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Home > Main Library > Human Rights > Discrimination > Race or Ethnicity: Discrimination based on > Racial or ethnic discrimination in Burma: reports of violations > Racial or ethnic discrimination in Burma: reports of violations against specific groups > Discrimination against the Shan

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Discrimination against the Shan

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Freunde der Shan/Friends of Shan
Description/subject: Übersetzung wichtiger Berichte von SWAN/SHRF Hintergrundinformationen über Geschichte, Geographie, Kultur und einer Reihe zusätzlicher Links. This site carries a German translations of the important SWAN/SHRF reports, "License to Rape" - "Lizenz zur Vergewaltigung", plus a couple of related articles, and will no doubt have more in the future.
Language: Deutsch, German (+some English)
Alternate URLs: http://archive.is/http://friends-of-shan.de/
http://www.friends-of-shan.de/
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Shanland
Description/subject: Contains pages from the Shan Human Rights Foundation, Shan Herald Agency for News, Shan State Army, The Shan Democratic Union. Lots of historical and constitutional docs on the site
Language: English
Alternate URLs: http://english.panglong.org/page/15/?author=0
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VL-chnoPE5o
http://www.shanland.org
http://www.shanland.org/oldversion/index.htm
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Individual Documents

Title: Land Grabbing and Related Issues and Abuses Continue - SHRF Newsletter, March 2013
Date of publication: March 2013
Description/subject: Commentary: Land Grabbing and Related Issues and Abuses Continue... Contents: Themes & Places of Violations reported in this issue... Acronyms: MAP... Land abandoned under force seized and original owners required to buy them back, in Lai-Kha... Burmese military let people’s militia groups grow crops on lands long cultivated by local people, in Nam-Zarng... Situation of land grabbing and related abuses in areas under the influence of a ceasefire group “UWSA”, in Murng-Ton... Original local people forced to sell land, restricted from cultivating remorte farms, in Murng-Ton... Threats of land confiscation, arrest and restrictions, in Murng-Ton... Wresting of water from original local farmers, in Murng-Ton... Land grabbed and resold by businessman under “UWSA” protection, in Murng-Ton.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shan Human Rights Foundation (SHRF)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://shanhumanrights.org/old_version/index.php?option=com_content&view=section&id=5&Itemid=71
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2015


Title: Forced labour and portering - Shan Human Rights Foundation Monthly Newsletter, December 2012
Date of publication: December 2012
Description/subject: All the reports in this month’s issue are about the use of unpaid civilian forced labourers, especially as guides and porters, and a few incidents of other violations, committed by Burmese army patrols in rural Shan State during the period from early up to late 2012...... * Commentary: Forced Labour: Forced Portering Continues *Contents *Acronyms *Map *Situation of forced portering in Nam-Zarng *Villagers forced to serve as porters during military operation in Nam-Zarng *Villagers forced to serve as porters after being robbed of their chickens in Nam-Zarng *Routine use of forced labour of civilian guides and porters, and extortion, in Nam-Zarng *Situation of forced portering in Murng-Paeng *Villagers forced to routinely serve as unpaid guides and porters in Murng-Paeng *Frequent forced portering causing a village to become almost deserted in Murng-Paeng *Increased forced portering in Murng-Paeng *Situation of forced portering in other townships *Many days of mass forced portering in Murng-Su and Kae-See *Frequent and lengthy forced portering causing people to flee, in Larng-Khur *Civilian guides forced to carry ammunition in Kun-Hing
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shan Human Rights Foundation (SHRF)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://shanhumanrights.org/old_version/index.php?option=com_content&view=section&id=5&Itemid=71
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2015


Title: Extortion and [theft in Shan State] - Shan Human Rights Foundation Monthly Report, July 2012
Date of publication: July 2012
Description/subject: Commentary: Extortion Everywhere... Contents: Themes & Places of Violations reported in this issue... Acronyms... MAP... Situation of extortion in various government civil and social services department in Shan State... Extortion on issuance of citizen identity cards in Keng-Tung... Extortion on issuance of citizen identity card in Ta-Khi-Laek... Extortion concerning electricity department in Kaeng-Tung... Extortion by electricity department in Kaeng –Tawng sub-township, Murng-Nai township... Extortion by land survey department in Kaeng Tawng sub-township, Murng-Nai township... Extortion by authorities in charge of anti-human-trafficking, at airports and checkpoints in Kaw-Law and Ta-Khi-Laek... Extortion by members of telephone department in Kaeng-Tung... Extortion by road and vehicle control department in Kaeng-Tung... Situation of extortion by police and military at checkpoints in Shan State... Extortion at checkpoints near Thai-Border in Murng-Ton.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shan Human Rights Foundation (SHRF)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2015


