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Food security by State and Division

  • Food Security in Chin State

    Individual Documents

    Title: Food Security Surveillance survey Comparative Report Southern Chin State, Kanpetlet Township
    Date of publication: October 2011
    Description/subject: June and October 2011..."Solidarites International (SI) started its intervention in Kanpetlet Township, Southern Chin State in March, 2011. After conducting two rapid assessments in the two townships of Mindat and Kanpetlet in September and December 2010, SI launched a food security intervention in Kanpetlet Township, with the support of WFP and CIAA1. SI started its intervention with a blanket food distribution funded by WFP in 67 villages, targeting 10,000 people, around 1900 HH. The beneficiaries’ selection was based on the rodent infestation level: most of the selected villages had been severely affected by rodent infestation, and the majority of the villages had lost at least 75 % of their crops. In each selected village, all the villagers, except the government employees, received 10 kg of rice per month, for 2 months. In parallel, SI launched a food security project funded by CIAA. The specific objective of this project was to improve the access to food and to restore the production capacities of the communities affected by the rodent infestation. The project activities included corn and paddy seeds distribution, Food for Work (FFW) for rodent control and rat trap distributions. This project targeted 58 villages, for a total of 8800 beneficiaries. Within the framework of this project, one of the expected results was to monitor the food security situation in the targeted area, in order to better understand the main constraints faced in terms of access to food, and thus to better address the needs. SI conducted 2 food security surveillance surveys during 2011 project implementation period: the first assessment was done in June 2011 and the second assessment end of September/ beginning of October 2011.The rationale behind conducting those 2 surveys at that time was to collect data both towards the beginning and the end of the lean season in the area. The present report shows a comparison between the main findings of those 2 food security surveillance surveys..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Solidarites International (SI)
    Format/size: pdf (515K)
    Date of entry/update: 17 February 2012


    Title: WFP to continue assistance to Chin State
    Date of publication: 07 January 2010
    Description/subject: The World Food Program (WFP) has pledged to offer further help to Chin state in western Burma plagued by rat infestation and other natural disasters leading to food shortage over the last three years. Swe Swe Win, program officer of WFP’s office in Burma’s former capital Rangoon on Tuesday said, WFP will continue its assistance program in the country including Chin State under the new Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation (PRRO), which will continue from 2010 to 2012 to improve food security, nutrition status and livelihood of the vulnerable population in Myanmar. The amount of the operation is not available.
    Author/creator: Salai Pi Pi
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Mizzima
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


    Title: A Land of Beauty and Misery
    Date of publication: January 2010
    Description/subject: Breathtaking vistas of Chin State contrast starkly with the hardships of life in this often-ignored corner of Burma... "The Chin people I met during my visit to this northwestern part of Burma take great pride in the natural attractions of their land—a place of dense forests and deep gorges, where exotic flowers cover steep mountains, which often lie enveloped in cool, refreshing mists. Children in Chin State are the most vulnerable to disease and malnutrition. (Photo: KO YUYA) But the natural beauty belies the hardships of life in this isolated highland, where ordinary people face privations that are severe even by the standards of a country ranked among the world’s most impoverished. Much of the suffering here is not, however, merely a matter of poverty. Besides the struggle to find food and earn a living, many must also contend with various human rights abuses committed by the Burmese junta..."
    Author/creator: Ko Yuya
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


    Title: MYANMAR: Chin State - a mountain of trouble
    Date of publication: 07 December 2009
    Description/subject: In the remote western Chin state, Ngite Pan, 46, ekes out an existence, feeding herself and her 15-year-old daughter by planting millet. Occasionally, she sells a traditional intoxicating brew called Khaung-Yay, also made from millet, which earns her about US$4 a month. It is the widow’s only source of income, and most of this money is spent on buying rice to supplement the millet - but it is not enough.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IRIN_ humanitarian news and analysis
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


