinely addressing Burma’s complex issues, including ethnic chauvinism, in a participatory manner, which engages the whole nation’s citizenry. Only when these issues are truly addressed may the people of Karenni State find peace and start living life for the future, and not as living ghosts."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Issues
    Format/size: pdf (666K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmaissues.org/images/stories/pdfreports/livingghosts.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 05 April 2008


    Title: Conflict and Displacement in Karenni: the Need for Considered Responses
    Date of publication: May 2000
    Description/subject: Click on the on the html link above to go to a neater, paginated table of contents or on the pdf links below to go straight to the document .... PDF File 1: Cover and Contents. PDF File 2: Boundaries; Climate; Physical Features; Population; Ethnic Groups in Karenni; Gender Roles in Karenni; Agriculture, Land Distribution and Patterns of Recourse; Resources; Water; Communication, Trade and Transport Conflict in Karenni; A History of Conflict; The Pre-Colonial Period; The Colonial Period; Independence in Burma and the Outbreak of Civil War in the Karenni States; State and Non-State Actors including Armed Groups and Political Parties; The Role of the Tatmadaw; The Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP); The Karenni National Peoples Liberation Front (KNPLF); The Shan State Nationalities Liberation Organisation (SSNLO); The Kayan New Land Party (KNLP; The NDF and CPB Alliances and their Impact in Karenni; War in the Villages; The Formation of Splinter Groups in the 1990s; The Economics of War; The Relationship between Financing the War and Exploitation of Natural Resources; The Course of the War; Cease-fires.... PDF file 3: Conflict-Induced Displacements in Karenni -- Defining Population Movements; Conflict Induced Displacement; Displacement in 1996; Displacements by Township; Relocation Policy; Services in Relocation Sites; Smaller Relocation Sites and so-called Gathering Villages; Displacement into Shan State; Displacement as a Passing Phenomenon; Displacement, Resettlement and Transition; Women outside Relocation Sites. Development Induced Displacement -- Displacements in Loikaw City; Confiscation of Land by the Tatmadaw; Displacement as a Result of Resource Scarcity; Food Scarcity; Water Shortages; Voluntary Migrations. Health and education needs and responses: Health Policy; Health Services; Health Status of the Population; Communicable Diseases; Nutrition; Reproductive and Womens Health; Landmine Casualties; Iodine Deficiency and Goitre; Vitamin A Deficiency; Water and Sanitation; Responses to Health Needs; Education Policy; Educational Services and Coverage; Traditional Attitudes to Education; Educational Services in Karenni; Responses to Educational Needs; Responses from the Thai-Burma border; Responses by International Humanitarian Agencies from Inside Burma. Appendices: A Comparison of Populations in Relocation Sites in Karenni; Refugee Arrivals at the Thai Border; Displacements by Township; Examples of Population Movements.
    Author/creator: Vicky Bamforth, Steven Lanjouw, Graham Mortimer
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Ethnic Research Group (BERG)
    Format/size: 3 pdf files: (1) Cover and Contents (472K); (2) Text-pp1-47 (782K); 3 Text pp48-128 (1300K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Considered_responses-1.pdf
    http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Considered_responses-2.pdf
    http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Considered_responses-3.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Update on Karenni Forced Relocations
    Date of publication: 05 March 1997
    Description/subject: Between April and July 1996, SLORC ordered at least 182 villages in Karenni (Kayah) State, with an estimated total population of 25-30,000 people, to move to various relocation sites. The primary intention of SLORC was to cut off all possibility of civilian support for the Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP); SLORC broke a ceasefire agreement to attack the KNPP in June 1995. The villages affected cover at least half the entire geographic area of Karenni. Some villages were marched at gunpoint to relocation sites without warning, but most were issued written orders to move within just 7 days or be 'considered as enemies', i.e. shot on sight without question. [For details see "Forced Relocation in Karenni", KHRG #96-24, 15/7/96.] ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #97-01)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Karenni (Kayah) State: Update on Relocations (Information Update) (#97-U2)
    Date of publication: 12 February 1997
    Description/subject: Between April and July 1996, SLORC ordered at least 183 villages in Karenni State, with an estimated total population of 25-30,000 people, to move to various relocation sites. The primary intention of SLORC was to cut off all possibility of civilian support for the Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP); SLORC had broken a ceasefire agreement to attack the KNPP in June 1995. The villages affected cover at least half the entire geographic area of Karenni.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic (KHRG #97-01)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Forced Relocation in Karenni
    Date of publication: 15 July 1996
    Description/subject: "Throughout June and July 1996, the State Law & Order Restoration Council (SLORC) military junta ruling Burma has conducted a mass forced relocation campaign covering more than half of the geographic area of Karenni and affecting at least 183 villages so far with an estimated total population of 25-30,000. The first orders to move came as early as April in Baw La Keh (sometimes spelled Bawlake) area on the Pon River. However, the biggest wave of relocations began on 1 June, when an order was issued to all 98 villages between the Pon and Salween Rivers to move to relocation sites beside SLORC Army camps at Shadaw and Ywathit... " ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #96-24)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Mass Forced Relocations in Shan and Karenni (Kayah) States
    Date of publication: 16 June 1996
    Description/subject: "SLORC is currently using mass forced relocation campaigns as a method to try to eliminate all civilian support for opposition forces. In December 1995 and January 1996, about 100 Karen villages comprising all the hill villages in eastern Papun District were ordered to move to military sites in order to cut off any civilian support for Karen forces by completely removing the rural civilian population of the whole area. Includes list of relocated villages..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG _#96-U3)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: SLORC Activities in Ler Ba Ko Village
    Date of publication: 31 December 1992
    Description/subject: "Testimony by a refugee from central Karenni (Kayah) State and List of Villages Relocated in March 1992." "(Northwest Karenni State) List of 76 villages relocated in March 1992. Deemawso and Pruso Townships March, July 92. Karenni men, women: Rape; forced labour incl. portering and work on the Loikaw-Aung Ban railway -- 91); extortion; forced relocation; religious intolerance (the villages were Christian)..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Supplementary Report on Karenni State
    Date of publication: 15 November 1992
    Description/subject: "March 92 Karenni men, women, children: Forced relocation; killing; inhuman treatment (beating, deprivation of food and medicine -- especially hard on children); conditions in the relocation camp; forced labour (Aung Ban-Loikaw railway) incl. women and children; torture; extortion; economic difficulties caused by the SLORC occupation -- people scattered in the forest; economic oppression..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced, Kayah
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Karenni State: Forced Relocation, Concentration Camps, and Slavery
    Date of publication: 10 August 1992
    Description/subject: "March-July 92. Karenni men, women, children: Looting; rape; forced portering; killings; disappearances; forced relocation of more than 20,000 people in 76 villages (see Orders, 12 June 92). Description of conditions in a relocation camp (particularly bad for children); internal displacement; religious intolerance (destroying churches and pressure to convert to Buddhism); pillaging; inhuman treatment(deprivation of food and medicine); forced labour on Aung Ban-Loikaw railway; inhuman treatment during forced labour and arbitrary detention; torture.Including slavery under the United Nations Development Program..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Statements by Karenni Refugees
    Date of publication: 12 June 1992
    Description/subject: "Statement by Karenni refugees fleeing a SLORC ultimatum to all villagers in a large part of the State where the Karenni opposition is strong to leave their villages or die. Their statements describe some of the SLORC army’s activities in civilian villages of western Karenni..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The SLORC's "Leave Or Die" Ultimatum to Karenni Villagers
    Date of publication: 12 June 1992
    Description/subject: "Direct translations of stamped and signed orders posted by the SLORC in villages throughout western Karenni State in late March of this year. The large areas affected are in the "brown" or "black" areas (those not firmly under SLORC control, where the KNPP opposition is active)..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Internal displacement/forced migration of Mon villagers