Title: 10,000 Shans uprooted, 500 houses burned in Burmese regime's latest scorched earth campaign
Date of publication: 13 August 2009
Description/subject: 10,000 Shans uprooted, 500 houses burned in Burmese regime’s latest scorched earth campaign (press release)... Map of villages forcibly relocated... Summary of villages forcibly relocated... Images of the Burmese regime's latest scorched earth campaign
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shan Human Rights Foundation (SHRF), Shan Women's Action Network (SWAN), Shan Relief and Development Committee, Shan Sapawa Environmental Organisation, Shan Youth Power, Shan Health Committee
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 29 November 2010


Title: Deserted Fields: The destruction of agriculture in Mong Nai Township, Shan State
Date of publication: January 2006
Description/subject: Summary: "Wrong-headed agricultural and development policies, counter-insurgency activities, as well as corruption and cronyism by the Burmese military regime, have all caused a dramatic decrease in rice production and food security in southern Shan State over the past ten years. The township of Mong Nai provides a good example of how food security, commonly defined as the physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food at all times, has been put in a precarious condition despite the regime’s claims that it is achieving self-sufficiency and agricultural development. In the past Mong Nai was well known for its fertile land and abundant production of quality rice. Even though people could not make much income from their crops, they had enough to survive. Since 1994, however, a series of national policies and initiatives have led to a decline in rice production, the abandonment of fertile fields, and the exodus of thousands of residents to neighbouring Thailand. In order to implement its national rice procurement policy, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) set up a paddy (unmilled rice) buying center in the town of Mong Nai in 1994. Farmers were forced to sell rice to the regime at depressed prices (about one quarter of the normal market price) based on the acreage of land they customarily tended and regardless of actual crop yields. This center, and how its quota system was implemented, disrupted farmers’ access to their own rice harvests and drove many into debt. The SPDC proudly announced the abolishment of this system and the opening of a market-oriented economy in 2003. However, new practices have been able to ensure that the military maintains its own stores of rice at the expense of local populations. agriculture, and led to decreased rice production and food security in the township. The amount of rice fields under cultivation has decreased by approximately 56% since 1994 while the population has decreased by approximately 30%. The drastic decrease in upland agriculture has practically wiped out the cultivation of sesame and the subsequent production of sesame oil in the township, while a wide variety of beans, fruits, and other vegetables are also not cultivated. Restrictions on trade and travel have made foodstuffs harder to get and more expensive. Contrary to the regime’s claims, Burma is not on the road to self-sufficiency and food security."... Table of Contents: Summary.2; Background 4; Food and Agriculture Situation Before 1994 5; Rice Procurement Policy/the Quota System 6; Forced Relocation 7; Map 1: Rice Cultivation and Villages in 1994 8; Map 2: Rice Culitvation, Remaining Villages and Confiscated Lands in 2005 9; Land Confiscation 10; Restricted Movement 12; Trading Restrictions 13; Forced Planting of Summer Paddy 13; Conclusion: The Situation Today 15... Appendix 1: Decrease in Rice Production in Mong Nai Township 1994-2005 16.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shan Relief and Development Committee (SRDC)
Format/size: pdf (204K)
Date of entry/update: 18 January 2006


Title: SHRF Monatlicher Menschenrechtsbericht Mai 2003
Date of publication: May 2003
Description/subject: Deutsche Übersetzung des montalichen Menschenrechtsberichts der Shan Human Right Foundation. Monthly report of the SHRF.
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Freunde der Shan - Friends of the Shan
Format/size: html (45K)
Alternate URLs: http://english.panglong.org/category/news/human-rights-monthly-report/page/8/
http://www.friends-of-shan.de/?p=32
Date of entry/update: 26 June 2003


