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Development in Myanmar - various texts

Websites/Multiple Documents

Description/subject: Important and substantial site - Many useful reports on Myanmar's economy, including governance, agriculture etc. ...Chief of the Board of Directors, U Myint... "The Centre for Economic and Social Development (CESD) is Myanmar’s leading think tank supporting evidence-based policy making.... CESD undertakes public policy research across the following areas: macroeconomic reform, labour and social policy, food security and rural development, and governance.... CESD is also the Coordinator of the Leading Authority overseeing the Myanmar Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (MEITI). Please visit the MEITI website, myanmareiti.org to learn more about the MEITI objectives, program of work and key deliverables.... CESD partners with the Comprehensive Development Education Centre (CDEC), an organisation providing education and training services for youth and people working in development. CDEC’s mission is to “provide capacity building and enrich the existing knowledge and skills of civil society organisations, staff at non-government organisations, and youth, in order to facilitate community empowerment and participation in community development and nation building.”... CESD also provides training and education services for institutions and organizations contributing to the on-going process of reform. Highlights of CESD’s training and education services are accessible via the Events link above and have included: training in leadership and public sector reform for Permanent Secretaries, a trade negotiation capacity building workshop for civil servants, public revenue model training for Internal Revenue Department staff, and value chain analysis training to support rural development.... Vision, mission, goal and objectives Vision: To contribute to Myanmar’s transformation towards a democratic, developed and dignified society.... Mission: To support key stakeholders who are committed to the transformation of Myanmar: to become a modern developed nation that meets the aspirations of its people for a better life; and to achieve greater integration with the international community where Myanmar’s cooperation and support can be counted upon in meeting the regional and global problems of the 21st century.... Strategic goal: To facilitate the process of sustained and participatory reforms in Myanmar so that the country achieves: Complete liberalization; and Comprehensive development during transition.... Objectives: to play a central role in supporting economic reform, poverty-reduction and good governance; to receive feedback on progress of reforms and to review and inform the on-going policy execution; to implement special programs and projects critical to the success of reforms, supplementing legitimacy deficits, weak organizations or poor capacities of public institutions; to provide training and education services for all key institutions and organizations that contribute to the process of reform; to offer innovative solutions to overcome binding constraints to the transition..."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 January 2016

