|Title:|| ||Rural Livelihood and Agricultural Reform In Chiba Village, Shwebo Township, Sagaing Region, Myanmar
|Date of publication:|| ||26 July 2015|
|Description/subject:|| ||Introduction: "Rural
and desires.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-26 July 2015.|
|Author/creator:|| ||Shin Thynn Tun|
|Source/publisher:|| ||International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-26 July 2015|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (1.9MB)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||10 August 2015|
|Title:|| ||MYANMAR: RICE PRICE VOLATILITY AND POVERTY REDUCTION
|Date of publication:|| ||04 October 2014|
|Description/subject:|| ||Key findings:
Price fluctuations are common in agricultural markets. However, rice price volatility in Myanmar is more profound than in neighboring rice net-exporter countries like Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand.
The economic liberalization in 2004 removed local trade barriers and this reduced risks and price volatility in the domestic rice market. Even if Myanmar’s price fluctuations decreased in recent years (compared to the mid-2000s), it remains high.
Beyond price volatility, rice prices have risen by 41% between 2009 and 2013. This is much higher than that of rice exporters in neighboring countries like Thailand and Cambodia.
The high concentration of the paddy harvest in November and December is the main cause of rice price volatility. Nearly 70% of paddy is harvested in just two months of the monsoon season. This results into sharp price drops from December to January and spike-ups between May and October.
Production in dry season is small due to a lack of rice varieties with different harvesting periods, growth durations, and appropriate irrigation.
The rice market is fragmented and weakened due to poor roads and low phone coverage. There is also inaccurate information on rice production, consumption, trade, and stocks. Due to the latter, farmers, millers, exporters, and the government often overreact when there are minor price changes. This ignites volatility even further, given that private stocks are too small to buffer price fluctuations.
Poor diversification of export markets also contribute to price volatility. Most of the formal rice exports go to Africa with stable prices. The informal cross-border export to China, in contrast, has been highly unpredictable. The recent closure of informal trade with China is an example of such unpredictability.|
|Language:|| ||English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Executive Summary)|
|Source/publisher:|| ||World Bank (Agriculture Global Practice East Asia and Pacific Region)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (2.9MB-reduced version; 6.3MB-original)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/myanmar/publication/rice-price-volatility-and-poverty-reduction...|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||26 November 2014|
|Title:|| ||MYANMAR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT BANK: Initial Assessment and Restructuring Options
|Date of publication:|| ||2014|
|Description/subject:|| ||"Myanmar is an agricultural country. It is estimated that the agriculture sector represents
between 35 to 40 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) and that up to 70 percent of the
labor force (of 32.5 million) is directly or indirectly engaged in agricultural activities or
depend on agriculture for their income. Moreover, it is estimated that agriculture products
generate between 25 and 30 percent of total export earnings. Given agriculture’s important
contribution to the economy, the modernization of the agriculture sector is a top priority in the
economic and social development agenda of the Government of Myanmar.
Looking forward, Myanmar’s agricultural potential is enormous given the country’s rich natu-
ral resources and favorable geographical location. Myanmar’s diverse topography, climates,
water resources, and eco-systems offer farmers and investors the opportunity to produce a
wide range of cereals, pulses, horticultural products, fruits, livestock, and fish. Because of its
strategic location between the two enormous regional markets of India and China, and easy
access to buoyant markets in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN),
Myanmar’s agriculture sector is well positioned to grow, develop a dynamic agribusiness
industry, and provide people with the opportunity to improve their living standards......
1.Diagnostic of MADB:
1.1 Overview of the Agriculture Sector and the Role of MADB...
1.2 MABD’s Mission and Policy Mandate...
1.3 Lending Operations:
Seasonal Crop Production Loan (SCPL) and Term Loan (TL),
Breakdown of the Loan Portfolio,
Loan Amount per Farmer...
1.4 Credit Policies...
1.5 Pricing and Funding...
1.6 Risk Management...
1.7 Corporate Governance:
Internal Control System,
External Audit System...
1.9 Legal, Regulatory, and Supervisory Regime...
1.10 Accounting and Financial Reporting...
2.Options for the Transformation of MADB...
2.1 Strengthening MADB in the Short Term...
2.2 Issues to Consider for MADB’s Long-Term Transformation.....
3.Lessons from International Experience...