Title: SHRF Monatlicher Menschenrechtsbericht April 2003
Date of publication: April 2003
Description/subject: Deutsche Übersetzung des montalichen Menschenrechtsbericht der Shan Human Rights Foundation. Monthly Human Rights report of the SHRF.
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Freunde der Shan - Friends of the Shan
Format/size: html (39K)
Alternate URLs: http://english.panglong.org/category/news/human-rights-monthly-report/page/7/
http://www.friends-of-shan.de/?p=30
Date of entry/update: 26 June 2003


Title: SHRF Monatlicher Menschenrechtsbericht März 2003
Date of publication: 31 March 2003
Description/subject: Deutsche Ünberstzung des monatlichen Menschenrechtsberichts der SHRF. Monthly SHRF human rights report.
Author/creator: SHRF
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Freunde der Shan - Friends of the Shan
Format/size: html (73K)
Alternate URLs: http://english.panglong.org/category/news/human-rights-monthly-report/page/7/
http://www.friends-of-shan.de/?p=29
Date of entry/update: April 2003


Title: SHRF Monatlicher Menschenrechtsbericht Februar 2003
Date of publication: February 2003
Description/subject: Deutsche Ünberstzung des monatlichen Menschenrechtsberichts der SHRF. Monthly SHRF human rights report.
Author/creator: SHRF
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Freunde der Shan - Friends of the Shan
Format/size: html (36K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.friends-of-shan.de/?p=28
Date of entry/update: March 2003


Title: SHRF Monatlicher Menschenrechtsbericht Januar 2003
Date of publication: January 2003
Description/subject: Deutsche Übersetzung des monatlichen Menschenrechtsberichts der SHRF. Monthly SHRF human rights report.
Author/creator: SHRF
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Freunde der Shan - Friends of the Shan
Format/size: html (33K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.friends-of-shan.de/?p=27
Date of entry/update: February 2003


Title: SHRF Monatlicher Menschenrechtsbericht Dezember 2002
Date of publication: December 2002
Description/subject: Deutsche Übersetzung des monatlichen Menschenrechstberichts des SHRF. Monthly SHRF human rights report.
Author/creator: SHRF
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Freunde der Shan - Friends of the Shan
Format/size: html (36K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.friends-of-shan.de/?p=26
Date of entry/update: January 2003


Title: Licence to Rape
Date of publication: May 2002
Description/subject: "The Burmese military regime's use of sexual violence in the ongoing war in Shan State...This report details 173 incidents of rape and other forms of sexual violence, involving 625 girls and women, committed by Burmese army troops in Shan State, mostly between 1996 and 2001... The report gives clear evidence that rape is officially condoned as a 'weapon of war' against the civilian populations in Shan State. There appears to be a concerted strategy by the Burmese army troops to rape Shan women as part of their anti-insurgency activities. The incidents detailed were committed by soldiers from 52 different battalions. 83% of the rapes were committed by officers, usually in front of their own troops. The rapes involved extreme brutality and often torture such as beating, mutilation and suffocation. 25% of the rapes resulted in death, in some incidences with bodies being deliberately displayed to local communities...Evidence in this report has revealed that the Burmese military regime is using rape on a systematic and widespread scale as a 'weapon of war' against the ethnic populations in Shan State. It has also illustrated that the increased militarization of the region has greatly increased the vulnerability of women and girls to rape. Examining the jurisprudence from the ICTY and ICTR on sexual violence as an international crime, illustrates there is a strong case that war crimes and crimes against humanity are being committed by the Burmese army in Shan State. The rape survivors have no recourse either to legal processes, or to any crisis support inside Shan State. Those fleeing to Thailand are also denied their right to protection and humanitarian assistance, and are liable to deportation at any time...".....Available in Shan,Burmese, Chinese, French, German, Hindi
Language: English, Shan, Burmese, Chinese, French, German, Hindi
Source/publisher: Shan Human Rights Foundation, Shan Women
Format/size: PDF (1.8MB) and html (in sections)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Lizenz zur Vergewaltigung- "Licence to rape"
Date of publication: May 2002
Description/subject: Deutsche Übersetzung des Artikels "Licence to rape" Die in Nordthailand im Exil ansässige Menschenrechtsorganisation "Shan Women's Action Network" (SWAN) erstellte im Mai 2002 einen umfassenden und detaillierten Bericht über die weitverbreitete Anwendung sexueller Gewalt gegen Frauen und Mädchen im Shan Staat (im Nordosten des burmesischen Staatsgebiets). Dieser Bericht trägt den schockierenden Titel: "License to Rape" - Lizenz zur Vergewaltigung Der Report belegt detailliert, dass das burmesische Militär in systematischer Weise Vergewaltigungen als Mittel der Kriegsführung gegen das Volk der Shan benutzt Inhalt Vergewaltigung als "Kriegswaffe" geduldet Militarisierung verursacht zunehmende Gefährdung durch Vergewaltigung Zwangsarbeit Die Überlebenden Sexuelle Gewalt als internationales Verbrechen
Author/creator: Shan Herald Agency for News- Deutsche Übersetzung: Freunde der Shan
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Freunde der Shan
Format/size: HTML
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2006