Individual Documents

Title: THE CONTESTED AREAS OF MYANMAR - Subnational Conflict, Aid, and Development
Date of publication: 16 October 2017
Description/subject: "As Myanmar emerges from decades of authoritarianism and isolation, significant progress toward peace has been made since 2011. But heavy fighting and deadly clashes have intensified in many of the country’s contested areas, in particular Rakhine State, which has led to massive displacement, and Kachin and Shan States. These conflicts are among the world’s most enduring, posing significant challenges to national political reforms, economic growth, and human development, according to a study released yesterday by The Asia Foundation. The year-long study, “The Contested Areas of Myanmar: Subnational Conflict, Aid, and Development,” comes at a pivotal moment amid longstanding conflicts in many parts of Myanmar, political dialogue to address the concerns of numerous ethnic groups, and a desire among international donors and aid agencies to support the peacebuilding process and the country’s political transition. Findings from the study shed light on structural changes that are crucial for achieving sustainable and comprehensive peace in a country of great ethnic and cultural diversity. In addition, it reveals the intimate connections between subnational conflicts and national politics in Myanmar, instances where development interventions have contributed to uneven power dynamics and fueled armed resistance, and ways in which international aid can sometimes damage prospects for peace when initiatives are not sensitive to conflict. In this context, the study underscores a critical need to continue the ongoing political and economic reforms while building a system of government that is widely recognized as legitimate by people of all ethnic nationalities. Below are some key findings from the study: Myanmar’s subnational conflicts are not a peripheral issue and directly affect much of the country In 2016, areas affected by active or latent subnational conflict were found in at least 11 of Myanmar’s 14 states and regions. One hundred and eighteen of 330 townships, containing almost one-quarter of Myanmar’s population, currently demonstrate live or latent characteristics of conflict. Myanmar’s conflicts are not caused by underdevelopment There is no simple correlation between human development, economic growth, and conflict in Myanmar, and subnational conflicts will not be resolved by measures to improve development outcomes. Conflict townships are on average only marginally less developed than non-conflict townships, particularly when Yangon is excluded. Some conflict townships exceed national averages, while others have the lowest development indicators in the country. Tackling underdevelopment alone will not create peace Development interventions alone can never lead to peace. Myanmar’s conflicts are inherently political and connect to the structure of the state. Political solutions are, therefore, required to solve subnational conflict. Given the complex nature of Myanmar’s armed conflicts, interventions and policies should be strengthened to address the underlying drivers of conflict and be more responsive to the power inequities that have driven conflict over years, especially during transitional political periods. Development policies can drive subnational conflict In many contested areas, economic changes and increased natural resource exploitation have ratcheted up tensions, engendered rivalries, fueled grievances, and provided funds that have sustained conflict. Foreign assistance can sometimes be manipulated to serve security objectives, particularly where government officials or leaders of ethnic armed organizations are able to decide project locations. In short, development interventions are never neutral. Aid can build momentum for peace as well as damage the prospects for peace Projects that serve the security aims of one side can damage the confidence of ethnic groups in the country’s transition, while programs that support political reforms, such as decentralization, can help build momentum. $13.7 billion in aid was committed to new projects between 2011 and 2015. Closer alignment of donors with government offers advantages in coverage, cost effectiveness, and sustainability, but it also poses risks for peace..."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: pdf (15MB-reduced version; 16.1MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs24/AF-2017-10-ContestedAreasMyanmarReport-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 08 December 2017

Title: MYANMAR TRADE AND INVESTMENT STRATEGY - Paper presented to the government and people of Myanmar
Date of publication: February 2015
Description/subject: Executive summary: "This paper sets out policy recommendations for accelerating the development of the Myanmar economy by expanding international trade and foreign investment, and through greater integration into the regional and world economies. Openness will move the Myanmar economy towards its comparative advantages and facilitate the inflow of technology and ideas, lifting production, domestic consumption and community welfare. Myanmar’s trade performance has considerable ‘catch-up’ potential. Analysis shows that, with greater openness, the country could double its exports and imports. Moreover, if Myanmar is able to match or exceed the rates of productivity growth experienced by East Asia’s most successful industrialisers during their periods of domestic reform and economic liberalisation, more than doubling its per capita income within a decade is a realistic prospect. A well-functioning private sector is the fundamental engine of such growth. Myanmar should lay the foundation for private sector-led economic development by enhancing macroeconomic stability, deepening financial markets, creating an enabling regulatory environment, improving the education, skills and health of its workforce and overall population and improving access to markets, electricity, infrastructure, credit and technology. The government’s ability to provide economic stability and public investment to meet the development priorities that are critical to private sector growth is limited by low revenues, weak policy review capacity, underdeveloped public financial management and a centralised governance structure. This paper provides strategies to overcome these problems through improved institutional capacity for policy review, government decision-making and macroeconomic management and increased fiscal and administrative capacity. This will also support the growing political autonomy being conferred on state and regional governments. Greater economic openness will have a fundamental effect on the composition of the Myanmar economy. It offers the prospect of diversifying the economy by reducing dependence on natural resource exports in favour of other activities in the rural, manufacturing and services sectors. Complementing greater openness, domestic reform that encourages improvements in agricultural productivity would raise incomes for the majority of the population in the near term. Facilitating labour-intensive manufacturing and supporting service activities would further raise trade, investment and income-earning opportunities. Attracting foreign investment is critical to transforming Myanmar’s economy and growth outlook. The country’s success in attracting and benefiting from foreign direct investment will ultimately depend on the development of the infrastructure and institutions that are fundamental to the broader reform effort. They should be transparent, be liberalising and reflect a principles-based approach to regulating both domestic and foreign investment. Substantial and strategic investment in infrastructure is needed to support the development of Myanmar’s domestic markets and their integration into the international economy. This will be a challenging task, requiring a nationally coordinated approach to prioritise projects. While such integration will intensify the forces concentrating activity in the central states and regions, development need not be similarly concentrated. Active steps to share the gains from growth will help sustain that growth, underpin peace and raise welfare for all of Myanmar’s people. Myanmar’s transition is supported and embraced by its regional neighbours and increasingly by the global community. Its membership of ASEAN should be the guiding focus in a trade and investment diplomacy that emphasises broad and non-preferential liberalisation and seizes vital opportunities for regional and global engagement to reinforce domestic reform. This paper provides a vision of how Myanmar can more than double the incomes of its people over the next decade. By getting national development strategy right, Myanmar can sustainably raise living standards, improve the welfare of all of its people and re-establish its weight and role in the international community in the decades to come..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Development Resource Institute’s Centre for Economic and Social Development (MDRI-CESD) and the East Asian Bureau of Economic Research (EABER)
Format/size: pdf (3.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 13 September 2015