3.1 Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives...
3.2 Bank Rakyat Indonesia...
3.3 Financiera Rural of Mexico.....
|Source/publisher:|| ||The World Bank Group|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||08 September 2015|
|Title:|| ||Rapid Value Chain Assessment: Structure and Dynamics of the Rice Value Chain in Myanmar
|Date of publication:|| ||March 2013|
|Description/subject:|| ||This Background Paper is an integral part of the Diagnostic Assessment. It involves an assessment of the Myanmar rice value chain within the context of the Myanmar rice industry. Special focus is paid to its structure and performance, dynamics, and future prospects. Also included is a consideration of its weaknesses and constraints that had influenced the development of the industry as well as an evaluation of the prospect of improving the value chain and consequently the industry and suggesting crucial steps that should be taken for the short game and the long game. Basically, the report integrates the findings from intensive literature review and desk research coupled with observations and interviews conducted during field visits in October and November 2012 and supplemented by persona communication with key players in the public and private sectors as well as civil society at various levels of the rice value chain.|
|Author/creator:|| ||Larry C.Y. Wong and Eh Mywe Aye Wai|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Myanmar Development Resource Institute - Centre for Economic and Social Development (MDRI-CESD)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (1.7MB)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||11 April 2016|
|Title:|| ||Inle Lake Conservation and Rehabilitation Project
|Date of publication:|| ||2012|
|Description/subject:|| ||"... Inle Lake situated in Southern Shan State is well known by local populace and foreign visitors for the natural beauty of the lake waters, surrounding mountain ranges, tomato floating gardens and leg rowers of boats. The lake plays a vital role for the ecosystem and economy of Shan State, providing many important goods and services for the communities. It is an ASEAN heritage site and also on the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage sites. It is the main water source for Lawpita hydroelectricity power plant, a major tourist attraction site and a habitant for rich biodiversity and traditional culture. The lake is now facing devastating effects of unsustainable practices in forestry, agriculture and fishing activities. The situation is accelerated by impact of climate change. Water surface area and sanitation is decreasing, fish and plant species are disappearing at a fast rate while water hyacinth species are increasing, blocking water ways and dominating other useful water cress that farmers use for building floating gardens.
Therefore with the collaboration of Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MOECAF), UNDP and UNESCO, a fund has been provided from Norwegian Government to implement conservation and rehabilitation activities in the area. UNDP acting as the funding agency is working together with implementing partners to restore the area with the assistance of local communities. Due to the need of the communities, organic farming and market linkages activity has been implemented by Doe Taung Thu, a local non-government organization.
For Organic farming, farmers have been trained in compost making, vermiculture, production of agriculture organic inputs such as natural pesticides, plant juice, fruit juice containing indigenous micro-organisms. With these products farmers are utilizing natural resources in the area. In
addition an attempt is made to utilize water hyacinth for agricultural use.
To collect water hyacinth from water ways and shred into small pieces for compost
To decrease water hyacinth in the lake and clear water ways for easy access to villages
To use shredded water hyacinth for mulching crops in a form of composting
To conserve moisture in soil by mulching, protect soil erosion and slow down rain run off
so that moisture can penetrate deep down to the roots
To prevent rain splashing onto leaves and minimize leaf diseases
To suppress weeds and minimize weeding
To use chopped water hyacinth to feed earth worms
To increase chicken and duck feed for communities..."|
|Author/creator:|| ||Heather Morris, U Myint Zaw|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MOECAF)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (405K)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||19 April 2016|
|Title:|| ||Transformation of the Rice Marketing System and Myanmar’s Transition to a Market Economy
|Date of publication:|| ||December 2005|
|Description/subject:|| ||Abstract: "Creating a rice marketing system has been one of the central policy issues in
Myanmar’s move to a market economy since the end of the 1980s. Two liberalizations of rice
marketing were implemented in 1987 and 2003. This paper examines the essential aspects of
the liberalizations and the subsequent transformation of Myanmar’s rice marketing sector. It
attempts to bring into clearer focus the rationale of the government’s rice marketing reforms
which is to maintain a stable supply of rice at a low price to consumers. Under this rationale,
however, the state rice marketing sector continued to lose efficiency while the private sector
was allowed to develop on condition that it did not jeopardize the rationale of stable supply
at low price. The paper concludes that the prospect for the future development of the private
rice marketing sector is dim since a change in the rice market’s rationale is unlikely. Private
rice exporting is unlikely to be permitted, while the domestic market is approaching the
saturation point. Thus, there is little momentum for the private rice sector to undertake any
substantial expansion of investment."...