    Title: On the Edge of Survival: The Continuing Rat Infestation and Food Crisis in Chin State, Burma
    Date of publication: 24 September 2009
    Description/subject: Executive Summary" "Since late 2007, the people of Chin State have been struggling with massive food shortages and hunger after the vast bamboo forests that cover the mountainous landscape of Chin State began to flower and die- a process that occurs twice every century. Already struggling for their survival due to decades of severe economic repression and human rights abuses, this natural disaster has left the Chin people on the edge of survival. This report is a follow-up to CHRO’s July 2008 report, “Critical Point: Food Scarcity and Hunger in Burma’s Chin State,” which first brought worldwide attention to the dire humanitarian conditions facing the Chin people. This report provides an update on the current conditions in Chin State, the effects of the food crisis, and responses taken to assist people in the affected areas of Chin State. The bamboo of Chin State began to flower in late 2006. Attracted to the fruit produced by the bamboo, the flowering process triggered an explosion in the rat population. After exhausting the fruit supply, the rats turned on people’s crops and food supplies, causing massive food shortages for local villagers dependent on farming for their livelihood and subsistence. In 2008, CHRO estimated that as many as 200 villages were affected by severe food shortages associated with the bamboo flowering, and no less than 100,000 people, or 20 percent of the entire population of Chin State, were in need of immediate food aid. CHRO now believes those figures are much higher. Since CHRO first reported on the crisis, food shortages spread to seven townships in Chin State as well as parts of Sagaing Division. Up to 82 percent of the farmland has been destroyed in certain affected regions of Chin State. In several villages, each and every household is in need of immediate food aid. The consequences of the food crisis are also more apparent now. Over 54 people are known to have died due to the effects of extreme malnourishment and famine-related disease; children comprise the majority of recorded deaths. As access to affected regions is limited, this number is likely to be an underestimate. Disease and malnourishment is widespread, particularly among women, children, and the elderly. Children with little ability to concentrate on studies due to hunger have been forced to drop out of school in order to help their families forage for food: school enrollment rates are down 50 to 60 percent from last year. Several thousand Chin have fled their villages to search for food elsewhere. More than 4,000 have already arrived to the India and Thailand border. Villagers are now struggling with hunger and severe malnutrition due to food shortages in Chin State. Children are particularly at risk of malnourishment. (© CHRO, 2007) Up to 82 percent of the farmland has been destroyed in certain affected regions of Chin State. (© CHRO, 2009) The situation has been made more acute by the ruling military regime’s utter neglect of the suffering, compounded by policies and practices of abuse and repression against Chin civilians. As thousands struggle with hunger, starvation, and disease, the SPDC continues practices of forced labor, extorting excessive amounts of money from villagers, confiscating people’s land and property, in addition to other severe human rights abuses. Such actions have strained the Chin people’s ability to cope with the impacts of the natural disaster. Since the food shortages were first reported by CHRO, efforts have been made to respond to the food crisis. After initially dismissing the situation in Chin State, the WFP conducted a follow-up investigation and eventually acknowledged the existence of food shortages in Chin State. During a recent mission to the area, WFP reported “food consumption *to be+…worse than any other region visited by the Mission.” WFP and their coordinating partners initiated relief programs in early 2009 that continue to be implemented in various affected areas of Chin State. Chin community-based groups in India have also organized relief teams to deliver food aid to remote villages in Chin State. These teams are responsible for delivering over 30,000 kilograms of rice to 54 villages in six townships from May to July 2009 alone. Despite concerted efforts from multiply fronts to assist the affected population, Burma’s military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), continues to do nothing to respond to the food crisis in Chin State. Rather, the SPDC has exacerbated the crisis through sustained human rights abuses and economic repression, further undermining the livelihoods and food security of the Chin people. Forced labor, extortion, and confiscations of land and property continue unabated within the affected areas. SPDC has denied repeated requests for food aid, even as it reports a rice surplus. Local authorities have banned villagers from receiving foreign aid, threatening reprisals against anyone who accepts foreign aid. Government neglect and continued abuse; inadequately supported relief efforts; and pervasive hunger and food shortages have the potential for catastrophic humanitarian consequences. The effects of the bamboo flowering and rat infestation are expected to last three to five years. During the last bamboo cycle, half a century ago, 10,000 to 15,000 people reportedly died due to the associated effects of hunger and disease in neighboring Mizoram State. The people of Chin State today struggling with the same natural disaster have the added burden of military repression, abuse, and neglect. They are on the edge of survival now; but their struggle is far from over."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Chin Human Rights Organization (CHRO)
    Format/size: pdf (2.38MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/On_The_Edge_of_Survival-2.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 September 2009