Title: Multi-dimensional Review of Myanmar Volume 2.- In-depth Analysis and Recommendations
Date of publication: 14 January 2015
Description/subject: Read online..."Building on an initial assessment of constraints to development in Myanmar (Volume 1), this second volume provides analysis and policy recommendations in three key areas: structural transformation, education and skills, and financing development. It finds that Myanmar faces a crucial few years to shape growth towards a higher, more sustainable and equitable trajectory. To succeed, it will require a transformation of the economy from an agrarian base reliant on small-scale agriculture at present towards a broad range of modern activities. Building up the right skills in the workforce will be essential to support this structural transformation. Myanmar’s transformation will also depend upon how effectively the country can mobilise and allocate the financial resources needed to support its development, which could amount to as much as an additional 5-10% of GDP on average over the next two decades."
Language: English
Source/publisher: OECD - Development Pathways
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://www.oecd.org/countries/myanmar/multi-dimensional-review-of-myanmar-9789264220577-en.htm
Date of entry/update: 16 January 2015

Title: National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan [Myanmar]
Date of publication: 30 April 2014
Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is a framework for national action for the conservation of biodiversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources. According to Article 6 of the Convention, each member country needs to develop its own National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) to integrate conservation and the sustainable use of biodiversity. In order to fulfill this commitment to the Convention, Myanmar conducted a project entitled National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan in Myanmar (NBSAP Myanmar). The Government Meeting No. 17/2006 of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, held on 25th May 2006, approved to formulate NBSAP of Myanmar. The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and Global Environment Facility (GEF) agreed to support the technique and funding in formulating NBSAP. With approval of the Government Meeting No. 11/2009 of of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar held on 19th March 2009, Forest Department of the Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry, the Republic of the Union of Myanmar has signed the Project Cooperation Agreement (PCA) with UNEP, a GEF Implementing Agency, which is also accountable to the GEF Council for GEF financed activities, on 10th April 2009. The NBSAP is the outcome of extensive data and information collating and analysis, as well as a series of workshops and working group meetings with participation from government departments, NGOs, and academic institutions. Based on the consultations, discussions, comments, suggestions and updated information of biodiversity and natural resources in the country, the NBSAP has been prepared and approved by national stakeholders. The NBSAP will act as the major guiding document for planning biodiversity conservation in the country, following its goal to provide a strategic planning framework for the effective and efficient conservation and management of biodiversity and natural resources based on greater transparency, accountability and equity. On 3rd May of 2012, the Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar adopted the Myanmar NBSAP by its Government Meeting No. 16/2012. The NBSAP is composed of six major chapters, which start with a general description of Myanmar’s biodiversity and then extends to a strategy for the sustainability of biodiversity conservation. Chapter 1 provides a general introduction to Myanmar, as well as objectives and methodology of the NBSAP. In Chapter 2, a detailed description about the diversity in ecosystems, habitats and species in Myanmar is presented, including the indication on species’ status as being endemic, threatened or invasive. Chapter 3 discusses the background of national policies, institutions and legal frameworks applicable to biodiversity conservation in Myanmar. Chapter 4 analyses and highlights conservation priorities, major threats to the conservation of biodiversity as well as the important matter of sustainable and equitable use of biological resources in Myanmar. Chapter 5 presents the comprehensive national strategy and action plans for implementing biodiversity conservation in Myanmar within a 5-year framework that includes strengthening and expanding on priority sites for conservation, mainstreaming of biodiversity conservation in other sectors and policies, implementing of priority species conservation, supporting for more active participation of NGOs and other institutions in society towards biodiversity conservation, implementing actions towards biosafety and invasive species issues, strengthening legislative process for environmental conservation and enhancing awareness on biodiversity conservation. In this chapter, sustainable management of natural resources and development of ecotourism are also mentioned. Chapter 6 presents the required institutional mechanism for improving biodiversity conservation, the monitoring and evaluation of the implementation, as well as sustainability, of the NBSAP. It is trusted that the NBSAP provides a comprehensive framework for planning biodiversity conservation, management and utilization in a sustainable manner, as well as to ensure the long term survival of Myanmar’s rich biodiversity."
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Republic of the Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.8MB-reduced verson; 5.6MB-original version)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs17/Biodiversity%20strategy%20and%20action%20plan.pdf
Date of entry/update: 23 May 2014

