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Information services in Burma/Myanmar
Print, broadcast and Internet media, libraries etc.

  • Information services - print, broadcast and Internet media, libraries etc.

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: "Telecoms" ("Myanmar Times" Special Issue on Telecommunications - May, 2012) တယ္လီကြန္း
    Date of publication: May 2012
    Description/subject: Myanmar Times special issue about Telecommunication and Internet connection of Myanmar. ျမန္မာတိုင္းမ္ ရဲ႔ အထူူးထုတ္ အခ်ပ္ပို၊ ျမန္မာ တယ္လီကြန္ျမဴနီေကးရွင္း နဲ႔ အင္တာနက္ ဆက္သြယ္မႈ အေၾကာင္း။
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: pdf (753K-OBL version; 1.19MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.myanmar.mmtimes.com/2012/news/568/telecom.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 25 August 2012


    Title: "BurmaNet News" Media archive
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


    Title: Online news services
    Description/subject: See the various news services listed in the Online Burma/Myanmar Library's Reading Room
    Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 22 July 2014


    Individual Documents

    Title: Myanmar Library Survey - a comprehensive study of the country's public libraries and information needs
    Date of publication: January 2014
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: The Myanmar Library Survey is the first in- depth nationwide study of the country’s public libraries. Commissioned by The Asia Foundation in partnership with the Myanmar Book Aid and Preservation Foundation (MBAPF), the survey aimed to establish a comprehensive, current picture of the Myanmar public library system to help inform the development of Myanmar’s information architecture and community initiatives. While much can be done to improve infrastructure and better support their role as information hubs, the survey reveals that citizens perceive libraries as having a significant and positive impact on community life. The survey findings will be circulated amongst key stakeholders, including governmental officials, policy makers, local and international non-governmental organizations, civil society, and local communities. A country coming out of decades of isolation, Myanmar is now rapidly building the information infrastructure needed for its citizens to participate in the reform process and compete in the global marketplace. Myanmar’s reverence toward libraries and its vast library network has the potential to aid this process. This study focuses on public libraries – defined in Myanmar as libraries registered with the government – because of their accessibility to a wider number of people and potential for scalability. In addition to public libraries, Myanmar has university, monastic, private, and specialized libraries, few of which register as public libraries. There are 55,755 registered public libr aries in the country, but only 4,868 are considered active. Prior to this study, very little was known about them. The objectives of the project were to sample active public libraries in order to: ..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Foundation, Myanmar Book Aid and Preservation Foundation
    Format/size: pdf (1.8MB-reduced version; 3.11MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/MyanmarLibrarySurvey.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 21 July 2014


    Title: Myanmar Library Survey - Executive Summary (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
    Date of publication: January 2014
    Description/subject: "The Myanmar Library Survey is the first in- depth nationwide study of the country’s public libraries. Commissioned by The Asia Foundation in partnership with the Myanmar Book Aid and Preservation Foundation (MBAPF), the survey aimed to establish a comprehensive, current picture of the Myanmar public library system to help inform the development of Myanmar’s information architecture and community initiatives. While much can be done to improve infrastructure and better support their role as information hubs, the survey reveals that citizens perceive libraries as having a significant and positive impact on community life. The survey findings will be circulated amongst key stakeholders, including governmental officials, policy makers, local and international non-governmental organizations, civil society, and local communities. A country coming out of decades of isolation, Myanmar is now rapidly building the information infrastructure needed for its citizens to participate in the reform process and compete in the global marketplace. Myanmar’s reverence toward libraries and its vast library network has the potential to aid this process. This study focuses on public libraries – defined in Myanmar as libraries registered with the government – because of their accessibility to a wider number of people and potential for scalability. In addition to public libraries, Myanmar has university, monastic, private, and specialized libraries, few of which register as public libraries. There are 55,755 registered public libr aries in the country, but only 4,868 are considered active. Prior to this study, very little was known about them. The objectives of the project were to sample active public libraries in order to: ..."
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: Asia Foundation, Myanmar Book Aid and Preservation Foundation
    Format/size: pdf (2.2MB-reduced version; 7.53-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/LibraryExeSumMMBurmese.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 22 July 2014


    Title: Myanmar Library Survey - Executive Summary (English)
    Date of publication: January 2014
    Description/subject: "The Myanmar Library Survey is the first in- depth nationwide study of the country’s public libraries. Commissioned by The Asia Foundation in partnership with the Myanmar Book Aid and Preservation Foundation (MBAPF), the survey aimed to establish a comprehensive, current picture of the Myanmar public library system to help inform the development of Myanmar’s information architecture and community initiatives. While much can be done to improve infrastructure and better support their role as information hubs, the survey reveals that citizens perceive libraries as having a significant and positive impact on community life. The survey findings will be circulated amongst key stakeholders, including governmental officials, policy makers, local and international non-governmental organizations, civil society, and local communities. A country coming out of decades of isolation, Myanmar is now rapidly building the information infrastructure needed for its citizens to participate in the reform process and compete in the global marketplace. Myanmar’s reverence toward libraries and its vast library network has the potential to aid this process. This study focuses on public libraries – defined in Myanmar as libraries registered with the government – because of their accessibility to a wider number of people and potential for scalability. In addition to public libraries, Myanmar has university, monastic, private, and specialized libraries, few of which register as public libraries. There are 55,755 registered public libr aries in the country, but only 4,868 are considered active. Prior to this study, very little was known about them. The objectives of the project were to sample active public libraries in order to: ..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Foundation, Myanmar Book Aid and Preservation Foundation
    Format/size: pdf (950-reduced version; 3.9MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/MMLibraryExecSummary.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 22 July 2014


    Title: Arakan Goes Mobile
    Date of publication: May 2006
    Description/subject: "Bangladeshi mobile phones flood into Burma’s Arakan State... Burmese junta-backed businessmen strike cross-border deals, and human rights workers can speak directly to witnesses at the scene—Bangladeshi mobile phones are slowly opening up northern Arakan State. Even the much-abused Burmese Muslims of Maungdaw Township are said to be developing a taste for mobile technology. The slow trickle of handsets that first began traveling east over the Bangladesh-Burma border at Teknaf and other crossings 18 months ago has now reportedly turned into a flood. Just don’t tell the local authorities you’ve got one..."
    Author/creator: Clive Parker
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 December 2006


  • Specialist organisations and resources

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Details on 2013 Myanmar Update
    Date of publication: 13 February 2013
    Description/subject: "On 15-16 March 2013 the Australian National University’s Department of Political and Social Change will, once again, host the Myanmar/Burma Update Conference. Through all of the long, hard years of Myanmar’s dictatorship and pro-democracy struggles the conference sought to explore issues relevant to the country’s society, politics and economy. It has always sought to present explicitly “current affairs” analysis. The Updates have also, over the years, led to a long list of edited publications. With all of the changes, both good and ill, that have occurred in Myanmar since the last Update in 2011 this year’s event promises to be particularly notable. A range of Myanmar, international and Australian scholars have been invited to present their latest work on the process of democratisation, and wider political, economic and social changes. There will be Andrew Selth on the police, Sean Turnell on the economy and U Oo Hla Saw on problems in Rakhine State. And that’s just on the second day!"
    Author/creator: Nicholas Farrelly
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 16 July 2014


    Title: Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression
    Description/subject: Mandate: The Special Rapporteur is mandated by HRC resolution 7/36: (a) To gather all relevant information, wherever it may occur, relating to violations of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, discrimination against, threats or use of violence, harassment, persecution or intimidation directed at persons seeking to exercise or to promote the exercise of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, including, as a matter of high priority, against journalists or other professionals in the field of information; (b) To seek, receive and respond to credible and reliable information from Governments, non-governmental organizations and any other parties who have knowledge of these cases; (c) To make recommendations and provide suggestions on ways and means to better promote and protect the right to freedom of opinion and expression in all its manifestations; and (d) To contribute to the provision of technical assistance or advisory services by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to better promote and protect the right to freedom of opinion and expression. Working methods In the discharge of his mandate the Special Rapporteur: a) Transmits urgent appeals and letters of allegation to Member States on alleged violations of the right to freedom of opinion and expression. The Special Rapporteur summarises these communications as well as replies received from Governments in an annual report submitted to the Human Rights Council (See Individual Complaints). b) Undertakes fact-finding country visits. c) Submits annual reports covering activities relating to the mandate to the Human Rights Council and to the General Assembly (starting in 2010 for the latter).
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 16 September 2011