    Individual Documents

    Title: Destination Unknown: Hope and Doubt Regarding IDP Resettlement in Mon State
    Date of publication: 18 October 2012
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The growing optimism surrounding Burma’s political and social transitions has begun to be accompanied by ambitions to resettle displaced communities along the country’s border with Thailand. As the notion and its attendant proposals continue to proliferate, it seems timely to assess how the communities directly affected by this prospect feel about resettlement. Interviews were conducted with 61 Mon internally displaced people (IDPs) who expressed an array of views ranging from excitement for better jobs in new locations to utter refusal for fear of renewed conflict. Concerns in the IDP community that relocation could lead to a recurrence of violence or exploitation may seem unfounded to those flushed with enthusiasm for Burma’s brisk pace of reform. However, it is precisely because of this rapid shift, after fifty years of a deeply entrenched system of repression, that many ethnic communities are unable to abruptly shed their enduring memories of systematic injustice. Similarly, for people in remote areas, there has not yet been adequate evidence of improvements to daily life or sufficient trust built between disparate groups to warrant immediate, broad-based support. Importantly, almost all interviewees that addressed resettlement used “if” to describe their opinions, explaining that relocation is attractive only if adequate security, employment, education, and healthcare services are provided. This highlights fundamental priorities among IDPs, but also showcases the lack of information currently granted to internally displaced people. For those that had heard about relocation, many did not know if it was true, or where and when they might go, or if it even applied to them. This incomplete information sharing has led to resettlement constituting little more than a rumor in IDP sites, and the consequent anxiety and confusion has been unnecessary and detrimental. The process needed to develop resettlement programs offers a singular opportunity to build trust with IDP communities by employing an inclusive and participatory approach. The varying opinions and levels of support for resettlement demonstrated in this report serve as a key indicator that the IDP community is not a homogeneous group about which conclusions can be easily or independently reached. Some IDPs reported enjoying new freedoms and infrastructure projects, while other accounts were framed by doubt, exhibiting vivid memories of past abuses and few observations of significant change. In any case, each individual IDP or IDP family has a unique set of values and experiences that will define what an agreeable future looks like, and each must be given the chance to make free, prior, and informed decisions regarding engagement with resettlement programs. This report’s primary aim is to amplify the voices of Mon IDPs and encourage the incorporation of their opinions into the development of resettlement agendas. We urge that the President Thein Sein government, the New Mon State Party, and associated international organizations be directly accountable to IDP populations by respecting their narratives and promoting full transparency in every stage of the process. While recent, positive changes may provide compelling reasons for people to return, they should not completely overwhelm considerations of why they left."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Foundation of Monland (HURFOM)
    Format/size: pdf (1.39MB)
    Date of entry/update: 18 October 2012


    Title: Hardship of displaced families in the rural area
    Date of publication: 31 October 2003
    Description/subject: "...‘The population displacement’ is a forgotten problem in Burma. While many people are talking ‘negotiation’ and ‘national reconciliation’, but there is no real solution how to stop the displacement in the country. It is also a serious issue which is necessary to consider. However, the population displacement always relates to war, and so that it is needed to stop war if we want to stop the population displacement problems"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Women and Child Rights Project (Southern Burma)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 April 2004


  • Internal displacement/forced migration of Rohingyas
    See also Main Library > States and Regions of Burma/Myanmar > Arakan (Rakhine) State

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: The conundrum in western Myanmar
    Date of publication: 14 August 2012
    Description/subject: "Since Hillary Clinton’s historic visit to Myanmar, the nation’s reforms have drawn the world’s attention. The end of a half century of military rule leaves Myanmar with countless challenges. Recently, the violence in western Myanmar’s Rakhine State has become a controversial topic. Global bodies, human rights organizations, world leaders and US lawmakers have rushed to condemn what they see as the treatment of these stateless people. The reality of the history of the Rohingya is not as clear as many believe. A campaign of disinformation has led to denunciation of a policy in Myanmar that at best, is grossly exaggerated, and at worst, does not exist. Headlines have screamed the words “ethnic cleansing and “pogrom.” Myanmar history of secrecy and disregard of human rights under the previous military government has lent credibility to this campaign..."
    Author/creator: Chan Myae Khine
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 July 2014