Title: Karen Group Criticizes JICA Development Proposals
Date of publication: 20 February 2014
Description/subject: "An ethnic Karen group has criticized an extensive report by the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) about proposals for development projects in southeastern Burma. The 593-page report by JICA and Burma’s Ministry of Border Affairs proposes wide-ranging development projects for Karen and Mon states, with the purpose of facilitating the eventual return of Burmese refugees. But the Karen Environmental and Social Action Network (KESAN), a Thailand-based NGO focused on land rights and peace in Karen State, blasted the report on Wednesday for lacking input from local residents. The group said in a statement that the report, which was published in October, also fails to adequately address the development challenges created by decades of armed conflict in the region, while suggesting projects that could open the door to land-grabs."
Author/creator: Nyein Nyein
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=karen%20group%20criticizes%20jica%20development%20proposal...
Date of entry/update: 02 March 2014

Title: KESAN's Briefing on Japanese Government Plan for Development of Southeast Burma/Myanmar
Date of publication: 19 February 2014
Description/subject: "Japan's international aid agency has recently released a detailed framework for the future development of southeast Burma. This brief analysis summarizes the main content of the report, and raises concerns about the process of the study and its underlying assumptions."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Kesan
Format/size: html, pdf (404K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.kesan.asia/index.php/what-we-do/advocacy-campaign/development-and-resources-extraction-m...
Date of entry/update: 02 March 2014

Date of publication: 13 October 2013
Language: English
Format/size: pdf (7.7MB)
Date of entry/update: 02 March 2014

Date of publication: 13 October 2013
Language: English
Format/size: pdf (7.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 02 March 2014