Keywords: Myanmar, rice, marketing system, liberalization|
|Author/creator:|| ||Ikuko Okamoto|
|Language:|| ||English (available also in Japanese - ?)|
|Source/publisher:|| ||IDE Discussion Papaer No. 43|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (761K)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||16 July 2006|
|Title:|| ||Crop Choice, Farm Income, and Political Relations in Myanmar
|Date of publication:|| ||March 2005|
"Myanmar's agricultural economy is in transition from a planned to a market system. However, the
economy does not seem to capture the full gains of productivity growth expected from such a
transition. Using a micro dataset collected in 2001 and covering more than 500 households in eight
villages with diverse agro-ecological environments, this paper shows that policy interventions in
land use and agricultural marketing underlie the lack of income growth. Regression analyses
focusing on within-village variations in cropping patterns show that the acreage share under nonlucrative
paddy crops is higher for farmers who are under tighter control of the local administration.
Keywords: reform, food policy, transitional economies, Asia, Myanmar."|
|Author/creator:|| ||Takashi Kurosaki|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Hitotsubashi University Research Unit for Statistical Analysis in Social Sciences|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (227K)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||22 April 2008|
|Title:|| ||Agricultural Marketing Reform and Rural Economy in Myanmar
|Date of publication:|| ||28 January 2004|
|Description/subject:|| ||The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of marketing reforms implemented in the late 1980s in Myanmar. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact of the reform on the rural economy and its participants, namely farmers, landless laborers and marketing intermediaries. The reform had a positive effect on all these participants through the creation of employment opportunities and increased income. The driving force of this success was "market forces,"absence of bad policy" is emphasized as a key for the success in the context of Myanmar, where excessive and murky government intervention often resulted in failure to induce private sector development.|
|Author/creator:|| ||Ikuko Okamoto|
|Source/publisher:|| ||IIDE ( Institute of Developing Economies)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (98KB)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||08 January 2005|
|Title:|| ||Agro-Based Industry in Myanmar - Prospects and Challenges
|Date of publication:|| ||2003|
|Description/subject:|| ||400-page book in image files divided into chapters..... Title page, Content, etc...Acknowledgement...Chapter 1-
Introduction...Chapter 2 -
Agro-Based Industrializing Strategy...Chapter 3 -
Rice Industry...Chapter 4 -
Wheat Flour Industry...Chapter 5 -
Pulses Industry...Chapter 6 -
Feed Industry...Chapter 7 -
Edible Oil Industry...
Chapter 8 -
Growth, Survival and and Prospects of Sugar Processing SMEs...Chapter 9 -
Cotton textile Industry... Chapter 10 -
Facts About Myanmar Jute Industries...Chapter 11 -
Chapter 11 Rubber& Rubber Product Industry|
|Author/creator:|| ||U Tin Htut Oo and Toshihiro Kudo|
|Source/publisher:|| ||IDE- Institute of Developing Economies / JETRO - Japan External Trade Organization|
|Format/size:|| ||html, pdf|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||25 September 2012|
|Title:|| ||Agricultural diversification and rural industrialization as a strategy for rural income growth and poverty reduction in Indochina and Myanmar
|Date of publication:|| ||1999|
|Description/subject:|| ||Abstract: CONTENTS: Introduction; concepts and rationale; concept of diversification; rationale for diversification; significance for IMR; Structural features of IMR and their relevance to diversification; evidence of diversification in the IMR; trends in areas and production of crops and meat production; agricultural exports; future challenges and guiding principles; references....Keywords: Agricultural diversification Economic aspects.; Indochina Economic policy.; Poverty alleviation.; Myanmar Economic policy.; Meat industry and trade.|
|Author/creator:|| ||Francesco Goletti|
|Source/publisher:|| ||International Food Policy Research Institute|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (160K)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||22 April 2008|