Title: Myanmar: Exodus from the Shan State
Date of publication: July 2000
Description/subject: Civilians in the central Shan State are suffering the enormous consequences of internal armed conflict, as fighting between the tatmadaw, or Myanmar army, and the Shan State Army-South (SSA-South) continues. The vast majority of affected people are rice farmers who have been deprived of their lands and their livelihoods as a result of the State Peace and Development Council's (SPDC, Myanmar's military government) counter-insurgency tactics. In the last four years over 300,000 civilians have been displaced by the tatmadaw, hundreds have been killed when they attempted to return to their farms, and thousands have been seized by the army to work without pay on roads and other projects. Over 100,000 civilians have fled to neighbouring Thailand, where they work as day labourers, risking arrest for "illegal immigration" by the Thai authorities.
Language: English, Français
Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/11/00)
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 25 November 2010


Title: Raising the Setting Sun
Date of publication: June 2000
Description/subject: Shan State has played a pivotal role in Burma's modern political history, but its culture and people have been under siege since the spirit of the historic Panglong Agreement was killed along with Aung San and other assassinated independence leaders in 1947, writes Irrawaddy culture editor Min Zin. Once known as the "land of the Sunset Kings", the homeland of the Shan is now struggling to emerge from the shadow of Burmese cultural hegemony.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol.8. No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Exiled at Home: Continued Forced Relocations and Displacement in Shan State
Date of publication: 05 April 2000
Description/subject: Continued Forced Relocations and Displacement in Shan State. "This report aims to provide a picture of the current situation in central Shan State, where the military junta ruling Burma has forcibly uprooted and destroyed over 1,400 villages and displaced well over 300,000 people since 1996. This campaign against civilians is still continuing after 4 brutal years, leaving much of the Shan population homeless. In this report, some of the villagers who both lived in relocation sites and hid in the jungle to avoid relocation describe their experiences. Further background and detail on the campaign to uproot the Shan can be found in the previous Karen Human Rights Group reports "Killing the Shan" (KHRG #98-03, 23/5/98) and "Forced Relocation in Central Shan State" (KHRG #96-23, 25/6/96), which are available online at this web site or by request from KHRG, and in the April 1998 report "Dispossessed: Forced Relocation and Extrajudicial Killings in Shan State" by the Shan Human Rights Foundation." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #2000-03)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2000/khrg0003.html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Myanmar: Update on the Shan State
Date of publication: June 1999
Description/subject: It has now been over three years since the tatmadaw, or Burmese army, started a mass forcible relocation program of hundreds of thousands of Shan civilians. In March 1996 the army began to relocate over 300,000 members of the Shan ethnic minority in central Shan State in an effort to break up any links between civilians and members of the Shan State Army - South (SSA), an ethnic minority armed opposition group. After villagers were relocated, they were forbidden from returning to their homes and farms to work in their fields and collect belongings -- those who disobeyed were frequently shot on sight by Burmese troops. In addition relocated Shan civilians were used as a pool of labourers to do work without pay and against their will. Keywords: Ethnic groups, forced labour, indiscriminate killing, refugees, displaced people, military, farmers, extrajudicial execution. ... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
Language: English,French
Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/13/99)
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/013/1999/en/18bf7296-e117-11dd-b0b0-b705f60696a0/asa1...
http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/013/1999/en/2dd95ce0-e117-11dd-b0b0-b705f60696a0/asa1...
http://www.amnestyusa.org/document.php?id=437683047D5F002580256900006933E2&lang=e
Date of entry/update: 21 November 2010