Date of publication: 13 October 2013
Description/subject: CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION: 1.1Background; 1.2Study Scope and Objectives... CHAPTER 2 - CHARACTERISTIC OF SOUTHEAST MYANMAR AND ITS POSITION IN THE UNION OF MYANMAR: 2.1Characteristics of Southeast Myanmar; 2.1.1Land and population; 2.1.2Natural conditions; 2.1.3Economy; 2.2Position of Southeast Myanmar in Union of Myanmar; 2.2.1Natural and physical conditions; 2.2.2Socio-economic conditions; 2.2.3Position of Southeast Myanmar in national development... CHAPTER 3 - REGIONAL DEVELOPMENTPOTENTIALS OF SOUTHEAST MYANMAR: 3.1Economic Corridors Development; 3.1.1East-west economic corridors; 3.1.2Southern economic corridors; 3.1.3Additional regional economic corridors; 3.2Development of FTZ and Industrial Estates; 3.3Industrial Clusters Development; 3.3.1Rubber industrial cluster; 3.3.2Wood and bamboo works industrial cluster; 3.3.3Cashew industrial cluster; 3.3.4Other possible industrial clusters; 3.4Urban Development; 3.4.1Regional cities development; 3.4.2Border towns development; 3.4.3Urban hierarchy and city networking... CHAPTER 4 - PLANNING FOR RETURN AND SETTLEMENT: 4.1Planning Framework; 4.2Development Directions to Promote Peace; 4.2.1First type areas; 4.2.2Second type areas; 4.2.3Third type areas; 4.3Principles for Development for Peace; 4.3.1Settlement areas development; 4.3.2Provision of information; 4.3.3Border areas development; 4.3.4Issue based dialogues between peace groups and State Government... CHAPTER 5 - PLANNING FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SOUTHEAST MYANMAR: 5.1.1Problem structure analysis; 5.1.2Objectives and basic strategy for regional development of Southeast Myanmar; 5.1.3Vision for regional development of Southeast Myanmar; 5.2Development Scenario; 5.2.1Development phasing; 5.2.2Preparatory phase: up to 2015/16; 5.2.3Phase 1: 2016/17-20/21... CHAPTER 6 - RECOMMENDATION FOR SUBSEQUENT STAGE: 6.1Return and Settlement Support and IntegratedRegional Development Master Plan; 6.1.1Return and settlement planning (Project 1.1); 6.1.2Implementation of pilot projects (Project 1.2); 6.1.3Integrated regional development master planning (Project 1.3); 6.2Feasibility Study of Hpayarthonesu -Thanbyuzayat Road with EIA (Project 2); 6.3Water Supply Improvement Program (Project 3); 6.4Mini Hydro Power Development Program (Project 4); 6.5Roads and Bridges Improvement Program; 6.5.1Artery and sub-artery roads strengthening project (Project 5.1); 6.5.2Access roads improvement project (Project 5.2); 6.5.3Ethnic group areas access improvement project (Project 5.3); 6.6Power Supply Network Expansion Program (Project 6); 6.7Industrial Clusters Promotion Program (Project 7); 6.8Industrial Estates Related Infrastructure Development (Project 8); 6.9Mixed and Integrated Farming Promotion Program (Project 9); 6.10Productive Re-forestation Program (Project 10); 6.11Social Development Model Project (Project 11); 6.12Implementation Support for Integrated Regional Development Master Plan (Project 12); 6.13Feasibility Study of Kyaikkhami Regional Port Stage 1 (Project 13); 6.14River Basin Development and Management Master Plan (Project 14); 6.15D/D of Hpayarthonesu –Thanbyuzayat Road (Project 15).
Language: English
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 02 March 2014

Title: The politics of the emerging agro-industrial complex in Asia’s ‘final frontier’ - The war on food sovereignty in Burma
Date of publication: 03 September 2013
Description/subject: "Burma's dramatic turn-around from 'axis of evil' to western darling in the past year has been imagined as Asia's 'final frontier' for global finance institutions, markets and capital. Burma's agrarian landscape is home to three-fourths of the country's total population which is now being constructed as a potential prime investment sink for domestic and international agribusiness. The Global North's development aid industry and IFIs operating in Burma has consequently repositioned itself to proactively shape a pro-business legal environment to decrease political and economic risks to enable global finance capital to more securely enter Burma's markets, especially in agribusiness. But global capitalisms are made in localized places - places that make and are made from embedded social relations. This paper uncovers how regional political histories that are defined by very particular racial and geographical undertones give shape to Burma's emerging agro-industrial complex. The country's still smoldering ethnic civil war and fragile untested liberal democracy is additionally being overlain with an emerging war on food sovereignty. A discursive and material struggle over land is taking shape to convert subsistence agricultural landscapes and localized food production into modern, mechanized industrial agro-food regimes. This second agrarian transformation is being fought over between a growing alliance among the western development aid and IFI industries, global finance capital, and a solidifying Burmese military-private capitalist class against smallholder farmers who work and live on the country's now most valuable asset - land. Grassroots resistances increasingly confront the elite capitalist class' attempts to corporatize food production through the state's rule of law and police force. Farmers, meanwhile, are actively developing their own shared vision of food sovereignty and pro-poor land reform that desires greater attention.... Food Sovereignty: a critical dialogue, 14 - 15 September, New Haven.
Author/creator: Kevin Woods
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
Format/size: pdf (593K)
Date of entry/update: 04 September 2013