    Title: MIMU - RAKHINE emergency page
    Description/subject: Tools for humanitarian assistance..."For up-to-date relevant information including maps, contact list, initial assessment form and 3W data...3W maps/reports for 2012 can be found HERE. 268 organizations were contacted to provide inputs for this round of the 3W (Who is doing what, where) exercise. Amongst them, 87 agencies provided updates – (1) Embassy/Donor (3) Red Cross societies, (12) UN Agencies, (25) LNGOs and (46) INGOs. The 3W products reflect implementing agencies' projects in 329 townships, 4,089 village tract and 11,479 villages throughout the country...".....If this site does not have the latest situation reports, go to the Alternate URL - the OCHA myanmar page at http://reliefweb.int/country/mmr
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://reliefweb.int/country/mmr
    Date of entry/update: 04 July 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: Limited health options for Myanmar’s Rohingya IDPs
    Date of publication: 31 May 2013
    Description/subject: "SITTWE, 31 May 2013 (IRIN) - Aid workers are calling for better health access for an estimated 140,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Myanmar’s western Rakhine State, most of them Rohingya Muslims. Although a number of NGOs and government mobile clinics are providing basic health services inside the roughly 80 camps and settlements, they are limited, and emergency health referrals remain a serious concern, they say. According to Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), conditions inside the camps, combined with the segregation of ethnic Buddhist Rakhine and Muslim Rohingya and ongoing movement restrictions, are having a severe impact on health care. Movement restrictions were slapped on Rohingyas around Sittwe, the Rakhine State capital, after bouts of sectarian violence in June and October 2012. Another concern is the negative attitude of many ethnic Rakhine to assistance provided to Muslim IDPs. “With threats and intimidation both to health provider and patient, this becomes an irreconcilable dilemma,” Carol Jacobsen of the medical NGO Merlin told IRIN, adding that “hostile access”, limited transportation and poor security were obstacles to health care for the Muslim population..."
    Language: English, Arabic
    Source/publisher: IRIN
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://arabic.irinnews.org/Report/3737/
    Date of entry/update: 06 June 2013


    Title: Humanitarian Situation in Kachin & Rakhine States (05 Nov 2012)
    Date of publication: 05 November 2012
    Description/subject: Text, maps and photos
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
    Format/size: pdf (646K)
    Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


    Title: “The Government Could Have Stopped This” - Sectarian Violence and Ensuing Abuses in Burma’s Arakan State
    Date of publication: 01 August 2012
    Description/subject: Summary: "In June 2012, deadly sectarian violence erupted in western Burma’s Arakan State between ethnic Arakan Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims (as well as non-Rohingya Muslims). The violence broke out after reports circulated that on May 28 an Arakan woman was raped and killed in the town of Ramri allegedly by three Muslim men. Details of the crime were circulated locally in an incendiary pamphlet, and on June 3, a large group of Arakan villagers in Toungop stopped a bus and brutally killed 10 Muslims on board. Human Rights Watch confirmed that local police and soldiers stood by and watched the killings without intervening. On June 8, thousands of Rohingya rioted in Maungdaw town after Friday prayers, destroying Arakan property and killing an unknown number of Arakan residents. Sectarian violence then quickly swept through the Arakan State capital, Sittwe, and surrounding areas. Mobs from both communities soon stormed unsuspecting villages and neighborhoods, killing residents and destroying homes, shops, and houses of worship. With little to no government security present to stop the violence, people armed themselves with swords, spears, sticks, iron rods, knives, and other basic weapons, taking the law into their own hands. Vast stretches of property from both communities were razed. The government claimed that 78 people were killed—an undoubtedly conservative figure—while more than 100,000 people were displaced from their homes. The hostilities were fanned by inflammatory anti-Muslim media accounts and local propaganda. During the period after the rape and killing was reported and before the violence broke out, tensions had risen dramatically in Arakan State. However, local residents from each community told Human Rights Watch that the Burmese authorities provided no protection and did not appear to have taken any special measures to preempt the violence. On June 10, fearing the unrest would spread beyond the borders of Arakan State, Burmese President Thein Sein announced a state of emergency, transferring civilian power to the Burmese army in affected areas of the state. At this point, a wave of concerted violence by various state security forces against Rohingya communities began. For example, Rohingya in Narzi quarter—the largest Muslim area in Sittwe, home to 10,000 Muslims—described “THE GOVERNMENT COULD HAVE STOPPED THIS” 2 how Arakan mobs burned down their homes on June 12 while the police and paramilitary Lon Thein forces opened fire on them with live ammunition. In northern Arakan State, the Nasaka border guard force, the army, police, and Lon Thein committed killings, mass arrests, and looting against Rohingya. In the aftermath, local Arakan leaders and members of the Arakan community in Sittwe have called for the forced displacement of the Muslim community from the city, while local Buddhist monks have initiated a campaign of exclusion, calling on the local Buddhist population to neither befriend nor do business with Muslims..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch (HRW)
    Format/size: pdf (630K-original; 575K-OBL version)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/The_Government_Could_Have_Stopped_this-HRW-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 02 August 2012


