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Conflict in particular States

  • Armed conflict in Kachin State

    • Armed conflict in Kachin State - general articles

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Myanmar’s military: Money and guns
      Date of publication: 06 December 2013
      Description/subject: "Since the military junta’s announcement in 2010 that they were willing to begin a transition to democracy and implement democratic reforms arms imports from Chinese, Russian and other outside supplies have risen dramatically. Arms imports into the country in 2011 surged to an all time high of nearly $700 million, more than double the highest annual figure since 1989 and remained almost as high in 2012. Fatalities in Burma’s armed conflicts have also risen during these years as a more than decade-long downward trend was reversed following the massive rearming of the military and its subsequent offensives against the Kachin Independence Army, which began in June of 2011..."
      Author/creator: Jacob Sommer
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 14 July 2014


      Title: The Myanmar-Kachin truce
      Date of publication: 31 May 2013
      Description/subject: "The Kachin Independence Army and the Myanmar government have agreed a new truce, bringing a tentative halt to the war that re-ignited on 9 June 2011. That war ran for far too long, with too many killed and too much damage done. Regular New Mandala readers will be aware of my deep interest in this topic, and the many words I have spilled on it over the years. For now, it’s too early to guess whether this truce will hold but the signals from the negotiations in Myitkyina are overwhelmingly positive. We can all appreciate that the challenges ahead are immense, and that building the foundations for a new political arrangement in northern Myanmar will not be easy. But the effort by all sides to find common ground and bring a halt to hostilities is exactly what’s needed to create momentum for lasting peace. It won’t happen by accident..."
      Author/creator: Nicholas Farrelly
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 July 2014


      Individual Documents

      Title: China, the United States and the Kachin Conflict
      Date of publication: January 2014
      Description/subject: KEY FINDINGS: 1. The prolonged Kachin conflict is a major obstacle to Myanmar’s national reconciliation and a challenging test for the democratization process. 2. The KIO and the Myanmar government differ on the priority between the cease-fire and the political dialogue. Without addressing this difference, the nationwide peace accord proposed by the government will most likely lack the KIO’s participation. 3. The disagreements on terms have hindered a formal cease-fire. In addition, the existing economic interest groups profiting from the armed conflict have further undermined the prospect for progress. 4. China intervened in the Kachin negotiations in 2013 to protect its national interests. A crucial motivation was a concern about the “internationalization” of the Kachin issue and the potential US role along the Chinese border. 5. Despite domestic and external pressure, the US has refrained from playing a formal and active role in the Kachin conflict. The need to balance the impact on domestic politics in Myanmar and US-China relations are factors in US policy. 6.A The US has attempted to discuss various options of cooperation with China on the Kachin issue. So far, such attempts have not been accepted by China.
      Author/creator: Yun Sun
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Stimson Center (Great Powers and the Changing Myanmar - Issue Brief No. 2)
      Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.stimson.org/images/uploads/research-pdfs/Myanmar_Issue_Brief_No_2_Jan_2014_WEB.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 23 January 2014


      Title: Briefing: Fresh hopes for peace in Myanmar's Kachin State
      Date of publication: 03 June 2013
      Description/subject: "KACHIN STATE, 3 June 2013 (IRIN) - The UN and others have welcomed recent peace talks aimed at reaching a cease-fire in Myanmar's conflict-affected Kachin State, but building trust will take time, say experts. On 31 May, the Burmese government and the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO), which has been fighting for greater autonomy for decades, agreed to further dialogue and talks on the resettlement of tens of thousands of internally displaced persons (IDPs). According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), there are more than 85,000 IDPs in Kachin and Shan states (both in the north), including over 50,000 (58.5 percent) in areas controlled by the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), the military wing of the KIO. Many others are staying with host families. Over the past two years, hundreds have been killed in the conflict and there has been extensive damage to livelihoods and infrastructure. According to the recently released inter-agency Kachin Response Plan, an upsurge in fighting in late 2012 triggered the displacement of several thousand more people. Since the resumption of peace talks in February, fewer have been displaced, but there have not yet been significant numbers of IDPs returning to their homes due to ongoing tensions, lack of livelihood opportunities, and landmines..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IRIN
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 June 2013


      Title: PARTIES TO THE CONFLICT - KIO-Supported Armed Groups in the Kachin Conflict
      Date of publication: June 2013
      Description/subject: CONCLUSION: "The ethnic situation in the country in relation to the peace process has improved, yet major obstacles still remain. Many armed ethnic actors have called for a ‘Panglong style dialogue’ which the Government has suggested will happen shortly. This all-inclusive dialogue offers armed groups a number of opportunities to finally realise their aspirations. Nevertheless, a number of other armed ethnic actors will need to rethink their positions. This political dialogue will exclude some actors, either because they have no political aims or are much smaller and considered inconsequential. While the Ta-ang have made clear there aims, the future of the Arakan Army and the ABSDF-North remains firmly in the hands of the Kachin."
      Author/creator: Editor: Lian H. Sakhong; Author: Paul Keenan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Centre for Ethnic Studies (Briefing Paper No. 14)
      Format/size: pdf (224K)
      Date of entry/update: 08 July 2013


      Title: Ongoing struggles
      Date of publication: May 2013
      Description/subject: Key Points: • Myanmar's central democratic reforms have received broad backing, enabling it to boost its legitimacy and consolidate its hold on power. • Although tentative ceasefires have been concluded with most of the ethno-nationalist armed groups, there is no clear timeline or plan to address longstanding demands for self-rule and the protection of cultural identities. • Meanwhile, the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO), the principal protagonist in the struggle for ethnic rights, has been the focus of sustained military offensives. As Myanmar's democratic reform process rumbles on, military offensives continue despite ceasefires between most of the ethno-nationalist rebel armies and the government. Curtis W Lambrecht examines the road to peace in the country.
      Author/creator: Curtis W Lambrecht
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Jane's Terrorism and Security Monitor, May 2013,
      Format/size: pdf (95K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2013


      Title: The Kachin Crisis: Peace Must Prevail
      Date of publication: March 2013
      Description/subject: Conclusions and Recommendations: * The government should halt all offensive operations against the KIO and other armed ethnic forces. Armed conflict will worsen, not resolve, Burma’s ethnic and political crises. The violence contradicts promises to achieve reform through dialogue, and undermines democratic and economic progress for the whole country. * Ethnic peace must be prioritised as an integral part of political, economic and constitutional reform. Dialogue must be established to include ethnic groups that are outside the national political system. * Restrictions on humanitarian aid to the victims of conflict must be lifted. With hundreds of thousands of displaced persons in the ethnic borderlands, a long-term effort is required to ensure that aid truly reaches to the most vulnerable and needy peoples as part of any process of peace-building. * Economic and development programmes must benefit local peoples. Land-grabbing and unsustainable business practices must halt, and decisions on the use of natural resources and regional development must have the participation of local communities and representatives. * The international community must play an informed and neutral role in supporting ethnic peace and political reform. Human rights’ progress remains essential, all ethnic groups should be included, and economic investments made only with the consultation of local peoples.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI), Burma Centre Netherlands
      Format/size: pdf (430K)
      Date of entry/update: 12 March 2013


      Title: URGENT APPEAL From Inside Kachin State (25 January 2013)
      Date of publication: 25 January 2013
      Description/subject: "The following urgent appeal and harrowing account of the situation in northern Burma comes from Kachin State, where long-time Burma researcher and author Guy Horton reports that not only is there no sign of the promised ceasefire between the Burmese Army and the Kachin Independence Army, but the fighting is intensifying and the humanitarian situation is worsening..."
      Author/creator: Guy Horton
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Best Friend International
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 January 2013


      Title: A serious threat to peace in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 10 January 2013
      Description/subject: "The fighting in Kachin areas – the Kachin State itself and Kachin-majority parts of northern Shan State – has been one of the most serious threats to peace during Myanmar’s transition since it erupted in June 2011, ending a seventeen-year-long ceasefire. It remains the last of Myanmar’s decades-long ethnic conflicts not currently to have a ceasefire. Since Crisis Group first raised concerns in November 2011 about the grave consequences the breakdown of the ceasefire could pose for the country’s New Peace Initiative, other Storm Clouds have gathered on the country’s horizon, including virulent inter-communal violence in Rakhine State. These are serious challenges that must be overcome if Myanmar is to keep its broadly positive transition on track. But as Myanmar can see from the Indonesian experience, transitions are complicated, long, and often messy processes. They do not always end up as those who advocated or started them intended. There are many deviations and frequently bumps in the road..."
      Author/creator: Jim Della-Giacoma
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Crisis Group
      Format/size: html (34K)
      Date of entry/update: 08 April 2013


      Title: Myanmar airstrikes reopen ethnic wounds
      Date of publication: 10 January 2013
      Description/subject: "The past few weeks have seen some of the heaviest fighting in Myanmar's decades-long civil war with government forces launching determined attacks against the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), an ethnic force in the far north of the country. And for the first time ever, the government has used helicopter gunships and attack aircraft against the country's ethnic rebels. Most of the fighting is taking place around the KIA's headquarters at the border town of Laiza near China, and the government seems determined to crush the Kachin resistance and gain control over the area now administered by the rebels. The military campaign also sends signals to about a dozen other ethnic armies which have entered into ceasefire agreements with the government. In a statement issued on January 1, the United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC), an umbrella organisation of 12 such ethnic groups based mainly on the Thai border in the south, said they felt threatened by the offensive as well - and called for unity among Myanmar's multitude of traditionally factious ethnic militias. "If we are not able to act collectively now we will be destroyed individually," said a participant at the meeting that adopted the statement..."
      Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: AL Jazeera
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 15 January 2013


      Title: More war than peace in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 18 December 2012
      Description/subject: "LAIZA - Helicopter gunships hover in the sky above a battlefield. The constant sound of explosions and gunfire pierce the night for an estimated 100,000 refugees and internally displaced people. Military hospitals are full of wounded government soldiers, while bridges, communication lines and other crucial infrastructure lie in war-torn ruins. The images and sounds on the ground in Myanmar's northern Kachin State shatter the impression of peace, reconciliation and a steady march towards democracy that President Thein Sein's government has bid to convey to the outside world. In reality, the situation in this remote corner of one of Asia's historically most troubled nations is depressingly normal..."
      Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 December 2012


      Title: Four questions about the Kachin war
      Date of publication: 15 November 2012
      Description/subject: "...As we all know, the new war in the Kachin and Shan State’s commenced on 9 June 2011, after a ceasefire had held for 18 years. Over those ceasefire years the Kachin Independence Army/Organisation and the Burmese Army were prepared to do business. They developed mechanisms for managing long-term grievances and the political, economic and cultural interests of the peoples of northern Burma. The fact that the ceasefire never led to a final peace agreement was a major frustration for all parties. Pragmatically, though, they considered the ceasefire better than the alternatives. Until, that is, the war re-ignited. This new war did not spark in isolation, and my goal is to introduce four questions to help us contextualise the new Kachin conflict. We should also bear in mind that since President Thein Sein took power there have been many other parts of the country where conflict has erupted. This map illustrates the 2011 hotspots. When the year is finished the map for 2012 will look almost as stark, especially once sectarian staff in Rakhine State is included. With the transition to more participatory politics underway, Burma’s tragic history of inter-ethnic strife is clearly still not over. For today my four questions will, I hope, set our minds to the political context of renewed fighting in Kachin areas. The questions are: *What is this new war? *Why is the government fighting the Kachin? *What would a new deal look like? *Is democracy a precondition for peace? ..."
      Author/creator: Nicholas Farrelly
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 November 2012


      Title: Kachin KIA and Myanmar Army 2012-No.008
      Date of publication: July 2012
      Description/subject: News items about the Kachin situation, ceasefires, refugees and human rights
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Polaris Burmese Library Collections
      Format/size: pdf (1.94MB)
      Date of entry/update: 07 October 2012


      Title: THE WAR IN KACHIN STATE: A YEAR OF MORE DISPLACEMENT AND HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES
      Date of publication: 08 June 2012
      Description/subject: • In the past year, the Tatmadaw has deployed nearly 25% of its battalions to Kachin State, escalating its war with the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and bringing further suffering to civilian populations in Kachin State and Northern Shan State. • Tatmadaw soldiers have constantly targeted civilians in Kachin State and Northern Shan States as part of their military operations against the KIA. Human rights abuses have included extrajudicial killings, rape of women, arbitrary arrests, torture, forced displacement, the use of human shields, forced labor, and the confiscation and destruction of property. All of these systematic abuses would be considered war crimes and/or crimes against humanity under international law. • The ongoing conflict has displaced about 75,000 people, including at least 10,000 refugees who crossed the border into China. Despite the severity of the situation, the regime has frustrated relief efforts, severely restricting humanitarian access to local and international organizations. • The KIA’s political leadership, the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO), has made repeated attempts to negotiate a lasting peace in Kachin State. However, the regime has rejected the KIO’s request to discuss long-term political solutions prior to a ceasefire agreement. BACKGROUND: 2008 constitution, 2010 elections, BGF, energy projects, and human rights abuses
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
      Format/size: pdf (139K)
      Date of entry/update: 09 June 2012


    • Armed conflict in Kachin State - hostilities

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Kachin Battle Report
      Description/subject: Articles on offensives, peace talks etc. from February 2011
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Mizzima
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 10 March 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: FBR Report: Attacks Continue as the Burma Army Maneuvers in Kachin State
      Date of publication: 13 April 2013
      Description/subject: Below is a list of Burma Army activities in Kachin State and Northern Shan State in April, including attacks, troop movements and resupply operations...For other reports on the conflict in Kachin and other states, go to http://www.freeburmarangers.org
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers
      Format/size: pdf (128K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.freeburmarangers.org
      Date of entry/update: 18 April 2013


      Title: Air War in Kachinland: Burma Military Air Attacks on Kachin Territory, December 4, 2012 - January 18, 2013
      Date of publication: 18 January 2013
      Description/subject: "This Project Maje report provides a summary of current (as of January 18, 2013) information on the use of aircraft in the North War. For background on the origins of the conflict, and maps, see Project Maje's reports The North War: A Kachin Conflict Compilation Report (August 2011) and The North War, Part II: The Kachin Conflict Continues (December 2011.) This update report is intended as convenient background information for journalists, military analysts, and others interested in the situation in Kachinland..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Project Maje
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 March 2013


      Title: Myanmar airstrikes reopen ethnic wounds
      Date of publication: 10 January 2013
      Description/subject: "The past few weeks have seen some of the heaviest fighting in Myanmar's decades-long civil war with government forces launching determined attacks against the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), an ethnic force in the far north of the country. And for the first time ever, the government has used helicopter gunships and attack aircraft against the country's ethnic rebels. Most of the fighting is taking place around the KIA's headquarters at the border town of Laiza near China, and the government seems determined to crush the Kachin resistance and gain control over the area now administered by the rebels. The military campaign also sends signals to about a dozen other ethnic armies which have entered into ceasefire agreements with the government. In a statement issued on January 1, the United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC), an umbrella organisation of 12 such ethnic groups based mainly on the Thai border in the south, said they felt threatened by the offensive as well - and called for unity among Myanmar's multitude of traditionally factious ethnic militias. "If we are not able to act collectively now we will be destroyed individually," said a participant at the meeting that adopted the statement..."
      Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: AL Jazeera
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 15 January 2013


      Title: More war than peace in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 18 December 2012
      Description/subject: "LAIZA - Helicopter gunships hover in the sky above a battlefield. The constant sound of explosions and gunfire pierce the night for an estimated 100,000 refugees and internally displaced people. Military hospitals are full of wounded government soldiers, while bridges, communication lines and other crucial infrastructure lie in war-torn ruins. The images and sounds on the ground in Myanmar's northern Kachin State shatter the impression of peace, reconciliation and a steady march towards democracy that President Thein Sein's government has bid to convey to the outside world. In reality, the situation in this remote corner of one of Asia's historically most troubled nations is depressingly normal..."
      Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 December 2012


      Title: Blood and Gold: Inside Burma's Hidden War (video)
      Date of publication: 04 October 2012
      Description/subject: Deep in the wilds of northern Myanmar's Kachin state a brutal civil war has intensified over the past year between government forces and the Kachin Independence Army (KIA). People & Power sent filmmakers Jason Motlagh and Steve Sapienza to Myanmar (formerly Burma) to investigate why the conflict rages on, despite the political reforms in the south that have impressed Western governments and investors now lining up to stake their claim in the resource-rich Asian nation.
      Author/creator: Jason Motlagh and Steve Sapienza
      Language: English, Burmese, Kachin, (English subtitles
      Source/publisher: People & Power (Al Jazeera)
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (25 minutes), html
      Date of entry/update: 08 October 2012


      Title: THE WAR IN KACHIN STATE: A YEAR OF MORE DISPLACEMENT AND HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES
      Date of publication: 08 June 2012
      Description/subject: • In the past year, the Tatmadaw has deployed nearly 25% of its battalions to Kachin State, escalating its war with the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and bringing further suffering to civilian populations in Kachin State and Northern Shan State. • Tatmadaw soldiers have constantly targeted civilians in Kachin State and Northern Shan States as part of their military operations against the KIA. Human rights abuses have included extrajudicial killings, rape of women, arbitrary arrests, torture, forced displacement, the use of human shields, forced labor, and the confiscation and destruction of property. All of these systematic abuses would be considered war crimes and/or crimes against humanity under international law. • The ongoing conflict has displaced about 75,000 people, including at least 10,000 refugees who crossed the border into China. Despite the severity of the situation, the regime has frustrated relief efforts, severely restricting humanitarian access to local and international organizations. • The KIA’s political leadership, the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO), has made repeated attempts to negotiate a lasting peace in Kachin State. However, the regime has rejected the KIO’s request to discuss long-term political solutions prior to a ceasefire agreement. BACKGROUND: 2008 constitution, 2010 elections, BGF, energy projects, and human rights abuses
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
      Format/size: pdf (139K)
      Date of entry/update: 09 June 2012


      Title: Fighting and Ongoing Displacement in Kachin State, Burma: Update
      Date of publication: 01 June 2012
      Description/subject: KEY DEVELOPMENTS: "While ceasefire negotiations are taking place in some ethnic areas, attacks continue in Kachin State, Northern Burma. The Burma Army is pressing its attacks in Kachin State with over 100 battalions deployed. There are over 50,000 Kachin people displaced, over 60 Kachin civilians killed and 100 Kachin soldiers killed. Burma Army casualties are unknown, but estimated at 1,000 wounded and killed. Along with the KIO, WPN, Partners and other organizations, the Kachin FBR teams are helping those in need"
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers (FBR)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2012


      Title: Nowhere to run: rebels trapped in Burma's escalating ethnic war Pinned against the Chinese border, the isolated Kachin people fear a bloody end to a long conflict
      Date of publication: 15 May 2012
      Description/subject: "Ethnic Kachin fighters are locked in battle against Burmese forces after a government offensive on the border town of Laiza – where the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO) is based – sparked fears that authorities are planning a final push to oust the rebels. Fighting has been escalating since mid-April, when several rounds of peace talks – forming part of the government's much-heralded moves toward reform – reached no tangible outcome. The leadership of the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) – Christians who have fought, on and off, for self-determination since 1961 – are now sandwiched between Burmese artillery and the Chinese border, which runs directly through the centre of Laiza..."
      Author/creator: Padraig Byrne
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Independent"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 May 2012


      Title: Burma Army Mortars Villages and Burns Homes in Kachin State; 50,000 people displaced
      Date of publication: 22 April 2012
      Description/subject: KEY DEVELOPMENTS: "Burma Army fighting continues in Kachin State since the original outbreak of violence on 9 June 2011, when Burma Army soldiers broke the ceasefire previously held with the Kachin Independence Army (KIA). As Burma Army attacks continue, the KIA attempts to defend the population and numerous clashes have occurred between Burma Army and KIA soldiers. Burma Army soldiers have also repeatedly attacked civilian villages, often occupying and looting the village afterwards and forcing villagers to flee. Free Burma Ranger teams have collected multiple reports of extrajudicial killing, imprisonment and torture. There are over 50,000 Internally Displaced People in camps on the border, with thousands more hiding in the jungle."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers (FBR)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2012