Title: Multi-dimensional Review of Myanmar: Volume 1. Initial Assessment
Date of publication: 18 July 2013
Description/subject: Read online only..."This volume is the first of the OECD Development Pathways, a new series that looks at multiple development objectives beyond an exclusive focus on growth. The series starts with Myanmar, a country to be covered for the first time by the OECD. This initial assessment shows that Myanmar’s success in achieving stable and sustainable growth will depend vitally on its ability to develop the institutional and social capital necessary to maintain macroeconomic and financial stability, to ensure the rule of law, to achieve environmentally sustainable development and to create an enabling environment for the private sector. To be sustainable, growth also needs to be more equitable and inclusive. Seizing the momentum created by the country’s opening and internal peace process will be imperative. Moreover, Myanmar’s increasing population provides a demographic dividend which needs to be reaped in the next couple of decades to boost the potential of the economy. After that, the population will begin ageing and Myanmar risks getting old before the incomes and living standards of its people can significantly improve."
Language: English
Source/publisher: OECD Development Centre
Format/size: html (Read online)
Alternate URLs: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/development/multi-dimensional-review-of-myanmar_9789264202085-en
Date of entry/update: 16 January 2015

Title: A NEW DAWN FOR EQUITABLE GROWTH IN MYANMAR? Making the private sector work for small - scale agriculture
Date of publication: 04 June 2013
Description/subject: "The new wave of political reforms have set Myanmar on a road to unprecedented economic expansion, but, without targeted policy efforts and regulation to even the playing field, the benefits of new investment will filter down to only a few, leaving small - scale farmers – the backbone of the Myanmar economy – unable to benefit from this growth...KEY RECOMMENDATIONS: If Myanmar is to meet its ambitions on equitable growth, political leaders must put new policies and regulation to generate equitable growth at the heart of their democratic reform agenda. Along with democratic reforms, and action to end human-rights abuses, these policies must: * Address power inequalities in the markets; * Put small-scale farmers at the center of new agricultural investments; * Close loopholes in law and practice that leave the poorest open to land-rights abuses..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: OXFAM
Format/size: pdf (266K-reduced version; 314K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/ib-equitable-growth-myanmar-040613-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 July 2013

Title: A NEW DAWN FOR EQUITABLE GROWTH IN MYANMAR? Making the private sector work for small-scale agriculture
Date of publication: 04 June 2013
Description/subject: "The new wave of political reforms have set Myanmar on a road to unprecedented economic expansion, but, without targeted policy efforts and regulation to even the playing field, the benefits of new investment will filter down to only a few, leaving small-scale farmers – the backbone of the Myanmar economy – unable to benefit from this growth. If Myanmar is to meet its ambitions on equitable growth, political leaders must put new policies and regulation to generate equitable growth at the heart of their democratic reform agenda. These must address power inequalities in the markets, put small-scale farmers at the centre of new agricultural investments, and close loopholes in law and practice that leave the poorest open to land-rights abuses...KEY RECOMMENDATIONS: If Myanmar is to meet its ambitions on equitable growth, political leaders must put new policies and regulation to generate equitable growth at the heart of their democratic reform agenda. Along with democratic reforms, and action to end human-rights abuses, these policies must: * Address power inequalities in the markets; * Put small-scale farmers at the center of new agricultural investments; * Close loopholes in law and practice that leave the poorest open to land-rights abuses..."
Author/creator: Jasmine Burnley
Language: English
Source/publisher: OXFAM
Format/size: pdf (314K)
Date of entry/update: 16 June 2014