    Title: Burma's Human Rights Blind Spot: A Compendium on Violence Against Rohingyas in June/July 2012
    Date of publication: 25 July 2012
    Description/subject: Compendium of 30 or so reports... Introduction: "By virtue of its geography (great river valleys, plains, plateaus and mountain chains) and history (migration and settlement along the rivers and in the uplands) Burma is a multicultural crossroads of Southeast and South Asia. Peoples, ways of life and religions from the Indian subcontinent, Himalayas, Indo-China and beyond, have intermingled in a land which became a nation under British colonization and has struggled with ethnic identities ever since. Although the vast majority of inhabitants are Buddhists, with the overwhelmingly Buddhist Burmans the largest ethnic group, nearly all other religions are represented in the population. Tolerance and cosmopolitanism were among Burma's strengths in times of peace. Unfortunately, military rule and the promulgation of ethnic-majority nationalism have been in effect since General Ne Win's takeover in 1962, and even in the post-British democracy of U Nu, establishment of Buddhism as a state religion appeared to sideline Burma's people of other faiths. Ne Win's dictatorship favored the assimilation of Buddhist groups like the Rakhines, Mons and Shans into a Burman nationalism, discouraging those peoples' knowledge of their own languages, civilized history and cultures. Targeting Christians and Muslims, Ne Win's armed forces often burned churches and mosques, torturing and killing pastors and imams. In western Burma's Arakan State (aka Rakhine State), military rule brought decreased rights for the Buddhist Rakhine people and absolute denial of citizenship for the Muslim Rohingya people. The mass exodus of Rohingyas fleeing repression to neighboring Bangladesh took place in 1978 and 1991, resulting in tens of thousands of refugees cordoned off in squalid camps in Bangladesh or permanently stranded overseas (Gulf States, Pakistan, Malaysia, India, Thailand.) As Rohingyas left the northern Arakan region, particularly Buthidaung and Maungdaw, out of fear of extreme repression, Burma's post-1988 junta settled Buddhist Rakhine and Burman villagers in the area -- a scenario guaranteed to make both groups resent each other. Rohingyas who remained were often preyed upon by border security forces and other military personnel, and were severely restricted in rights such as marriage and travel. Military rape and other violent victimization of Rohingyas was well-documented by respected international human rights organizations..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Project Maje
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 July 2012


    Title: Burning Homes, Sinking Lives - A situation report on violence against stateless Rohingya in Myanmar and their refoulement from Bangladesh
    Date of publication: 02 July 2012
    Description/subject: "...this report documents the severity of the human rights abuses suffered by Rohingya within Myanmar – including mass violence, killings and attacks, the burning and destruction of property, arbitrary arrests, detention and disappearances, the deprivation of emergency healthcare and humanitarian aid. Such human rights abuses are being carried out with impunity by civilians and agents of the state alike. The organised and widespread nature of this state sponsored violence raises serious questions of crimes against humanity being committed by Myanmar. This report also documents the refoulement of Rohingya refugees from Bangladesh and related human rights violations, including the push-back of boats carrying Rohingya into dangerous waters and the failure to provide refuge, shelter and humanitarian aid to those fleeing persecution. Historically, the Rohingya have faced acute discrimination and human rights abuse in Myanmar, and Rohingya refugees fleeing persecution to Bangladesh have faced severe hardships including the lack of humanitarian aid, shelter and security. This present crisis is a tragic reminder of the vulnerabilities of stateless people when their countries of habitual residence and the international community fail to protect them. Urgent action is required to end the violence, protect the victims and bring those responsible to justice. Of equal importance is the need for a long-term process of reinstating Myanmar nationality to Rohingya who were arbitrarily deprived of a nationality in 1982, resolving ethnic conflicts and protecting the human rights and freedoms of Rohingya within Myanmar and in other countries. The Equal Rights Trust makes the following urgent and long-term recommendations to the governments of Myanmar and Bangladesh and to the UNHCR and international community..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Equal Rights Trust
    Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-OBL version; 2.26MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.equalrightstrust.org/ertdocumentbank/The%20Equal%20Rights%20Trust%20-%20Burning%20Homes%20Sinking%20Lives.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 July 2012


    Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 3 (28 June 2012)
    Date of publication: 28 June 2012
    Description/subject: HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: "• The overall security situation is reported to be stable. Emergency rule and curfew remain in place in six Townships across Rakhine State. • According to official figures, 78 people are dead, 87 injured and 3,000 residential buildings are damaged as of 24 June. Over 52,200 people remained newly displaced across Rakhine State. Humanitarian partners estimate that around 90,000 people are affected, including the newly displaced people. • As of 25 June, WFP has provided 725 metric tons of food commodities (rice, pulses, oil and salt) to over 92,000 affected people in five townships, Sittwe, Pauktaw, Maungdaw, Rahtedaung and Buthidaung. • A total of 14 representatives from six UN agencies, six INGOs and two donor agencies left for Sittwe on 27 June to take part in a mission organized by the Government to observe the situation in Rakhine State and to strengthen coordination with the State Government as a primary focal point for the response. • The traffic on the road between Buthidaung and Maungdaw is interrupted due to a landslide..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
    Format/size: pdf (103K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 July 2012


    Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakkhine State, Myanmar
    Date of publication: 27 June 2012
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Health Organisation (WHO)
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/MMR_ESR1-2012.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 July 2012


    Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 2 (20 June 2012)
    Date of publication: 20 June 2012
    Description/subject: HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES" "• According to official Government statistics dated 18 June, over 52,200 people have been displaced and are accommodated in 66 camps/villages. Unofficial estimates indicated that 80,000 to 90,000 people have been affected. • The Government has requested the RC/HC and humanitarian partners to support its response efforts. Humanitarian assistance delivery is ongoing. It includes food, medical, water and sanitation interventions. Food distribution that reached some 82,000 people as of 19 June. • The situation in Rakhine State has somewhat eased, although sporadic incidents continue to be reported..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
    Format/size: pdf (255K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 July 2012


    Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 1 (15 June 2012)
    Date of publication: 15 June 2012
    Description/subject: HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: "• Instability in Rakhine State that started since 28 May has resulted in displacement of over 36,000 people who are now located in 43 camps/locations, loss of lives and damages to houses and communal buildings. This is an initial estimate which will need to be revised as more information becomes available and assessment are carried out. • The violence prompted the Government to impose curfew in six locations and declare the state of emergency on 10 June across the State. • At the invitation of the Minister for Border Affairs, a UN delegation led by Special Advisor of the UN Secretary-General and the UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator for Myanmar visited IDPs locations in Maungdaw. • The Government called for humanitarian partners to support the Government’s efforts to respond to the crisis. The UN and its humanitarian partners confirmed their readiness to provide humanitarian assistance all the affected people across Rakhine."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
    Format/size: pdf (179K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 July 2012