Title: Poison Rats Cause Shan Deaths
Date of publication: February 1999
Description/subject: In central Shan State of Burma, since May 1998 until the present, over 400 Shan villagers in Parng Long district have died with symptoms of poisoning. According to Shan human rights workers and local Shans, the sudden deaths began after the dumping by the Burmese military of thousands of poisoned rats into the Pawn River, the only source of water for the over 10,000 villagers in Wan Nong Wan Koong village in Pamg Long.
Author/creator: Aung Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 2
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Situation Around Ho Murng (Information Update)
Date of publication: 13 June 1998
Description/subject: "Deterioration of the economic and human rights situation and increase in opium and amphetamine production in Ho Murng with the SLORC occupation which followed the surrender and departure of Khun Sa..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #98-07)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg98/khrg9807.html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Killing the Shan: The Continuing Campaign of Forced Relocation in Shan State (Information Update)
Date of publication: 23 May 1998
Description/subject: "This report aims to provide a picture of the current situation in central Shan State, where the military junta ruling Burma has forcibly uprooted and destroyed over 1,400 villages and displaced over 300,000 people since 1996. This campaign against civilians is still continuing, and the number of villages destroyed is increasing each month. In this report, some of the villagers who have fled in 1997 and 1998 describe their experiences. Further background and detail on the campaign to uproot the Shan can be found in the previous Karen Human Rights Group report "Forced Relocation in Central Shan State" (KHRG #96-23, 25/6/96), and in the April 1998 report "Dispossessed: Forced Relocation and Extrajudicial Killings in Shan State" by the Shan Human Rights Foundation ..." ..... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocaton, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #98-03)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg98/khrg9803.html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Myanmar: Atrocities in the Shan State
Date of publication: 15 April 1998
Description/subject: The last two years have seen a profound deterioration in the human rights situation throughout the central Shan State in Myanmar. Hundreds of Shan civilians caught in the midst of counter-insurgency activities have been killed or tortured by the Burmese army. These abuses, occurring in a country which is closed to independent monitors, are largely unknown to the outside world. Denial of access for human rights monitors and journalists means that the full scale of the tragedy can not be accurately calculated. Therefore the information presented below represents only a part of the story.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/05/98)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/005/1998/en/e71d1ccf-daea-11dd-903e-e1f5d1f8bceb/asa1...
http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/005/1998/en/f6c634ab-daea-11dd-903e-e1f5d1f8bceb/asa1... (French)
http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/005/1998/en/e22f5c7f-daea-11dd-903e-e1f5d1f8bceb/asa1...
http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/005/1998
Date of entry/update: 26 July 2010


Title: Dispossessed
Date of publication: April 1998
Description/subject: A report on forced relocation and extrajudicial killings in Shan State, Burma. Since the publication of "Uprooting the Shan," the report by the SHRF detailing the forced relocation program carried out by the SLORC in Shan State during 1996, the SLORC military regime (recently renamed the State Peace and Development Council or SPDC) has been continuing to uproot more villages throughout 1997 and early 1998. Many of the relocation sites that were the results of 1996 relocations have been forced to move again. Human rights abuses such as mass killings, rape, torture and looting have been committed repeatedly by the SPDC troops against the displaced population. This has prompted the need to publish this updated report, containing more complete lists and maps of the relocated villages, and detailing the many extrajudicial killings committed by the military regime in the areas of relocation. We hope that this report will give a clearer picture to the international community of the devastating effects of the forced relocation program on the population of Central Shan State. KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shan Human Rights Foundation
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 November 2010