      Title: Untold Miseries - Wartime Abuses and Forced Displacement in Burma’s Kachin State
      Date of publication: 19 March 2012
      Description/subject: 'When Burmese President Thein Sein took office in March 2011, he said that over 60 years of armed conflict have put Burma’s ethnic populations through “the hell of untold miseries.” Just three months later, the Burmese armed forces resumed military operations against the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), leading to serious abuses and a humanitarian crisis affecting tens of thousands of ethnic Kachin civilians. “Untold Miseries”: Wartime Abuses and Forced Displacement in Kachin State is based on over 100 interviews in Burma’s Kachin State and China’s Yunnan province. It details how the Burmese army has killed and tortured civilians, raped women, planted antipersonnel landmines, and used forced labor on the front lines, including children as young as 14-years-old. Soldiers have attacked villages, razed homes, and pillaged properties. Burmese authorities have failed to authorize a serious relief effort in KIA-controlled areas, where most of the 75,000 displaced men, women, and children have sought refuge. The KIA has also been responsible for serious abuses, including using child soldiers and antipersonnel landmines. Human Rights Watch calls on the Burmese government to support an independent international mechanism to investigate violations of international human rights and humanitarian law by all parties to Burma’s ethnic armed conflicts. The government should also provide United Nations and humanitarian agencies unhindered access to all internally displaced populations, and make a long-term commitment with humanitarian agencies to authorize relief to populations in need.'
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
      Format/size: pdf (1.7MB - OBL version; 2.25MB - original))
      Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/burma0312ForUpload_1.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 March 2012


      Title: THE CONFLICT IN KACHIN STATE - TIME TO REVISE THE COSTS OF WAR? (English)
      Date of publication: February 2012
      Description/subject: "...Since 9 June 2011, Kachin State has seen open warfare between the Kachin Independence Army and the Tatmadaw (Burma Army). The Kachin Independence Organisation signed a ceasefire agreement with the regime in 1994 and since then had lived in relative peace up until 2008 and the creation of a new constitution. This constitution enshrines the power of the military and demands that all armed forces, including those under ceasefire agreements, relinquish control to the head of the Burma Army. This, combined with economic exploitation by China in Kachin territory, especially the construction of the Myitsone Hydropower Dam, left the Kachin Independence Organisation with very little alternative but to return to armed resistance to prevent further abuses of its people and their territory’s natural resources. Despite this however, the political situation since the beginning of hostilities has changed significantly. There is little doubt that one of the main reasons for the continuing offensive was the Burmese Government’s attempts to control all ethnic armed forces through its head of defence services. That said, however, the principle reason for both the KIO’s reaction to increased Burma Army deployment, the breakdown of the ceasefire, and the resumption of open warfare in Kachin areas, was also the previous Regime’s attempts to secure China’s lucrative investment projects at the expense of ethnic rights and land..."
      Author/creator: Paul Keenan (author); Lian K. Sakhong (editor)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Centre for Ethnic Studies (Briefing Paper No. 2)
      Format/size: pdf (947K)
      Date of entry/update: 07 February 2012


      Title: Burma Army continues attacks, burns houses and kills one man and two women; over 40,000 Kachin people now displaced by attacks and more preparing to run
      Date of publication: 22 January 2012
      Description/subject: KEY DEVELOPMENTS: * The Burma Army is currently attacking within six miles of Mai Ja Yang, a city in Kachin State that is a refuge for over 1,000 displaced people * The Burma Army is firing an average of 100 mortar rounds per day into this area and is receiving reinforcements. * Over 40,000 Kachin people now displaced by attacks and more are preparing to run
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers (FBR)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2012


      Title: THE NORTH WAR, PART II: KACHIN CONFLICT CONTINUES
      Date of publication: 20 December 2011
      Description/subject: "Project Maje's previous report, 'The North War: A Kachin Conflict Compilation Report' (August 15, 2011) contained background information on the Kachin conflict and a compilation of articles about it from June-July 2011. This new report includes first hand observations from a November 2011 visit to the conflict area, two interviews and a compilation of news articles from August through early December 2011. Both reports are intended for journalists, aid workers and other researchers who may be interested in the in the conflict situation in northern Burma. "Project Maje hopes that the ongoing situation in northern Burma, including resource extraction and human rights issues in addition to the KIO conflict, will be covered in increasing depth and scope by journalists and other investigators in the future. For a detailed view of the human rights and IDP situations in the conflict area, Project Maje particularly recommends two recent NGO reports:..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Project Maje
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 19 December 2011


      Title: CRIMES IN NORTHERN BURMA: Results from a fact -finding mission to Kachin State
      Date of publication: 27 November 2011
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "On 9 June 2011, civil war broke out in northern Burma between the Burma Army and the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), ending a 17-year long ceasefire agreement. This report presents data collected from a Partners investigation in southern Kachin State, Burma in October 2011. The testimony of witnesses and on-site photographs reveal multiple acts perpetrated by Burma Army battalions 74 and 276 against ethnic Kachin civilians that potentially amount to war crimes and other extreme crimes. These acts include torture, extrajudicial killing, the specific targeting of civilians, human shielding, unlawful arrest, unlawful detention, forced labor, forced relocation, displacement, property theft and property destruction. Witnesses reported that Burma Army soldiers entered Nam Lim Pa village on 8 October 2011. Men were arrested and detained for forced labor. Women and children were detained in the Roman Catholic church compound against their will and without provocation or expressed reason. Violent injuries demonstrate signs of extreme physical abuse and strongly suggest the intentional infliction of severe pain or suffering while in custody. Civilian casualties included torture and execution. Eyewitness reports indicate no Kachin Independence Army presence during the time of the attacks. Villagers were forcibly relocated and displaced by armed soldiers. Houses, offices and churches were robbed and vandalized, all without justification. At least one home was robbed and burned to the ground while its owner was arrested and detained. The results from this fact-finding mission to Kachin State reveal evidence of crimes that potentially amount to war crimes, perpetrated by the Burma Army against ethnic Kachin civilians and their properties in October 2011. Based on the incidents documented in this report, the Burma Army is in contravention of its legal obligations under international humanitarian and human rights law. Considering the nature and scale of these acts in combination with documented abuses in the broader civil war in Kachin State, the actions of the Burma government and the Burma Army may also amount to other serious violations, including crimes against humanity. Those responsible must be brought to justice and held accountable for their actions. Partners makes the following key recommendations:..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Partners Relief & Development
      Format/size: pdf (2MB - OBL version; 4.52MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://partnersworld.org/usa/images/stories/crimes_in_northern_burma/crimes_in_northern_burma.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 28 November 2011


      Title: Kachin State- Burma Army Burns and Loots Homes in Wai Maw District
      Date of publication: 15 November 2011
      Description/subject: Fighting between the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and the Burma Army broke out on 9 June 2011, ending a 17-year cease-fire agreement between the two groups. As many as 20,000 people have been displaced by the fighting in Kachin State, according to local networks helping IDPs in Laiza. KIA sources have said that the number of standing Burma Army battalions before the conflict began was 93. Currently there are 113 battalions in Kachin State with more troops on the way, according to KIA sources. Divisions 33, 88, and 99 are currently operating in Kachin State.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers (FBR)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2012


      Title: Troops raze Kachin villages, locals flee
      Date of publication: 11 November 2011
      Description/subject: "Burmese troops burned down around 50 homes in a village in eastern Kachin state two days ago as they prepare for an offensive against the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), despite assertions from fleeing residents that no rebels inhabit the village. In response, the KIA has told locals living in areas close to the town of Waingmaw to leave, prompting some 3,000 people to join those who fled the razed Aungja village as they make for the border with China. A DVB reporter in Kachin state said that Burmese army battalions were closing in on the KIA’s Brigade 3 in Sanpai, which was being fiercely defended by the rebels..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2012


      Title: Burma's Covered up War: Atrocities Against the Kachin People
      Date of publication: 07 October 2011
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "At the same time as Thein Sein’s government is engaging in public relations maneuvers designed to make it appear that reform is taking place, its army is perpetrating atrocities against the Kachin people on a widespread and systematic basis. Seven months after the November 2010 elections and four months after the convening of parliament which, in the words of the ruling generals, “completed the country’s transition to a multiparty democracy,” the regime launched a new war in Kachin State and Northern Shan State. After a seventeen year ceasefire, the renewed conflict has brought rampant human rights abuses by the Burma Army including, rape, torture, the use of human minesweepers and the forced displacement of entire villages. Human rights abuses in Burma are prevalent because of the culture of impunity put in place at the highest levels of government. The Burmese regime continuously fails to investigate human rights abuses committed by its military and instead categorically denies the possibility that abuses are taking place. Attempts to seek justice for the crimes committed against the Kachin people have resulted in responses ranging from “we do not take responsibility for any landmine injuries” to “the higher authorities will not listen to your complaint”. These human rights violations have led villagers to flee approaching troops, creating tens of thousands of internally displaced persons. The Burmese regime has refused to allow aid groups working inside the country to provide relief to the majority of these displaced people and international groups have failed to provide sufficient cross-border aid, creating a growing humanitarian crisis. While the international community “waits and sees” whether the Burmese regime will implement genuine democratic reforms, the Kachin people are suffering. The time for waiting and seeing is over: now is the time for the world to act. We call on the international community to: Demand that the Burmese regime put an end to the atrocities against the Kachin people.• Provide urgently needed humanitarian assistance to internally displaced persons and refugees fleeing • the conflict to avert a humanitarian catastrophe. Support the establishment by the United Nations of a Commission of Inquiry to investigate crimes • against humanity and war crimes in Burma
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Kachin Women’s Association Thailand (KWAT)
      Format/size: pdf (862K)
      Date of entry/update: 24 November 2011


      Title: Situation Update: Conflict and Displacement in Burma’s Border Areas 31st August 2011
      Date of publication: 31 August 2011
      Description/subject: "Armed conflict in Burma’s Karen, Shan and Kachin States continues to fuel large‐scale displacement of civilians both internally and into neighbouring countries. Between 5,000 and 7,000 civilians remain in temporary, unofficial sites along the Thai‐Burma border in Thailand's Tak Province; approximately 20,000 remain internally‐displaced in Kachin State along the border with China; and thousands have been forced to flee their homes in Shan State due to ongoing armed conflict. Community‐based groups continue in their efforts to provide assistance to these populations, who have no access to international protection mechanisms, and little or no assistance from international humanitarian organisations. The shortage of funding to such community‐based aid networks is a serious cause for concern, particularly with a high likelihood of further fighting resulting in more displacement. There is an urgent need for protection mechanisms and humanitarian assistance for civilians fleeing conflict and human rights abuses in Burma..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Back Pack Health Worker Team
      Format/size: pdf (360K)
      Date of entry/update: 05 September 2011


      Title: New-generation war in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 03 August 2011
      Description/subject: PHOTO ESSAY..."...The mid-July clashes down from Hkaya Bum camp were the most intense of the nascent conflict. Since then there have been sporadic skirmishes, but apparently without a concerted strategy from the Myanmar military. The two sides have reportedly resumed contacts in recent days, without clear results. Meanwhile, those in Kachin State hold their breath, hoping for real peace and autonomy, not just another ceasefire..."
      Author/creator: Tony Cliff
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asia Times Online
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 December 2011


      Title: THE NORTH WAR: A KACHIN CONFLICT COMPILATION REPORT
      Date of publication: August 2011
      Description/subject: "This is a resource compilation report which is intended for journalists, aid workers and other researchers who may be interested in the in the June/July 2011 conflict between the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) and Burma's military regime in Kachin State, Burma. News stories and documents related to the conflict are categorized and reproduced or linked here, with a list of background information sources. They are in chronological order within each category. Project Maje hopes that the ongoing situation in northern Burma, including resource extraction and human rights issues in addition to the KIO conflict, will be covered in increasing depth and scope by journalists and other investigators in the future..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Project Maje
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 August 2011


      Title: ETHNIC AREAS UPDATE: BURMA HEADS TOWARD CIVIL WAR
      Date of publication: 29 June 2011
      Description/subject: • Despite the 7 November election’s illusory promise of an inclusive democratic system, the situation in ethnic nationality areas continues to deteriorate... • In addition to the ongoing offensives against ethnic non-ceasefire groups, the Tatmadaw increasingly targeted ceasefire groups who rejected the regime’s Border Guard Force (BGF) scheme... • In Shan and Kachin States, the Tatmadaw broke ceasefire agreements signed in 1989 and 1994 respectively... • Ongoing fighting between the Tatmadaw and ethnic ceasefire and non-ceasefire groups displaced about 13,000 civilians in Kachin State, at least 700 in Northern Shan State, and forced over 1,800 to flee from Karen State into Thailand... • Civilians bore the brunt of the Tatmadaw’s military operations, which resulted in the death of 15 civilians in Northern Shan State and five in Karen State... Tatmadaw troops gang-raped at least 18 women and girls in Southern Kachin State... • Desertion continues to hit Tatmadaw battalions, including BGF units, engaged in military operations in ethnic areas... • Reports on the alleged use of chemical weapons by Tatmadaw troops surfaced during offensives against Shan State Army-North forces... • In February, in response to the Tatmadaw’s ongoing attacks in ethnic areas, 12 ethnic armed opposition groups, ceasefire groups, and political organizations agreed to form a new coalition - the Union Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC)... • The situation for residents living in conflict zones of ethnic States remains grim as the regime re-launched its ‘four cuts’ policy which targets civilians... • The situation is likely to continue due to Burma’s constitution and the recently enacted laws, including the national conscription law.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
      Format/size: pdf (116K)
      Date of entry/update: 30 June 2011


      Title: Myanmar tilts towards civil war
      Date of publication: 29 June 2011
      Description/subject: "Myanmar moved closer to civil war in recent weeks after fighting broke out in Kachin State, a former ceasefire area in the remote northern region. Myanmar's newly elected government now faces ethnic insurgencies on three separate fronts, threatening internal and border security. There is also the potential for more insurgent groups to take up arms and push their claims against the government. The escalating conflict is not going all the military's way and risks further stunting Myanmar's development and international confidence in its supposed democratic transition..."
      Author/creator: Brian McCartan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asia Times Online
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 July 2011


      Title: Disquiet on the Northern Front
      Date of publication: April 2010
      Description/subject: The uneasy peace in Kachin State is under constant pressure, as the Burmese junta's border guard force scheme meets continued resistance
      Author/creator: Wai Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 4
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 April 2010


    • Armed conflict in Kachin State - ceasefires and ceasefire talks

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Kachin Battle Report
      Description/subject: Articles on offensives, peace talks etc. from February 2011
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Mizzima
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 10 March 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: A Tentative Peace in Myanmar’s Kachin Conflict
      Date of publication: 12 June 2013
      Description/subject: "On 30 May 2013, the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO) signed a tentative peace agreement with the Myanmar government – the last of the eleven major ethnic armed groups to do so since 2011. This represents a major opportunity to secure lasting peace in Kachin State, and in the co untry as a whole. Yet, there will be significant challenges in doing so. Key issues still need to be discussed and agreed, including the repositioning of troops from both sides to reduce the chance of clashes, a monitoring mechanism, and a meaningful political dialogue. Major steps need to be taken to develop an equitable peace economy, and the exploitation of Kachin’s significant natural resources, if not appropriately re gulated, could compound inequalities and trigger renewed conflict. Much remains to be done to avoid a repeat of the failures of the previous ceasefire process..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG) Asia Briefing N°140
      Format/size: pdf (299K-OBL version; 618K-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/south-east-asia/burma-myanmar/b140-a-tentative-peace-...
      Date of entry/update: 12 June 2013


      Title: Briefing: Fresh hopes for peace in Myanmar's Kachin State
      Date of publication: 03 June 2013
      Description/subject: "KACHIN STATE, 3 June 2013 (IRIN) - The UN and others have welcomed recent peace talks aimed at reaching a cease-fire in Myanmar's conflict-affected Kachin State, but building trust will take time, say experts. On 31 May, the Burmese government and the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO), which has been fighting for greater autonomy for decades, agreed to further dialogue and talks on the resettlement of tens of thousands of internally displaced persons (IDPs). According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), there are more than 85,000 IDPs in Kachin and Shan states (both in the north), including over 50,000 (58.5 percent) in areas controlled by the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), the military wing of the KIO. Many others are staying with host families. Over the past two years, hundreds have been killed in the conflict and there has been extensive damage to livelihoods and infrastructure. According to the recently released inter-agency Kachin Response Plan, an upsurge in fighting in late 2012 triggered the displacement of several thousand more people. Since the resumption of peace talks in February, fewer have been displaced, but there have not yet been significant numbers of IDPs returning to their homes due to ongoing tensions, lack of livelihood opportunities, and landmines..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IRIN
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 June 2013


      Title: PARTIES TO THE CONFLICT - KIO-Supported Armed Groups in the Kachin Conflict
      Date of publication: June 2013
      Description/subject: CONCLUSION: "The ethnic situation in the country in relation to the peace process has improved, yet major obstacles still remain. Many armed ethnic actors have called for a ‘Panglong style dialogue’ which the Government has suggested will happen shortly. This all-inclusive dialogue offers armed groups a number of opportunities to finally realise their aspirations. Nevertheless, a number of other armed ethnic actors will need to rethink their positions. This political dialogue will exclude some actors, either because they have no political aims or are much smaller and considered inconsequential. While the Ta-ang have made clear there aims, the future of the Arakan Army and the ABSDF-North remains firmly in the hands of the Kachin."
      Author/creator: Editor: Lian H. Sakhong; Author: Paul Keenan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Centre for Ethnic Studies (Briefing Paper No. 14)
      Format/size: pdf (224K)
      Date of entry/update: 08 July 2013


      Title: KIO and Burma government agree to deescalate tensions
      Date of publication: 31 May 2013
      Description/subject: "Peace talks held in the Kachin state capital Myitkyina on Thursday ended with both the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) and the government delegation signing a joint agreement to lessen tensions. Under the seven point agreement both parties agreed to open monitoring offices and begin assistance projects geared towards helping the more than 100,000 people displaced by the fighting. While the agreement fell short of a full ceasefire, the agreement does aim to “prevent further clashes while efforts are underway to reduce fighting”, according to fish farming businessman turned peace broker Hla Maung Shwe..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Kachin News
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 June 2013


      Title: Myanmar 'reaches truce' with Kachin rebels
      Date of publication: 30 May 2013
      Description/subject: Government and rebel leaders agree preliminary ceasefire to end two years of fighting...Min Zaw Oo, the director of the Myanmar Peace Centre, told the AFP news agency that Kachin and government representatives had signed a seven-point plan, including an agreement to halt hostilities. "The agreement is to stop fighting at this point and afterwards there are going to be detailed discussions about the repositioning of troops," he said on Thursday. The Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and President Thein Sein's government held three days of talks in Myitkyina, the capital of Kachin. Previous rounds of negotiations had been held across the border in China. They also agreed to hold political dialogue, a key demand of the Kachin, who have long argued that negotiations should address their demands for more political rights as well as greater autonomy. The two sides also agreed to hold discussions on resettling people displaced by the fighting and create a joint monitoring team..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 June 2013


      Title: Ongoing struggles
      Date of publication: May 2013
      Description/subject: Key Points: • Myanmar's central democratic reforms have received broad backing, enabling it to boost its legitimacy and consolidate its hold on power. • Although tentative ceasefires have been concluded with most of the ethno-nationalist armed groups, there is no clear timeline or plan to address longstanding demands for self-rule and the protection of cultural identities. • Meanwhile, the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO), the principal protagonist in the struggle for ethnic rights, has been the focus of sustained military offensives. As Myanmar's democratic reform process rumbles on, military offensives continue despite ceasefires between most of the ethno-nationalist rebel armies and the government. Curtis W Lambrecht examines the road to peace in the country.
      Author/creator: Curtis W Lambrecht
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Jane's Terrorism and Security Monitor, May 2013,
      Format/size: pdf (95K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 May 2013