    Title: The Rohingya: Forced Migration and Statelessness
    Date of publication: 28 February 2001
    Description/subject: "Forced Migration in the South Asian Region: Displacement, Human Rights and Conflict Resolution" Paper submitted for publication in a book edited by Omprakash Mishra on "Forced Migration in South Asian Region", Centre for Refugee studies Jadavpur University, Calcutta and Brookings Institution Project on Internal Displacement. "In the eyes of the media and the general public, whether in Bangladesh or further afield, the situation of the Rohingya from Burma[ii] is usually referred to as a ?refugee problem?. Over the last two decades, Bangladesh has born the brunt of two mass exoduses, each of more then 200,000 people, placing them among the largest in Asia. Each of these massive outflows of refugees was followed by mass repatriation to Burma. Repatriation has been considered the preferred solution to the refugee crisis. However, this has not proved a durable solution, since the influx of Rohingyas over international borders has never ceased. And it is unlikely that it will stop, so long as the root causes of this unprecedented exodus are not effectively remedied. The international community has often focussed its attention on the deplorable conditions in the refugee camps in Bangladesh, rather than on the root causes of the problem, namely the denial of legal status and other basic human rights to the Rohingya in Burma. This approach doubtless stems from the practical difficulty of confronting an intractable military regime which refuses to recognise the Rohingya as citizens of Burma, and of working out solutions acceptable to all parties involved. The actual plight and continuous exodus of the Rohingya people has been rendered invisible. Though they continue to cross international borders, they are also denied the right of asylum, being labelled ?economic migrants?. The international community has preferred to ignore the extent of this massive forced migration, which has affected not only Bangladesh, but also other countries such as Pakistan, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, etc..."
    Author/creator: Chris Lewa
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Internal displacement/forced migration of Shan. Palaung and Wa villagers

    Individual Documents

    Title: Pipeline Nightmare (English and Burmese)
    Date of publication: 07 November 2012
    Description/subject: "Shwe Pipeline Brings Land Confiscation, Militarization and Human Rights Violations to the Ta’ang People. The Ta’ang Students and Youth Organization (TSYO) released a report today called “Pipeline Nightmare” that illustrates how the Shwe Gas and Oil Pipeline project, which will transport oil and gas across Burma to China, has resulted in the confiscation of people’s lands, forced labor, and increased military presence along the pipeline, affecting thousands of people. Moreover, the report documents cases in 6 target cities and 51 villages of human rights violations committed by the Burmese Army, police and people’s militia, who take responsibility for security of the pipeline. The government has deployed additional soldiers and extended 26 military camps in order to increase pressure on the ethnic armed groups and to provide security for the pipeline project and its Chinese workers. Along the pipeline, there is fighting on a daily basis between the Burmese Army and the Kachin Independence Army, Shan State Army – North and Ta’ang National Liberation Army in Namtu, Mantong and Namkham, where there are over one thousand Ta’ang (Palaung) refugees. “Even though the international community believes that the government has implemented political reforms, it doesn’t mean those reforms have reached ethnic areas, especially not where there is increased militarization along the Shwe Pipeline, increased fighting between the Burmese Army and ethnic armed groups, and negative consequences for the people living in these areas,” said Mai Amm Ngeal, a member of TSYO. The China National Petroleum Corporation and Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise have signed agreements for the Shwe Pipeline, however the companies have not conducted any Environmental Impact Assessments or Social Impact Assessments. While the people living along the pipeline bear the brunt of the effects, the government will earn an estimated USD$29 billion over the next 30 years. “The government and companies involved must be held accountable for the project and its effects on the local people, such as increasing military presence and Chinese workers along the pipeline, both of which cause insecurity for the local communities and especially women. The project has no benefit for the public, so it must be postponed,” said Lway Phoo Reang, Joint Secretary (1) of TSYO. TSYO urges the government to postpone the Shwe Gas and Oil Pipeline project, to withdraw the military from Shan State, reach a ceasefire with all ethnic armed groups in the state, and address the root causes of the armed conflict by engaging in political dialogue."
    Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: Ta’ang Students and Youth Organization (TSYO)
    Format/size: pdf (English, 2MB-OBL version; 6.77-original; 1.45-Burmese-OBL version)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/Pipeline%20Nightmare%20report%20in%20English%20version%20(Final).pdf (original)
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Pipeline_Nightmare-bu-op--red.pdf (full report in Burmese)
    http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/Immediate%20Release%207%20November%202012-in%20Burmese%20languages.pdf (Summary in Burmese)
    http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/For%20Immediate%20Release%207%20November%202012_Thai%20languages.pdf (Summary in Thai)
    http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/2012-11%20Shwe%20Pipeline%20impact%20to%20the%20Ta_ang%20People%20-%20Chinese%20languages.pdf (Summary in Chinese)
    Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


    Title: The Burden of War - Women bear burden of displacement
    Date of publication: 03 November 2012
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Worsening conflict and abuses by Burmese government troops in northern Shan State have displaced over 2,000 Palaung villagers from fifteen villages in three townships since March 2011. About 1,000, mainly women and children, remain in three IDP settlements in Mantong and Namkham townships, facing serious shortages of food and medicine; most of the rest have dispersed to find work in China. Burmese troops have been launching offensives to crush the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), the Ta-ang National Liberation Army (TNLA), and the Shan State Army-North (SSA-N), to secure control of strategic trading and investment areas on the Chinese border, particularly the route of China’s trans-Burma oil and gas pipelines. In rural Palaung areas, patrols from sixteen Burma Army battalions and local militia have been forcibly conscripting villagers as soldiers and porters, looting livestock and property, and torturing and killing villagers suspected of supporting the resistance. This has caused entire villages to become abandoned. Interviews conducted by PWO in September 2012 show that the burden of displacement is falling largely on women, as most men have fled or migrated to work elsewhere. The ratio of women to men of working age in the IDP camps is 4:1. Women, including pregnant mothers, had to walk for up to a week through the jungle to reach the camps, carrying their children and possessions, and avoiding Burmese army patrols and landmines. Elderly people were left behind. Little aid has reached the IDP settlements, particular the largest camp housing over 500 in a remote mountainous area north of Manton, where shortages of water, food and medicines are causing widespread disease. Mothers are struggling to feed their families on loans of rice from local villagers, and have taken their daughters out of school. Some women have left children with relatives and gone to find work in China. PWO is calling urgently for aid to these IDPs, and for political pressure on Burma’s government to end its military offensives and abuses, pull back troops from conflict areas, and begin meaningful political dialogue to address the root causes of the conflict."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Palaung Women's Organization
    Format/size: pdf (1.7MB-OBL version; 7.29MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://eng.palaungwomen.com/Report/The%20Burden%20of%20War.pdf
    http://eng.palaungwomen.com
    Date of entry/update: 06 November 2012