    Individual Documents

    Title: Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Frank La Rue
    Date of publication: 16 May 2011
    Description/subject: Summary: "This report explores key trends and challenges to the right of all individuals to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds through the Internet. The Special Rapporteur underscores the unique and transformative nature of the Internet not only to enable individuals to exercise their right to freedom of opinion and expression, but also a range of other human rights, and to promote the progress of society as a whole. Chapter III of the report underlines the applicability of international human rights norms and standards on the right to freedom of opinion and expression to the Internet as a communication medium, and sets out the exceptional circumstances under which the dissemination of certain types of information may be restricted. Chapters IV and V address two dimensions of Internet access respectively: (a) access to content; and (b) access to the physical and technical infrastructure required to access the Internet in the first place. More specifically, chapter IV outlines some of the ways in which States are increasingly censoring information online, namely through: arbitrary blocking or filtering of content; criminalization of legitimate expression; imposition of intermediary liability; disconnecting users from Internet access, including on the basis of intellectual property rights law; cyberattacks; and inadequate protection of the right to privacy and data protection. Chapter V addresses the issue of universal access to the Internet. The Special Rapporteur intends to explore this topic further in his future report to the General Assembly. Chapter VI contains the Special Rapporteur’s conclusions and recommendations concerning the main subjects of the report. The first addendum to the report comprises a summary of communications sent by the Special Rapporteur between 20 March 2010 and 31 March 2011, and the replies received from Governments. The second and third addenda contain the findings of the Special Rapporteur’s missions to the Republic of Korea and Mexico respectively."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (A/HRC/17/27)
    Format/size: pdf (135K)
    Date of entry/update: 16 September 2011


  • Media - control of media in Burma

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: "FREE PRESS DAY" ("Myanmar Times" Special Issue on World Press Freedom Day - May 3, 2012) ကမၻာ႔သတင္း လြတ္လပ္ခြင့္ေန႔
    Date of publication: 10 May 2012
    Description/subject: Silence Kills Democracy But a Free Press Talks: Vol.29, No. 567 ..... ကမၻာ႔သတင္း လြတ္လပ္ခြင့္ေန႔ - ဆိတ္ဆိတ္ေနျခင္းသည္ ဒီမိုကေရစီကို ဆိတ္သုဥ္းေစသည္။ အတြဲ ၂၉၊ အမွတ္ ၅၆၇ ( ၄ - ၁ဝ၊ ၅၊ ၂ဝ၁၂) ၏ အထူးထုတ္ စာေစာင္။
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: pdf (660K-OBL version; 1.13MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.myanmar.mmtimes.com/2012/news/567/World%20PressDay.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 23 August 2012


    Title: "BurmaNet News" Media archive
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


    Title: Freedom of opinion and expression: reports of violations in Burma
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Online Burma/Myanmar Library
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 16 September 2011


    Title: OpenNet Initiative
    Description/subject: Monitors Internet filtering....."The OpenNet Initiative is a collaborative partnership of four leading academic institutions: the Citizen Lab at the Munk Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto; Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University; the Advanced Network Research Group at the Cambridge Security Programme, University of Cambridge; and the Oxford Internet Institute, Oxford University. Our aim is to investigate, expose and analyze Internet filtering and surveillance practices in a credible and non-partisan fashion. We intend to uncover the potential pitfalls and unintended consequences of these practices, and thus help to inform better public policy and advocacy work in this area. To achieve these aims, the ONI employs a unique multi-disciplinary approach that includes: 1. Development and deployment of a suite of technical enumeration tools and core methodologies for the study of Internet filtering and surveillance; 2. Capacity-building among networks of local advocates and researchers; 3. Advanced studies exploring the consequences of current and future trends and trajectories in filtering and surveillance practices, and their implications for domestic and international law and governance regimes..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: OpenNet Initiative
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 December 2009


    Individual Documents

    Title: Code of silence: A reporter's lot in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 02 June 2014
    Description/subject: "Reporters seeking information from government ministries know that the task is fraught with “ifs”. If they can find a phone number and if the phone call goes through and if someone does answer and if it is indeed the correct person, chances are they will get a gruff brush-off. All the ministries in Nay Pyi Taw have official spokespersons, as part of changes to improve transparency and media relations initiated by President U Thein Sein, but few, if any, actually speak to the press. Deputy Minister for Information U Ye Htut says attempts to encourage these spokespersons to engage with the media have largely failed due to a continued wariness of the press and a lack of access to high-level discussions."
    Author/creator: Tim McLaughlin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 09 June 2014


    Title: Censorship rears its head in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 29 August 2013
    Description/subject: "One year after the government officially struck down laws obstructing free press in Myanmar, a parliamentary bill could allow previous censorship practices to re-emerge. When Thein Sein's Union Solidarity and Development party government ended the last of the censorship laws in August last year, many hailed a new era of free expression and an end to the pressures placed on journalists over the previous half century. Still, many journalists are concerned by the state of media reform in the country. Currently, a publishing bill that critics say gives the Ministry of Information (MOI) overly broad powers to issue and revoke publication licenses has been passed by the lower house of parliament and is set for consideration by the upper house..."
    Author/creator: Roger Hamilton-Martin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 May 2014


    Title: Reforming Telecommunications in Burma - Human Rights and Responsible Investment in Mobile and the Internet
    Date of publication: 19 May 2013
    Description/subject: "In January 2013, the Burmese government announced plans to liberalize the country’s telecommunications sector and invited bids for two nationwide telecommunications licenses. Successful bidders will be allowed to provide a range of services, including mobile and Internet services. The Burmese government has promised to significantly reduce the cost of mobile phones and has set an ambitious goal of 50 percent mobile penetration by 2016, a remarkable increase from current penetration estimated at 5-10 percent. Human Rights Watch has long believed that Internet and mobile technologies have an enormous potential to advance human rights. Developing Burma’s information and communications technology (ICT) and telecommunications sectors could enhance economic growth and civic participation in a country that has been closed for decades. Email, social media, and cell phones have become essential tools for journalists, human rights defenders, and civil society groups worldwide because these technologies support instant communication, access to information, and effective organization on the ground. However, these benefits may be jeopardized unless governments and corporations safeguard the ability of people to use new technologies freely and without fear of reprisal. Improved telecommunications networks can become powerful tools for censorship and illegal surveillance, absent protections for human rights and other critical measures. Yet Burma’s democratic reforms remain incomplete and the government and its security forces continue to commit serious human rights violations. Companies entering Burma face a significant risk of contributing to abuses, particularly in sectors, such as telecommunications and the Internet, that have been linked with past abuses and where rights-based reforms to date have been inadequate. Opening up these sectors to international investment raises the risk that the government may seek to involve technology companies in illegal surveillance, censorship, and other abuses. In this report, Human Rights Watch has outlined several steps necessary to promote adequate human rights protections for Internet and mobile phone users in Burma, and the actions needed to foster responsible investment in Burma’s telecommunications and Internet sectors. Telecommunications and ICT companies should not move forward in Burma until such measures are in place, in view of the human rights risks. The analysis and recommendations contained in this report are based on research conducted from February to April 2013. The report’s analysis focuses on laws most relevant to Burma’s telecommunications and ICT sectors, and does not provide a comprehensive treatment of Burma’s laws, legal system or constitution...To respect the rights of the people of Burma, international telecommunications and ICT companies should take meaningful steps at the outset to assess the human rights impact and address any harm that may result from their operations. They should conduct what is often referred to as “human rights due diligence” and adopt robust safeguards to prevent and address abuses, including with respect to the rights to freedom of expression, access to information, and privacy..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: pdf (295K-OBL version; 474K-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/reports/2013/05/19/reforming-telecommunications-burma'>http://www.hrw.org/reports/2013/05/19/reforming-telecommunications-burma
    http://www.hrw.org/reports/2013/05/19/reforming-telecommunications-burma'>http://www.hrw.org/reports/2013/05/19/reforming-telecommunications-burma
    Date of entry/update: 23 May 2013


