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Extractive industries (general) - Myanmar

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: EITI Myanmar page
Description/subject: Extractive Industries: Myanmar's natural resources include gems, industrial minerals, proven oil reserves of 50 million barrels and proven gas reserves of 10 trillion cubic feet (US Energy Information Administration). According to the Central Statistical Organisation, gas accounted for 29% of exports and gemstones 10% of exports in FY March 2013 – March 2014 and the extractive sector is the second largest source of foreign direct investment. The Central Statistical Organisation reported total sales of gas in an amount of US $3.3 billion in 2013-14, up from US $580 million in 2003-04. Official revenues from gem stones sales in 2014 were estimated at US $3.4 billion (Myanmar Gems Emporium). Despite its mineral wealth, Myanmar is one of the least developed nations in the world, facing considerable challenges with managing its natural resource wealth. The reform process initiated by President Thein Sein is continuing at a high pace, including in the extractive sector. The recently completed onshore and offshore oil and gas bidding rounds will see several international oil and gas companies entering the scene. Legal reforms are underway in the mining sector with a view to amend the current fiscal framework. EITI is a central part of the government’s reform agenda, in particular on public financial management reforms, and should provide access to reliable data about extractive industry revenues in a country where these figures still remain largely unknown. EITI is also seen as a tool for contributing to building trust between the government and communities and contribute to the peace process. EITI Reporting The country produces EITI Reports that disclose revenues from the extraction of its natural resources. Companies disclose what they have paid in taxes and other payments and the government discloses what it has received. These two sets of figures are compared and reconciled..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Extractive Industries Transparancy Initiative (EITI)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 January 2016


Individual Documents

Title: Resource Federalism - a roadmap for decentralised governance of Burma’s natural heritage
Date of publication: 24 October 2017
Description/subject: "While Burma’s ethnic states are blessed with a wealth of natural resources and biodiversity, they have been cursed by the unsustainable extraction and sale of those resources, which has fuelled armed conflict. Instituting a system of devolved federal management of natural resources can play a key role in resolving conflict and building a lasting peace in Burma. Despite some ceasefires on paper, Burma remains in a state of conflict. Ongoing offensives in Kachin and Shan states alone have left hundreds of thousands homeless. Fundamental calls for self-determination have gone unheeded in a lack of political dialogue to end decades of fighting. Military offensives into resource-rich ethnic areas have expanded Burma Army presence in plac - es previously controlled by de-facto ethnic governments. This has facilitated the rapid increase in the extraction and sale of natural resources in recent years. Resource projects have collected huge revenues for the army and the central government, but have not benefited local populations. Constitutional powers place natural resource ownership, control, and management fully in the hands of the central government. This report analyzes six key natural resources: forests, land, water, minerals, gems, and oil and gas. In each sector, a series of laws and practices prevent affected peoples from having a say in their own development: they cannot assess, provide input into, or censure the management of their natural resources. Ethnic women, particularly in rural areas, are doubly marginalized from natural resource governance. Centralised resource control is fanning the flames of discontent and anger . Resource projects are causing environmental destruction, human rights abuses, and loss of livelihoods, with unique impacts on women. Extracting and exporting raw, often non-renewable, resources is further inflicting an incalculable liability on future generations. Resources used to produce ener gy are consistently prioritised for export, contributing to the development of neighboring countries while resource-rich areas remain in the dark. People from across the country have staged protests and demonstrations, calling for an end to destructive resource exploitation and for constitutional rights to own, control, and manage their own resources. Ethnic political parties and armed groups are standing with the people in these demands. Devolved decision-making offers stronger accountability and representation at all levels of government, an opportunity for local input and control, benefits to local populations, and environmental sustainability. Burma does not need to start from zero in developing devolved governance structures. Local communities have managed lands, water, and forests with sustainable customary practices for generations, and de-facto governments have supported such practices with formal structures and laws..."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
Format/size: pdf (2.4MB-reduced version; 3.9MB-original; 1MB-briefer)
Alternate URLs: http://bewg.org/sites/default/files/2017-10/ResourceFederalismWEB.pdf
http://www.bewg.org/index.php/my/node/36 (statement in Burmese)
http://www.bewg.org/sites/default/files/2017-10/ResourceFederalismBrieferWEB.pdf
Date of entry/update: 19 November 2017


Title: Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI ) shines light on resource sector
Date of publication: 22 January 2016
Description/subject: 'Myanmar's first report under the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) has provided levels of disclosure on companies’ activities “unthinkable” just a few years ago, NGOs and civil society organisations said. But they also see it as only a first step in pulling back the curtain on how Myanmar’s natural resources are managed...'
Author/creator: Steve Gilmore
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 23 January 2016


Title: Myanmar lifts the veil on state-owned companies
Date of publication: 02 January 2016
Description/subject: "Myanmar published its first EITI Report on 2 January, opening up the extractive sector for the first time. The report shows that the government received a total of USD 3.1bn from the extractive sector. After having paid its taxes and other dues, Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE), the state-owned company, retained USD 1.3bn of this revenue for own operating costs and raw materials. The four state-owned mining companies collectively retained appx. USD 230m, illustrating the significant role that state-owned companies play in the country’s extractive sector. The report covers financial year April 2013 to March 2014. “All over the world, national resource companies have been criticised for their opacity - and it is in such circumstances that resources are often mismanaged. Myanmar’s first EITI Report contributes to changing this reputation, and sheds important light on the role of such companies in managing the extractive sector. It is heartening to see how the government, companies and civil society have worked together determinedly for more openness and to create a better future for their country”, said EITI Chair Clare Short about the publication of the report.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Extractive Industries Transparancy Initiative (EITI)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 January 2016