    Title: 10,000 Shans uprooted, 500 houses burned in Burmese regime's latest scorched earth campaign
    Date of publication: 13 August 2009
    Description/subject: 10,000 Shans uprooted, 500 houses burned in Burmese regime’s latest scorched earth campaign (press release)... Map of villages forcibly relocated... Summary of villages forcibly relocated... Images of the Burmese regime's latest scorched earth campaign
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Shan Human Rights Foundation (SHRF), Shan Women's Action Network (SWAN), Shan Relief and Development Committee, Shan Sapawa Environmental Organisation, Shan Youth Power, Shan Health Committee
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 29 November 2010


    Title: Roots and Resilience - Tasang dam threatens war-torn Shan communities
    Date of publication: July 2009
    Description/subject: 'The report “Roots and Resilience” by the Shan Sapawa Environment Organization focuses on the ecologically unique area of Keng Kham, a community of 15,000 that was forcibly relocated over ten years ago; the majority have fled to Thailand. Today the estimated 3,000 that remain are managing to maintain their livelihoods and culture despite the constant threats of the Burma Army and the impending Tasang dam. Indigenous Shan cultural practices, river-fed farms, sacred cave temples and pristine waterfalls are depicted in photos from this isolated war-zone, together with updated information about the dam project, which has been shrouded in secrecy. The 7,110 MW Tasang Dam is the biggest of five dams planned on the Salween River; the majority of the power from the dam will be sold to Thailand. Project investors include the Thai MDX Company and China’s Gezhouba Group Company. Thailand’s support for the controversial dam was recently reiterated when the project was included in its national Power Development Plan. Military tension has escalated in recent months in Shan State as the Burmese regime has been putting pressure on the United Wa State Army to transform into a “Border Guard Force.” Abuses linked to anti-insurgency campaigns are also on the rise.'
    Language: English, Thai
    Source/publisher: Shan Sapawa Environmental Organization
    Format/size: pdf (4.68MB - English; 6.58MB - Thai)
    Alternate URLs: http://salweenwatch.org/images/PDF/rootsandresiliencethai.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 05 October 2009


    Title: Displacement and disease: the Shan exodus and infectious disease implications for Thailand
    Date of publication: 14 March 2008
    Description/subject: Abstract: "Decades of neglect and abuses by the Burmese government have decimated the health of the peoples of Burma, particularly along her eastern frontiers, overwhelmingly populated by ethnic minorities such as the Shan. Vast areas of traditional Shan homelands have been systematically depopulated by the Burmese military regime as part of its counter-insurgency policy, which also employs widespread abuses of civilians by Burmese soldiers, including rape, torture, and extrajudicial executions. These abuses, coupled with Burmese government economic mismanagement which has further entrenched already pervasive poverty in rural Burma, have spawned a humanitarian catastrophe, forcing hundreds of thousands of ethnic Shan villagers to flee their homes for Thailand. In Thailand, they are denied refugee status and its legal protections, living at constant risk for arrest and deportation. Classified as “economic migrants,” many are forced to work in exploitative conditions, including in the Thai sex industry, and Shan migrants often lack access to basic health services in Thailand. Available health data on Shan migrants in Thailand already indicates that this population bears a disproportionately high burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV, tuberculosis, lymphatic filariasis, and some vaccine-preventable illnesses, undermining progress made by Thailand’s public health system in controlling such entities. The ongoing failure to address the root political causes of migration and poor health in eastern Burma, coupled with the many barriers to accessing health programs in Thailand by undocumented migrants, particularly the Shan, virtually guarantees Thailand’s inability to sustainably control many infectious disease entities, especially along her borders with Burma."
    Author/creator: Voravit Suwanvanichkij
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Conflict and Health 2008, 2:4
    Format/size: pdf (170K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.conflictandhealth.com/content/2/1/4
    Date of entry/update: 09 April 2008


    Title: RUNNING THE GAUNTLET: THE IMPACT OF INTERNAL DISPLACEMENT IN SOUTHERN SHAN STATE
    Date of publication: January 2004
    Description/subject: "The plight of Burma's internally displaced persons has largely been overlooked by the international community and the Burmese government itself. Villagers in the country's war zones nevertheless have suffered for decades the adverse effects of conflict. For some, displacement has become a way of life and a multi-generational phenomenon. Displacement wherever it occurs profoundly changes the persons forced to move. People lose belongings, jobs, and loved ones. The case of the internally displaced in southern Shan State is no different. In this report, the Humanitarian Affairs Research Project documents the impact displacement has had on civilians in southern Shan State and the living conditions in the various places to which they fled. The report builds successfully on the work of other local research groups and adds updated information and perspective to the study of Burma's internally displaced. It will be a valuable addition to policy makers, academics, and anyone concerned about the fate of the people of Shan State. One lesson clearly emerging from the report is that the IDPs in southern Shan State clearly are in need of protection and assistance. More needs to be done and it needs to be done now. The Burmese government as well as other domestic and international actors should consider carefully the ways in which this important goal can be accomplished. This report offers some recommendations that can help to set the actors on the right path..."....This document contains a Shan version of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. Since this is an image file of almost 2MB, OBL has produced the whole document, with GP; the Guiding Principles as a separate document; and the English text without GP.
    Author/creator: GARY RISSER, OUM KHER, SEIN HTUN
    Language: English and Shan
    Source/publisher: Humanitarian Affairs Research Project, Asian Research Center for Migration, Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University
    Format/size: pdf (2.9K), 1MB (English text) 1.9MB (Guiding Principles in Shan)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Gauntlet-minusGP-ocr.pdf (minus Guiding Principles)
    http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Gauntlet-GP_in_Shan.pdf (Guiding Principles in Shan)
    Date of entry/update: 03 September 2005