    Title: On the Edge of Survival: The Continuing Rat Infestation and Food Crisis in Chin State, Burma
    Date of publication: September 2009
    Description/subject: This report is dedicated to the memory of John Tuihing, a Chin human rights activist and relief worker who drowned on 30 October 2008 in a boating accident while delivering much-needed food aid to communities struggling with food shortages in Paletwa Township, Chin State. John joined as a staff member of CHRO in April 2008 based on the India-Burma border. He had recently assumed the position of acting coordinator for the Chin Famine Emergency Relief Committee (CFERC), a Mizoram-based cross-border relief team. He will be remembered as a dedicated activist, committed to protecting and promoting the rights of the Chin people. Our work continues in his memory.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Chin Human Rights Organization
    Format/size: pdf (3.04 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmacampaign.org.uk/index.php/news-and-reports/reports/title/on-the-edge-of-survival-th...
    Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


    Title: Myanmar: Chin State - Rodent Infestation Area (2008-09 Monsoon Crops) (map)
    Date of publication: 05 August 2009
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: MIMU
    Format/size: pdf (605K)
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2009


    Title: MYANMAR: Rats exacerbate food insecurity in Chin State
    Date of publication: 03 February 2009
    Description/subject: Food insecurity in Myanmar’s remote and impoverished Chin State, northwestern Myanmar, has worsened following a major infestation of rats. “It has been well documented that food insecurity in Chin is chronic,” Chris Kaye, country representative for the UN’s World Food Programme (WFP) told IRIN from Yangon, the former Burmese capital.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IRIN_ humanitarian news and analysis
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


    Title: An Overview of the Food Security Situation in Chin May 2009
    Date of publication: 2009
    Description/subject: Chin state is located in the north-west part of Myanmar, bordering India and Bangladesh. Most of the state is hilly and mountainous having an average height of 4,000 ft. The main livelihood activity is agriculture and shifting cultivation or slash and burn farming, is widely practiced. In Northern Chin State, the economic activities are mostly agriculture activities (vegetable and fruit production), livestock, weaving, small trade and seasonal labor work. Regarding food security, the Northern Chin State is representative of upland agriculture systems and the farming systems are based on rotational fallow method to allow time for the regeneration of soil fertility. Over the last twenty years, most of the villages have faced a marked reduction of the fallow period (from 15 years to 6-9 years) due to the increased pressure on agricultural lands. Consequently both natural resources management and agricultural production have been significantly affected.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The World Food Program (WFP)
    Format/size: pdf (340.29 K)
    Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


    Title: Food Crisis Deepens in Chin State
    Date of publication: 08 October 2008
    Description/subject: At least 1,000 villagers are currently facing a food crisis in Haka Township in Chin State, a Rangoon-based Chin development agency told The Irrawaddy on Tuesday. The Country Agency for Rural Development (CAD), a Roman Catholic-based NGO which facilitates sanitation, education and construction projects in the most remote villages of Chin State, said it assessed the food situation in 20 villages around Haka Township last week and discovered that seven of the villages faced a severe and immediate food crisis.
    Author/creator: LAWI WENG
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: News and Periodical Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=14410
    Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