    Title: Myanmar media reform: Publish and be damned?
    Date of publication: 07 January 2013
    Description/subject: "The announcement was hailed around the world as a further sign of reform: Myanmar would again allow privately owned daily newspapers from April 1. In the media industry, where companies and journalists have lobbied hard for the right to publish daily rather than weekly, the news was greeted with a mixture of relief and trepidation, as the reality of compiling, printing and distributing a newspaper every 24 hours sunk in..."
    Author/creator: By Kyaw Hsu Mon and Nan Tin Htwe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 09 January 2013


    Title: Censorship: a foreigner’s experience
    Date of publication: 31 December 2012
    Description/subject: "I am confident I am speaking on behalf of all journalists working in the private sector in Myanmar – and perhaps most of those working for state-run newspapers – when I say that up until August this year censorship has been the curse of our professional lives. On a personal level my response to censorship has ranged from quiet exasperation to furious contempt. Censorship has been the cause of outbursts in the news room which proved beyond any doubt to many of my Myanmar colleagues that I am an uncivilised barbarian; it is the ostensible reason why my dearest Myanmar friend, Sonny Swe, the former deputy CEO of The Myanmar Times, one of the few civilian victims of the purge of Military Intelligence in 2004, was sentenced to 14 years’ jail the following year. It was eight years in November since he was taken away. I knew that I would be working under one of the worst censorship regimes in the world when I accepted a position with The Myanmar Times in June 2001, so what was the attraction?..."
    Author/creator: Geoffrey Goddard
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 09 January 2013


    Title: On protests and media in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 01 June 2012
    Description/subject: "If you want a quick illustration of how much some things are changing in Myanmar then this article is a pretty good place to start. Let’s tick off the key parts of the story. Facebook. Popular protest. Protestors greivances aired. Quoted responses from two government representatives. Clear official sympathy for the greivances, with some indication of improvements to come. Kudos to all the journalists in Myanmar who are now getting a chance to show what they can really do. Full media freedom in Myanmar? Will the day arrive sooner than many thought?"
    Author/creator: Nicholas Farrelly
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 July 2014


    Title: Burma: Role of freedom of expression in democratisation processes
    Date of publication: 29 March 2012
    Description/subject: 29 Mar 2012 Presentation to the Conference on Media Development in Myanmar, Organised by the Ministry of Information and UNESCO Rangoon, Myanmar, March 19-20, 2012.....CONCLUSION: "...At the outset I emphasised that law is the essential business of government and noted the critical part to be played by the tripartite system of law making, law enacting and law protection. The legislators, executive and judiciary fulfil critical functions without which the rule of law fails and the fabric of sustainable society falls. To set solid foundations for sustainable society, there are important laws, which should be drafted according to international standard and enacted accordingly. Critical are those that protect and uphold the rights to freedoms of expression, assembly and information and freedom of the press. They are a stable society’s backbone and shoulder blades. Robust legal frameworks for freedoms of expression, information and the media are critical and irrevocable human rights in their own right. They are also powerful social goods in that they enable government to fulfil its tri-partite functions, to maintain its responsibilities to the law and to uphold the best practices of good governance. The transparency provided by freedom of information, the scrutiny provided by freedom of the press and the critique provided by freedom of expression create the environment in which high quality accountability government can flourish and deepen. In other words if law is the skeletal framework on which stands and falls the strength and sustainability of a society, then the rights to freedoms of expression, information and the press is also a government’s personal trainer! A challenge, a goal, an encouragement and a motivator: without which no government can perform to the highest standard or achieve the best possible for those who give governments its raison d’etre: the people."
    Author/creator: Agnes Callamard
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Article 19
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 April 2012


    Title: Burma in mid-2011: A Contradictory Landscape
    Date of publication: 30 September 2011
    Description/subject: "...Earlier this month, the government unblocked several foreign news websites, including Reuters, the Guardian, CNN, and the Bangkok Post. Some of the newly accessible sites - Voice of America, Radio Free Asia, and the BBC - have Burmese language sections. The websites of exiled Burmese news organisations such as the Democratic Voice of Burma and Irrawaddy can now be accessed, as well as social networking and streaming sites Hotmail, Blogger, and Youtube. This step toward liberalisation, however welcome, is inconsistent with the government’s overall monitoring policy. Not only do a large number of websites remain off-limits, but internet usage is still restricted to the country’s public internet cafés. Since November 2010, internet cafes in in Rangoon were required by the government to install closed-circuit cameras, screen-capture and keystroke-logging software so that online activities could be recorded and traced back to individuals. Flash drives have also been banned since May of this year..."
    Author/creator: Anna Saunders
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SEAPA Network
    Format/size: html, pdf (74K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/SEAPA-2011-09.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 06 October 2011


    Title: Myanmar authorities unblock some banned websites
    Date of publication: 16 September 2011
    Description/subject: "Myanmar's new government has stopped blocking some foreiggn websites such as the BBC and YouTube in a gesture toward openness that is tempered by remaining harsh laws that still keep readers of such sites at risk of arrest. Once-banned websites that were opened this week for viewing include the Voice of America and the British Broadcasting Corp., as well the Democratic Voice of Burma, Radio Free Asia and the video file sharing site YouTube. The unannounced move is the latest step taken by the Southeast Asian nation's new leaders to boost hope, however faint, that authoritarian rule here could finally be easing. The country's long-standing military government handed over power to a nominally civilian regime earlier this year..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Associated Press
    Format/size: pdf (45K)
    Date of entry/update: 16 September 2011


    Title: Charts of the coverage of political subjects and politicians over the period April-June 2011 by Burmese media in exile and private media subject to censorship restrictions
    Date of publication: 24 June 2011
    Description/subject: Political subjects and politicians (Time & Tone of the Coverage): Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB TV); "The Irrawaddy", "Mizzima", "Myanmar Times" and "Voice" Journal Charts of Burmese State-sponsored media coverage of political subjects and politicians in the period April-June 2011
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Memo98
    Format/size: pdf (774K)
    Date of entry/update: 02 July 2011


    Title: Charts of the coverage of political subjects and politicians over the period April-June 2011 by Burmese State-sponsored media
    Date of publication: 24 June 2011
    Description/subject: Political subjects and politicians (Time & Tone of the Coverage) by MYANMAR TV, MYAWADDY TV... (Space & Tone of the Coverage) by KYAYMON (The Mirror), MYANMAR AHLIN (New Light of Myanmar)Charts of Burmese State-sponsored media coverage
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Memo98
    Format/size: pdf (641K)
    Date of entry/update: 02 July 2011


    Title: Monitoring of Burmese media coverage in 2011. Report No. 4 (English)
    Date of publication: 24 June 2011
    Description/subject: CONCLUSION: "The results of monitoring in 2011 (which was conducted after the appointment of a new civilian government with the aim to assess if there was any change in the state policy revealed the opposite and confirmed the previous trends and patterns observed during the previous monitoring periods. It is thus possible to conclude that the monitored state-controlled media in Burma do not follow any journalistic standards, but serve only as a mouthpiece of the ruling powers. With more than a half a year after the flawed 2010 parliamentary elections, condemned by the United Nations and the whole international community, the main news programs of state-controlled TV channels once again showed only the top state officials and completely ignored any other stakeholders..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Memo98
    Format/size: pdf (155K)
    Date of entry/update: 01 July 2011


    Title: Monitoring of Burmese media coverage in 2011: Report No. 4၂၀၁၁ခု ျမန္မာ့မီဒီယာ သတင္းေဖာ္ျပပံုကိုေစာင့္ၾကည့္ေလ့လာခ်က္ (Burmese)
    Date of publication: 24 June 2011
    Description/subject: CONCLUSION: "The results of monitoring in 2011 (which was conducted after the appointment of a new civilian government with the aim to assess if there was any change in the state policy revealed the opposite and confirmed the previous trends and patterns observed during the previous monitoring periods. It is thus possible to conclude that the monitored state-controlled media in Burma do not follow any journalistic standards, but serve only as a mouthpiece of the ruling powers. With more than a half a year after the flawed 2010 parliamentary elections, condemned by the United Nations and the whole international community, the main news programs of state-controlled TV channels once again showed only the top state officials and completely ignored any other stakeholders..."
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Memo98
    Format/size: pdf (126K)
    Date of entry/update: 02 July 2011