      Title: War trumps peace in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 19 March 2013
      Description/subject: "Things are seldom as they seem in Myanmar, a country still little understood by the outside world. On a visit to Europe in early March, Myanmar President Thein Sein - an ex-general turned civilian politician - claimed that ''There's no more fighting in the country, we have been able to end this kind of armed conflict'' between government forces and various ethnic resistance armies. Back at home, the Myanmar army continues its fierce offensive against the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) in the country's far northern region. As KIA representatives and government officials met for yet another round of peace talks in the Chinese border town of Ruili on March 11, more than a hundred trucks carrying reinforcements and heavy equipment were seen entering Kachin State from garrisons in central Myanmar. In Shan State, almost daily skirmishes are reported with the Shan State Army, which has a shaky ceasefire agreement with the authorities. In Karen State, more government troops are taking up new positions in the hills bordering Thailand. The Myanmar government's doublespeak has not dissuaded Western nongovernmental organizations and think tanks from launching various peacemaking initiatives at a time an entirely different foreign power has taken charge of the process: China..."
      Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 April 2013


      Title: Powers Seek Influence in Burma’s Conflict
      Date of publication: 18 March 2013
      Description/subject: "Burma’s President Thein Sein, while visiting Europe, announced that the government’s fighting against ethnic resistance forces has ended – even as the government moves more troops into the troubled areas. Meanwhile, the United States and China are scrambling for influence by brokering peace to end the ethnic conflicts. Dozens of think tanks and NGOs from the West are attracting donor funds and pouring into the country. “The outcome has been overlapping initiatives, rivalry among organizations – and, more often than not, a lack of understanding by inexperienced ‘peacemakers’ of the conflicts’ root causes,” explains journalist and author Bertil Lintner. China, unhappy with Burma’s embrace of the West, has been actively leading peace talks since January. Lintner points out that China’s Yunnan Province has more than 130,000 ethnic Kachin who sympathize with their fellow Burmese Kachin. Motivations may differ, but China and the US both want the conflicts to end. Burma’s leaders may find it difficult to pursue military solutions, continuing sending troops north, while playing China and the United States off each other..."
      Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Yale Global Online -Yale Center for the Study of Globalization
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 23 March 2013


      Title: ENGINEERING PEACE IN KACHIN STATE
      Date of publication: March 2013
      Description/subject: "On 4 February 2013, representatives from the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO) and the Burmese Government’s Union Peace-making Working Committee (UPWC) met in the Chinese Town of Ruili (Shweli). It was the first time the two sides had met since the escalation of the conflict in December 2012. A later meeting, held on 11 March, further solidified the two side’s attempts to find a compromise and end the conflict. It was also the first time that the United Nationalities Federal Council was officially engaged in the peace process on behalf of one of its members. Initial indications suggest that both sides are hopeful that a compromise can be met and an end to the conflict may soon ensue..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Centre for Ethnic Studies (Briefing Paper No. 13, March 2013)
      Format/size: pdf (94K-OBL version; 153K-original),
      Alternate URLs: http://burmaethnicstudies.net/pdf/BCES-BP-13.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 08 April 2013


      Title: China's Intervention in the Myanmar-Kachin Peace Talks
      Date of publication: 20 February 2013
      Description/subject: "Peace talks between Myanmar's government and the rebel Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) in Ruili, China, on February 4, finally rendered a glimpse of hope after 17 months of bloody conflict. Although the two sides still need more time and further dialogue to reach a peace agreement, major breakthroughs were achieved on key issues such as strengthening communications, easing tensions and holding further talks before the end of February. Peace talks are not unusual for the KIO and the Myanmar government. Since the most recent outbreak of the conflict in 2011, the two sides have engaged in multiple rounds of informal talks, including at least three rounds in Ruili. However, these latest talks set a new precedent because of the central role that China played in the process and signify a major intervention by Beijing that is unique. China was instrumental in arranging the latest round of dialogue between the two parties. Due to the lack of trust between the KIO and the Myanmar government, both preferred a third party location rather than Laiza--headquarters of the Kachin Independence Army (KIA)--or Naypyidaw. During the talks, China not only provided the venue, but also explicitly guaranteed the security of all participants..."
      Author/creator: Yun Sun
      Source/publisher: Brookings
      Format/size: English
      Date of entry/update: 09 April 2013


      Title: KACHIN STATE KIA AND MYANMAR ARMY NO.015
      Date of publication: August 2012
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Polaris Burmese Library Collections
      Format/size: pdf (98K)
      Date of entry/update: 07 October 2012


      Title: Joint Statement on current political situation and peace processes by community based organizations from Shan State, Burma June 12, 2012
      Date of publication: 12 June 2012
      Description/subject: "On June 4 and 5, 2012, about 80 people from various community-based organizations, including women’s, youth, environment, community development, media, health, education, literature and culture groups, migrant workers groups, as well as monks and farmers from Shan State held a forum to discuss the current political situation in Shan State, especially the ongoing peace negotiation process. Key concerns raised by participants about the current situation are as follows: 1. Communities remain in daily fear of the expanding Burma Army, which now numbers over 180 battalions in Shan State, a quarter of their total troop force. The twelfth Burma Army Regional Command has been set up in Shan State since the 2010 election. Despite recent ceasefire agreements, armed clashes continue, and the Burma Army continues to target civilians for abuse with impunity. 2. The 2010 elections, and introduction of “democracy,” have not improved the lives of the people of Shan State, as the 2008 pro-military constitution puts the Burma Army outside the law, and elected representatives have no power to curb the army’s abuses, or to protect the rights of local communities..."
      Language: English, Shan, Burmese, Thai
      Source/publisher: 16 Shan community-based groups
      Format/size: pdf (English-51K; Burmese-61K; Shan-59K; Thai-89K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Shan%20CS%20joint%20statement%20on%20current%20political%20situa...
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Shan%20CS%20joint%20statement%20on%20current%20political%20state...
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Shan%20CS%20joint%20statement%20on%20current%20political%20situa...
      http://www.shanhumanrights.org/
      http://www.shanwomen.org/
      http://www.shansapawa.org/
      Date of entry/update: 12 June 2012


      Title: Why ceasefires fail in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 18 May 2012
      Description/subject: "In northern Myanmar, government troops continue to push into the heartland of the ethnic Kachin armed opposition. Next month, the renewed conflict will mark its first birthday, and while protracted fighting has eased in other areas of the ethnically diverse country, the battle for Kachin State rages on. The limited gains made by government negotiators with at least six ethnic rebel groups over the past year make the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) something of an anomaly. Lower House member of parliament Aung Thaung, whose hawkish persona was seen as ripe for the recalcitrant group, was recently retired from his post as peace broker. More than five high-level meetings with Kachin officials failed to net a result, and as additional battalions are deployed to the frontline, the prospect of a ceasefire anytime soon seems unlikely. The narrative runs that the Kachin distrust the government, which they fear could renege on an agreement and rekindle the conflict at any time. But their reluctance to sign a ceasefire runs deeper; indeed it is their experience with the recent era of "peace" that makes the three-point roadmap demanded by Aung Thaung - entailing a ceasefire and then economic development before cementing a political solution - so objectionable. Among Kachin civilians, the 1994 ceasefire deal was seen to facilitate the rapacious development of the state, which 33 years of insurgency had somewhat stifled. The inflow of investment came with alarming levels of environmental degradation, particularly around areas rich in minerals, timber and hydropower potential. While the abuses associated with fighting lessened, including forced portering and rape, the number of people displaced by the development drive may well have taken a heavier toll than the years of conflict..."
      Author/creator: Francis Wade
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 May 2012


      Title: Lessons from the Kachin “development” experience (Kachin, English, Burmese)
      Date of publication: May 2012
      Description/subject: "Burma’s government is using the promise of development as a key component in its current peace negotiations with armed ethnic organizations, proposing ceasefire first, then development, and finally a national political agreement. This process has been tried before in Kachin State with disastrous consequences. This report summarizes findings from seven years of research and demonstrates that the Kachin experience should serve as a warning to other ethnic groups attempting peace through a similar process. Without a political resolution first, there can be no just or sustainable development of Burma..."
      Language: English, Kachin, Burmese
      Source/publisher: Kachin Development Networking Group (KDNG)
      Format/size: pdf (1MB-English; 770K-Burmese; 873K-Kachin)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.kdng.org/publication/236-lessons-from-the-kachin-development-experience.html
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/lessons_from_the_kachin_development_experience(bu)-red.pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/lessons_from_the_kachin_development_experience(kachin)-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 May 2012


      Title: ETHNIC AREAS UPDATE: BURMA HEADS TOWARD CIVIL WAR
      Date of publication: 29 June 2011
      Description/subject: • Despite the 7 November election’s illusory promise of an inclusive democratic system, the situation in ethnic nationality areas continues to deteriorate... • In addition to the ongoing offensives against ethnic non-ceasefire groups, the Tatmadaw increasingly targeted ceasefire groups who rejected the regime’s Border Guard Force (BGF) scheme... • In Shan and Kachin States, the Tatmadaw broke ceasefire agreements signed in 1989 and 1994 respectively... • Ongoing fighting between the Tatmadaw and ethnic ceasefire and non-ceasefire groups displaced about 13,000 civilians in Kachin State, at least 700 in Northern Shan State, and forced over 1,800 to flee from Karen State into Thailand... • Civilians bore the brunt of the Tatmadaw’s military operations, which resulted in the death of 15 civilians in Northern Shan State and five in Karen State... Tatmadaw troops gang-raped at least 18 women and girls in Southern Kachin State... • Desertion continues to hit Tatmadaw battalions, including BGF units, engaged in military operations in ethnic areas... • Reports on the alleged use of chemical weapons by Tatmadaw troops surfaced during offensives against Shan State Army-North forces... • In February, in response to the Tatmadaw’s ongoing attacks in ethnic areas, 12 ethnic armed opposition groups, ceasefire groups, and political organizations agreed to form a new coalition - the Union Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC)... • The situation for residents living in conflict zones of ethnic States remains grim as the regime re-launched its ‘four cuts’ policy which targets civilians... • The situation is likely to continue due to Burma’s constitution and the recently enacted laws, including the national conscription law.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
      Format/size: pdf (116K)
      Date of entry/update: 30 June 2011


      Title: Myanmar tilts towards civil war
      Date of publication: 29 June 2011
      Description/subject: "Myanmar moved closer to civil war in recent weeks after fighting broke out in Kachin State, a former ceasefire area in the remote northern region. Myanmar's newly elected government now faces ethnic insurgencies on three separate fronts, threatening internal and border security. There is also the potential for more insurgent groups to take up arms and push their claims against the government. The escalating conflict is not going all the military's way and risks further stunting Myanmar's development and international confidence in its supposed democratic transition..."
      Author/creator: Brian McCartan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asia Times Online
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 July 2011


      Title: Conflict or Peace? Ethnic Unrest Intensifies in Burma
      Date of publication: June 2011
      Description/subject: "...The breakdown in the ceasefire of the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO) with the central government represents a major failure in national politics and threatens a serious humanitarian crisis if not immediately addressed. Over 11,000 refugees have been displaced and dozens of casualties reported during two weeks of fighting between government forces and the KIO. Thousands of troops have been mobilized, bridges destroyed and communications disrupted, bringing hardship to communities across northeast Burma/Myanmar.1 There is now a real potential for ethnic conflict to further spread. In recent months, ceasefires have broken down with Karen and Shan opposition forces, and the ceasefire of the New Mon State Party (NMSP) in south Burma is under threat. Tensions between the government and United Wa State Army (UWSA) also continue. It is essential that peace talks are initiated and grievances addressed so that ethnic conflict in Burma does not spiral into a new generation of militarised violence and human rights abuse..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI) & Burma Centrum Nederland (BCN). Burma Policy Briefing Nr 7, June 2011
      Format/size: pdf (407K)
      Date of entry/update: 25 June 2011


      Title: The war to come in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 04 November 2010
      Description/subject: "... From 1989 to 1995, about 15 groups signed ceasefire deals with the government. Some have held up, while others have dissolved back into armed hostility. For the Kachin, the agreement seemingly put an end to more than 30 years of war against government-backed forces... The Kachin have always been an exception in Myanmar's complex ethnic jigsaw. Their state, at 89,000 square kilometers, or more than twice the size of Switzerland, is one the country's largest administrative entities. With an estimated population of just 1.36 million, according to most recent official statistics, it's also among the least inhabited - the country's has a population of up to 55 million people. It only takes a quick look at the map to realize that more than half of Kachin is filled with hard-to-navigate mountains. The predominantly Christian Kachin ethnic population is estimated at 1.2 million, half of whom live in Kachin State and the other half elsewhere in the country. About 300,000 Kachin also live in neighboring China, where they are known as "Jinpo". For historical reasons, the Kachin have managed to develop a strong social and educational system, which has made them one of the country's most sophisticated ethnic groups. Today, 16 years after its signing, their ceasefire agreement with the government has never looked more fragile. Major General Gam Shawng, KIA's chief of staff, sitting in his Laiza home, says unequivocally that "these years have been totally negative. The main idea behind the ceasefire, to reach a political solution, was never achieved."..."
      Author/creator: Tony Cliff
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asia Times Online
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 04 December 2011


      Title: The Kachin's Dilemma: Become a Border Guard Force or return to warfare
      Date of publication: July 2010
      Description/subject: KIO Ceasefires: chronology, commentary and prognosis
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Euro-Burma Office
      Format/size: pdf (636K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/EBO_Analysis_Paper_No_2_2010_-_The_Kachins%27_Dilemma.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 09 February 2012


      Title: Disquiet on the Northern Front
      Date of publication: April 2010
      Description/subject: The uneasy peace in Kachin State is under constant pressure, as the Burmese junta's border guard force scheme meets continued resistance
      Author/creator: Wai Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 4
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 April 2010


      Title: A Fragile Peace
      Date of publication: February 2010
      Description/subject: The Kachin negotiate with the regime on the border guard force issue, while recruiting and training more soldiers... "At the traditional Manau dance this year—held in Myitkyina, the capital of Burma’s northern Kachin State—Kachin soldiers were not allowed to dance in military uniforms. Earlier, the Burmese regime sent three members of the notorious Press Scrutiny and Registration Division to censor stories in the Kachin language newspaper that published articles about the festival, held annually on Kachin State Day, Jan. 10. To show their unhappiness, the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), which signed a cease-fire agreement with the junta in 1994, sent only 200 soldiers to the festival. Last year, about 2,000 KIA personnel joined the festivities..."
      Author/creator: Yeni
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17702
      Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


      Title: A Rocky Road
      Date of publication: November 2005
      Description/subject: Kachin State's growing ethnic and environmental troubles... "In recent years, many political analysts in Burma and abroad have predicted growing strife in the country’s troubled ethnic regions, warning that ceasefire agreements with the ruling junta would not guarantee lasting peace. The current instability in Burma’s Kachin State bears these warnings out..."
      Author/creator: Khun Sam
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 11
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


    • Armed conflict in Kachin State - displacement and the humanitarian situation

      Individual Documents

      Title: IDPs in Kachin State - List of IDPs as of 31 August 2012
      Date of publication: 31 August 3023
      Description/subject: By District, Camp; population figures by by age and gender
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Social Affairs Ministry office, KSG
      Format/size: pdf (55K)
      Date of entry/update: 10 September 2012


      Title: Guns, Briefcases and Inequality: The Neglected War in Kachin State
      Date of publication: 21 September 2013
      Description/subject: "Burma Partnership is pleased to announce the launch of a new documentary film today to coincide with the International Day of Peace. The film, entitled “Guns, Briefcases and Inequality: The Neglected War in Kachin State,” demonstrates the need for the government of Burma to engage in meaningful political dialogue with all ethnic nationalities on equal terms, including discussing amendments to the 2008 Constitution. These are necessary in order to address the underlying causes of armed conflict: self-determination, the lack of ethnic rights, and inequality, and to move towards lasting peace throughout the country. The short documentary film also highlights how development projects and natural resource management are exacerbating armed conflict and human rights violations in ethnic areas, without adequate means to justice for the people. The film was written and directed by Daniel Quinlan. It features interviews with Kachin internally displaced persons (IDPs), civil society and community-based organizations, leaders of ethnic non-state armed groups and advocates for human rights and democracy in Burma"
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Partnership
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (15 minutes 29 seconds)
      Date of entry/update: 21 September 2013


      Title: Pushed to the Brink - Conflict and human trafficking on the Kachin-China border
      Date of publication: 05 June 2013
      Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The Burmese government’s renewed war against the Kachin has exponentially increased the risk of human trafficking along the China-Burma border. New documentation by KWAT indicates that large-scale displacement, lack of refugee protection and shortages of humanitarian aid have become significant new push factors fuelling the trafficking problem. Burma Army offensives against the Kachin Independence Army since June 2011 and widespread human rights abuses have driven over 100,000 villagers from their homes, mainly in eastern Kachin State. The majority of these refugees have fled to crowded IDP camps along the China border, which receive virtually no international aid. Desperate to earn an income, but with little or no legal option to pursue migrant work in China, many cross the border illegally. Their lack of legal status renders them extremely vulnerable to exploitation by traffickers, who use well-trodden routes to transport and sell people into bonded labor or forced marriage as far as eastern provinces of China. Although ongoing attacks and massive social upheaval since the start of the conflict have hampered systematic data collection, KWAT has documented 24 trafficking cases from Kachin border areas since June 2011, mostly involving young women and girls displaced by the war, who have been tricked, drugged, raped, and sold to Chinese men or families as brides or bonded laborers. The sale of women and children is a lucrative source of income for traffickers, who can make as much as 40,000 Yuan (approximately $6,500 USD) per person. While some manage to escape, and may be assisted by Chinese authorities in returning home, others disappear without a trace. Kachin authorities and community-based groups have played a key role in providing help with trafficking cases, and assisting women to be reunited with their families. No trafficked women or their families sought help from Burmese authorities. The Burmese government lists an anti-trafficking border liaison office at Loije on the Kachin-China border, but it is unknown to the community and thought to be non-functional. Far from seeking to provide protection to the internally displaced persons (IDPs) and mitigate trafficking risks, the Burmese government has continued to fuel the war, block humanitarian aid to IDPs in Kachin controlled areas, and even attack and destroy IDP camps, driving refugees into China. It has also closed some of the immigration offices on the Kachin-China border which could provide border passes for refugees to legally seek work in China. It is thus ironic that in 2012, Burma was recognized in the U.S. State Department’s Annual Trafficking in Persons Report as increasing its efforts in combating human trafficking, resulting in a rise from its bottomlevel ranking for the first time in the history of the report, and a corresponding increase in financial support to Burma’s quasi-civilian government. It is urgently needed to address the structural problems that have led to mass migration and trafficking in the past and also spurred the recent conflict. The Burmese military’s gross mismanagement of resource revenues from Kachin State over the past few decades, and ongoing land confiscation, forced relocation, and human rights abuses, have pushed countless Kachin civilians across the Chinese border in search of peace and the fulfillment of basic needs. These problems led to the breakdown of the 17-year ceasefire between the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and the military-dominated government in 2011. Refusing to engage in dialogue to address Kachin demands for equality and equitable development, the government launched attacks to seize total control over the wealth of resources in Kachin State. Resolving the current conflict via genuine political dialogue would not only be a step towards peace, but also a concrete move towards curbing human trafficking from Kachin areas. Launching a range of reforms dealing with the political and economic factors driving people beyond Burma’s borders is critical to addressing trafficking. Therefore, KWAT recommends the following:..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Kachin Women’s Association Thailand (KWAT)
      Format/size: pdf (1.1MB-OBL version; 1.37MB-original...Press release: Chinese, 90K; Burmese, 40K; English, html)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.kachinwomen.com
      http://www.kachinwomen.com/images/stories/pressrelease/pushed_chinese.pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/KWAT-pushed_to_the_brink-PR-bu-ocr.pdf
      http://www.kachinwomen.com/advocacy/press-release.html
      http://www.kachinwomen.com/images/stories/publication/pushed_to_the_brink.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 05 June 2013


      Title: Briefing: Fresh hopes for peace in Myanmar's Kachin State
      Date of publication: 03 June 2013
      Description/subject: "KACHIN STATE, 3 June 2013 (IRIN) - The UN and others have welcomed recent peace talks aimed at reaching a cease-fire in Myanmar's conflict-affected Kachin State, but building trust will take time, say experts. On 31 May, the Burmese government and the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO), which has been fighting for greater autonomy for decades, agreed to further dialogue and talks on the resettlement of tens of thousands of internally displaced persons (IDPs). According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), there are more than 85,000 IDPs in Kachin and Shan states (both in the north), including over 50,000 (58.5 percent) in areas controlled by the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), the military wing of the KIO. Many others are staying with host families. Over the past two years, hundreds have been killed in the conflict and there has been extensive damage to livelihoods and infrastructure. According to the recently released inter-agency Kachin Response Plan, an upsurge in fighting in late 2012 triggered the displacement of several thousand more people. Since the resumption of peace talks in February, fewer have been displaced, but there have not yet been significant numbers of IDPs returning to their homes due to ongoing tensions, lack of livelihood opportunities, and landmines..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IRIN
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 June 2013