    Title: AFTERSHOCKS ALONG BURMA’S MEKONG
    Date of publication: 05 September 2003
    Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:- "In March 2002, Chinese demolition crews began blasting rapids and reefs along Burma’s Mekong river as part of the ADB-promoted Mekong Navigation Improvement Project, aimed to allow larger ships to travel the river throughout the year. There was no consultation with the over 22,000 Shan, Akha and Lahu peoples living along and relying on the Burmese section of the river. Suspended during the rainy season, full-scale blasting resumed between December 2002 and April 2003. During this time, Burma’s military regime, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), mobilized over 1,000 troops along the river, who imposed restrictions on the movement of villagers, forcibly conscripted porters, committed sexual violence and extorted funds from local communities. The SPDC also set up new military outposts to expand their control along the Mekong. Development of the Mekong has thus precipitated further SPDC militarization in eastern Shan State, and further oppression of local communities. It also fits into a development agenda of the Burmese military regime which is benefiting only a small elite, and contributing to environmental degradation and the impoverishment of the majority of the population. The number of SPDC troops in the area has more than tripled over the past decade, despite the supposed pacification of the area resulting from ceasefire agreements with most of the ethnic resistance groups since 1989. The ceasefire agreements, together with the opening up of Burma’s economy since 1988, have led to a process of inequitable and unsustainable development in Shan State, whereby the regime, ceasefire leaders and other business elites have profited from unbridled exploitation of the area’s natural resources, with disastrous effects on the environment. It is estimated that eastern Shan State has lost 50% of its forest cover since 1988. Wildlife and forest products are also diminishing rapidly. The military and business elites continue to profit from the drug trade, while the hill communities growing the opium remain in poverty, and the rate of drug addiction amongst local villagers, particularly along the Mekong River, one of the main drug trafficking routes, is soaring. Luxurious casinos for tourists have been built amidst areas of extreme poverty. In the absence of democracy in Burma, increased trade and tourism resulting from the Mekong Navigation Improvement Project will only further accelerate this harmful pattern of development in Eastern Shan State. The LNDO urges the governments of China, Laos and Thailand to immediately suspend the Mekong Navigation Improvement Project until proper environmental and social impact assessments are carried out with participation of affected communities. A prerequisite for this must be the restoration of genuine peace and democracy in Burma. LNDO therefore urges foreign governments and international funding agencies to withhold support for all development projects inside Burma’s Shan State until a democratic system of government is installed which allows local people genuine participation in decision-making about the development of their area..." CONTENTS:- 1. Introduction... 2. Executive Summary... 3. The Upper Mekong Navigation Improvement Project: - Background of the project; - Environmental concerns; - Burma’s role in the project... 4. Implementation of the project - December 2002 to April 2003: - Lack of consultation with local communities about the blasting; - Restrictions on villagers’ movements and resulting loss of livelihood; - SPDC military operation along the Mekong riverbank during the period of blasting; - Human rights abuses during the military operation - Compulsory gambling fairs... 5. Political context of the project: - A pattern of increased militarization in Eastern Shan State; - Expansion of SPDC control along the Mekong; - Forced withdrawal and disarming of militia groups along the Mekong riverbank (December 02); - “Cracking down” on the Wa (January - March 03)... 6. Reinforcing inequitable and unsustainable development processes: - Trade and infrastructure in the hands of military and business elites; - Unregulated natural resource exploitation; - Timber; - Wildlife and forest products; - Minerals; - Lack of sincere and sustainable drug-eradication programs; - Promotion of casino tourism; - Conclusion and Recommendations... Appendices: 1. List of villagers in eastern Shan State along the Mekong River; 2. Map of Tachilek township; 3. Map of Mong Yawng township. (these last two accessible only by clicking the hyperlink, not by scrolling down. For print-out, to keep maps on a single page, use the Shanland URL and print out the sections separately)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Lahu National Development Organisation
    Format/size: html (153K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.shanland.org/Environment/After%20Shock/contents.htm
    Date of entry/update: 07 September 2003


    Title: Charting the Exodus from Shan State: Patterns of Shan refugee flow into northern Chiang Mai province of Thailand 1997-2002
    Date of publication: May 2003
    Description/subject: "This report gives quantitative evidence in support of claims that there has been a large influx of Shans arriving into northern Thailand during the past 6 years who are genuine refugees fleeing persecution and not simply migrant workers. This data was based on interviews with 66,868 Shans arriving in Fang District of northern Chiang Mai province between June 1997 and December 2002, The data shows that almost all the new arrivals came from the twelve townships in Central Shan State where the Burmese military regime has carried out a mass forced relocation program since March 1996, and where the regime's troops have been perpetrating systematic human rights abuses against civilian populations. Higher numbers of arrivals came from townships such as Kunhing where a higher incidence of human rights abuses has been reported. Evidence also shows increases in refugee outflows from specific village tracts directly after large-scale massacres were committed by the regime's troops..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Shan Human Rights Foundation via Shan Herald Agency for news
    Format/size: pdf (896K) 14 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.shanland.org/oldversion/view-3471.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 December 2010


