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Home > Main Library > Human Rights > Discrimination > Religion or belief: discrimination based on > Discrimination against Muslims in Burma/Myanmar

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Discrimination against Muslims in Burma/Myanmar
See also the Arakan (Rakhine) State sub-section under States and Regions of Burma/Myanmar, and Discrimination Against the Rohingya, under Human Rights

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: See also these sections of the Library
Description/subject: Follow the URL and Alternate URL to the sections on religious violence and the situation in Arakan/Rakhine State
Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/show.php?cat=3324&lo=d&sl=0
Date of entry/update: 02 May 2013

Individual Documents

Title: Social Exclusion, Livelihoods, and Gender Violence: Burmese Muslim Refugees in Thailand
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This work seeks to understand gender-­based violence and the connection between violence and livelihoods for refugees living in conditions of social exclusion. Through qualitative research consisting of 40 interviews, a market survey, and observation conducted among Burmese Muslim refugees in Thailand, this work analyzes the connection between livelihoods strategies, social exclusion, and gender-­based violence. Muslims are a marginalized group within Burma and experience ongoing discrimination while living in refugee communities in Thailand, which results in risk for several kinds of violence at multiple levels. The experiences of Muslim refugees living in Thailand offer insight into the conditions that shape violence for refugees more generally. Findings show that several factors contribute to the incidence of gender violence, including structural, community, and interpersonal stressors and constraints. These dynamics also shape violence, whether domestic abuse, harassment and assault within the refugee camp, or experiences with Thai authorities. By showing the complex conditions that shape gender-­based violence for refugees in this context, this work demonstrates the need for consideration of marginalized groups within refugee populations and the layered nature of the conditions that underpin dynamics of gender violence. This pa per concludes with consideration of the implications of these findings for the possibility of refugee return to Myanmar in the context of ongoing ethnic difficulty and livelihoods struggles.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Mollie Pepper
Language: English, Burmese and Karen
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (309K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 28 August 2015

Title: Fascist assemblages in Cambodia and Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 March 2015
Description/subject: "...In Myanmar, countless Burmese nationalists regularly pollute facebook and twitter with anti-Muslim vitriol. So too, ultra nationalist Buddhist organisations like ‘969’ and Ma Ba Tha have been active in pushing Buddho-fascism to the centre of Myanmar politics. Last week, for instance Ma Ba Tha protested outside the Yangon court on two occasions – one to push for a harsher sentence for New Zealand owner of Gastro Bar and his two Burmese managers for posting a facebook image of the Buddha wearing headphones (they all got 2.5 years of hard labour), and on the second occasion to support the passing of the ‘Race and Religion Protection Bills’, which Ma Ba Tha played a large role in conceiving, and which would limit the right of women in certain areas to have children (i.e Rohingya women in Rakhine state) and limit the right of Buddhist women to marry non-Buddhists. With the recent violence in Rakhine state, not to mention the history of mob violence against Muslims and Indians in Myanmar, the events of last week are extremely concerning..."
Author/creator: Tim Frewer
Language: English and Karen
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 May 2015

Title: An international task force is needed to help tackle growing religious violence in Burma
Date of publication: 26 March 2013
Description/subject: Comment, briefing & analysis from Burma Campaign UK... "The consequences of failing to address the growing religious tensions in Burma are so serious that they justify the urgent creation of a task force which helps Burma’s political and religious leaders, both in government and in opposition, learn from the past experience of the international community in addressing these problems... On 20th March violence erupted in Meiktilar, central Burma, between Buddhists and Muslims. While atrocities were committed on both sides in the ensuing violence, the majority of victims were Muslim, and Muslim shops, Mosques and people were systematically attacked. Many lives have been lost and thousands of people have fled their homes..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Campaign UK (Burma Briefing No. 19)
Format/size: pdf (140K)
Date of entry/update: 26 March 2013

Title: Myanmar: Authorities must protect communities at risk of violence
Date of publication: 21 March 2013
Description/subject: "Violence between Buddhist and Muslim communities in Myanmar that reportedly left several people dead demonstrates an urgent need for Myanmar authorities to protect people at risk, Amnesty International said. On Wednesday 20 March, violent clashes broke out between Muslim and Buddhist communities in Meiktila, a town in Myanmar’s Mandalay Division, following a dispute at a Muslim-owned gold shop. According to local sources, several people have been killed. There was also widespread damage to property in the town, including the destruction of mosques and a government building. Tensions between Muslim and Buddhists have been heightened in certain parts of Myanmar, such as in Rakhine state where violence erupted in June 2012..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International (Press Release)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 March 2013

Title: Incident Report: Religious discrimination and restrictions in Papun District, September 2012
Date of publication: 07 March 2013
Description/subject: "The following incident report was written by a community member trained by KHRG to monitor human rights abuses in Dwe Lo Township, Papun District, and is based on an interview with a Muslim villager named Saw W---. Saw W--- is a resident of M--- village, situated 20-minutes on foot from K'Ter Tee village, where the incident happened. In the interview, the villager detailed events taking place around the time of September 10th 2012, regarding deterioration in the relationship between Muslim and Buddhist villagers, including a reported attack on a mosque. Further, the community member details the Border Guard Battalion #1013 Company Commander Saw Bah Yoh's issuing of an order prohibiting villagers from buying products from or selling to Muslims and how, after the KHRG community member documented the incident, a Tatmadaw Operations Commander based near K'Ter Tee called a meeting to encourage Buddhist and Muslim villagers to live beside each other peacefully. The community member describes the dissemination of these pamphlets by a monastery to Border Guard soldiers and local monks in K'Ter Tee in a separate situation update, "Papun Situation Update: Bu Tho and Dwe Lo Townships, September to December 2012," KHRG, March 2013.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
Format/size: html, pdf (276K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg13b6.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 March 2013