Date of publication: June 2013
Description/subject: 1. Three types of areas for return and settlement supports...2. Location of three types of areas for return and settlement supports...3. Approach to development in Type 1 areas...4. Approach to development in Type 2 areas...5. Approach to development in Type 3 areas...6. Principles for return and settlement supports... Comments by Steve Thompson
Language: English
Source/publisher: RECS International Inc. Nippon Koei Co., Ltd. Oriental Consultants Co., Ltd
Format/size: ppt (342K)
Date of entry/update: 02 March 2014

Title: PREPARATORY SURVEY FOR THE INTEGRATED REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR ETHNIC MINORITIES IN THE SOUTH-EAST MYANMAR II. Planning for Integrated Regional Development of Southeast Myanmar (Powerpoint presentation)
Date of publication: June 2013
Description/subject: 1. Economic Corridors Development...2. Artery Road Network for Southeast Myanmar...3. Industrial Clusters Development...4. Rubber Industrial Cluster...5. Wood and Bamboo Works Industrial Cluster...6. Cashew Industrial Cluster...8. River Basins Water Resources Development and Management Program...9. Megatat River Basin Water Resources Development and Management...10. Bilin River Basin Water Resources Development and Management...11.Dontami River and Ye River Basin Water Resources Development and Management...12. Melaga River Basin Water Resources Development and Management...13. Yunzalin River Basin Water Resources Development and Management...14.Payathonezu Settlement Areas Development Program...15. Returnees Empowerment Center (REC)...16. Conciliatory Access Improvement Program...17. Water Supply Improvement Program...18. Problem Structure Analysis...19. Objectives for Regional Development of Southeast Myanmar...20. Basic Strategy for Regional Development of Southeast Myanmar...21.Vision for Regional Development of Southeast Myanmar...22. Factors Supporting the Regional Development Vision...23. Important Concepts to Support the Regional Development of Southeast Myanmar...24. Development Scenario...25. Preparatory Phase: up to 2015/16...26. Phase 1: 2016/17~2020/21...27. Phase 2: 2021/22~2025/26...28. Phase 3: 2026/26~2035/36...29. Future Characteristic of Southeast Myanmar. Comments in red by Steve Thompson
Language: English
Source/publisher: RECS International Inc. Nippon Koei Co., Ltd. Oriental Consultants Co., Ltd
Format/size: ppt (4.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 02 March 2014

Title: Excluded - Burma’s Ethnic Nationalities on the Margins of Development & Democracy
Date of publication: December 2012
Description/subject: "This report presents documented evidence that ethnic nationalities directly affected by development projects in Burma are systematically denied their right to free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC). While development related abuse has been well documented, no report has shed light on the staggering scale of the widespread denial of participation rights in Burma...Our research shows that: • Close to 90% of those surveyed did not receive any information about the development project before it was started by a decision maker. In all but 2 sites, not one person was given any information. • Approximately 80% of the total survey population did not know who to contact or where to go to find out more information about the project. In 3 sites, the figure soared to 100%. • Less than 1% said a public forum was held by a project decision maker where the local community could attend. • Of the total sample population, less than 2% felt they would not be punished if they sought information about the project. • Close to half (44.1%) felt unsafe seeking further information about the project, while 45.2% were not sure whether it was safe or unsafe. • Less than 1% experienced positive impacts from the development project... This report is meant to serve as a warning of the risks entailed in denying participation rights as well as a reminder to potential investors of their human rights obligations..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Nationalities Youth Forum (NY-Forum) and Students Youth Congress of Burma (SYCB)
Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 15 May 2013