      Title: FBR Report: Kachin Update – Photo set two; Attacks Against the Kachin are Sporadic but Displacement is Constant
      Date of publication: 08 March 2013
      Description/subject: "...although now there is sporadic fighting and shelling, but the Burma army is strengthening its positions and for the IDPs there is constant displacement. The Burma army is resupplying after two months of airstrikes and ground assaults. On this mission the Burma army has been close all the time and have built more camps and crept closer to Kachin positions and communities since we have been here. We have reconed them in many places and they look well supplied, well fed, well armed and motivated. They look like they are ready to attack again. In spite of this God is our hope and we feel reinforced by your prayers and help..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers
      Format/size: pdf (925K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.freeburmarangers.org/2013/03/08/kachin-update-photo-set-two-attacks-against-the-kachin-are-sporadic-but-displacement-is-constant/'>http://www.freeburmarangers.org/2013/03/08/kachin-update-photo-set-two-attacks-against-the-kachin-a...
      http://www.freeburmarangers.org
      Date of entry/update: 18 April 2013


      Title: State terror in the Kachin hills - Burma Army attacks against civilians in Northern Burma
      Date of publication: 28 February 2013
      Description/subject: Summary: "In late 2012, the Burma Army intensified military operations against strongholds of the Kachin Independence Army (KIA). This culminated in a massive offensive on the KIA headquarters at Laiza on the China-Burma border starting in mid-December. This month-long assault involved repeated mortar shelling and aerial bombings in the Laiza area, populated by 20,000 civilians, over half of whom are internally displaced persons (IDPs) who were denied refuge in China. This report documents the killing or injury of 26 civilians, including women, children and the elderly, in Burmese artillery attacks in five areas during the recent military operations. The repeated authorization of artillery fire into areas populated by civilians, as well as deliberate torching of villages and IDP shelters, represent serious breaches of international humanitarian law, and are likely to amount to war crimes. The humanitarian situation in Kachin areas remains critical, with 364 villages wholly or partially abandoned, and over 100,000 people internally displaced. Hardly any international aid has been provided to the 66,000 IDPs in Kachin-controlled areas. There has been little international condemnation of the Burma Army aggression in Kachin State. Foreign governments appear more interested in pursuing diplomatic and economic engagement with Burma’s military-backed government. However, silence on the Burmese military’s crimes risks plunging Burma deeper into civil war, by emboldening Burma’s rulers to continue using force to crush the ethnic resistance movements. . The international community must strongly condemn the crimes committed by the Burma Army, and pressure the Burmese government to end all military aggression, begin troop withdrawal from Kachin areas of Burma, and enter into political dialogue with the Kachin Independence Army to address the demands for ethnic equality at the root of the conflict."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Kachin Women’s Association Thailand (KWAT)
      Format/size: pdf (1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 03 April 2013


      Title: UN Urges Aid for Kachin IDPs in Rebel Areas
      Date of publication: 07 December 2012
      Description/subject: "A top United Nations official has urged the Burmese government to allow access to Kachin internally displaced persons (IDPs) in rebel-controlled areas of northernmost Burma. Baroness Valerie Amos, the UN under-secretary-general for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, told a press conference in Rangoon on Friday that conditions for displaced civilians remain dire and there was no reason to restrict access. “The UN has asked to government to allow travel to rebel controlled areas to support the refugees there,” she told The Irrawaddy. “Because we cannot travel to the area, the UN cannot support these people.” “We have substantial experience working in insecure environments. We are working in other places where the security situation is much worse. We hope the government will give us permission to travel to these areas and provide the aid that is so desperately needed.”..."
      Author/creator: Nyein Nyein
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 07 December 2012


      Title: Humanitarian Bulletin - Myanmar Issue: November 2012
      Date of publication: November 2012
      Description/subject: Dire humanitarian needs P.1... Access constraints P.2... Funding requirements P.3... Sector needs and responses P.4..... HIGHLIGHTS The Government reports that the total estimated number of IDPs in Rakhine reached 115,000 people, including over 36,000 newly displaced in late October. Up to 75,000 people are estimated to have been displaced by insecurity in Kachin and northern Shan States which started in June 2011. The Government indicates that at least 17 people were killed and 114 injured due to an earthquake in upper Myanmar.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) with humanitarian partners
      Format/size: pdf (442K)
      Date of entry/update: 05 December 2012


      Title: Blood and Gold: Inside Burma's Hidden War (video)
      Date of publication: 04 October 2012
      Description/subject: Deep in the wilds of northern Myanmar's Kachin state a brutal civil war has intensified over the past year between government forces and the Kachin Independence Army (KIA). People & Power sent filmmakers Jason Motlagh and Steve Sapienza to Myanmar (formerly Burma) to investigate why the conflict rages on, despite the political reforms in the south that have impressed Western governments and investors now lining up to stake their claim in the resource-rich Asian nation.
      Author/creator: Jason Motlagh and Steve Sapienza
      Language: English, Burmese, Kachin, (English subtitles
      Source/publisher: People & Power (Al Jazeera)
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (25 minutes), html
      Date of entry/update: 08 October 2012


      Title: From persecution to deprivation - International donors neglect 60,000 displaced Kachin on China-Burma border
      Date of publication: 02 October 2012
      Description/subject: "About 60,000 Kachin villagers fleeing Burma Army attacks and persecution, who are sheltering in Kachin-controlled territory along the China-Burma border, have received almost no international aid since conflict broke out in June 2011. Data compiled from local relief groups shows that international aid agencies, including the UN, have provided only 4% of basic food needs of this displaced population, who have been kept alive almost entirely by private donations from local and overseas compatriots. Over 2 million US dollars are needed a month for food. Lack of official access and fears of aid diversion have been cited by international donors as reasons for not responding to the crisis. However, well-established mechanisms exist to deliver aid accountably through local community-based organizations. Escalating conflict has caused numbers of displaced to triple over the past year, creating an untenable burden for local communities. International donors must immediately step in to coordinate a large-scale relief effort to address the needs of these displaced Kachin..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Kachin Women's Association Thailand (KWAT)
      Format/size: pdf (412K-OBL version; 1.5MB-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.kachinwomen.com/images/stories/publication/from_persecution_deprivation.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 04 October 2012


      Title: Humanitarian Bulletin - Myanmar, September 2012
      Date of publication: September 2012
      Description/subject: "Concurrent emergencies in Rakhine and Kachin. Approximately 150,000 persons remain displaced in Kachin and Rakhine States and many more have been affected in the two crises. These emergencies continue to place serious pressure on humanitarian partners to meet the needs of the most vulnerable, in an environment where resources are inadequate and access is challenging. The number of IDPs in Kachin and northern Shan states increased to some 75,000 in September from approximately 70,000 in August, following the intensification of clashes in some areas and the forced return from China of some 5,900 people. Since mid-July international humanitarian partners have not been permitted to reach some 54 percent of the IDPs (over 39,000 people). Between April and mid-July, access was officially granted to all but 14,000 IDPs in hard to reach areas. Humanitarian assistance provision is urgently required, especially for those who have been recently displaced. An additional concern is also the situation of some 8,000to 10,000 IDPs in or around Hpakan being stranded due to ongoing clashes with several civilian casualties being recorded. By mid-October, clashes moved out of urban areas and some of the civilians managed to return home.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
      Format/size: pdf (177K)
      Date of entry/update: 26 October 2012


      Title: THE WAR IN KACHIN STATE: A YEAR OF MORE DISPLACEMENT AND HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES
      Date of publication: 08 June 2012
      Description/subject: • In the past year, the Tatmadaw has deployed nearly 25% of its battalions to Kachin State, escalating its war with the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and bringing further suffering to civilian populations in Kachin State and Northern Shan State. • Tatmadaw soldiers have constantly targeted civilians in Kachin State and Northern Shan States as part of their military operations against the KIA. Human rights abuses have included extrajudicial killings, rape of women, arbitrary arrests, torture, forced displacement, the use of human shields, forced labor, and the confiscation and destruction of property. All of these systematic abuses would be considered war crimes and/or crimes against humanity under international law. • The ongoing conflict has displaced about 75,000 people, including at least 10,000 refugees who crossed the border into China. Despite the severity of the situation, the regime has frustrated relief efforts, severely restricting humanitarian access to local and international organizations. • The KIA’s political leadership, the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO), has made repeated attempts to negotiate a lasting peace in Kachin State. However, the regime has rejected the KIO’s request to discuss long-term political solutions prior to a ceasefire agreement. BACKGROUND: 2008 constitution, 2010 elections, BGF, energy projects, and human rights abuses
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
      Format/size: pdf (139K)
      Date of entry/update: 09 June 2012


      Title: Fighting and Ongoing Displacement in Kachin State, Burma: Update
      Date of publication: 01 June 2012
      Description/subject: KEY DEVELOPMENTS: "While ceasefire negotiations are taking place in some ethnic areas, attacks continue in Kachin State, Northern Burma. The Burma Army is pressing its attacks in Kachin State with over 100 battalions deployed. There are over 50,000 Kachin people displaced, over 60 Kachin civilians killed and 100 Kachin soldiers killed. Burma Army casualties are unknown, but estimated at 1,000 wounded and killed. Along with the KIO, WPN, Partners and other organizations, the Kachin FBR teams are helping those in need"
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers (FBR)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2012


      Title: Kachin Response Plan March 2012-February 2013 (June 2012 revision)
      Date of publication: June 2012
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Instability that started in June 2011 across Kachin and northern Shan states has resulted in displace‐ ment, damage of infrastructure and loss of lives and livelihoods. Despite ongoing peace negotiations be‐ tween parties to the conflict, incidents continue to be reported.    The number of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) has been steadily increasing since the beginning of the conflict to an estimated 65,000 IDPs in July 2012. These people sought refuge in camps, in pub‐ lic buildings, with host families or in the forest. In addition, an estimated 6,000 to 7,000 persons have reportedly sought refuge in China. The numbers of IDPs continue to fluctuate and in some locations, a small number of IDPs temporarily returned to their villages to attempt savaging some of their liveli‐ hood, leaving some of their family members in camps or with relatives. Available information indi‐ cates that these returns are not permanent or sub‐ stantial in numbers, as IDPs continue to be con‐ cerned over ongoing tensions and instability as well as presence of landmines...In an effort to improve the level of assistance and co‐ ordination, local and international partners undertook an analysis of the situation in November 2011 and identified scenarios for the coming six months, against which sectoral plans and priorities were identified. The plan was revised in February 2012, and again in June 2012 taking into account the rapidly changing situa‐ tion, protracted displacement and ongoing discussions around return planning.   The revised planning document includes an analysis of the assistance provided to date, of the scenario in the coming year (March 2012‐February 2013), and a re‐ view of sectoral requirements, including those to cater for existing gaps and expected need for additional re‐ sources for the provision of life‐saving relief assistance as well as to support pockets of return for a total of up to 85,000 people affected by the ongoing instability. This follows the steady increase in the numbers of IDPs across Kachin and Northern Shan States, partly in re‐ sponse to ongoing incidents and insecurity in these areas. It also takes into consideration the additional needs caused by the monsoon rains.   Partners estimated that relief assistance would be re‐ quired even if the situation was to normalize in the coming months, as most of the IDPs lost their posses‐ sions, their sources of livelihood, the planting season and social services would take some time to become fully functional again. In addition, the monsoon season has an adverse impact on the already challenging shel‐ ter and WASH conditions in the IDP locations, as well as on the logistical situation. Road conditions are con‐ tinuously deteriorating due to the heavy rains, making the provision of assistance all the more important.   In line with the previous version of the document de‐ veloped in March 2012, the plan concentrates on the immediate relief requirements for one year (March 2012‐February 2013). The requirements articulated in the plan include remaining needs of up to 85,000 people either currently displaced or likely be dis‐ placed in the months to come. Humanitarian part‐ ners predict that a total of US$35.8 million are re‐ quired to cover the humanitarian needs for the pe‐ riod of March 2012 to February 2013. Priorities for sectoral interventions include:..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN OCHA
      Format/size: pdf (987K)
      Date of entry/update: 28 September 2012


      Title: MYANMAR: Cross-line NGOs in Kachin need support...MYANMAR: Les ONG qui travaillent des deux côtés du conflit ont besoin d’aide
      Date of publication: 11 April 2012
      Description/subject: Thousands of displaced remain in need... YANGON, 11 April 2012 (IRIN) - "Local NGOs in northern Myanmar with access to both sides of an ongoing conflict between government forces and the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) are playing a key role in addressing the needs of thousands of displaced. There are four local cross-line Burmese NGOs and community-based groups: Karuna Myanmar Social Services (KMSS), the Metta Development Foundation, the Kachin Baptist Convention (KBC) and the Shalom Foundation. “We are working between two warring parties - this is the biggest challenge we face,” Win Tun Kyi, programme coordinator for KMSS, a faith-based group affiliated with the Catholic Church, told IRIN. “It’s already been 10 months [of being displaced] - these people have suffered too much,” said Sai Sam Kham, executive director of Metta, citing food, shelter, water and sanitation, and psychosocial support as the primary needs. The UN estimates that up to 55,000 people have been displaced by fighting inside Myanmar between government forces and the KIA, since the collapse of a 17-year ceasefire between the two sides in June 2011. The KIA has been fighting for greater autonomy from the country’s central government since 1961. Around 20,000 of the displaced are living in government-controlled areas, up to 35,000 more are in KIA-controlled areas; mostly in camps, and another several thousand are believed to be staying with host families across the border in China..."..."...Les organisations non gouvernementales (ONG) locales qui ont accès aux victimes des deux côtés du conflit opposant les forces gouvernementales à l’Armée pour l’indépendance du Kachin (KIA) dans le nord du Myanmar jouent un rôle clé dans la réponse aux besoins de milliers de personnes déplacées. Quatre ONG locales et groupes communautaires birmans interviennent auprès des victimes des deux côtés du conflit : Karuna Myanmar Social Services (KMSS), la Metta Development Foundation, la Kachin Baptist Convention (KBC) et la Shalom Foundation. « Nous sommes pris entre les parties en conflit – C’est le plus grand défi auquel nous sommes confrontés », a dit à IRIN Win Tun Kyi, coordinateur de programme auprès de KMSS, un groupe confessionnel catholique. « Cela fait déjà dix mois [qu’elles sont déplacées] – ces populations ont beaucoup trop souffert », a dit Sai Sam Kham, directeur exécutif de Metta, qui a indiqué que les besoins de bases incluent la nourriture, les abris, l’eau, l’hygiène et les soutiens psychologiques. Les Nations Unies estiment que plus de 60 000 personnes ont été déplacées par les combats entre les forces gouvernementales et la KIA depuis la fin d’un cessez-le-feu vieux de 17 ans entre les deux camps en juin 2011. Depuis 1961, la KIA lutte pour obtenir une plus grande autonomie par rapport au gouvernement central du Myanmar. Quelque 20 000 personnes déplacées vivent dans les zones contrôlées par le gouvernement et jusqu’à 40 000 sont installées dans les zones tenues par la KIA ; la plupart d’entre elles résident dans des camps, et quelques milliers d’autres seraient accueillies par des membres de leur famille en Chine..."
      Language: English, Français, French,
      Source/publisher: IRIN
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.irinnews.org/fr/Report/95278/MYANMAR-Les-ONG-qui-travaillent-des-deux-c%C3%B4t%C3%A9s-du...
      Date of entry/update: 17 May 2012


      Title: MYANMAR: UN convoy reaches Kachin displaced
      Date of publication: 25 March 2012
      Description/subject: "YANGON, 25 March 2012 (IRIN) - A UN convoy of urgently needed humanitarian assistance has reached conflict-affected areas of Myanmar’s northern Kachin State. "This is a major step forward and follows sustained advocacy on the part of the UN with both the government and Kachin Independence Organization [KIO],” UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Ashok Nigam told IRIN in Yangon. The convoy (four trucks and two UN vehicles) arrived in the KIO-controlled township of Sadang from the government-controlled town of Myitkyina on 24 March. Food assistance for more than 1,000 people for one month is being provided, along with a variety of non-food items ahead of the upcoming monsoon season in May. This is the second time the Burmese government has allowed the UN to access KIO-controlled areas since the armed conflict between government troops and the Kachin Independence Army broke out June. The last convoy allowed into the area was in December. “We now need to make these convoys a regular occurrence,” Nigam said..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IRIN
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 March 2012


      Title: Untold Miseries - Wartime Abuses and Forced Displacement in Burma’s Kachin State
      Date of publication: 19 March 2012
      Description/subject: 'When Burmese President Thein Sein took office in March 2011, he said that over 60 years of armed conflict have put Burma’s ethnic populations through “the hell of untold miseries.” Just three months later, the Burmese armed forces resumed military operations against the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), leading to serious abuses and a humanitarian crisis affecting tens of thousands of ethnic Kachin civilians. “Untold Miseries”: Wartime Abuses and Forced Displacement in Kachin State is based on over 100 interviews in Burma’s Kachin State and China’s Yunnan province. It details how the Burmese army has killed and tortured civilians, raped women, planted antipersonnel landmines, and used forced labor on the front lines, including children as young as 14-years-old. Soldiers have attacked villages, razed homes, and pillaged properties. Burmese authorities have failed to authorize a serious relief effort in KIA-controlled areas, where most of the 75,000 displaced men, women, and children have sought refuge. The KIA has also been responsible for serious abuses, including using child soldiers and antipersonnel landmines. Human Rights Watch calls on the Burmese government to support an independent international mechanism to investigate violations of international human rights and humanitarian law by all parties to Burma’s ethnic armed conflicts. The government should also provide United Nations and humanitarian agencies unhindered access to all internally displaced populations, and make a long-term commitment with humanitarian agencies to authorize relief to populations in need.'
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
      Format/size: pdf (1.7MB - OBL version; 2.25MB - original))
      Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/burma0312ForUpload_1.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 March 2012


      Title: Humanitarian Situation and Response Plan in Kachin - March 2012 update
      Date of publication: 12 March 2012
      Description/subject: "...Between June 2011 and February 2012, instability across Kachin and northern Shan states resulted in displacement, damage of infrastructure and loss of lives and livelihoods. Despite ongoing peace negotiation between parties to the conflict, incidents continue to be reported. Additionally, there are indications that a number of people fled just across the Myanmar-China border and live with relatives or in temporary makeshift camps, but information is still unclear and cannot be independently verified. The number of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) steadily increased from September 2011 (approx 20,000 people) to an estimated 50-55,000 people at present. These people sought refuge in camps, in public buildings, in host families or in the jungle. The numbers of IDPs continue to fluctuate and in some locations, some IDPs temporarily return to their villages to attempt salvaging some of their livelihood, leaving some of their family members in camps or with relatives. Available information indicates that these returns are not permanent or substantial in numbers, as IDPs continue to be concerned over ongoing tensions and instability as well as presence of landmines. Whilst the Kachin State Government started a planning exercise encompassing return and recovery operations, the Union Government and the Kachin State Government have clearly stated that only those who wish to return should do so, and that assistance in camps must continue. The State Government indicated relief aid and recovery operations will require support from the aid community well into 2013. Whilst partners are able to provide a wide range of assistance to some 19,000 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) located in fully accessible towns of Myitkyina, Waingmaw, Bhamo, Mansi, Momauk, Putao and Shwegu, some (mostly local) partners do have some degree of access to population in other locations. Limited ability for a wide range of partners to reach all those in need resulted in further suffering, as gaps and inequality in assistance is a fact of life for a significant portion of the affected people..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN OCHA
      Format/size: pdf (595K)
      Date of entry/update: 13 March 2012