Title: Myanmar: Human Rights Violations Against Ethnic Minorities
Date of publication: 08 August 1996
Description/subject: Amnesty International is concerned that the Burmese army has arbitrarily detained, extrajudicially killed, tortured and ill-treated members of ethnic minorities in the Shan and Mon States and the Tanintharyi (Tenasserim) Division in eastern Myanmar. This report is drawn from January and February 1996 interviews with dozens of members of the Shan, Akha, Lahu, Karen, and Mon ethnic minorities in Thailand. Most of these refugees are farmers and villagers who said they had fled from their homes because their lives were made impossible by the security forces.
Language: English and French
Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/38/96)
Format/size: pdf (41K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/038/1996/en/c3c50d3f-eaee-11dd-b22b-3f24cef8f6d8/asa1...
http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/038/1996/en/c708ee19-eaee-11dd-b22b-3f24cef8f6d8/asa1... (French)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Interviews About Shan State
Date of publication: 27 July 1996
Description/subject: "The interviews in this report are with people from 2 areas over 300 kilometres apart: Mong Hsat in southeastern Shan State, about 70 km. west of Tachilek and 50 km. north of the Burma-Thai border, and Hsipaw in northwestern Shan State, along the main road from Mandalay to Lashio. Forced relocation (Interviews #1,3,4), land confiscation for Army camps (#1-4), land confiscation for Army farms (#1,2,5), land confiscated for resale by the Army (#4), land confiscation for Mong Hsat airport extension (#3,4), crop confiscation (#1,3), meat confiscation (#4,5), cash extortion (#1,3-5), forcing villagers to buy mules for the Army (#4,5), logging (#1), climate change due to logging (#1,2), hardship caused by visit of foreign Ambassadors (#1), corruption on airline flights (#4), SSA abuses (#1), USDA (#1), "People's Desires" (#1). Forced Labour: Farming (#1-4), roads (#4,5), pagoda (#1), Army camps (#2,3, 5), porters (#1,4,5), in town (#1), preparing for visit of foreign Ambassadors (#1)..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #96-26)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg96/khrg9627.html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: SLORC in Southern Shan State
Date of publication: 20 August 1994
Description/subject: "In December 1993, SLORC launched its first-ever major offensive against the territory of the Mong Ta Army (MTA) led by Khun Sa, who is generally referred to internationally as a 'drug warlord'. The SLORC has put a lot of effort into publicizing this internationally as a military offensive to eradicate narcotics, and has even asked the U.S. for military assistance. However, most Burma watchers agree that this is not an anti-narcotics offensive, pointing to the fact that the SLORC never attacked Khun Sa until he started making very strong Shan Nationalist noises: demanding that all Burmese troops leave Shan State, proclaiming its independence and having himself declared President. Furthermore, satellite photos and other evidence show that most of the opium is not being produced in Khun Sa's territory at all, but in territory controlled by SLORC and its ceasefire partners like the Wa and Kokang. It seems more likely that the main purpose of this offensive is to strengthen SLORC’s control in Shan State, using ‘drug eradication' as an excuse for a brutal campaign. Regardless of Khun Sa’s real or perceived faults and the question of his sincerity, many people in Shan State are rallying to his Shan Nationalist line, encouraged by the fact that his is the only army in Shan State currently fighting the common enemy, SLORC..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg94/94_08_20.html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: BURMA: EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTION, TORTURE AND POLITICAL IMPRISONMENT OF MEMBERS OF THE SHAN AND OTHER ETHNIC MINORITIES
Date of publication: August 1988
Description/subject: "This document presents new evidence of a consistent pattern of unlawful killing and ill-treatment of members of Burma's ethnic minorities by security forces, including the army and police. It is a follow-up to a document published in May 1988, Burma: Extrajudicial Execution and Torture of Members of Ethnic Minorities. That document presented evidence of unlawful killings and torture of members of the Karen, Kachin and Mon ethnic minorities. This document provides information about allegations of similarly severe violations of the human rights of members of the Shan ethnic minority. It also describes the cases of two or three Shan who may be prisoners of conscience. There is information suggesting they may be imprisoned because of their ethnic background and their non-violent political opinions or peaceful exercise of the right to freedom of expression..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/10/88)
Format/size: pdf (158K)
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


Title: The Victim Zone
Date of publication: June 1988
Description/subject: Recent Reports of Burmese Military Human Rights Abuse in the Shan State.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Project Maje
Format/size: PDF (1.49MB) 63 pages
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Adrift in Troubled Times -- Recent Accounts of Human Rights Abuse in the Shan State (Burma)
Date of publication: June 1987
Description/subject: Introduction, interviews, maps and photos, including of crops sprayed with the defoliant 2,4-D (an Agent Orange ingredient) supplied to the Burmese military by the US Government.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Project Maje
Format/size: pdf (1.30MB)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003