    Title: Surveillance of media and Internet stepped up under new civilian president
    Date of publication: 17 May 2011
    Description/subject: "Press freedom and online freedom of information are still being flouted in Burma, three months after Thein Sein’s election as a civilian president. He promised to “respect the role of the media” but heavy jail sentences for journalists, suspension of newspapers and police raids on Internet cafés show that there has been no let-up in controls and intimidation. And now a string of new measures have just tightened control over Internet use..."..... Renforcement de la surveillance des médias et d’Internet sous l’ère Thein Sein ..."Trois mois après l’élection de Thein Sein à la tête de la Birmanie, la liberté de la presse et la liberté de l’information sur Internet sont toujours bafoués. Alors que le Président a déclaré qu’il respectait "le rôle des médias en tant que quatrième pouvoir", les condamnations de journalistes à de lourdes peines, les suspensions de journaux et les descentes de police dans les cybercafés illustrent l’inflexibilité du régime qui reste constant dans sa politique d’intimidation et de contrôle. Surtout, tout un train de mesures vient durcir le contrôle de la junte dans l’utilisation du Net..."
    Language: Français, French, English
    Source/publisher: Reporters Without Borders, Reporters Sans Frontieres
    Format/size: pdf (399K); html,
    Alternate URLs: http://fr.rsf.org/birmanie-renforcement-de-la-surveillance-17-05-2011,40295.html
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/Surveillance_of_media_and_Internet.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 May 2011


    Title: Freedom on the Net 2011 - Burma
    Date of publication: 18 April 2011
    Description/subject: Introduction: "While the Burmese military junta is interested in expanding and exploiting information and communication technologies (ICTs) for business and propaganda purposes, it makes aggressive attempts to regulate access to the internet and digital media, control content, and punish citizens for any online activity that is seen as detrimental to regime security. The government uses a wide range of means to restrict internet freedom, including legal and regulatory barriers, infrastructural and technical constraints, and coercive measures such as intimidation and lengthy prison sentences. Although the authorities lack the capacity to pervasively enforce all restrictions, the impact of sporadic implementation and the ensuing chilling effect is profound. There has been gradual improvement in access to ICTs over the past three years, but the junta has also aggressively targeted users who are involved in antigovernment activities or have contact with foreign news media. Since its crackdown on a wave of September 2007 protests led by Buddhist monks, the military regime has more strictly enforced licensing rules that require the owners of cybercafes, where most Burmese users obtain access, to monitor users’ screens and cooperate with criminal investigations. Both online and offline censorship and information controls were increased surrounding the November 7, 2010 national elections, which secured a sweeping victory for the military-backed party and were widely condemned as flawed. The state-owned Myanmar Post and Telecommunications (MPT) company launched the first official e-mail service in November 1997. The 2002 establishment of the first private internet-service provider (ISP), Bagan Cybertech, helped to increase the number of users in the country, though the company was later taken over by the junta. By 2010, there were over 520 registered cybercafes in Burma, located mainly in a few major cities. Censorship was further reinforced after the release of prodemocracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi from house arrest on November 13. The government’s first attempt to restrict internet freedom was the 1996 Myanmar Computer Science Development Law, which made possession of an unregistered computer modem and connection to unauthorized computer networks punishable by up to 15 years in prison. Other laws and actions since then have furthered the government’s efforts to clamp down on unsupervised internet use."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Freedom House
    Format/size: pdf (264K - Burma section; 4.1MB - full report, OBLversion; 5.9MB - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/FOTN2011-red.pdf
    http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=664
    http://www.freedomhouse.org/images/File/FotN/Burma2011.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 May 2011


    Title: Enemies of the Internet 2011 (Burma chapter)
    Date of publication: 12 March 2011
    Description/subject: "Burma took drastic measures in 2010 to reorganise the country’s Internet and to arm itself with the means, at the next sign of a crisis, to cut off its population’s Web access without affecting official connections. Prior to the November 2010 elections – the first in twenty years – censors resorted to massive crackdowns, intimidation and cyberattacks to reduce the risk of any negative coverage. Tampering is now at its height..."...Widespread Net censorship in Burma...Outstanding bloggers...Three netizens are still languishing in prison...Reconfiguring the Burmese Internet behind a smokescreen...Unreliable Internet connections in the run up to the 7 November 2010: Slowdowns, cyberattac ks and tampering...Da w Aung Sa n Suu Kyi: Free and connected?
    Language: English (French available)
    Source/publisher: Reporters Without Borders (RSF)
    Format/size: pdf (63K - Burma extract; 1.6MB - full report))
    Alternate URLs: http://viewsdesk.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Internet-Enemies_2011.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 16 September 2011


    Title: Charts of the coverage of political subjects and politicians over the period 7-21 November 2010 by Burmese media in exile and private media subject to censorship restrictions
    Date of publication: 22 February 2011
    Description/subject: Political subjects, politicians (Space/Time & Tone of the Coverage): "Voice Journal" newspaper (also 1 September-25 October, 2010); Democratic Voice of Burma TV, radio & website; "The Irrawaddy" website, "Mizzima" website;
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Memo98
    Format/size: pdf (1MB)
    Date of entry/update: 02 July 2011


    Title: Charts of the coverage of political subjects and politicians over the period 7-21 November 2010 by Burmese State-sponsored media
    Date of publication: 22 February 2011
    Description/subject: Political subjects and politicians (Time & Tone of the Coverage): MYANMAR TV, MYAWADDY TV... Political subjects and politicians (Space & Tone of the Coverage): KYAYMON (The Mirror), MYANMAR AHLIN (New Light of Myanmar)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Memo98
    Format/size: pdf (747MB)
    Date of entry/update: 02 July 2011


    Title: Monitoring of the post-Election media coverage of Burmese political actors, 7–21 November 2010: Report No. 3
    Date of publication: 22 February 2011
    Description/subject: Conclusion: "The previous monitoring reports reflecting the period prior to the elections noted that the statecontrolled media in Burma act as a mouthpiece of the ruling powers and do not follow any professional journalistic standards. This report which covers the the period of two weeks after the e-day showed that the general trends in the state media coverage identified in the previous reports remain unchanged. While the media coverage in state controlled outlets focused on election, its coverage was narrow and lacked any analytical or critical views of the process. Clear bias in favor of state officials and incumbents, compounded by a complete lack of any critical coverage of authorities and a lack of coverage of opposition views characterized the coverage offered by the Burmese state media. The coverage which the release of NLD leader got in state media was extremely limited and insignificant in comparison with the extent of presentation of the authorities. The exile media offered diverse picture of political actors and gave large attention to the NLD leader after she was released from her house arrest; the NLD was a dominant political subject presented in the exile media. In this regards the elections were overshadowed by the sudden presence of the NLD leader in Burmese political life and the NLD, while actively boycotting elections, dominated the post election coverage of exile media"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Memo98
    Format/size: pdf (76K)
    Date of entry/update: 02 July 2011


    Title: Monitoring of the post-Election media coverage of Burmese political actors: Report No. 3 (7–21 November 2010)ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲလြန္ကာလ ျမန္မာ့နိုင္ငံေရးလွႈပ္ရ� (Burmese)
    Date of publication: 22 February 2011
    Description/subject: Conclusion: "The previous monitoring reports reflecting the period prior to the elections noted that the statecontrolled media in Burma act as a mouthpiece of the ruling powers and do not follow any professional journalistic standards. This report which covers the the period of two weeks after the e-day showed that the general trends in the state media coverage identified in the previous reports remain unchanged. While the media coverage in state controlled outlets focused on election, its coverage was narrow and lacked any analytical or critical views of the process. Clear bias in favor of state officials and incumbents, compounded by a complete lack of any critical coverage of authorities and a lack of coverage of opposition views characterized the coverage offered by the Burmese state media. The coverage which the release of NLD leader got in state media was extremely limited and insignificant in comparison with the extent of presentation of the authorities. The exile media offered diverse picture of political actors and gave large attention to the NLD leader after she was released from her house arrest; the NLD was a dominant political subject presented in the exile media. In this regards the elections were overshadowed by the sudden presence of the NLD leader in Burmese political life and the NLD, while actively boycotting elections, dominated the post election coverage of exile media"
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Memo98
    Format/size: pdf (60K)
    Date of entry/update: 02 July 2011