    Title: Exiled at Home: Continued Forced Relocations and Displacement in Shan State
    Date of publication: 05 April 2000
    Description/subject: Continued Forced Relocations and Displacement in Shan State. "This report aims to provide a picture of the current situation in central Shan State, where the military junta ruling Burma has forcibly uprooted and destroyed over 1,400 villages and displaced well over 300,000 people since 1996. This campaign against civilians is still continuing after 4 brutal years, leaving much of the Shan population homeless. In this report, some of the villagers who both lived in relocation sites and hid in the jungle to avoid relocation describe their experiences. Further background and detail on the campaign to uproot the Shan can be found in the previous Karen Human Rights Group reports "Killing the Shan" (KHRG #98-03, 23/5/98) and "Forced Relocation in Central Shan State" (KHRG #96-23, 25/6/96), which are available online at this web site or by request from KHRG, and in the April 1998 report "Dispossessed: Forced Relocation and Extrajudicial Killings in Shan State" by the Shan Human Rights Foundation." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #2000-03)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Killing the Shan: The Continuing Campaign of Forced Relocation in Shan State (Information Update)
    Date of publication: 23 May 1998
    Description/subject: "This report aims to provide a picture of the current situation in central Shan State, where the military junta ruling Burma has forcibly uprooted and destroyed over 1,400 villages and displaced over 300,000 people since 1996. This campaign against civilians is still continuing, and the number of villages destroyed is increasing each month. In this report, some of the villagers who have fled in 1997 and 1998 describe their experiences. Further background and detail on the campaign to uproot the Shan can be found in the previous Karen Human Rights Group report "Forced Relocation in Central Shan State" (KHRG #96-23, 25/6/96), and in the April 1998 report "Dispossessed: Forced Relocation and Extrajudicial Killings in Shan State" by the Shan Human Rights Foundation ..." ..... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocaton, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #98-03)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmar: Atrocities in the Shan State
    Date of publication: 15 April 1998
    Description/subject: The last two years have seen a profound deterioration in the human rights situation throughout the central Shan State in Myanmar. Hundreds of Shan civilians caught in the midst of counter-insurgency activities have been killed or tortured by the Burmese army. These abuses, occurring in a country which is closed to independent monitors, are largely unknown to the outside world. Denial of access for human rights monitors and journalists means that the full scale of the tragedy can not be accurately calculated. Therefore the information presented below represents only a part of the story.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/05/98)
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/005/1998/en/f6c634ab-daea-11dd-903e-e1f5d1f8bceb/asa160051998fr.pdf (French)
    http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/005/1998/en/e22f5c7f-daea-11dd-903e-e1f5d1f8bceb/asa160051998en.html
    http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/005/1998
    Date of entry/update: 26 July 2010


    Title: Dispossessed
    Date of publication: April 1998
    Description/subject: A report on forced relocation and extrajudicial killings in Shan State, Burma. Since the publication of "Uprooting the Shan," the report by the SHRF detailing the forced relocation program carried out by the SLORC in Shan State during 1996, the SLORC military regime (recently renamed the State Peace and Development Council or SPDC) has been continuing to uproot more villages throughout 1997 and early 1998. Many of the relocation sites that were the results of 1996 relocations have been forced to move again. Human rights abuses such as mass killings, rape, torture and looting have been committed repeatedly by the SPDC troops against the displaced population. This has prompted the need to publish this updated report, containing more complete lists and maps of the relocated villages, and detailing the many extrajudicial killings committed by the military regime in the areas of relocation. We hope that this report will give a clearer picture to the international community of the devastating effects of the forced relocation program on the population of Central Shan State. KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Shan Human Rights Foundation
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 November 2010


    Title: Forced Relocation in Central Shan State
    Date of publication: 25 June 1996
    Description/subject: "Forced relocations (all stories), killings (#2), shootings (#2,11,13), beatings (#8,9,10,14), rape (#7,8,17), burning houses (#1,2,4-7,14,17), burning houses with people inside (#1,2,14,17), looting/theft (#1,4,8,12,17), confiscation of relocated people's rice (#3,12), going back to farm (#1,3,4, 11,12), overcrowding at relocation sites (#1,5,7,12,17), effect on monks (#3,11,13,17), forced conscription for SLORC militia (#3), MTA (#8,11,13,15,17), PNA (#8), SSA (#13), opium (#15), life in Thailand (#15,17), northern Shan State (#13,15). Forced labour: At army camps (#1,3,13,15), as porters (#8,14,15), as road and village sentries (#12,13,17), on Army farms (#2,15), Nam Sang - Kun Hing road (#15,17), Chiang Tong - Kun Hing road (#15), Lai Kha - Pang Long road (#17), Lai Kha - Mong Hsu road (#13,17), Mong Kung - Tsipaw road (#10), Lai Kha - Mong Kungrailway (#7), Lashio - Mu Seh - Kyu Kote road (#15)..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #96-23)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Forced Relocation in Central Shan State (Appendix)
    Date of publication: 25 June 1996
    Description/subject: "Appendix: List of Shan State villages known to be relocated. This list accompanies KHRG report "Forced Relocation in Central Shan State", #96-23, 25/6/96..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Internal displacement/forced migration of the Kuki and other groups along the Chindwin River

    Individual Documents

    Title: Stop Damming the Chindwin (Burmese, English, Kuki)
    Date of publication: December 2011
    Description/subject: "The Burmese military government, together with the government of India, is planning to build a giant hydroelectric dam near Tamanthi on the Chindwin River in northwest Burma’s Sagaing Division. The dam’s fl ood reservoir will be almost 1,400 sq km, the size of Delhi, and will permanently displace over 45,000 people, including the entire town of Khamti. Already over 2,400 people have been relocated at gunpoint from the dam site, without fair compensation. The Tamanthi dam will adversely affect the biodiversity and ecological balance of the entire Chindwin River, which, as the largest tributary of the Irrawaddy, acts as a major watershed for the whole country. Although the dam will bring about massive changes to the Chindwin, the entire dam building process has been shrouded in secrecy, and there has been a complete lack of public participation in decision making. Local indigenous Kuki people have been nourished by the Chindwin for generations, and are determined to protect the river from this destructive project. We therefore urge the Burmese regime and Indian government to immediately cancel the Tamanthi dam."
    Language: English, Burmese, Kuki
    Source/publisher: The Kuki Women’s Human Rights Organization (KWHRO)
    Format/size: pdf (English, 603K - OBL version; 804K - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://burmariversnetwork.org/images/stories/publications/english/Stop%20Damming%20the%20Chindwin%20%28English-2011-Dams%29.pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Stop_Damming_the%20_Chindwin(bu)-red.pdf
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Stop_Damming_the%20_Chindwin(ku)-red.pdf
    http://burmariversnetwork.org/images/stories/publications/chinese/DammingChindwin_Burmese2.pdf
    http://burmariversnetwork.org/burmese/images/stories/publications/burmese/Damming%20the%20Chindwin_Kuki.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 January 2012