Title: United Nations Strategic Framework 2012-2015 [Myanmar]
Date of publication: 19 January 2012
Description/subject: Table of Contents: Foreword... Signatories: October 2011... Acronyms and Abbreviations... Map of UN offices in Myanmar... Section I: Development Context... Human Development and the MDGs.... UN in Myanmar.... Section II: The Strategic Framework... Strategic Priority 1: Encourage inclusive growth (both rural and urban), including agricultural development and enhancement of employment opportunities ... Strategic Priority 2: Increase equitable access to quality social services..... Strategic Priority 3: Reduce vulnerability to natural disasters and climate change.... Strategic Priority 4: Promote good governance and strengthen democratic institutions and human rights... Section III: Resource Requirements... Section IV: Management and Implementation.... Section V: Monitoring and Evaluation..... Section VI: Operationalization of the UN Strategic Framework
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations Country Team in Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://unic.un.org/imucms/userfiles/yangon/file/UN_Strategic_Framework_for_Myanmar_2012-2015.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 November 2012

Title: A Comparative Study of State-Led Development in Myanmar (1988–2010) and Suharto’s Indonesia: An Approach from the Developmental State Theory
Date of publication: 2011
Description/subject: Abstract: "This article explores the institutionalization of state-led development in Myanmar after 1988 in comparison with Suharto’s Indonesia. The analysis centres on the characteristics and theory of developmental states that emerged from the studies of East Asian countries like Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. In Southeast Asia, Suharto’s Indonesia was perceived as a successful case and was studied by scholars in line with the characteristics of the developmental state. The Tatmadaw (military) government in Myanmar was believed to follow the model of state-led development in Indonesia under Suharto where the military took the role of establishing economic and political development. However, Myanmar has yet to achieve its goal of building a successful state-led development. Therefore, this paper argues that implementing an efficient and effective institutionalization is essential for a successful state-led development (developmental state) in Myanmar.".... Keywords: Myanmar, Suharto’s Indonesia, state-led development, developmental state, institutionalization....ISSN: 1868-4882 (online), ISSN: 1868-1034 (print
Author/creator: Sai Khaing Myo Tun
Language: English
Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 1/2011: 69-94
Format/size: pdf (230K)
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2011

Title: Children as Beneficiaries and Participants in Development Programs: A Case Study in Burma (Myanmar)
Date of publication: June 2007
Description/subject: Abstract: "This study seeks to understand the dynamics and processes of community development programs for children in Burma (Myanmar). It examines the ethical dimensions of children’s participation, critiques the extent of participation of young people in community development activity, explores the barriers and avenues for increased participation and presents recommendations based on lived experience which can be used to formulate policies that will enable/encourage greater participation. The development industry reaches to almost all areas of the globe and is not confined by national boundaries, ethnicity, age, gender or other social stratification. One of the most topical issues in contemporary development regards the rights of the child. It is an area of increasing interest to United Nations agencies and to human rights groups such as Amnesty International and the International Labour Organisation. In addition, a number of international programs have been created to focus upon improving the global situation of children, such as the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and Mandela and Machel's "Global Movement for Children." Such interest in the situation of children, however, rarely includes discussion of the ethical issues involved in the construction of children as appropriate subjects of development. Even rarer is examination or discussion of the culturally and historically contingent nature of assumptions about children and childhood that are built into many programs that focus upon children. The implications of applying programs and techniques that incorporate "Western" or "generic" understandings of children and childhood upon children from non­ Western nations should be part of such discussions. Development programs increasingly employ national workers, not only as stakeholders and participants, but also as initiators of programs and as directors of resource allocation. However, with this growing trend of the participation of ‘beneficiaries’ of development programs in identifying needs and planning and implementing solutions, the voices of children have, until recently, been quiet."
Author/creator: Karl Goodwin-Dorning
Language: English
Source/publisher: Faculty of Arts Department of Social Inquiry & Community Studies Victoria University
Format/size: pdf (3.7MB-reduced version; 8.6MB-1st part of original; 5.2MB-2nd part of original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs23/Karl_Dorning-Thesis-Pt_A.pdf
Date of entry/update: 16 July 2017