    Title: Attacks on the Press 2010: Burma
    Date of publication: 15 February 2011
    Description/subject: Top Developments: • Junta bars foreign reporters, censors speech prior to national election. • Aung San Suu Kyi freed, but government still jails journalists, critics... Key Statistic 13: Journalists imprisoned as of December 1, the fourth‐highest figure in the world... "After nearly five decades of uninterrupted military rule, Burma moved toward an uncertain new era in November when it staged national elections and freed the pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi. The new parliament, although dominated by the military junta's chosen candidates, was the first civilian government in the country since 1962. Military leaders, notorious for their international isolation, sought international legitimacy through the election. "But the vote was so rigged, it had the opposite effect," The Washington Post noted in an editorial. "Rules were written so that, no matter how people voted, the military would retain control; but even so, the regime could not resist Election Day intimidation and ballot-box stuffing." ..."
    Language: English - Español, Português, Français, Русский, also availableالعرب
    Source/publisher: Committee to Protect Journallists
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.cpj.org/attacks/
    Date of entry/update: 16 September 2011


    Title: OpenNet Initiative Burma (Myanmar) Country Profile (2010)
    Date of publication: 22 December 2010
    Description/subject: "Despite very low connectivity, Internet users in Burma have managed to communicate valuable information to the outside world during explosive political events. The Burmese military government continues to enforce stringent overall access restrictions, the most extreme of which occurred during the complete shutdown of the Internet in Burma in September and October 2007. On top of these barriers to access, the government also polices Internet content through one of the most severe regimes of information control in the world..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: OpenNet Initiative
    Format/size: pdf (133K)
    Alternate URLs: http://opennet.net/research/profiles/burma
    Date of entry/update: 16 September 2011


    Title: Charts of the coverage of political subjects and politicians over the period 1 September-25 October 2010 by Burmese media in exile and private media subject to censorship restrictions
    Date of publication: 05 November 2010
    Description/subject: Political subjects and politicians (Time & Tone of the Coverage): Democratic Voice of Burma TV, radio, website; "Eleven" newspaper; "Myanmar Times" and "Voice" Journal
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Memo98
    Format/size: pdf (1MB)
    Date of entry/update: 02 July 2011


    Title: Monitoring of the media coverage prior to 7 November elections in Burma. Report No. 2 (1 September–25 October 2010)
    Date of publication: 05 November 2010
    Description/subject: Conclusion: "The three months of monitoring revealed that monitored state-controlled media in Burma do not follow any professional journalistic standards, but only serve as a mouthpiece of the ruling powers. Plain bias in favor of state officials and incumbents and no reflection of opposing or critical views in state-controlled media was observed during the entire three-month monitoring period. In the period preceding the elections, the main news programs of the state-controlled TV channels were showing only the top state officials and completely ignored any other stakeholders. They offered an exceptionally limited range of diversity of political actors, with any other political subjects having virtually no access to the country’s most important sources of information. It is also of concern that these disturbing trends in the way the Burmese state-controlled media cover political entities are not result of short-term anomalies, but genuine trends in the Burmese media. These negative trends are to some extent meliorated by the exile media which do offer a diverse range of views, with the main opposition leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and her party National League for Democracy getting the most significant coverage. However, the potential geographical coverage of the exile media, and thus their accessibility to Burmese population is much lower than that of the state-controlled media in Burma. Overall, election contestants were allowed only very restricted access to the media and were prevented from fully enjoying their right of freedom of expression. The complete lack by the media in Burma of any independent and objective reporting limited the voters’ access to a broad range of information which would enable them to make an informed choice at the ballot box."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Memo98
    Format/size: pdf (104K)
    Date of entry/update: 02 July 2011


    Title: National Web portal - development or repression?
    Date of publication: November 2010
    Description/subject: Conclusion: "It is expected that the Yatanarpon Myanmar National Web Portal will provide faster bandwidth and improved Web services to Burmese Internet users. However, according to the current setup, only users from the government ministries, especially those from the Ministry of Defence, will enjoy faster Internet connection and consequently better Web services. The FTTH high-tech communication system is an impressive development compared with the previous system. It can also be assumed that the new system will cost more. However, given the low per capita income in Burma, only a tiny fraction of the public will be able to enjoy the FTTH system. The segregated nature of the new ISP system would also allow the authorities to shut down the civilian ISP without affecting the two other ISPs that serve the government and the military. The authorities are likely to use that opportunity to stifle freedom of press and expression. The new system also grants the military exclusive control over the Hantharwaddy National Gateway. The military is therefore now in a position to spy on all Burmese citizens – civilians, soldiers and government service personnel."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Reporters Without Borders, Burma Media Association
    Format/size: pdf (643K - OBL version; 1.9MB, original)
    Alternate URLs: http://en.rsf.org/IMG/pdf/rap_birmanie-2.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 17 May 2011


    Title: Charts of coverage of political subjects and politicians over the period August 4-31 2010 by broadcasters inside Burma
    Date of publication: 15 October 2010
    Description/subject: Political subjects and politicians (Time & Tone of the Coverage): Myanmar TV, Myawaddy TV, August 4-31, 2010
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Memo98
    Format/size: pdf (448K)
    Date of entry/update: 02 July 2011


    Title: Charts of the coverage of political subjects and politicians over the period August 5-31 2010 by newspapers inside Burma
    Date of publication: 15 October 2010
    Description/subject: Political subjects and politicians (Time & Tone of the Coverage) by KYAYMON (The Mirror), MYANMAR AHLIN (New Light of Myanmar)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Memo98
    Format/size: pdf (319K)
    Date of entry/update: 02 July 2011


    Title: Enemies of the Internet (2010)
    Date of publication: 12 March 2010
    Description/subject: Burma section plus full report (see Alternate link) http://en.rsf.org/spip.php?page=article&id_article=19603
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Reporters Sans Frontieres - Reporters Without Borders
    Format/size: pdf (62K - Burma section; 1.14MB - full report)
    Alternate URLs: http://en.rsf.org/IMG/pdf/Internet_enemies.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2010


    Title: The Coming Cyber War
    Date of publication: March 2010
    Description/subject: The Burmese generals are moving to take control of the information superhighway as they gear up for a cyber war with dissidents
    Author/creator: Wai Moe, David Paquette
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17923
    Date of entry/update: 17 March 2010


    Title: Attacks on the Press 2009: Burma
    Date of publication: 16 February 2010
    Description/subject: Top Developments: • Some political prisoners freed, but eight journalists still held. • Government censors all print publications, controls broadcasters... Key Statistic: 1st: Ranking on CPJ's Worst Countries to Be a Blogger... "Throughout the year, Burma's ruling junta emphasized its plans to move toward multiparty democracy after decades of military rule, a long-promised transition that dissidents and others viewed as a sham to further consolidate the military's power. As the country geared up for general elections in 2010--the first since the military annulled the 1990 elections, which were won overwhelmingly by the political opposition--authorities maintained strict censorship over the local news media and held at least nine journalists behind bars..."
    Language: English - Español, Português, Français, Русский, also availableالعرب
    Source/publisher: Committee to Protect Journallists
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 16 September 2011


    Title: Attacks on the Press in 2008: Burma
    Date of publication: 10 February 2009
    Description/subject: "Burma’s already beleaguered journalists came under heavy attack after massive Cyclone Nargis pounded the country’s southern coastal region in May, killing an estimated 84,500 people and severely affecting another 2.4 million, according to U.N. estimates. As local and international criticism grew over a slow and inadequate response to the natural disaster, the military junta intensified censorship, working to suppress news that graphically portrayed the extraordinary scale of the storm’s devastation. The silence was lethal. The Information Ministry’s Press Scrutiny and Registration Division (PSRD) sent a directive to editorial offices outlining how the humanitarian crisis could be covered; it banned publication of photographs that showed dead bodies and any critical reports about the government’s response. The reclusive regime initially refused international emergency assistance, including from the United Nations, but later agreed to allow limited outside help after the scale of the disaster and displacement became apparent. At least five local journalists were jailed because of cyclone coverage the authorities considered in breach of its strict guidelines, according to CPJ research. Eine Khine Oo, a photographer on assignment for Ecovision Journal, and Kyaw Kyaw Thant, a freelance journalist, were arrested on June 10 while covering a demonstration staged by cyclone victims in front of U.N. offices near Rangoon. Eine Khine Oo was later sentenced to two years in prison, Kyaw Kyaw Thant to seven years..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Committee to Protect Journallists
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 16 September 2011