Title: 'With only our voices, what can we do?': Land confiscation and local response in southeast Myanmar. - Texts, maps and video (English, Karen Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 30 June 2015
Description/subject: "Villagers in Karen areas of southeast Myanmar continue to face widespread land confiscation at the hands of a multiplicity of actors. Much of this can be attributed to the rapid expansion of domestic and international commercial interest and investment in southeast Myanmar since the January 2012 preliminary ceasefire between the Karen National Union (KNU) and the Myanmar government. KHRG first documented this in a 2013 report entitled ‘Losing Ground’, which documented cases of land confiscation between January 2011 and November 2012. This report, ‘With only our voices, what can we do?’, is a follow up to that analysis and highlights continued issue areas while identifying newly documented trends. The present analysis assesses land confiscation according to a number of different factors, including: land use type; geographic distribution across KHRG’s seven research areas; perpetrators involved; whether or not compensation and/or consultation occurred; and the effects that confiscation had on local villagers. This report also seeks to highlight local responses to land confiscation, emphasising the agency that individuals and communities in southeast Myanmar already possess and the obstacles that they face when attempting to protect their own human rights. By focusing on local perspectives and giving priority to villagers’ voices, this report aims to provide local, national, and international actors with a resource that will allow them to base policy and programmatic decisions that will impact communities in southeast Myanmar more closely on the experiences and concerns of the people living there."..... Toungoo (Taw Oo) District... Hpa-an District... Dooplaya District... Hpapun (Mutraw) District... Mergui-Tavoy District... Thaton (Doo Tha Htoo) District... Nyaunglebin (Kler Lwee Htoo) District...
Language: English, Karen and Burmese
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
Format/size: html, pdf (en-5MB; bu-5.5MB; maps-en-2.8MB; maps-bu-2.7MB; appendices1&2-en-2.7MB; appendix 3-en+bu-614K; briefer-Karen-2.7MB) video (Adobe Flash, 16 minutes)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/KHRG-2015-06-30-With_only_our_voices-en-red.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/KHRG-2015-06-30-With_only_our_voices-bu-red.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/KHRG-2015-06-30-With_only_our_voices-maps-en-red.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/KHRG-2015-06-30-With_only_our_voices-maps-bu-red.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/KHRG-2015-06-30-With_only_our_voices-appendices-1+2-en.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/KHRG-2015-06-30-With_only_our_voices-appendix_3-en+bu-red.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/KHRG-2015-06-30-With_only_our_voices-briefer-ka-red.pdf
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N65W8TabFj8
Date of entry/update: 10 July 2015


Title: Institutional and regulatory assessment of the extractive industries in Myanmar (Vol. 2) English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 12 May 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This report provides a baseline institutional and regulatory assessment of the oil and gas, mining (including jade and gemstones) and the hydropower sectors in Myanmar. As such the report is an input to Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) in Myanmar. However, it is not exhaustive with respect to all the sectors that may be considered under a scoping study for EITI .This report is the first in-depth study of the context within which EITI will be implemented in Myanmar, and can inform broader efforts to improve natural resource governance. This includes support for developing natural resource policy, law and regulations, fiscal regime design, tax administration (including support to the Large Tax Payers Office on the extractive industries sector), license management and cadaster systems, community development agreements, strategic environmental and social mitigation and management, training needs assessments and capacity building. The follow-up to this baseline assessment is a scoping study, which will determine which companies should be included within the first MEITI report and what payment flows they will need to report on.".....Since the 167-page English ofiginal is 92MB, OBL produced various smaller versions - though not all equally crisp.
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: pdf (English: 5.5MB, 7.6MB-reduced versions; 92MB-original. Burmese: 5.6MB, reduced version; 8.5MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/WB-2015-Extractive_industries-en-red-to.pdf (7.6MB)
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2015/05/14/090224b082e8301f/... (original English version - 92MB)
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/WB-2015-Extractive_industries-bu-red.pdf (5.6MB)
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2015/05/14/090224b082e83020/... (original - 8.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 03 August 2015


Title: Blood Teak: How Myanmar's Natural Resources Fuel Ethnic Conflicts
Date of publication: 30 April 2015
Description/subject: "...The re-ignition of conflict should be a reminder that as long as the incentives to control exploitable natural resources and illicit industries are greater than the incentives to create stability, there is little hope for long-term peace in Myanmar. Sustainable progress is possible, but only if the underlying economic structures of minority groups are altered by the diversification of local economies and the government continues opening up. While this is by no means a panacea for the conflict, it may begin to alter the economic circumstances which have facilitated such persistent violence and bring about the conditions which lead to a more enduring peace."
Author/creator: Jay Benson
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Diplomat"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2015


Title: Myanmar - Political economy study of extractive industries : institutional and regulatory assessment of the extractive industries in Myanmar (English)
Date of publication: 17 April 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This report provides a baseline institutional and regulatory assessment of the oil and gas, mining (including jade and gemstones), and the hydropower sectors in Myanmar. As such the report is an input to extractive industries transparency initiative (EITI) in Myanmar. This report is the first in-depth study of the context within which EITI will be implemented in Myanmar, and can inform broader efforts to improve natural resource governance. This includes support for developing natural resource policy, law and regulations, fiscal regime design, tax administration (including support to the large tax payer’s office on the extractive industries sector), license management and cadastre systems, community development agreements, strategic environmental and social mitigation and management, training needs assessments, and capacity building. The EI sector is still operating within a framework of limited information and relations between government, companies, and civil society (and communities) which are characterized by grievances and disputes about benefit sharing. The implementation of EITI will take several years for the quality of data on the EI sector to live up to international standards and for platforms for dialogue on sector governance to emerge."
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: pdf (155K-reduced version; 173K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/EAP/2015/05/17/090224b082e940b1...
Date of entry/update: 03 August 2015