      Title: Burma Army continues attacks, burns houses and kills one man and two women; over 40,000 Kachin people now displaced by attacks and more preparing to run
      Date of publication: 22 January 2012
      Description/subject: KEY DEVELOPMENTS: * The Burma Army is currently attacking within six miles of Mai Ja Yang, a city in Kachin State that is a refuge for over 1,000 displaced people * The Burma Army is firing an average of 100 mortar rounds per day into this area and is receiving reinforcements. * Over 40,000 Kachin people now displaced by attacks and more are preparing to run
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers (FBR)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2012


      Title: Myanmar - Monthly Humanitarian Update. Issue: December 2011 / January 2012
      Date of publication: January 2012
      Description/subject: Key Developments: • Displacement and humanitarian needs continue to increase in Kachin State due to continued instability. A UN team visited Laiza in Kachin State and provided household family kits to IDPs... • Serious concern over southern Chin State Food insecurity.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN OCHA
      Format/size: pdf (3.4MB)
      Date of entry/update: 17 February 2012


      Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Kachin State - 28 December 2011
      Date of publication: 28 December 2011
      Description/subject: HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: • Displacement and humanitarian needs continue to increase. The urgent needs include shelter, NFIs, WASH, vaccines and psychosocial support, among others... • The UN team visited Laiza and provided NFI assistance to IDPs. Advocacy for follow up missions across all affected areas continues
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN OCHA
      Format/size: pdf (329K)
      Date of entry/update: 17 February 2012


      Title: Burma Army Kills Woman and Continues Attacks in Ba Maw District, Kachin State
      Date of publication: 27 December 2011
      Description/subject: The Burma Army continues to attack people in three townships of Ba Maw District, Kachin State: Mun Si Township, Shwegu Township and Ba Maw Township. On 16 December 2011, Burma Army soldiers killed a woman from Prang Kawng Village. The woman, 30-year-old Lamung Kaw Seng, suffered from a mental disability. As Burma Army troops approached the village, all the villagers fled except for Lamung Kaw Seng. When the soldiers found her, they killed her and threw her into a toilet pit.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers (FBR)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2012


      Title: Humanitarian Situation and Response Plan in Kachin - 13 December 2011
      Date of publication: 13 December 2011
      Description/subject: CURRENT SITUATION: "Instability in Kachin and Shan States restarted in early June 2011 and resulted in the displacement of populations, loss of lives and livelihoods and dam-ages to infrastructure. Following a Government invi-tation, an inter-agency rapid needs assessment was conducted from 20-26 September in 39 locations in some IDPs sites (camps, host families, public build-ings) of five townships (Bhamo, Momauk, Myitky-ina, Khaunglanhpu and Waingmaw) targeting 5,925 IDPs. Two townships Mansi and Shwegu could not be assessed due to security concerns. Of the as-sessed beneficiaries, some 4% were vulnerable, be-sides there were 56% children under 18 years of age, 17% of children under 5 and 12.5% female or child headed IDP families. Although figures of displaced population continue to fluctuate and are reportedly increasing on a daily basis, it is currently estimated that between 35,000 and 40,000 IDPs may have left their homes and sought refuge in camps, with friends and relatives or into the forest across the affected region. As an indication of the rapidly increasing caseload, accord-ing to the Kachin State authorities, between Sep-tember and the end of November 2011, the number of IDPs living in Myitkyina, Waingmaw, Bhamo, Mansi, Momauk and Shwegu has increased from 5,900 to 10,000 IDPs. Across all affected areas, available –albeit not independently verified - infor-mation indicate that, in the same period, the num-ber of displaced passed from 20,000 to 35-40,000 persons..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN OCHA
      Format/size: pdf (765K)
      Date of entry/update: 17 February 2012


      Title: Under Siege in Kachin State, Burma
      Date of publication: November 2011
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "In September 2011, as the international community discussed easing sanctions on Burma’s military-backed civilian government, Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) conducted an emergency investigation in Burma’s Kachin State in response to reports of grave human rights violations in the region. The aims of the study were 1. to independently investigate reported human rights abuses and war crimes; and 2. to assess the humanitarian situation and nutritional status of internally displaced persons (IDPs) displaced by conflict in 2011. This report provides the first humanitarian assessment of some of the IDPs living in areas of Kachin State that are not controlled by the Burmese government. The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) recently released a report on the health situation of 5900 IDPs in urban and peri-urban areas of Kachin state that are under Burmese government control. But no mention was made of the estimated 22,000 displaced people in other areas of the state. PHR conducted its investigation entirely in these areas; this report will help to build a more complete picture of the humanitarian situation among internally displaced persons in politically contested areas in Kachin State. The human rights investigation provides compelling evidence that the Burmese army (the Tatmadaw) has committed multiple human rights violations in Kachin State. Between June and September 2011, the Burmese army looted food from civilians, fired indiscriminately into villages, threatened villages with attacks, and used civilians as porters, human minesweepers, and impressed guides. Our findings are consistent with similar reports of human rights abuses in other ethnic states, and suggest that violations of rights of ethnic nationalities in the country by the central government are systematic and widespread. In addition to the human rights investigation, PHR visited six camps and four shelters for displaced Kachin civilians on the Sino-Burmese border and conducted health and nutrition assessments from 22-30 September, 2011. The camps fail to meet multiple minimum humanitarian standards outlined in the Sphere humanitarian guidelines. Camps are overcrowded and there are insufficient numbers of latrines and water supply points. Camp medical staff reported that upper respiratory infections and diarrhea were the most common reasons for clinic visits, and that they experienced shortages in medicine for infants. Key human rights findings of this report: • The Burmese army forced Kachin civilians to guide combat units and walk in front of army columns to trigger landmines. This practice puts civilians at extreme risk of injury and death and is a war crime. • The Burmese army regularly pillaged food and supplies from civilians. This practice is prohibited under customary international humanitarian law. • The Burmese army fired automatic weapons directly into a civilian village, striking nonmilitary targets. The intentional direction of attacks against civilians is also recognized as a war crime in the Rome Statute1, the treaty that created the International Criminal Court. 1. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, art. 8(2), 17 Jul. 1998, 2187 U.N.T.S. 90, entered into force 1 Jul, 2002. 4 Under Siege in Kachin State, Burma Key related humanitarian concerns: • IDP camps are overcrowded and the numbers of latrines and water supply points are insufficient to ensure that residents’ human rights to clean food and water are met. Camp medical staff reported insufficient supplies of medicine for infants. • Eleven percent of children under five years old in one camp in Laiza were found to be severely or moderately malnourished, a situation that the World Health Organization (WHO) classifies as “severe” and warrants targeted supplementary feeding programs. • Very little aid reaches IDP camps, and groups caring for them face challenges in providing food, medicine, and shelter. The most vulnerable populations—those in rural areas and near the border—have not received any official humanitarian aid; they are only receiving aid from community-based organizations, which have largely been ignored by the international donor community. This investigation suggests that the incremental political changes in central Burma have not translated into improved livelihoods or improved the human rights situation of ethnic populations living along Burma’s frontiers. The government of Burma has announced greater freedoms, including unblocking some internet websites and limiting censorship in the press, and releasing Aung San Suu Kyi and a fraction of the other political prisoners in the country. Some in the international community have asserted that political change has come to Burma; however, these changes largely are confined to the urban, primarily ethnic Burman, population. For many of the peoples of Burma facing conflict and abuse, including the Kachin peoples, the brutality of the old regime remains an omnipresent threat. PHR’s findings come at a crucial moment when the international community is considering easing sanctions on Burma in response to its positive steps towards what Senior General Than Shwe has called “disciplined democracy.” PHR welcomes the stated commitment of the government to greater openness and urges the international community to ensure that the rhetoric translates into positive action for all people in Burma. The Kachin and other groups continue to endure grave human rights violations at the hands of the Burmese army. True progress must be measured by thorough analysis of the extent of the government’s abuses and by establishing a system through which perpetrators are held accountable for their actions..."
      Author/creator: Bill Davis, MA, MPH
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Physicians for Human Rights
      Format/size: pdf (554K - 0riginal; 458K - OBL version)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/Under_Seige_in_Kachin_State_Burma-2011-11-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 02 December 2011


      Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Kachin State - Humanitarian Update No. 1
      Date of publication: 26 October 2011
      Description/subject: • The instability in Kachin State that started in early June 2011 has resulted in the displacement of populations, loss of livelihoods and damages to infrastructure... • The recently-completed joint assessment in 39 locations in Kachin State reveals urgent needs in several sectors, including food, education, shelter, health, NFIs and water and sanitation... • Access and delivery of assistance remain challenging
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UN OCHA
      Format/size: pdf (218K)
      Date of entry/update: 17 February 2012


      Title: Kachin Rapid Assessment |1
      Date of publication: September 2011
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The instability in Kachin and Shan States that started in early June 2011 has resulted in the displacement of populations, loss of lives and livelihoods and damages to infrastructure. The Kachin State government, local and community]based organizations have been providing some assistance to the displaced since the outset of the conflict. International organizations have been providing limited assistance through support to local and community]based organizations, while continuing to advocate for humanitarian assistance to be provided to all civilians in need. Following a Government invitation, a rapid needs assessment was conducted in 39 locations in some areas of five townships: Bhamo, Momauk, Myitkyina, Khaunglanhpu and Waingmaw, and targeted 5,925 internally displaced persons (IDPs). Two townships ] Mansi and Shwegu ] could not be assessed due to security reasons. Of the total assessed population, the assessment findings indicate that 57% are female and 56% under]18. The IDPs are temporarily residing in community buildings, temporary camps/shelters or with host families. Most of the IDPs are located in urban areas, while those in rural areas are primarily being sheltered by host families. While the number of IDPs is fluctuating on a daily basis, the assessment found that a large majority of those assessed ] 4,026 ] has been displaced for over two months. Among people with special needs the survey identified 70 unaccompanied minors, 196 female] or child]headed households, 40 chronically ill and 36 persons with disabilities. In general, due to the easier accessibility and the presence of a larger number of aid agencies, the IDPs in Myitkyina and Waingmaw have been receiving more assistance than those in Bhamo and Momauk. Access and delivery of assistance for many of the locations continue to be a major challenge, particularly in the southern townships of Bhamo, Momauk, Mansi and Shwegu given the security situation and damage to infrastructure, including access routes. Living conditions, particularly in larger temporary camps/shelters and community buildings where the population density is high, are challenging. The assessment found that 20 of the 39 surveyed locations are in urgent need of additional shelter assistance. Temporary camps/shelters would need to be upgraded with improved roofing, more durable and safer shelters, additional numbers of tents to lessen the population density, allocation of cooking spaces and relocation of latrines further away from the living quarters. These measures would make the temporary camps/shelters healthier and safer for children and women. IDPs in community buildings such as churches and community halls also suffer from over]population and the resulting lack of adequate sleeping space as well as lack of privacy for families. I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY While some non]food items (NFIs) have been provided by the Government and local and community]based organizations, to date, most of the IDPs require additional NFI support, including plastic sheeting, cooking utensils, blankets and clothes. These needs are most urgent in Bhamo and Momauk. Over half of IDPs in temporary camps/shelters and community buildings are facing food access issues. While food assistance has temporarily alleviated concern over immediate food shortages in over half of the locations that reported food access difficulties, a number of camps have yet to receive food assistance. The food security situation in Khaunglanhpu]La Jar camp in Khaunglanhpu and AungThar Baptist Church in Bhamo is of concern, and food assistance should be considered. People staying in host families in Momauk, in Momauk Baptist Church and 3]mile Kachin Baptist Church in Bhamo are experiencing lack of food stocks, and the food security situation in these locations would need to be explored further. Overall, the IDPs indicated a need for more diversified food assistance, which should be explored given the reported observable malnutrition in the locations assessed. The assessment suggests that the nutritional status of children needs to be further investigated. While access to water for domestic and hygiene uses is sufficient, availability of drinking water is an issue, with only 40% of IDPs having access to sufficient quantities of safe drinking water. The issue is particularly critical in Bhamo where all locations reported insufficient access to drinking water. Latrine use is wide]spread and aid agencies have provided basic sanitary facilities in all temporary camps/shelters and community buildings. However, some of the locations with larger number of IDPs need more latrines. Some latrines would need to be upgraded for sanitary and safety reasons. Hygiene promotion would be needed in a majority of the assessed locations, along with provision of hygiene items. There has been no report of disease outbreak or mortality cases since June 2011 in surveyed locations. Over half of the sites currently have access to health care services provided by basic health staff, while the others Kachin Rapid Assessment |1 5 in 14 locations only receive minimal health support through community health workers. Measles immunization campaign is needed in 31 locations, where a limited number of under]2 children has records of having had measles vaccination. Bed nets are needed in a majority of the locations. Essential medical supplies are needed in 35 out of the 39 locations. Some 1,055 primary school children and 1,249 secondary to high school children were identified amongst the assessed IDPs. Primary school children in all locations have access to varying degree of schooling support ] either access to nearby school facilities or to temporary learning spaces ] which they regularly attend. However, only a few secondary and high school children seem to attend school, due to lack of access and their contribution to household chores, particularly in the absence of household heads. Education materials are in short supply at all locations. Temporary learning spaces are not sufficiently equipped. A majority of the schools do not have adequate water and sanitation facilities. Early Childhood Development (ECD) centers have been established in six locations, benefiting 201 or 20% of all under]five IDP children. Efforts to construct additional ECD centers are currently ongoing. The number of under]18 separated or unaccompanied children was 221 at the time of the assessment, while 12.5% of households are either female] or childheaded. This points to the need for preventative measures to mitigate potential risk factors. Extra measures for ensuring the safety of women and children would need to be taken, particularly in the temporary camps/ shelters, including improved lighting at night, separate bathing spaces and latrines for men and women and appointment of security focal points. Needs of those with special needs such as the elderly and persons with disabilities would need to be taken into account. Fear and anxiety over the current, uncertain situation were voiced."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UNOCHA, Humanitarian Partners in Kachin
      Format/size: pdf (2.8MB)
      Date of entry/update: 02 December 2011


    • Armed conflict in Kachin State - economic factors associated with the conflict

      Individual Documents

      Title: China, the United States and the Kachin Conflict
      Date of publication: January 2014
      Description/subject: KEY FINDINGS: 1. The prolonged Kachin conflict is a major obstacle to Myanmar’s national reconciliation and a challenging test for the democratization process. 2. The KIO and the Myanmar government differ on the priority between the cease-fire and the political dialogue. Without addressing this difference, the nationwide peace accord proposed by the government will most likely lack the KIO’s participation. 3. The disagreements on terms have hindered a formal cease-fire. In addition, the existing economic interest groups profiting from the armed conflict have further undermined the prospect for progress. 4. China intervened in the Kachin negotiations in 2013 to protect its national interests. A crucial motivation was a concern about the “internationalization” of the Kachin issue and the potential US role along the Chinese border. 5. Despite domestic and external pressure, the US has refrained from playing a formal and active role in the Kachin conflict. The need to balance the impact on domestic politics in Myanmar and US-China relations are factors in US policy. 6.A The US has attempted to discuss various options of cooperation with China on the Kachin issue. So far, such attempts have not been accepted by China.
      Author/creator: Yun Sun
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Stimson Center (Great Powers and the Changing Myanmar - Issue Brief No. 2)
      Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.stimson.org/images/uploads/research-pdfs/Myanmar_Issue_Brief_No_2_Jan_2014_WEB.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 23 January 2014


      Title: Guns, Briefcases and Inequality: The Neglected War in Kachin State
      Date of publication: 21 September 2013
      Description/subject: "Burma Partnership is pleased to announce the launch of a new documentary film today to coincide with the International Day of Peace. The film, entitled “Guns, Briefcases and Inequality: The Neglected War in Kachin State,” demonstrates the need for the government of Burma to engage in meaningful political dialogue with all ethnic nationalities on equal terms, including discussing amendments to the 2008 Constitution. These are necessary in order to address the underlying causes of armed conflict: self-determination, the lack of ethnic rights, and inequality, and to move towards lasting peace throughout the country. The short documentary film also highlights how development projects and natural resource management are exacerbating armed conflict and human rights violations in ethnic areas, without adequate means to justice for the people. The film was written and directed by Daniel Quinlan. It features interviews with Kachin internally displaced persons (IDPs), civil society and community-based organizations, leaders of ethnic non-state armed groups and advocates for human rights and democracy in Burma"
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Partnership
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (15 minutes 29 seconds)
      Date of entry/update: 21 September 2013


      Title: Blood and Gold: Inside Burma's Hidden War (video)
      Date of publication: 04 October 2012
      Description/subject: Deep in the wilds of northern Myanmar's Kachin state a brutal civil war has intensified over the past year between government forces and the Kachin Independence Army (KIA). People & Power sent filmmakers Jason Motlagh and Steve Sapienza to Myanmar (formerly Burma) to investigate why the conflict rages on, despite the political reforms in the south that have impressed Western governments and investors now lining up to stake their claim in the resource-rich Asian nation.
      Author/creator: Jason Motlagh and Steve Sapienza
      Language: English, Burmese, Kachin, (English subtitles
      Source/publisher: People & Power (Al Jazeera)
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (25 minutes), html
      Date of entry/update: 08 October 2012


      Title: Untold Miseries - Wartime Abuses and Forced Displacement in Burma’s Kachin State
      Date of publication: 19 March 2012
      Description/subject: 'When Burmese President Thein Sein took office in March 2011, he said that over 60 years of armed conflict have put Burma’s ethnic populations through “the hell of untold miseries.” Just three months later, the Burmese armed forces resumed military operations against the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), leading to serious abuses and a humanitarian crisis affecting tens of thousands of ethnic Kachin civilians. “Untold Miseries”: Wartime Abuses and Forced Displacement in Kachin State is based on over 100 interviews in Burma’s Kachin State and China’s Yunnan province. It details how the Burmese army has killed and tortured civilians, raped women, planted antipersonnel landmines, and used forced labor on the front lines, including children as young as 14-years-old. Soldiers have attacked villages, razed homes, and pillaged properties. Burmese authorities have failed to authorize a serious relief effort in KIA-controlled areas, where most of the 75,000 displaced men, women, and children have sought refuge. The KIA has also been responsible for serious abuses, including using child soldiers and antipersonnel landmines. Human Rights Watch calls on the Burmese government to support an independent international mechanism to investigate violations of international human rights and humanitarian law by all parties to Burma’s ethnic armed conflicts. The government should also provide United Nations and humanitarian agencies unhindered access to all internally displaced populations, and make a long-term commitment with humanitarian agencies to authorize relief to populations in need.'
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
      Format/size: pdf (1.7MB - OBL version; 2.25MB - original))
      Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/burma0312ForUpload_1.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 March 2012


      Title: KIO warns China: Myitsone Dam could spark ‘civil war’
      Date of publication: 20 May 2011
      Description/subject: "In an open letter sent to Chinese President Hu Jintao, the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) has asked China to stop the planned Myitsone Dam to be built in Burma’s northern Kachin state, warning that the controversial project could lead to civil war. The English-language letter dated March 16 but only recently made public and obtained by Mizzima states that the KIO ‘informed the military government that KIO would not be responsible for the civil war if the war broke out because of this hydropower plant project and the dam construction’..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Mizzima
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 20 May 2011


      Title: KIO Open Letter to the People's Republic of China
      Date of publication: 16 March 2011
      Description/subject: Text of the open letter sent to Chinese President Hu Jintao, in which the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) asks China to stop the planned Mali Nmai Concluence (Myitsone) Dam Project to be built in Burma’s northern Kachin state, warning that the controversial project could lead to civil war
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Kachin Independence Organization (KIO)
      Format/size: pdf (878K)
      Date of entry/update: 21 May 2011


      Title: Dam Nation
      Date of publication: April 2010
      Description/subject: "Burma and China prepare to build seven hydroelectric dams in Kachin State that will not provide the people of Burma with jobs, security or even electricity Large-scale hydroelectric dams have long been decried for the immense damage they do to the environment and rural communities. Not everyone agrees, however, that the problems associated with mega-dams outweigh their benefits. After all, say pragmatists, dams are a reliable supply of electricity, without which no country can hope to survive in the modern world. (Illustration: Harn lay / The irrawaddy) But in Burma, such arguments fall flat. Not only do massive dam-building projects take an especially high toll on people’s lives—besides destroying villages and the environment, they result in intensifying human rights abuses and make diseases such as malaria more prevalent—they also come without a payoff for the general population. At the end of the day, the electricity they generate—the only benefit the Burmese people can expect to get from them—remains as scarce as ever..."
      Author/creator: David Paquette
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 4
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 April 2010