    Title: Suppressed
    Date of publication: February 2009
    Description/subject: "Intimidation, arrests and draconian prison sentences reached new heights in a media crackdown in Burma last year... JOURNALISTS in Burma faced Orwellian-type scrutiny and were subjected to imprisonment and intimidation throughout 2008, while exiled Burmese media groups were also attacked—via their computers...."
    Author/creator: Saw Yan Naing
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 16 February 2009


    Title: Burmese Journalist Wins Major International Press Award
    Date of publication: November 2008
    Description/subject: A Burmese journalist who works for The Associated Press has received the 2008 Journalism and Courage Award from the International Women’s Media Foundation... "The journalist, Aye Aye Win, has worked as a reporter in Burma for nearly 20 years—a “risky business,” she said in a written acceptance speech. Only a free press could guarantee a free society, she said..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 11
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 16 November 2008


    Title: Why Independent Media Matters in Burma
    Date of publication: April 2008
    Description/subject: "BURMA'S rulers and democratic opposition forces have limited experience with a free and independent media. And this is definitely a concern when contemplating a future democratic Burma..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: Englsh
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 4
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


    Title: Burma: The Censored Land
    Date of publication: March 2008
    Description/subject: "Burma’s scribes use old ruses and new technology to stay true to their word and dodge the junta’s efforts to censor freedom of expression... Burma’s censorship board, the Press Scrutiny and Registration Division, continues to face new challenges in its never-ending efforts to sanitize the country’s print media. Armed with magnifying glasses and mirrors, the censors are on a mission to root out hidden political messages in poems, novels, stories and advertisements. Burma has a well-earned reputation as “an enemy of the press,” but Burmese writers say they are undaunted by the ruling regime’s efforts to muzzle free expression. Censors or no censors, they say, writers of real mettle will always find creative ways to give voice to their true feelings..."
    Author/creator: Yeni
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


    Title: Hard News - A day in the life of a Rangoon journalist
    Date of publication: March 2008
    Description/subject: "...When monks took to the streets in September, our editor—who also owned the publication—allowed us to go and cover the events, but we were never able to write about them. I noticed that many Burmese reporters established contacts with international and exile media groups. There was no satellite TV receiver in our office, either. When we originally asked the editor to install one, so that we could watch coverage of the demonstrations, he surprisingly agreed. But when the shooting began he changed his mind and banned us from going into the streets or having any contact with the demonstrating monks. “You really don’t want to see the news, that’s why I won’t install a receiver,” he said. “The uprising will be over in two or three days, anyway,” he said. He was right—the uprising was short-lived. The satellite dish never was installed. In our newsroom, only the management desk and the copy-typists worked with computers. We reporters and editors had to write our stories by hand. They were then edited and passed on to the typists. The printouts were given back to us to be checked for spelling. Frequent power cuts interrupted the work routine. We had our own generator, but it sat outside our office and when it was running the heat and noise were unbearable..."
    Author/creator: Aye Chan Myate
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 16, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


    Title: Mission: To Tell the Truth
    Date of publication: March 2008
    Description/subject: "Burma’s exiled media took center stage during the September uprising. Now they must not rest on their laurels... If the Burmese people are ready for change, then we must ask whether the exiled Burmese media is ready for change. The answer, I believe, should be a resounding “Yes!” Burma enjoyed perhaps the liveliest free press in Southeast Asia in the 1950s and 60s. Burma’s first constitution in 1947 guaranteed citizens the right to express their opinions and convictions. Unfortunately, the freedoms of expression and media were short-lived in Burma. The first assault on journalism came soon after the military coup in 1962. Press freedom gradually disintegrated thereafter, truncated by Gen Ne Win’s socialist regime. Newspapers were nationalized and many foreign news agencies were asked to pack their bags. Journalists and editors found themselves in prison. During the 1980s, all forms of public expression and publications had to pass through Burma’s notorious censorhip board, now known as the Press Scrutiny and Registration Division, even though Burma’s second constitution, drawn up in 1974, guaranteed freedom of expression..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


    Title: The Cyber Dissident
    Date of publication: March 2008
    Description/subject: "Burma’s generals may have underestimated the power of the Internet during the 2007 uprising, but they are now playing catch-up... The Burmese military government has found a new enemy—the growing number of “cyber dissidents” who are gaining popularity both inside and outside the country. The bad news is that the junta usually finds a way of defeating each new enemy..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 16, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


    Title: Attacks on the Press 2007: Burma
    Date of publication: 05 February 2008
    Description/subject: Burmese journalists came under heavy assault in August and September when covering pro-democracy street protests and the military government’s retaliatory crackdown, marking significant deterioration in what was already one of the world’s most repressive media environments. The government banned coverage of the uprising and sought to isolate the nation by impeding Internet and phone service. Local and citizen journalists, however, proved innovative and persistent in circumventing the government’s electronic blockade.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Committee to Protect Journalists
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 December 2010


    Title: Burma VJ - reporting from a closed country (video)
    Date of publication: 2008
    Description/subject: 84 MINUTES RUNNING TIME. TRAILER PLUS 9 PARTS. FOR PARTS 1-9, CLICK ON ALTERNATE LINKS, BELOW, OR IN RIGHT HAND COLUMN OF YOUTUBE PAGE..."Armed with small handycams undercover Video Journalists in Burma keep up the flow of news from their closed country despite risking torture and life in jail. Their material is smuggled out of Burma and broadcast back via satellite. Joshua, age 27, becomes tactical leader of a group of reporters, as Buddhist monks in September 2007 lead a massive uprising. Foreign TV crews are banned from the country, so its left to Joshua and his crew to keep the revolution alive on TV screens all over. As government intelligence understands the power of the camera, the VJs become their prime target."
    Author/creator: ANDERS OËœSTERGAARD, Khin Maung Win et al
    Language: Burmese, English
    Source/publisher: Magic Hour Films
    Format/size: Adobe Flash Player (84 minutes playing time)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t6DfCLqLVUg&feature=related (pt I)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pc4tnvuFoPc&feature=related (pt II)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S-i9V2Qpzqw&feature=related (pt III)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lsnoYEthIb8&feature=related (pt IV)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cOnhJ-yY824&feature=related (pt V)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RtWrYfl2pb0&feature=related (pt VI)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0s94tsVAZuY&feature=related (pt VII)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3wLaOqrAdpM&feature=related (pt VIII)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6vaXSwWF6aM&feature=related (pt IX - final)
    http://burmavjmovie.com/
    Date of entry/update: 25 December 2009


    Title: "Pulling the Plug - A Technical Review of the Internet Shutdown in Burma
    Date of publication: 23 October 2007
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This bulletin examines the role of information technology, citizen journalists, and bloggers in Burma and presents a technical analysis of the abrupt shutdown of Internet connectivity by the Burmese government on September 29, 2007, following its violent crackdown on protesters there. Completely cutting international Internet links is rare. Nepal, which severed all international Internet connections when the King declared martial law in February 2005, is the only other state to take such drastic action. Although extreme, the measures taken by the Burmese government to limit citizens' use of the Internet during this crisis are consistent with previous OpenNet Initiative (ONI) findings in Kyrgyzstan, Belarus, and Tajikistan, where authorities controlled access to communication technologies as a way to limit social mobilization around key political events. What makes the Burmese junta stand out, however, is its apparent goal of also preventing information from reaching a wider international audience. The shutdown of Internet connectivity was precipitated by its use by citizens to send photographs, updates and videos that documented the violent suppression of protests in Burma, information that contributed to widespread international condemnation of the Burmese military rulers' gross violations of human rights. We examine the impact of communication technology in shaping these key political events in Burma, the limitations of these tools, and the prospects for the next round of information wars".
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "OpenNet Initiative Bulletin"
    Format/size: pdf (623K)
    Alternate URLs: http://opennet.net/sites/opennet.net/files/ONI_Bulletin_Burma_2007.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 26 October 2007


    Title: OpenNet Initiative Burma (Myanmar) Country Profile 2007
    Date of publication: 10 May 2007
    Description/subject: Myanmar’s authoritarian military junta is slowly expanding access to the Internet while maintaining one of the world’s most restrictive systems of control. Despite the fact that less than 1 percent of Myanmar access the Internet, the government has targeted online independent media and dissent with the same commitment it has demonstrated to stifling traditional media and voices for reform.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Opennet Initiative
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://opennet.net/research/profiles/burma
    Date of entry/update: 01 December 2009


    Title: Attacks on the Press 2006: Burma
    Date of publication: 05 February 2007
    Description/subject: "Military-run Burma, also known as Myanmar, remained one of the most repressive places for journalists, trailing only North Korea on CPJ’s 10 Most Censored Countries list. The junta, which calls itself the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), exerted Orwellian control over all media, harassing or jailing journalists who strayed from the official line in their reporting or who helped foreign correspondents with critical reporting. Two journalists were imprisoned for attempting to film outside the country’s controversial new capital, Pyinmana, after the generals decided without warning to move the seat of government from Rangoon. The administration held at least seven journalists behind bars, earning Burma the rank of the world’s fifth leading jailer of journalists..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Committee to Protect Journallists
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.cpj.org/asia/burma/2006/
    Date of entry/update: 16 September 2011


    Title: Attacks on the Press 1999: Burma
    Date of publication: 1999
    Description/subject: "Report by the Committee to Protect Journalists" ...... Forcing their citizenry to live behind a wall of repressive ignorance, Burma's military leaders have shown no signs of liberalizing one of the world's harshest regimes.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Committee to Protect Journalists
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Media - use of media by Burmese

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: "FREE PRESS DAY" ("Myanmar Times" Special Issue on World Press Freedom Day - May 3, 2012) ကမၻာ႔သတင္း လြတ္လပ္ခြင့္ေန႔
    Date of publication: 10 May 2012
    Description/subject: Silence Kills Democracy But a Free Press Talks: Vol.29, No. 567 ..... ကမၻာ႔သတင္း လြတ္လပ္ခြင့္ေန႔ - ဆိတ္ဆိတ္ေနျခင္းသည္ ဒီမိုကေရစီကို ဆိတ္သုဥ္းေစသည္။ အတြဲ ၂၉၊ အမွတ္ ၅၆၇ ( ၄ - ၁ဝ၊ ၅၊ ၂ဝ၁၂) ၏ အထူးထုတ္ စာေစာင္။
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: pdf (660K-OBL version; 1.13MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.myanmar.mmtimes.com/2012/news/567/World%20PressDay.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 23 August 2012


    Title: "BurmaNet News" Media archive
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: Searching for home: Explorations in new media and the Burmese diaspora in New Zealand
    Date of publication: 20 May 2011
    Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "This study examines the place of new media in the maintance of Burmese diasporic identities. Political oppression in Burma, the experience of exile and the importance of opposition movements in the borderlands make the Burmese diaspora a unique and complex group. This study uses tapoetetha-kot, an indigenous Karen research methodology, to explore aspects of new media use and identity among a group of Burmese refugees in Auckland, New Zealand. Common among all participants was a twin desire to share stories of suffering and to have that pain recognised. Participants in this project try to maintain their language and cultural practices, with the intent of returning to a democratic Burma in the future. New media supports this, by providing participants with access to opposition news reports of human rights abuses and suffering; through making cultural and linguistic artifacts accessible, and through providing an easy means of communication with friends and family in Burma and the borderlands."... Keywords: Burma, Karen, refugee, diaspora, indigenous, political activism, new media, tapotaethakot VIOLET CHO
    Author/creator: Violet Cho
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: PACIFIC JOURNALISM REVIEW 17 (1) 2011
    Format/size: pdf (85K)
    Date of entry/update: 16 September 2011


    Title: Burmese media combating censorship
    Date of publication: 22 December 2010
    Description/subject: "Despite many difficulties, Burmese journalists inside Burma and abroad have in recent weeks covered two events of great importance for the country: the 7 November general elections and Aung San Suu Kyi’s release six days later. The military authorities sent contradictory signals about their intentions as regards media freedom. The undemocratic elections were marked by censorship, arrests of journalists and other obstacles, but Burmese newspapers were able to interview the various candidates during the campaign. The privately-owned media and foreign correspondents were initially allowed to talk about Suu Kyi’s release, until more than 10 publications were disciplined by the Press Scrutiny Board and the surveillance of foreign reporters was stepped up. The military junta and the members of the newly-elected parliament can now choose either to pursue the repressive policies or to initiate a process in which more space is given to basic freedoms. We urge the Burmese authorities to seize the opportunity to respond to the various calls from neighbouring countries and ASEAN ’s secretary general for more freedom of expression. The international community must also press the authorities to show more tolerance and must support the media inside and outside the country that are trying to push back censorship. With the help of its partner organization, the Burma Media Association, Reporters Without Borders followed the work of the Burmese press and foreign reporters during this historic month of November. A Reporters Without Borders representative went to Burma before the elections to evaluate the situation. Despite the censorship, surveillance and obstruction, the Burmese media managed to offer their readers, listeners and viewers a variety of reports and analyses that has been without precedent since the 1990 elections. Reporters Without Borders also wanted to learn more about the impact in Burma of the so-called exile media such as Democratic Voice of Burma. A poll and a survey recently carried out in Burma confirm the popularity of the radio and TV stations that broadcast in Burmese from abroad. In the poll, 2,950 people in eight provinces were questioned about how they get their news..."
    Language: English, Francais, French
    Source/publisher: Reporters Without Borders
    Format/size: pdf (1.2MB); html
    Alternate URLs: http://fr.rsf.org/birmanie-rapport-birmanie-elections-aung-san-suu-kyi-22-12-2010,39120.html
    http://en.rsf.org/burma-burmese-media-combating-censorship-22-12-2010,39134.html
    Date of entry/update: 30 December 2010


    Title: New media and Burmese diaspora identities in New Zealand
    Date of publication: November 2009
    Description/subject: Abstract: "This study examines ways in which Burmese diasporic identities are formed and maintained, and the importance of new media in this process. Political oppression in Burma, the experience of exile and the importance of opposition movements in the borderlands make the Burmese diaspora a unique and complex group. This study used tapoetethakot, an indigenous Karen research methodology, to interact with fourteen participants in Auckland, exploring aspects of new media use and identity maintenance. Common among all participants was a twin desire to share stories of suffering and to have that pain recognised. This suffering is an important part of refugee identity and is also linked with resistance against assimilation in New Zealand. Instead, participants try and maintain their language and cultural practices, with the intent of returning to a democratic Burma in the future. New media supports these processes, by providing participants with access to opposition media reports of human rights abuses and suffering, through making cultural and linguistic artifacts accessible and through providing an easy means of communication with friends and family in Burma and the borderlands."
    Author/creator: Naw Violet Cho
    Language: English (main text); Interviews (English, Karen, Burmese)
    Source/publisher: School of Communication Studies Auckland University of Technology
    Format/size: pdf (582K)
    Date of entry/update: 24 January 2011


    Title: Mission: To Tell the Truth
    Date of publication: March 2008
    Description/subject: "Burma’s exiled media took center stage during the September uprising. Now they must not rest on their laurels... If the Burmese people are ready for change, then we must ask whether the exiled Burmese media is ready for change. The answer, I believe, should be a resounding “Yes!” Burma enjoyed perhaps the liveliest free press in Southeast Asia in the 1950s and 60s. Burma’s first constitution in 1947 guaranteed citizens the right to express their opinions and convictions. Unfortunately, the freedoms of expression and media were short-lived in Burma. The first assault on journalism came soon after the military coup in 1962. Press freedom gradually disintegrated thereafter, truncated by Gen Ne Win’s socialist regime. Newspapers were nationalized and many foreign news agencies were asked to pack their bags. Journalists and editors found themselves in prison. During the 1980s, all forms of public expression and publications had to pass through Burma’s notorious censorhip board, now known as the Press Scrutiny and Registration Division, even though Burma’s second constitution, drawn up in 1974, guaranteed freedom of expression..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