    • Armed conflict in Kachin State - human rights violations

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Discrimination against the Kachin
      Description/subject: Link to the Kachin area of the OBL Human Rights section
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 08 February 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: “I Thought They Would Kill Me” - Ending Wartime Torture in Northern Myanmar
      Date of publication: 09 June 2014
      Description/subject: "...For the past three years, Myanmar authorities have systematically tortured Kachin civilians perceived to be aligned with the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), Fortify Rights said in a new report released today. Fortify Rights believes these abuses constitute war crimes and crimes against humanity. The government of Myanmar should intervene immediately to end the use of torture in the conduct of the ongoing war in Kachin State and northern Shan State, and it should credibly investigate and prosecute members of the Myanmar Army, Myanmar Police Force, and Military Intelligence who are responsible for the serious crimes described in this report. The 71-page report, “I Thought They Would Kill Me”: Ending Wartime Torture in Northern Myanmar, describes the systematic use of torture and other cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment or punishment (“ill treatment”) of more than 60 civilians by Myanmar authorities from June 2011 to April 2014. Members of the Myanmar Army, Myanmar Police Force, and Military Intelligence deliberately caused severe and lasting mental and physical pain to civilians in combat zones, villages, and places of detention in Kachin State. While some impacts of these crimes are irreparable, none of the survivors interviewed by Fortify Rights have received adequate medical care..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Fortify Rights
      Format/size: pdf (5.8MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.fortifyrights.org/downloads/Fortify%20Rights_Myanmar_9_June_2014.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 09 June 2014


      Title: State terror in the Kachin hills - Burma Army attacks against civilians in Northern Burma
      Date of publication: 28 February 2013
      Description/subject: Summary: "In late 2012, the Burma Army intensified military operations against strongholds of the Kachin Independence Army (KIA). This culminated in a massive offensive on the KIA headquarters at Laiza on the China-Burma border starting in mid-December. This month-long assault involved repeated mortar shelling and aerial bombings in the Laiza area, populated by 20,000 civilians, over half of whom are internally displaced persons (IDPs) who were denied refuge in China. This report documents the killing or injury of 26 civilians, including women, children and the elderly, in Burmese artillery attacks in five areas during the recent military operations. The repeated authorization of artillery fire into areas populated by civilians, as well as deliberate torching of villages and IDP shelters, represent serious breaches of international humanitarian law, and are likely to amount to war crimes. The humanitarian situation in Kachin areas remains critical, with 364 villages wholly or partially abandoned, and over 100,000 people internally displaced. Hardly any international aid has been provided to the 66,000 IDPs in Kachin-controlled areas. There has been little international condemnation of the Burma Army aggression in Kachin State. Foreign governments appear more interested in pursuing diplomatic and economic engagement with Burma’s military-backed government. However, silence on the Burmese military’s crimes risks plunging Burma deeper into civil war, by emboldening Burma’s rulers to continue using force to crush the ethnic resistance movements. . The international community must strongly condemn the crimes committed by the Burma Army, and pressure the Burmese government to end all military aggression, begin troop withdrawal from Kachin areas of Burma, and enter into political dialogue with the Kachin Independence Army to address the demands for ethnic equality at the root of the conflict."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Kachin Women’s Association Thailand (KWAT)
      Format/size: pdf (1MB)
      Date of entry/update: 03 April 2013


      Title: SPECIAL DOSSIER: CASES UNDER THE UNLAWFUL ASSOCIATIONS ACT 1908 BROUGHT AGAINST PEOPLE ACCUSED OF CONTACT WITH KACHIN INDEPENDENCE ARMY
      Date of publication: 21 January 2013
      Description/subject: "This special dossier of 36 cases brought under the 1908 Unlawful Associations Act against people accused of contact with the Kachin Independence Army was researched and compiled in 2012 by independent human rights defenders in Burma who have requested that the Asian Human Rights Commission disseminate the material...At a time that the conflict in Kachin State between the Kachin Independence Army and Burma armed forces is only getting worse, this dossier marks an important contribution to documentation on human rights abuses in the region, because it signals very sharply the intersection between war and law, between violence in armed combat and violence in interrogation, in the use of torture and other techniques against persons who have been branded enemies of the state...the human rights defenders who gathered and translated this material have two stated objectives: to document and inform people about the use of the Unlawful Associations Act; and, to secure the release of the accused. Both of these objectives are laudable, and strongly supported by the AHRC. Clearly, not enough has been done to document cases of this sort in a way that makes explicit the connection between strategic practices of the military and those of other parts of the state apparatus for the targeting of internal enemies. We firmly hope that by taking these steps, not only will the connections be better understood but also those whose cases are documented will obtain relief through some publicity and attention to their specific plights..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) & Asian Legal Resource Centre (ALRC)
      Format/size: pdf (2.7MB-OBL version; 3.46-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.humanrights.asia/countries/burma/reports/Unlawful_Association_Dossier.pdf/view
      Date of entry/update: 21 January 2013


      Title: THE WAR IN KACHIN STATE: A YEAR OF MORE DISPLACEMENT AND HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES
      Date of publication: 08 June 2012
      Description/subject: • In the past year, the Tatmadaw has deployed nearly 25% of its battalions to Kachin State, escalating its war with the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and bringing further suffering to civilian populations in Kachin State and Northern Shan State. • Tatmadaw soldiers have constantly targeted civilians in Kachin State and Northern Shan States as part of their military operations against the KIA. Human rights abuses have included extrajudicial killings, rape of women, arbitrary arrests, torture, forced displacement, the use of human shields, forced labor, and the confiscation and destruction of property. All of these systematic abuses would be considered war crimes and/or crimes against humanity under international law. • The ongoing conflict has displaced about 75,000 people, including at least 10,000 refugees who crossed the border into China. Despite the severity of the situation, the regime has frustrated relief efforts, severely restricting humanitarian access to local and international organizations. • The KIA’s political leadership, the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO), has made repeated attempts to negotiate a lasting peace in Kachin State. However, the regime has rejected the KIO’s request to discuss long-term political solutions prior to a ceasefire agreement. BACKGROUND: 2008 constitution, 2010 elections, BGF, energy projects, and human rights abuses
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
      Format/size: pdf (139K)
      Date of entry/update: 09 June 2012


      Title: Ongoing Impunity: Continued Burma Army Atrocities Against the Kachin People
      Date of publication: June 2012
      Description/subject: Summary: "This report provides an update of atrocities committed by the Burma Army against civilians since it broke its 17-year ceasefire with the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) one year ago. It highlights the particular suffering of women during the conflict, who have been forced to be porters, used as sex slaves, gang-raped and killed. Since the start of the conflict, there has been a huge deployment of Burmese troops into Kachin State and northern Shan State. Currently about 150 battalions are being used to crush the KIA, tripling the number of Burmese troops in the area. These troops have deliberately targeted civilians for abuse, causing villagers to flee in terror, leaving large swathes of countryside depopulated. There is strong evidence that Burmese troops have used rape systematically as a weapon of war. In the past year, KWAT has documented the rape or sexual assault of at least 43 women and girls, of whom 21 were killed. The rapes have been widespread, occurred in thirteen townships, by ten different battalions. Women have been openly kept as sex slaves by military officers, and gang-raped in church. There has been complete impunity for these crimes. When the husband of a Kachin woman abducted by the Burmese military tried to press charges, the Naypyidaw Supreme Court dismissed the case without even hearing his evidence. The continued abuse against civilians has swelled the numbers of internally displaced persons in Kachin State to over 75,000, most of whom are sheltering in makeshift camps along the China border, where little international aid has reached them. KWAT is calling on the international community to denounce the ongoing human rights abuses, and maintain pressure on the Burmese government to immediately implement a nationwide ceasefire, pull back Burma Army troops from ethnic areas and start dialogue with the United Nationalities Federal Council towards a process of genuine political reform."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Kachin Women's Association Thailand (KWAT)
      Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-OBL version; 8.2MB-original))
      Alternate URLs: http://www.kachinwomen.com/images/stories/publication/ongoing_iimpunity%20.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 11 June 2012


      Title: Untold Miseries - Wartime Abuses and Forced Displacement in Burma’s Kachin State
      Date of publication: 19 March 2012
      Description/subject: 'When Burmese President Thein Sein took office in March 2011, he said that over 60 years of armed conflict have put Burma’s ethnic populations through “the hell of untold miseries.” Just three months later, the Burmese armed forces resumed military operations against the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), leading to serious abuses and a humanitarian crisis affecting tens of thousands of ethnic Kachin civilians. “Untold Miseries”: Wartime Abuses and Forced Displacement in Kachin State is based on over 100 interviews in Burma’s Kachin State and China’s Yunnan province. It details how the Burmese army has killed and tortured civilians, raped women, planted antipersonnel landmines, and used forced labor on the front lines, including children as young as 14-years-old. Soldiers have attacked villages, razed homes, and pillaged properties. Burmese authorities have failed to authorize a serious relief effort in KIA-controlled areas, where most of the 75,000 displaced men, women, and children have sought refuge. The KIA has also been responsible for serious abuses, including using child soldiers and antipersonnel landmines. Human Rights Watch calls on the Burmese government to support an independent international mechanism to investigate violations of international human rights and humanitarian law by all parties to Burma’s ethnic armed conflicts. The government should also provide United Nations and humanitarian agencies unhindered access to all internally displaced populations, and make a long-term commitment with humanitarian agencies to authorize relief to populations in need.'
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
      Format/size: pdf (1.7MB - OBL version; 2.25MB - original))
      Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/burma0312ForUpload_1.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 March 2012


      Title: Burma Army continues attacks, burns houses and kills one man and two women; over 40,000 Kachin people now displaced by attacks and more preparing to run
      Date of publication: 22 January 2012
      Description/subject: KEY DEVELOPMENTS: * The Burma Army is currently attacking within six miles of Mai Ja Yang, a city in Kachin State that is a refuge for over 1,000 displaced people * The Burma Army is firing an average of 100 mortar rounds per day into this area and is receiving reinforcements. * Over 40,000 Kachin people now displaced by attacks and more are preparing to run
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers (FBR)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2012


      Title: Two women and one man killed, 70-year-old woman wounded, and four men tortured as Burma Army attacks villages in Kachin State
      Date of publication: 17 January 2012
      Description/subject: KEY DEVELOPMENTS: Burma Army Infantry Battalion (IB) 105, commanded by Major Moe Kyaw, stabbed and shot three villagers to death, shot a 70-year-old woman and tortured four villagers in Mun Si Township, Kachin State
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers (FBR)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2012


      Title: Under Siege in Kachin State, Burma
      Date of publication: November 2011
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "In September 2011, as the international community discussed easing sanctions on Burma’s military-backed civilian government, Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) conducted an emergency investigation in Burma’s Kachin State in response to reports of grave human rights violations in the region. The aims of the study were 1. to independently investigate reported human rights abuses and war crimes; and 2. to assess the humanitarian situation and nutritional status of internally displaced persons (IDPs) displaced by conflict in 2011. This report provides the first humanitarian assessment of some of the IDPs living in areas of Kachin State that are not controlled by the Burmese government. The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) recently released a report on the health situation of 5900 IDPs in urban and peri-urban areas of Kachin state that are under Burmese government control. But no mention was made of the estimated 22,000 displaced people in other areas of the state. PHR conducted its investigation entirely in these areas; this report will help to build a more complete picture of the humanitarian situation among internally displaced persons in politically contested areas in Kachin State. The human rights investigation provides compelling evidence that the Burmese army (the Tatmadaw) has committed multiple human rights violations in Kachin State. Between June and September 2011, the Burmese army looted food from civilians, fired indiscriminately into villages, threatened villages with attacks, and used civilians as porters, human minesweepers, and impressed guides. Our findings are consistent with similar reports of human rights abuses in other ethnic states, and suggest that violations of rights of ethnic nationalities in the country by the central government are systematic and widespread. In addition to the human rights investigation, PHR visited six camps and four shelters for displaced Kachin civilians on the Sino-Burmese border and conducted health and nutrition assessments from 22-30 September, 2011. The camps fail to meet multiple minimum humanitarian standards outlined in the Sphere humanitarian guidelines. Camps are overcrowded and there are insufficient numbers of latrines and water supply points. Camp medical staff reported that upper respiratory infections and diarrhea were the most common reasons for clinic visits, and that they experienced shortages in medicine for infants. Key human rights findings of this report: • The Burmese army forced Kachin civilians to guide combat units and walk in front of army columns to trigger landmines. This practice puts civilians at extreme risk of injury and death and is a war crime. • The Burmese army regularly pillaged food and supplies from civilians. This practice is prohibited under customary international humanitarian law. • The Burmese army fired automatic weapons directly into a civilian village, striking nonmilitary targets. The intentional direction of attacks against civilians is also recognized as a war crime in the Rome Statute1, the treaty that created the International Criminal Court. 1. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, art. 8(2), 17 Jul. 1998, 2187 U.N.T.S. 90, entered into force 1 Jul, 2002. 4 Under Siege in Kachin State, Burma Key related humanitarian concerns: • IDP camps are overcrowded and the numbers of latrines and water supply points are insufficient to ensure that residents’ human rights to clean food and water are met. Camp medical staff reported insufficient supplies of medicine for infants. • Eleven percent of children under five years old in one camp in Laiza were found to be severely or moderately malnourished, a situation that the World Health Organization (WHO) classifies as “severe” and warrants targeted supplementary feeding programs. • Very little aid reaches IDP camps, and groups caring for them face challenges in providing food, medicine, and shelter. The most vulnerable populations—those in rural areas and near the border—have not received any official humanitarian aid; they are only receiving aid from community-based organizations, which have largely been ignored by the international donor community. This investigation suggests that the incremental political changes in central Burma have not translated into improved livelihoods or improved the human rights situation of ethnic populations living along Burma’s frontiers. The government of Burma has announced greater freedoms, including unblocking some internet websites and limiting censorship in the press, and releasing Aung San Suu Kyi and a fraction of the other political prisoners in the country. Some in the international community have asserted that political change has come to Burma; however, these changes largely are confined to the urban, primarily ethnic Burman, population. For many of the peoples of Burma facing conflict and abuse, including the Kachin peoples, the brutality of the old regime remains an omnipresent threat. PHR’s findings come at a crucial moment when the international community is considering easing sanctions on Burma in response to its positive steps towards what Senior General Than Shwe has called “disciplined democracy.” PHR welcomes the stated commitment of the government to greater openness and urges the international community to ensure that the rhetoric translates into positive action for all people in Burma. The Kachin and other groups continue to endure grave human rights violations at the hands of the Burmese army. True progress must be measured by thorough analysis of the extent of the government’s abuses and by establishing a system through which perpetrators are held accountable for their actions..."
      Author/creator: Bill Davis, MA, MPH
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Physicians for Human Rights
      Format/size: pdf (554K - 0riginal; 458K - OBL version)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/Under_Seige_in_Kachin_State_Burma-2011-11-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 02 December 2011


  • Armed conflict in Karen State

    • Armed conflict in Karen State - general articles and reports

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: The Official Website of the Karen National Union (KNU)
      Description/subject: Home | About us | Departments | Peace Process | Statements | Human Rights | Karen Unity | Contact...Departments: Agriculture Department; Alliance Affairs Department; Breeding & Fishery Department; Defense Department; Education & Culture Department; Finance & Revenue Department; Foreign Affairs Department; Forestry Department; Health & Welfare Department; Interior & Religious Department; Organising & Information Department; Justice Department; Mining Department; Transportation & Communication Department.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen National Union (KNU)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 September 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: Karen Army Leader Links Current Fighting To Burma Government’s Mega Development Projects
      Date of publication: 24 October 2014
      Description/subject: General Ner Dah Bo Mya, the head of the Karen National Defence Organisation told Karen News that armed conflict this month in Burma is linked to plans to build hydropower dams on the Salween River. In an exclusive interview General Ner Dah explains to Karen News why he has placed his troops are on high alert. General Ner Dah said that fighting between the government’s militia, the Border guard Force and the Democratic Karen Benevolent Army (DKBA) has sent warning signals to the Karen armed groups that the government is planning to reinforce it military in the region. “The current situation that we have in our area right now is that we have to be alert because there are fighting between BGF and the DKBA. We have to be alert because we can see that the Burmese [army] are reinforcing their military in most of their base camps that are also close to our base camps.” General Ner Dah said that his organization is aware that the government intends to clamp down on any opposition to its plans to build ‘development projects’ in Karen State...
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen News
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 October 2014


      Title: Listen To Us – Stop Ignoring Our Concerns
      Date of publication: 12 October 2013
      Description/subject: "A number of international governments, organisations and individuals try to squeeze the current situation of the Karen people into a narrow, restrictive and simplistic narrative that is usually framed like this. ‘After more than sixty years of conflict, at last the Karen have peace. There has been a ceasefire for almost two years, the Karen National Union and government of Burma are in dialogue, development projects and aid are coming into Karen State to help the people, and finally refugees can return home.’ If all this is true, why aren’t Karen people celebrating? As a nation, the Karen people have suffered so much. Generation after generation has grown up in fear, facing conflict, displacement and repression. Unknown millions have been forced from their homes, uncounted thousands have been killed, and there has been so much suffering. Surely if there is a real peace, we’d all be happy? Certainly for several communities in conflict zones the ceasefire makes a big difference. People are not being attacked as they were before, their villages destroyed, their lives taken, and the use of forced labour has fallen. However, even in these communities there is great caution. It’s a caution shared by most Karen people across Burma, in neighbouring Thailand, and those further abroad. International observers should be trying to understand exactly why people who have suffered so much from conflict and human rights abuses are not celebrating the current peace and reform process. If they fail to do so, they’ll fail to understand what is happening in Burma, and they will never see the lasting peace they claim they want to see in our country..."
      Author/creator: Zoya Phan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Karen News"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 14 October 2013


      Title: Situation Update in Karen State
      Date of publication: 05 April 2013
      Description/subject: In This Report: * Forced Labor in Doo Tha Htoo and Doo Pla Ya districts... * Burma Army makes improvements and additions to roads and camps in Karen State... * Villages in Toungoo district flooded after the construction of the Toe Bo Dam... * Flooding in Kler Lwee Htoo and Doo Pla Ya districts... * Improved relationship with Burma Army in Doo Pla Ya district
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers
      Format/size: pdf (199K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.freeburmarangers.org/2013/04/05/situation-update-in-karen-state/
      Date of entry/update: 18 April 2013


      Title: The world's longest ongoing war (video)
      Date of publication: 11 August 2011
      Description/subject: "For more than 60 years, Karen rebels have been fighting a civil war against the government of Myanmar...In February 1949, members of the Karen ethnic minority launched an armed insurrection against Myanmar's central government. In pictures: Sixty years of war. Over 60 years later, the conflict continues, with more than a dozen ethnic rebel groups waging war against the army in their fight for self-rule. Now, the war is entering a new and bloody stage. Myanmar is the only regime still regularly planting anti-personnel mines. But it is not only the army that uses them. Rebel groups also regularly use homemade landmines or mines seized from the military. As the conflict escalates, civilians are trapped in the middle of some of the worst fighting in decades. 101 East travels to Myanmar, home to the world's longest running civil war."
      Language: English, Karen (English sub-titles)
      Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (101 East)
      Format/size: html, Adobe Flash (25 minutes)
      Date of entry/update: 27 December 2011


      Title: The Dynamics of Karen National Union Political and Military Development: Reflecting the Shifting Landscape
      Date of publication: 2010
      Description/subject: Abstract: "This thesis investigates the themes and society of displaced Karen identity on the border between Burma and Thailand. The impact of the authoritarian military rule in Burma cannot be underestimated. The government exercises tremendous power to shape the social and economic environment. They determine whether a civil-society is prosperous and functions in an appropriate manner. Governments are also responsible for societal support and protection of all its populace. The population of Burma is essentially isolated from the global society through regime censorship and restrictions. The inter-linking spiral of humanitarian emergencies and continued to escalate, these include refugee, internally displaced people, the spread of preventable diseases and the illicit narcotic production. Recently, the Western governments had solidified their position towards the military junta resulting in a stalemate of diplomatic interaction, with ultimately the people of Burma being the victims of such actions. Current realities in the global sphere present the powerful Western Nations an opportunity for a change in perspective. US policy recommendations include a greater dialogue with the junta and the outcome of the election is seen as crucial to fostering better relation. It is imperative that long-essential reforms are undertaken if Burma if is to achieve lasting peace. The international community must develop coherent and focused policies towards Burma and make conflict resolution a priority. Humanitarian aid and displaced refugee support will play a vital role, and in the 21st Century regional dimensions must be addressed. The challenges of nation-state building must be made in conjunction with political, humanitarian, and economic issues."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: University of Manchester (thesis submitted in 2010)
      Subscribe: Peter James Bjorklund
      Format/size: pdf (374K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2013


    • Armed conflict in Karen State - military activities and their impact on village life, including livelihood, health, education and land tenure security

      Individual Documents

      Title: Legal Memorandum: War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity in Eastern Myanmar
      Date of publication: 05 November 2014
      Description/subject: Conclusion: "...This memorandum describes a Myanmar military counterinsurgency offensive that involved the widespread targeting of civilians in northern Kayin State and eastern Bago Division. Myanmar Army soldiers fired mortars at villages, opened fire on fleeing villagers, destroyed homes, laid landmines in civilian locations, forced villagers to work and porter, and captured and executed civilians. The impact on the population was massive. Tens of thousands of individuals were displaced during the campaign and many were killed. In Thandaung Township—the area which was the focus of the Clinic’s investigation—nearly every village was affected by the Offensive and almost all of the villagers residing in black areas were forced to flee. Evidence collected by the Clinic during the investigation demonstrates that the actions of Myanmar Army personnel during the Offensive constitute crimes under international criminal law. These crimes include the war crimes of attacking civilians, displacing civilians, destroying or seizing the enemy’s property, pillage, murder, execution without due process, torture, and outrages upon personal dignity, and the crimes against humanity of forcible transfer of a population, murder, enslavement, torture, and other inhumane acts. The Clinic has also collected evidence relevant to the war crime of rape, as well as the crimes against humanity of rape and persecution. More research and analysis is necessary to determine whether these crimes could be included in a criminal case associated with the Offensive..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: International Human Rights Clinic at Harvard Law School
      Format/size: pdf (850-reduced version; 4.4MB-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://hrp.law.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/2014.11.05-IHRC-Legal-Memorandum.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 06 November 2014


      Title: Papun Situation Update: Bu Tho Township, July to October 2012
      Date of publication: 11 April 2013
      Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in November 2012 by a community member describing events occurring in Papun District, during the period between July 2012 to October 2012. It specifically discusses forced labour, torture, the activity of major armed groups in the Bu Tho Township area, including the KNLA, DKBA, Tatmadaw and BGF, as well as villagers' healthcare, education and livelihood problems. The report describes how BGF Battalion #1014, led by Commander Maw Hsee, continues to demand materials and forced labour from villagers in order to build army camps. The report also provides details about a 50-year-old L--- villager, named Maung P---, who was arrested and tortured by the Tatmadaw Military Operation Command Column #2, which is under Battalion #44 and commanded by Hay Tha and Aung Thu Ra, because he asked other villagers to deliver a letter that the Tatmadaw demanded he deliver. The report includes information about the different challenges villagers face in Burma government and non-government controlled areas, as well as the ways villagers access healthcare from the KNU or the Burma government. According to the community member, civilians continue to face problems with their livelihood, which are caused by BGF and DKBA activities, but are improving since the ceasefire; also described are problems faced by villagers caused by natural factors, such as unhealthy crops and flooding. In order to improve crop health, farmers are using traditional remedies, but the community member mentions that those remedies do not address the problems well. Moreover, this report mentions how villagers pursue alternative livelihoods during intervals between farming and to cope with food shortages, including logging and selling wood..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (271K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b18.html
      Date of entry/update: 30 April 2013


      Title: Nyaunglebin Situation Update: Ler Doh Township, November 2012 to January 2013
      Date of publication: 09 April 2013
      Description/subject: This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in January 2013 by a community member describing events occurring in Nyaunglebin District during the period between November 2012 and January 2013. Specifically, it describes the confiscation of more than 2375.14 acres of villagers' land by Tatmadaw Infantry Battalion #60. One villager was required by Light Infantry Battalion #264 soldiers to collect 250,000 kyat per month from the villagers who operate gold ore processing machines. The community member also describes how, despite the January 2012 ceasefire being in effect, the Tatmadaw continues to increase resupply missions in the area, which has created alarm amongst local civilians. As part of a CIDKP pilot project, 173 sacks of rice have been distributed to Muh Theh villagers. The community member reports that there was an increase in medical care in the area, where Tatmadaw medics travelled with armed soldiers to three towns in KNU-controlled areas in Kyauk Kyi Township, while FBR medics travelled with unarmed KNLA soldiers to Tatmadaw-controlled areas. In response to the land confiscation, villagers' reported their complaints by submitting a letter to the Burma government, however, no response had been received as of January.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (462K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b17.html
      Date of entry/update: 30 April 2013


      Title: Landmines shatter peace for villagers in eastern Burma
      Date of publication: 08 April 2013
      Description/subject: "To mark International Mine Awareness Day, Karen Human Rights Group published new data collected by community members in eastern Burma that describes the ongoing devastation caused by landmines. Each year the United Nations International Mine Awareness Day draws attention to the global impact of landmines and notes progress towards their eradication. Landmines continue to disrupt the potential for civilians to return to their way of life even after the conflict has subsided. Old landmines pose serious restrictions on villagers' ability to travel safely or resume farming and reconstruction of previously abandoned homes. Fatalities and injuries to people and livestock occur frequently, especially when there is no prior knowledge of the mined areas, making displaced communities particularly vulnerable."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (274K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13_landmine.html
      Date of entry/update: 30 April 2013


      Title: Incident Report: Violent abuse in Papun District, October 2012
      Date of publication: 01 April 2013
      Description/subject: "...The incident occurred on October 15th 2012 in Htee Th'Daw Hta village tract, Bu Tho Township, Papun District, when Saw P--- allowed his cow to graze on a vehicle road that had been closed by Saw Pah Mee, a Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) Commander. Upon encountering Saw P--- in the area under his control, Commander Saw Pah Mee blindfolded, punched, and left Saw P--- tied up overnight, as well as shooting one of his cows. The incident report also mentions the violent abuse of a Muslim villager, Saw L---, by Border Guard Commander #1014 Commander Maw Nee Hseh; details of this incident were described by the same community member in a previously published report: "Papun Situation Update: Bu Tho and Dwe Lo townships, September to December 2012," KHRG, March 2013..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (273K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b15.html
      Date of entry/update: 01 May 2013


      Title: Papun Situation Update: Bu Tho and Dwe Lo townships, September to December 2012
      Date of publication: 08 March 2013
      Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in January 2013 by a community member, who describes events occurring in Papun District during December 2012. Specific abuses include arbitrary arrest of a villager by a KNLA officer, Border Guard demands for money, labour, and items, religious discrimination by the Border Guard and a Buddhist monk, violent abuse, looting and movement restrictions through road closures. The community member reports how one KNLA Commander named Saw Hpah Mee arrested and tortured villager Saw M---, as well as shooting one of his cows, while Saw M--- was travelling to trade cows in Bu Tho Township, on the Thailand-Burma border, but was unaware that the road he used was closed. This report also describes how Border Guard Battalion #1014 soldiers arrested a Muslim villager who was selling his cows on the Thai border, and subsequently looted his money, and how Border Guard Battalion #1013 soldiers forced villagers to work for them and restricting them from trading. Also described in the report is a meeting held on September 10th 2012, during which a Buddhist monk informed villagers of four rules that were created to prohibit Buddhists from interacting with Muslims, which were distributed by the Border Guard. Villagers then reported this to the KNLA and the Tatmadaw, who subsequently held a meeting regarding the rules and explained that religious discrimination should not happen. Details on the incident are published in "Incident Report: Religious discrimination and restrictions in Papun District, September 2012," KHRG, March 2013.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (271K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b7.html
      Date of entry/update: 22 March 2013


      Title: Papun Situation Update: Lu Thaw Township, March to November 2012
      Date of publication: 25 February 2013
      Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in November 2012 by a community member describing events occurring in Lu Thaw Township, Papun District during the period between July 2012 and November 2012. It describes how the Tatmadaw continues to resupply and repair military infrastructure despite ongoing ceasefire talks with the KNU, as well as make new preparations for gold extraction projects. The Tatmadaw also tried to build relations with civilians by providing free food placed beside vehicle roads, but fears of poisoned food and mistrust prevented the civilians from accepting the food. On March 19th 2012, soldiers from the Tatmadaw LID #66 killed two villagers, 30 year-old Saw K--- and 19 year-old Saw E---, and injured one, 28 year-old Saw N---, when they crossed a road in K'Kyay Hta; the Tatmadaw took the 160,000 kyat that the victims were carrying. The civilians in the internally displaced persons areas still do not dare to show themselves to the Tatmadaw, and continue to monitor troop movement along vehicle roads. The situation update also discusses villagers' concerns regarding the ceasefire, describing how civilians want peace so that they can return to work on their land. Currently, heavy rains in 2011 and crop maladies have caused food security problems for many communities. In response, communities support one another with food transportation and use of traditional medicine cooperatives, which are still developing local involvement and action plans..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (410K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b2.html
      Date of entry/update: 22 March 2013


      Title: Papun Situation Update: Bu Tho Township, June 2012
      Date of publication: 12 October 2012
      Description/subject: This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in June 2012 by a community member describing events occurring in Papun District, during June 2012. Specifically discussed are Nay Pyi Daw military operations along Papun-Ka' Ma Moo vehicle road. It includes details on the location and names of the different NPD military camps that are based along the Papun-K'Ma Moh vehicle road.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (252K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b79.html
      Date of entry/update: 08 November 2012


      Title: Papun Situation Update: Northern Lu Thaw Township, March to June 2012
      Date of publication: 05 September 2012
      Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in June 2012 by a community member describing events occurring in Papun District, during the period between March and June 2012. Specifically described is the location of Tatmadaw operations in the twelve village tracts inside the Northern Lu Thaw Township, and the living conditions of the villagers from those village tracts. This report details military activities, such as sending rations and repairing bridges, and it also includes concerns the villagers have related to the military's activities and the permanence of the 2012 ceasefire. Other detailed information about the livelihood, healthcare, education, and the responsive strategies of the villagers, is also provided."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (268K); html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b75.html
      Date of entry/update: 05 November 2012


      Title: Papun Situation Update: Bu Tho Township, received April 2012
      Date of publication: 10 June 2012
      Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in April 2012 by a community member trained by KHRG describing events occurring in Bu Tho Township, Papun District, prior to April 2012. It contains updated information concerning an increase in Tatmadaw and Border Guard military activity since the January 2012 ceasefire agreement with the KNU, including more frequent transportation of rations, building materials and weapons, and an increase in troop deployment. It describes how Tatmadaw LIB #341, #434, #340, and #642 have established permanent bases by the Papun vehicle road, and how troops reportedly remain stationed at numerous bases along the Thailand-Burma border. Land confiscation for infrastructure projects and the construction of military bases and plantations is highlighted as a significant issue, and continued natural resource extraction also serves to limit the amount of cultivatable land available. State-led development projects at the village level are also cited as contributing to land confiscation as a result of demands for land from government officials involved. Information is also provided on the construction of a new village in Meh Pree Township by a monk in command of approximately 20-30 soldiers. Villagers continue to face demands for food and goods, such as thatch shingles, and demands for forced labour. Significantly, demands for money, or for villagers to serve as soldiers and guides or to perform sentry duty, has reportedly ceased, and there has been a reduction in travel restrictions since January 2012. Some limited landmine clearance is reported to have occurred after villagers discussed the problem with a Tatmadaw officer. Other villagers have adapted to the reduction of suitable farmland by trading livestock and transporting food to sell. Villagers also refused to comply with demands for land in exchange for electricity, and confronted officials over the issue."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (566K)
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2012


      Title: Sustained Tatmadaw resupply operations in Thaton, Nyaunglebin and Papun during ceasefire
      Date of publication: 31 May 2012
      Description/subject: "During the first three months after the January 2012 ceasefire between the Karen National Union (KNU) and the Burma government, villagers in Thaton, Nyaunglebin and Papun districts have raised concerns about Tatmadaw activity related to resupply operations, troop reinforcements and the transport of heavy artillery. LID #44 soldiers were deployed for road security purposes during military resupply operations at the end of January along the Bilin riverbank in Thaton District, while further north in Nyaunglebin District, LIB #702 transported rations, mortars and troop reinforcements, while Tatmadaw soldiers burned the vehicle road near three army camps. In Papun District, the vehicle road was repaired in early February before Tatmadaw soldiers transported supplies and troop reinforcements to camps in the area around Wa Klee Koo. The restricted scope of Tatmadaw operations since the ceasefire negotiations in January has allowed some villagers in Papun District to return to previously abandoned agricultural land. Villagers nonetheless complained of movement restrictions during military resupply operations, and expressed concerns that, because Tatmadaw troops have been reinforced and are now well-supplied, they will be in an advantageous position if the current ceasefire is broken."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (578K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b51.html
      Date of entry/update: 25 June 2012


      Title: Incident report: Four villagers forced to guide Tatmadaw troops in Thaton District
      Date of publication: 19 January 2012
      Description/subject: "The following incident report was written by a villager trained by KHRG to document human rights abuses, and details an incident that occurred in May 2011 during which Tatmadaw soldiers from LIB #216 arrested four villagers in Bilin Township, including two village headwomen, and forced them to accompany troops on active patrol. The two village headwomen told the villager who wrote this report that the Tatmadaw soldiers did not provide them with water nor allow them to return to their own village at night, forcing them to sleep in a monastery with the soldiers. One of the women said that the Tatmadaw soldiers told her that they were afraid they were going to be shot at by KNLA soldiers at the time she was forced to accompany them. The following morning, the four villagers successfully negotiated with the Tatmadaw commanding officers to secure their release and received 8,000 kyat (US $ 10.39) split unevenly between the four of them as compensation."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: html, pdf (269K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b5.html
      Date of entry/update: 23 January 2012


      Title: Dooplaya Situation Update: August 2011 to September 2011 [News Bulletin]
      Date of publication: 09 December 2011
      Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in September 2011 by a villager describing events and military activities occurring in Kawkareik Township, Dooplaya District, during the period between August and September 2011. The villager describes the shelling of civilian areas by DKBA troops resulting in the destruction of a villager’s house, and villagers’ fears of violence by DKBA forces following the defection of a DKBA soldier to Tatmadaw Border Guard troops and his transport through the area around their community. The report also details demands for payment issued by KNU/KNLA Peace Council soldiers; discusses the death of a KNU/KNLA Peace Council officer by natural causes; and raises villagers’ concerns about the flooding of bean and corn plantations along the Moei River at the beginning of September which resulted in destruction of farmers’ seeds and crops."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: html, pdf (203K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b53.html
      Date of entry/update: 18 January 2012


      Title: Villagers flee to avoid fighting and portering: Conflict continues to impact civilians in Dooplaya District
      Date of publication: 04 December 2010
      Description/subject: "Civilians in Dooplaya District continue to be impacted by conflict between the Tatmadaw and armed Karen groups, who have increased fighting in the area since November 7th 2010. The situation around Palu village remains highly unstable; in order to avoid conflict and conflict-related abuse, civilians are moving frequently between their homes and fields, more secure locations outside the village and along the Moei River, and both official and unofficial locations in Thailand's Phop Phra District. Residents of the community have told KHRG that they believe male villagers face a serious threat of being forcibly recruited as porters to support re-supply operations of Tatmadaw units deployed in the area, and that men in Palu are actively avoiding encountering Tatmadaw troops."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (494K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2010/khrg10b16.html
      Date of entry/update: 19 February 2012


      Title: Karen rebels go on offensive in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 16 November 2010
      Description/subject: While Myanmar's generals held their stage-managed elections, an ethnic rebel group forcibly seized control of two border towns and highlighted immediately the polls' ineffectiveness at achieving national reconciliation. Government forces on Tuesday forced the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) out of Myawaddy and Pyathounzu towns, but the attacks already had significant repercussions for the transition from military to civilian rule.
      Author/creator: Brian McCartan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asia Times Online
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


    • Armed conflict in Karen State - negotiations and ceasefire talks

      Individual Documents

      Title: Steps towards peace: Local participation in the Karen ceasefire process
      Date of publication: 07 November 2012
      Description/subject: "This commentary considers Karen villagers' perspectives on impacts of the ceasefire between the Karen National Union (KNU) and the Government of the Union of Myanmar. In light of their concerns, this commentary makes workable recommendations about what the most effective next steps could be for negotiating parties and for stakeholders in the ceasefire process. Building on KHRG's previous analysis in Safeguarding human rights in a post-ceasefire in eastern Burma, published in January 2012, this commentary brings to light new evidence of villagers' perspectives. Documentation received since the ceasefire reveals some positive changes, but also raises concerns about ongoing human rights abuses in the post-conflict environment, as a result of ingrained abusive practices and a lack of accountability, particularly in areas where there has been an increase in business, development, natural resource extraction, accompanied by a continued military presence. KHRG believes that the perpetration of abuses is exacerbated, and villagers' options to respond effectively limited, both by the lack of opportunities for genuine local input and a dearth of information-sharing concerning new developments. Analysis for this commentary was prepared based on a collaborative workshop held between all staff members at KHRG's administrative office, as well as field documentation and oral testimony received since January 2012 from villagers in all KHRG research areas, which incorporate all or parts of Kayin and Mon States, and Bago and Tanintharyi Regions..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (66K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12c3.html
      Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


      Title: The Karen National Union Negotiations 1949-2012
      Date of publication: June 2012
      Description/subject: "Since the beginning of hostilities officially declared on the 31st January 1949, the Karen National Union has consistently attempted to find an accommodation with the successive governments of Burma. While initial discussions centred on the recognition of a free Karen state of ‘Kawthoolei’ and the need to retain arms. Later talks, primarily those that began in 2004, sought merely to protect the Karen populace from further abuses at the hands of the Burmese army, the tatmadaw, and preserve some form of role for the organisation. This paper examines the various peace processes that have taken place since the outbreak of conflict and provides insight regarding the many KNU peace talks that have been held since 1949."
      Author/creator: Paul Keenan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Centre for Ethnic Studies (Working Paper No. 2)
      Format/size: pdf (1MB-OBL version; 3.2MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmaethnicstudies.net/pdf/BCES-WP-2.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 June 2012


    • Armed conflict in Karen State - the human rights situation

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Free Burma Rangers
      Description/subject: "... The Free Burma Rangers is an organization dedicated to freedom for the people of Burma. "De Oppresso Liber" is the motto of the Free Burma Rangers and we are dedicated in faith to the establishment of liberty, justice, equal rights and peace for all the people of Burma. The Free Burma Rangers support the restoration of democracy, ethnic rights and the implementation of the International Declaration of Human Rights in Burma. We stand with those who desire a nation where God's gifts of life, liberty, justice, pursuit of happiness and peace are ensured for all... MISSION: The mission of the Free Burma Rangers is to bring help, hope and love to the oppressed people of Burma. Its mission is also to help strengthen civil society, inspire and develop leadership that serves the people and act as a voice for the oppressed... ACTIONS: The Free Burma Rangers (FBR), conduct relief, advocacy, leadership development and unity missions among the people of Burma... Relief: ..."...FBR has issued some of the best documented reports on internal displacement/forced migration
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 May 2004