    Title: The Cyber Dissident
    Date of publication: March 2008
    Description/subject: "Burma’s generals may have underestimated the power of the Internet during the 2007 uprising, but they are now playing catch-up... The Burmese military government has found a new enemy—the growing number of “cyber dissidents” who are gaining popularity both inside and outside the country. The bad news is that the junta usually finds a way of defeating each new enemy..."
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 16, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


    Title: Burma VJ - reporting from a closed country (video)
    Date of publication: 2008
    Description/subject: 84 MINUTES RUNNING TIME. TRAILER PLUS 9 PARTS. FOR PARTS 1-9, CLICK ON ALTERNATE LINKS, BELOW, OR IN RIGHT HAND COLUMN OF YOUTUBE PAGE..."Armed with small handycams undercover Video Journalists in Burma keep up the flow of news from their closed country despite risking torture and life in jail. Their material is smuggled out of Burma and broadcast back via satellite. Joshua, age 27, becomes tactical leader of a group of reporters, as Buddhist monks in September 2007 lead a massive uprising. Foreign TV crews are banned from the country, so its left to Joshua and his crew to keep the revolution alive on TV screens all over. As government intelligence understands the power of the camera, the VJs become their prime target."
    Author/creator: ANDERS OËœSTERGAARD, Khin Maung Win et al
    Language: Burmese, English
    Source/publisher: Magic Hour Films
    Format/size: Adobe Flash Player (84 minutes playing time)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t6DfCLqLVUg&feature=related (pt I)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pc4tnvuFoPc&feature=related (pt II)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S-i9V2Qpzqw&feature=related (pt III)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lsnoYEthIb8&feature=related (pt IV)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cOnhJ-yY824&feature=related (pt V)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RtWrYfl2pb0&feature=related (pt VI)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0s94tsVAZuY&feature=related (pt VII)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3wLaOqrAdpM&feature=related (pt VIII)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6vaXSwWF6aM&feature=related (pt IX - final)
    http://burmavjmovie.com/
    Date of entry/update: 25 December 2009


    Title: GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS, LOCAL CONCEPTIONS: HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE POLITICS OF COMMUNICATION AMONG THE BURMESE OPPOSITION-IN-EXILE
    Date of publication: March 2003
    Description/subject: A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of the College of Communication of Ohio University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy by Lisa B. Brooten March 2003... "...This study examines the impact of new information technologies (NITs) on the Burmese opposition movement-in-exile based in Thailand. The intent of the research is to determine whether NITs, primarily computers and the Internet, are helping to reduce, maintain, or intensify ethnic conflict within the movement. The study explores implications for political mobilization by examining what groups within the movement have access to which technologies, and how these groups understand and use global media and the discourses they produce. The research is a multi-sited ethnography conceived within the epistemological framework of standpoint theory, providing an empirically grounded exploration of the Burmese opposition movement in both its local and global contexts. It employs participant observation, in-depth interviews and discourse analysis to examine the impact of global communications at the local level. The work begins with an historical examination of the development of the modern state in Burma, which provides the context for exploring how militarization, gender and ethnicity have affected the development of nationalisms and conflict defined largely as "ethnic" in nature. This is followed by a discussion of how the history and current state of communications both inside and outside Burma constrain attitudes toward the possible uses of communications technologies and media among the opposition-in-exile. An overview of opposition media investigates the degree to which these media have opened a space for dialogue between groups. Interviews with opposition activists and refugees from Burma demonstrate how the Burmese regime's militaristic values are both perpetuated and countered within the opposition movement itself. The research finds that the introduction of NITs and patterns of foreign funding have reinforced existing hierarchies within the opposition movement. Finally, this study demonstrates how the "local" reinvents the "global" through the use of a global discourse of human rights which acts subtly but powerfully to shape social conventions within the movement. This results in an unstated hierarchy of human rights that perpetuates the inequitable gender and ethnic composition of the opposition political groups and the hierarchy of access and use of technologies among these groups."
    Author/creator: Lisa B. Brooten
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Lisa B. Brooten (Ohio University thesis)
    Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
    Date of entry/update: 10 August 2005


  • Technical and other material about the Internet (Burmese and English)

    • "Internet Journal" (Burmese, weekly)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Internet Journal အင္တာနက္ဂ်ာနယ္
      Description/subject: Home page of Internet Journal (အင္တာနက္ဂ်ာနယ္) in Myanmar.
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Internet Journal အင္တာနက္ဂ်ာနယ္
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 August 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: Internet Journal (Burmese) Vol-13, No. 33/ အင္တာနက္ဂ်ာနယ္၊ အတြဲ (၁၃) အမွတ္ (၃၃)
      Date of publication: 30 August 2012
      Description/subject: ဒုတိယ အႀကိမ္ေျမာက္ Developer Conference 2012 Yangon စက္တင္ဘာလ တြင္ က်င္းပမည္... မိုဘိုင္းဖုန္း လိုင္းမ်ားကို အလကားေပးရမည္ဟု ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ သမၼတ ရံုးမွ အမ်ဳိးသားစီးပြားေရးႏွင့္ လူမႈေရး အႀကံေပး ေကာင္းစီ၀င္ ဦးေသာင္းတင္ အႀကံျပဳ... Wi-Fi ကိုအသံုးျပဳၿပီး နံရံမ်ားအားေဖာက္ထြင္းျမင္ႏိုင္မည့္ ေထာက္လွမ္းေရး ကိရိယာကို သုေတသီမ်ား တီထြင္... ျပည္တြင္းေရာက္ Laptop, Notebook မ်ား၏ နည္းပညာ သစ္မ်ား... ျမန္မာ့ ဆက္သြယ္ေရး လုပ္ငန္းကို ဆက္သြယ္ေရး ေကာ္ပိုေရးရွင္း အသြင္ ေျပာင္းလဲ ဖြဲ႔စည္းမည္။
      Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: Internet Journal
      Format/size: pdf (1.75MB)
      Date of entry/update: 11 September 2012


  • The Internet - coverage

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Podcasts from the 2013 Myanmar Update
    Date of publication: 13 April 2013
    Description/subject: "New Mandala readers who were unable to attend the March 2013 Myanmar Update Conference at the Australian National University will want to know that podcasts of the event are now available online. There are many hours of Myanmar-related discussion on a very wide range of different topics. More details on the event itself are posted here. And for those of you already looking forward to the next one, we tend to hold a Myanmar Update roughly every 18 months. More details will be posted when the time comes."
    Author/creator: Nicholas Farrelly
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 16 July 2014


    Title: Tweeting from Myanmar Update 2013
    Date of publication: 15 March 2013
    Description/subject: "New Mandala readers looking to follow the Myanmar Update Conference being held at the Australian National University on 15-16 March 2013 may enjoy the tweets accumulating under #MBU13. We also have a Facebook page. There will likely be a fair smattering of media coverage in the days ahead, especially on the back of President Thein Sein’s looming visit to Australia. Good to keep an eye out for all of the Myanmar action emanating from Canberra."
    Author/creator: Nicholas Farrelly
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 16 July 2014


    Individual Documents

    Title: Measuring the Information Society - 2013
    Date of publication: 07 October 2013
    Description/subject: Without Annex 4...."I am pleased to present to you the 2013 edition of Measuring the Information Society (MIS). Now in its fifth year, this annual report identifies key ICT developments and tracks the cost and affordability of ICT services, in accordance with internationally agreed methodologies. Its core feature is the ICT Development Index (IDI), which ranks countries’ performance with regard to ICT infrastructure and uptake. The report aims to provide an objective international performance evaluation based on quantitative indicators and benchmarks, as an essential input to the ICT policy debate in ITU Member States..."..."In Papua New Guinea, Myanmar, Eritrea and Niger, fewer than 2 per cent of the population is online..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Inernational Telecommunication Union (ITU)
    Format/size: pdf (8.33MB; ICT Development Index - 2.1MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs16/MIS2013-ICT_Development_Index.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 08 October 2013