      Title: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Description/subject: The largest body of high-quality reports on the civil war in Burma, especially focussed on the civilian victims.
      Language: English, Karen
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/reports/karenlanguage/index.php
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The human rights situation in Karen State
      Description/subject: Link to the section on Discrimination Against the Karen in the OBL Human Rights section
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 June 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: Bitter Wounds and Lost Dreams: Human Rights Under Assault in Karen State, Burma
      Date of publication: 27 August 2012
      Description/subject: Findings: "Out of all 665 households surveyed, 30% reported a human rights violation. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation reported; 25% of households reported experiencing some form of forced labor in the past year, including being porters for the military, growing crops, and sweeping for landmines. Physical attacks were less common; about 1.3% of households reported kidnapping, torture, or sexual assault. Human rights violations were significantly worse in the area surveyed in Tavoy, Tenasserim Division, which is completely controlled by the Burmese government and is also the site of the Dawei port and economic development project. Our research shows that more people who lived in Tavoy experienced human rights violations than people who lived elsewhere in our sampling area. Specifically, the odds of having a family member forced to be a porter were 4.4 times higher than for families living elsewhere. The same odds for having to do other forms of forced labor, including building roads and bridges, were 7.9 times higher; for being blocked from accessing land, 6.2 times higher; and for restricted movement, 7.4 times higher for families in Tavoy than for families living elsewhere. The research indicates a correlation between development projects and human rights violations, especially those relating to land and displacement. PHR’s research indicated that 17.4% of households in Karen State reported moderate or severe household hunger, according to the FANTA-2 Household Hunger Scale, a measure of food insecurity. We found that 3.7% of children under 5 were moderately or severely malnourished, and 9.8% were mildly malnourished, as determined by measurements of middle-upper arm circumference. PHR conducted the survey immediately following the rice harvest in Karen State, and the results may therefore reflect the lowest malnutrition rates of the year.....Conclusion: PHR’s survey of human rights violations and humanitarian indicators in Karen State shows that human rights violations persist in Karen State, despite recent reforms on the part of President Thein Sein. Of particular concern is the prevalence of human rights violations even in areas where there is no active armed conflict, as well as the correlation between economic development projects and human rights violations. Our research found that human rights violations were up to 10 times higher around an economic development project than in other areas surveyed. Systemic reforms that establish accountability for perpetrators of human rights violations, full political participation by Karen people and other ethnic minorities, and access to essential services are necessary to support a successful transition to a fully functioning democracy..."
      Author/creator: Bill Davis ,MA, MPH; Andrea Gittleman, JD, PHR; Richard Sollom, MA, MPH, PHR; Adam Richards, MD, MPH; Chris Beyrer, MD, MPH; Forword by Óscar Arias Sánchez
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Physicians for Human Rights (PHR)
      Format/size: pdf (749K)
      Date of entry/update: 28 August 2012


    • Armed conflict in Karen State - the humanitarian situation

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Free Burma Rangers
      Description/subject: "... The Free Burma Rangers is an organization dedicated to freedom for the people of Burma. "De Oppresso Liber" is the motto of the Free Burma Rangers and we are dedicated in faith to the establishment of liberty, justice, equal rights and peace for all the people of Burma. The Free Burma Rangers support the restoration of democracy, ethnic rights and the implementation of the International Declaration of Human Rights in Burma. We stand with those who desire a nation where God's gifts of life, liberty, justice, pursuit of happiness and peace are ensured for all... MISSION: The mission of the Free Burma Rangers is to bring help, hope and love to the oppressed people of Burma. Its mission is also to help strengthen civil society, inspire and develop leadership that serves the people and act as a voice for the oppressed... ACTIONS: The Free Burma Rangers (FBR), conduct relief, advocacy, leadership development and unity missions among the people of Burma... Relief: ..."...FBR has issued some of the best documented reports on internal displacement/forced migration
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Free Burma Rangers
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 21 May 2004


      Title: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Description/subject: The largest body of high-quality reports on the civil war in Burma, especially focussed on the civilian victims.
      Language: English, Karen
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/reports/karenlanguage/index.php
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Armed groups operating in Karen State (military activities and impact on villagers)

      • Border Guard Forces (BGF) in Karen State

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Link to Border Guard Forces (all states)
        Description/subject: Further reports on BGF activities in Karen State can be found here
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 27 July 2013


        Individual Documents

        Title: BGF and KNLA grenades injure villagers and their children in Papun District
        Date of publication: 05 July 2013
        Description/subject: BGF and KNLA grenades injure villagers and their children in Papun District Download report as PDF [Adobe Acrobat PDF88 kb] This news bulletin is based on information submitted to KHRG in May 2013 by a community member describing grenade-related injuries suffered by villagers, including children, in Bu Tho Township, Papun District. In January 2013, a 23-year-old woman and her one-year-old son were injured when Tatmadaw Border Guard Force #1014 Company Sergeant Saw Day Day shot them with an inoperable grenade while intoxicated and in their home. In May 2013, grenade shrapnel injured a father and his two-month-old son when fighting broke out between Tatmadaw BGF #1014 forces and Karen National Liberation Army soldiers. All four injured villagers received treatment at Hkaw Taw Hpoh Hospital.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: pdf (88K), html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b42.html
        Date of entry/update: 10 August 2013


        Title: Hpa-an Photo Set: BGF production and sale of yaba in T'Nay Hsah and Ta Kreh townships
        Date of publication: 04 July 2013
        Description/subject: "This photo set includes three still photographs selected from images taken by a KHRG community member; one was taken in April 2013 and two were taken in June 2012. The photographs were taken in T'Nay Hsah Township, Hpa-an District and depict a tablet form of methamphetamine for sale, which is known locally as yaba, meaning 'crazy medicine' in Thai. The yaba pictured below was manufactured and sold by the Border Guard Force (BGF) Battalion #1016's commander, Mya Khaing, who is based in T'Nay Hsah Township. According to the community member who took these photos, the sale of the drug is pervasive throughout T'Nay Hsah and Ta Kreh townships and has seriously harmed many teenage villagers' lives and put some families in debt as a result.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: pdf (150K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b40.html
        Date of entry/update: 10 August 2013


        Title: Dooplaya Situation Update: Kyone Doh Township, July to November 2012
        Date of publication: 11 June 2013
        Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in December 2012 by a community member describing events occurring in Dooplaya District, between July and November 2012. The report describes problems relating to land confiscation and contains updated information regarding the sale of forest reserve for rubber plantations involving the BGF, with individuals who profited from the sale listed. Villagers in the area rely heavily upon the forest reserve for their livelihoods and are faced with a shortage of land for their animals to graze upon; further, villagers cows have been killed if they have continued to let them graze in the area. The community member explains that although fighting has ceased since the ceasefire agreement, otherwise the situation is the same; taxation demands and loss of livelihoods has resulted in villagers being forced to take odd jobs for daily wages, while some have left for foreign countries in search of work. Villagers have some access to healthcare and education supported by the Government, the KNU and local organizations..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: pdf (62K), html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b33.html
        Date of entry/update: 27 July 2013


        Title: BGF Battalion #1014 forced labour and forced recruitment, April to May 2012
        Date of publication: 31 May 2013
        Description/subject: This report is based on information submitted by a community member in June 2012 describing events occurring in April and May 2012.[1] The information described the activities of BGF Battalion #1014, which operates along the border of Thaton and Papun districts. According to the community member, the group that is based out of Hpa-an Township, in Thaton District, has committed different abuses against the villagers who are in Hpa-an Township. Between April and May 2012, the Battalion forced local villagers from Meh K'Na Hkee village tract to clear plantation land for two companies, from whom the Battalion officers received money. In Kyon Mon Thweh village tract, villagers were required to serve as soldiers in a local militia.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: pdf (42K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b29.html
        Date of entry/update: 22 June 2013


        Title: Incident Report: Forced recruitment in Thaton District #2, May 2012
        Date of publication: 31 May 2013
        Description/subject: The following incident report was written by a community member who has been trained by KHRG to monitor human rights abuses. The community member who wrote this report described an incident that occurred on May 29th 2012 in Kyoh Moh Thweh village tract, Hpa-an Township, Thaton District, where a group of BGF Battalion #1014 soldiers forcibly recruited villagers for a people’s militia. This report also includes information about the consequent problems the villagers endured related to this forced recruitment, such as having to pay money in lieu, or fleeing the area in order to avoid recruitment. In response to previous forced recruitment efforts, the community member reported that several villagers fled the area in order to avoid the forced service. This report has been summarized along with three other Incident Reports received from this area in: “Border Guard #1014 forced labour and forced recruitment, April to May 2012,” KHRG, May 2013.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: pdf (119K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b27.html, html
        Date of entry/update: 22 June 2013


        Title: Incident Report: Forced recruitment in Thaton District #1, May 2012
        Date of publication: 29 May 2013
        Description/subject: The following incident report was written by a community member who has been trained by KHRG to monitor human rights abuses. The community member who wrote this report described that on May 29th 2012, villagers were ordered to be recruited for a one-year service by Moe Nyo, a fomer DKBA leader now serving as a company commander in the BGF Battalion #1014, in order to form a new people's militia group. The cost to avoid service was 50,000 kyat per month, which the villagers reported having difficulties with raising. Some villagers who refused to serve, but lacked the money to opt-out and responded to the order by fleeing their village. This report has been summarized along with three other Incident Reports received from this area in: "BGF Battalion #1014 forced labour and forced recruitment, April to May 2012," KHRG, May 2013.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: pdf (91K), html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b26.html
        Date of entry/update: 22 June 2013


        Title: Incident Report: Land confiscation and forced labour in Thaton District, April 2012
        Date of publication: 27 May 2013
        Description/subject: The following incident report was written by a community member who has been trained by KHRG to monitor human rights abuses, which describes an incident that occurred on April 25th 2012, when BGF soldiers forced villagers from T--- village, Meh K'Na Hkee village tract, Hpa-an Township, Thaton District, to clear plantations owned by Thein Lay Myaing and Shwe Than Lwin companies, which were located on land confiscated from the villagers. The report identifies the perpetrators as Thein Lay Myaing and Shwe Than Lwin companies, KSDDP and a company affiliated with BGF Battalion #1014, commanded by Tin Win and based out of Law Pu village in Hpa-an Township. This report has been summarized along with three other Incident Reports received from this area in: "BGF Battalion #1014 forced labour and forced recruitment, April to May 2012," KHRG, May 2013.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: pdf (125K), html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b24.html
        Date of entry/update: 18 June 2013


        Title: Hpa-an Situation Update: T'Nay Hsah Township, November to December 2012
        Date of publication: 29 March 2013
        Description/subject: This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in December 2012 by a community member describing events occurring in Hpa-an District, between November and December 2012. The report details the concerns of villagers in T'Nay Hsah Township, who have faced significant declines in their paddy harvest due to bug infestation. The community member also raises villagers' concerns regarding the cutting down of teak-like trees by developers, for the establishment of rubber plantations. The report describes how this activity seriously threatens villagers' livelihoods, and takes place via the cooperation of companies and wealthy individuals with the Burma government. The report goes on to detail demands placed upon villagers by the Border Guard Force (BGF) to contribute money to pay soldiers' salaries. Though the community member reports that these demands are not as forcibly implemented as in the past; villagers still face threats if they do not comply. Many villagers in the area, however, have chosen not to pay the money requested of them by the BGF.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: pdf (129K), html
        Date of entry/update: 01 May 2013


        Title: Incident Report: Forced Labour in Papun District #2, February 2012
        Date of publication: 29 March 2013
        Description/subject: "The following incident report was submitted to KHRG in May 2012 by a community member describing an incident that began on February 22nd 2012 in Dwe Lo Township, Papun District, where Border Guard Force (BGF) Battalion #1014 soldiers forced between 70 or 80 villagers to construct their army camp without providing any wage, the necessary building materials for construction or medical care for villagers who became sick while labouring. According to the community member who wrote this report, forced labour demands continue, but are described by villagers as having decreased to a level with which the demands do not significantly infringe upon their normal routine and less precautions are taken..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: pdf (161K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b13.html
        Date of entry/update: 01 May 2013


        Title: Border Guard #1014 demands for labour and goods in Papun District, May 2012
        Date of publication: 25 March 2013
        Description/subject: "This report is based on information submitted to KHRG in May 2012 by a community member[1] describing events occurring in Papun District, in May 2012, involving soldiers from Border Guard Battalion #1014, which is based out of K'Ter Tee and Hpaw Htee Hku villages. Commander Nyunt Thein and his Battalion Commander Maung Chit from the Battalion #1014 were identified, by name, as the ones who committed the abuses. Villagers were forced to build a camp for the Battalion #1014, which was also reported to have looted items from the villagers and forced them to do the camp's work, all of which is uncompensated..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: pdf (254K), html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b9.html
        Date of entry/update: 01 May 2013


      • Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA)

        Individual Documents

        Title: Incident Report: Violent abuse in Papun District, October 2012
        Date of publication: 01 April 2013
        Description/subject: "...The incident occurred on October 15th 2012 in Htee Th'Daw Hta village tract, Bu Tho Township, Papun District, when Saw P--- allowed his cow to graze on a vehicle road that had been closed by Saw Pah Mee, a Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) Commander. Upon encountering Saw P--- in the area under his control, Commander Saw Pah Mee blindfolded, punched, and left Saw P--- tied up overnight, as well as shooting one of his cows. The incident report also mentions the violent abuse of a Muslim villager, Saw L---, by Border Guard Commander #1014 Commander Maw Nee Hseh; details of this incident were described by the same community member in a previously published report: "Papun Situation Update: Bu Tho and Dwe Lo townships, September to December 2012," KHRG, March 2013..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: pdf (273K), html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2013/khrg13b15.html
        Date of entry/update: 01 May 2013


  • Armed conflict in Karenni State

    Individual Documents

    Title: Analysis paper on the ceasefire process between the Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP) and the Burmese government in the last six months
    Date of publication: 31 October 2012
    Description/subject: "...KCSN believes that only through negotiation between both parties to seek solutions to the problems in Karenni State, as agreed during the State Level and Union Level talks, can genuine and permanent peace be achieved. To reach sustainable peace, there must be mutual respect, mutual trust building, and cooperation in implementing the ceasefire agreements, not only in words but through practical action. During President Thein Sein’s inaugural speech, he laid down plans for reform and stated that to establish lasting peace in the country, the three basic principles of peace, stability, and development must be accepted and established to pave the way for reform. However, unless there is genuine peace that ensures long-term stability, development projects will bring no sustainable benefit to the people. In Kachin State, during 17 years of ceasefire, large numbers of development projects were set up in Kachin State, but after the breakdown of the ceasefire, a total of 25 bridges were destroyed, 100,000 refugees and IDPs had to flee from their homes, and more than 50 schools had to be closed down. Based on the Kachin people’s experience, it can be concluded that without political settlement that ensures equality for everyone, there can be no sustainable development for the people of Burma..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karenni Civil Societies Network (KCSN)
    Format/size: pdf (319K)
    Date of entry/update: 05 November 2012


  • Armed conflict in Shan State

    • Armed conflict in Shan State - general articles

      Individual Documents

      Title: Myanmar's long road to peace
      Date of publication: 02 March 2014
      Description/subject: "Despite a ceasefire signed in 2011, clashes continue between ethnic Shan rebels and government troops....Like many other armed ethnic groups, the SSA-S signed a ceasefire after Myanmar transitioned to a nominally civilian government in 2011. Deadly clashes between SSA-S forces and the Myanmar military, however, continue despite the agreement. Accordingly, Myanmar's government is pushing the country's armed ethnic groups to sign a new nationwide ceasefire this year..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014


      Title: Tensions and Concerns in Shan State
      Date of publication: May 2013
      Description/subject: "As the Thein Sein Government’s peace process with its armed ethnic minorities continues, concerns remain in relation to Burma Army activities in Shan State and claims that the UWSA has increased its arsenal and is seeking an autonomous Wa State. Although armed ethnic groups, like the RCSS-SSA, have continually attempted to minimalize the impact of various clashes with the Burma Army, the continuing offensive in Northern Shan State, the on-going conflict in Kachin State, and reports of a possible offensive against the Wa further threatens peace in the area and could result in both the RCSS/SSA and the UWSA being drawn into a much wider conflict..."
      Author/creator: Editor: Lian H. Sakhong | Author: Paul Keenan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Centre for Ethnic Studies (Analysis Paper No. 7, May 2013)
      Format/size: pdf (184-OBL version; 211K-original))
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmaethnicstudies.net/pdf/BCES-AP-7.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 June 2013


    • Armed conflict in Shan State - displacement and the humanitarian situation

      Individual Documents

      Title: Statement from TSYO and PWO on current situation: The Burmese government must immediately end human rights violations, including violence against women, in Palaung areas
      Date of publication: 06 May 2013
      Description/subject: "During the past four months, the Burmese Army has been carrying out fierce military offensives in Palaung areas against the Shan State Army-North (SSA-N), Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and Ta’ang National Liberation Army (TNLA). The Palaung Women’s Organization and Ta’ang Students and Youth Organization (TSYO) are gravely concerned at the impacts of the fighting on local communities, who have suffered widespread abuses by the Burmese military. Women have been raped, and young girls forced at gunpoint to guide and porter for Burmese troops. Villagers have been killed by landmines while tied up and forced to work as porters. Thousands of people in Palaung areas have fled their homes due to attacks and human rights abuses since the renewed fighting against the KIA, TNLA and SSA-N in 2011. Over 2,000 in Mantong and Namkham, and 2,000 in Kutkhai have become internally displaced person in Mantong, Namkham and Kutkhai, and over 1,500 have been displaced in Tangyan..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Palaung Women's Organisation (PWO), Ta'ang Student and Youth Organization (TSYO), Ta'ang (Palaung ) Working Group
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 May 2013


    • Armed conflict in Shan State - the human rights situation

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Shan Herald Agency for News (S.H.A.N.)
      Description/subject: Almost daily email distribution of news items on the Shan. Click on "News" in the left frame. Archive from May 1999 on the website, which also carries the archive of the monthly reports of the Shan Human Rights Foundation (for which, click on SHRF at the bottom, and then on "Monthly Report," top left). There are also a number of substantial constitutional/Shan documents on the site.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: S.H.A.N
      Subscribe: Write to shan@cm.ksc.co.th to be put on the distribution list.
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Shan Human Rights Foundation
      Description/subject: Contains the Shan Human Rights Foundation Monthly newsletters from 1998
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Shan Human Rights Foundation (SHRF)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 07 December 2009


      Title: Shan Women's Action Network (SWAN)
      Description/subject: "SWAN is a founding member of the Women's League of Burma (WLB), an umbrella women's organization comprising eleven women's groups from Burma. SWAN, through its affiliation with other women's organizations, establishes common platforms to promote the role of women from Burma in the struggle for democracy and human rights in their country. SWAN's objectives: * Promoting women's rights and the rights of children; * Opposing exploitation of and violence against women and children; * Working together for peace and freedom in our society; * Empowering women for a better life; * Raising awareness to preserve natural resources and the environment. Background of SWAN SWAN was set up on 28 March 1999 by a group of Shan women active in Thailand and along the Thai- Burma border seeking to address the needs of Shan women. In fact, before the formation of SWAN, Shan women in various locations had already been active in a number of projects to assist women. Even though informal networks were in place, it was felt that more could be achieved, in addressing both practical and strategic needs of Shan women, if a more concrete network among the various women could be formed. This Shan women's network would also be able to coordinate with other women's organizations from Burma, as well as GOs and NGOs working with women locally, nationally and internationally. General Background The Shan State is over 64,000 square kilometers in size and forms the eastern part of the Union of Burma bordering China, Laos and Thailand. The people of the Shan State, like in other areas of Burma, suffer from abuse inflicted by the Burmese military regime, which according to Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch Asia is amongst the worst in the world. The abuse inflicted on the Shan people by the Burmese military has forced many people to flee for their lives to Thailand. The Thai government, however, does not recognize the Shan people as refugees and unlike the Karen and Karenni refugees, has not allowed them to set up refugees camps along the Thai-Burmese border. Consequently the Shans are forced to enter Thailand illegally, which leaves them extremely vulnerable to exploitation and abuse. Despite this, Shan people are still coming to take refuge in Thailand. The estimated number of Shans working illegally in Thailand is at least 300,000. Among them are many girls and young women who have been trafficked into Thai brothels, where they face a wide range of abuse including sexual and other physical violence, debt bondage, exposure to HIV/AIDS, forced labor without payment and illegal confinement..." Reports, programmes etc.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Shan Women's Action Network (SWAN)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: April 2003


      Title: The human rights situation in Shan State
      Description/subject: Link to "Discrimination Against the Shan" in the OBL Human Rights section
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 20 June 2012