    Title: Critical Point - Food Scarcity and Hunger in Burma’s Chin State _ 2008 (Special Reports)
    Date of publication: July 2008
    Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The military regime of Burma has been consistent in their inability and unwillingness to protect and provide for the people of Burma. Burma’s human rights record provides testimony of decades of widespread violations and abuses perpetrated largely at the hands of Burma’s military rulers and their agents against the Burmese people. Dissent is regularly silenced and opponents brutalized. In a country once known as the “rice-bowl of Asia,” Burma is now one of the poorest countries of Asia due to steady economic deterioration driven by the regime’s mismanagement. Many in Burma live without access to proper schools, healthcare facilities, reliable electricity, safe drinking water, and stable food supplies. Cowed by policies of extreme oppression and tactics of intimidation, life for much of the population in Burma is a struggle for daily survival. Add to that a natural disaster- and survival in Burma reaches a critical point. Western Burma’s Chin State is at such a point. Since 2006, the region has been plagued by a severe food crisis following a steep reduction in the local harvest and food production. The year 2006 marked the beginning of a new cycle of bamboo flowering, which occurs about every 50 years in the region, triggering an explosion in the population of rats and resulting in the destruction of crops. This has caused a severe shortage of food for local communities primarily dependent on subsistence farming through shifting cultivation. The phenomenon has been documented three times since 1862, and each past event ended in a disastrous famine for the communities in the area. Compounding the impending food crisis in Chin State due to the bamboo flowering is the continuation of severe human rights violations and repressive economic policies of the military regime, which serve to further undermine the livelihoods and food security of the Chin people. The use of unpaid civilian forced labour is widespread throughout Chin State, which consumes the time and energy of local farmers and reduces their crop yields. The regime also forcibly orders farmers to substitute their staple crops for other cash crops, and has confiscated thousands of acres of farmland from local farmers for tea and jatropha plantations. Meanwhile, arbitrary taxes and mandatory “donations” collected from Chin households by the Burmese authorities total up to as much 200,000 Kyats a year in major towns.2 This includes the unofficial collection of money from the Chin public by officials in various government departments at the local level to support such programs as tea and bio-fuel plantations; and extortion and confiscation of money, properties, and livestock by military units stationed at 33 locations across the state. The rising cost of living and skyrocketing food prices is also adding to the already dire humanitarian situation in Chin State. In the last four years, the price of rice has quintupled from 6,000 Kyats a bag in 2004 to as much as 30,000 Kyats today, an amount equivalent to the monthly salary of entry level public servants. The humanitarian consequences stemming from the dying bamboo and exacerbated by conditions imposed by the regime are enormous, and there are clear indications that unless urgent action is taken to address the crisis, the situation could soon turn into a large-scale catastrophe affecting all parts of Chin State. The hardest hit areas are in the southern townships of Matupi and Paletwa where bamboo grows heavily, but reports suggest that severe food shortages are a state-wide phenomenon with many villages in the northern townships of Tonzang and Thantlang, for example, having already run out of food supplies. Based on the latest field surveys conducted in the affected areas, Chin Human Rights Organization (CHRO) estimates that as many as 200 villages may be directly affected by severe food shortages associated with the bamboo flowering, and no less than 100, 000 people or 20 percent of the entire population of Chin State may be in need of immediate food aid.3 Food scarcity is more severe in remote areas, where families are being reduced to one meal a day or have nothing left to eat at all. CHRO recently visited four border villages in India’s Mizoram State where it found 93 families from 22 villages in Paletwa Township, Chin State who fled across the border in search of food. To date, Burma’s State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) has done nothing positive to counter the food scarcity, nor has the SPDC provided any kind of help to communities affected by the food crisis. Repeated requests by affected communities for food aid were denied, even as 100,000 metric tonnes of rice was exported to Sri Lanka.4 Rather, Burma Army soldiers have seized food aid donated by private donors and church groups.5 In contrast to the situation in Burma, India’s Mizoram and Manipur States, both adjacent to Chin State, are facing a similar food crisis related to the bamboo flowering, and have received millions of dollars in aid from the central government as well as international aid agencies, including USAID of the United States government, to support emergency programs to combat and manage the food crisis.6 In early May, when Cyclone Nargis ripped through lower Burma and the Irrawaddy delta destroying entire regions of land and leaving thousands homeless, hungry, and helpless, the regime clearly demonstrated their complete indifference to the plight of the Burmese people. In response to this natural disaster, they did shamefully little to ease the suffering of the victims and much to hamper relief efforts. As a result, the people of Burma paid a heavy price in the loss of life and continue to struggle under a regime that fails to protect or provide for its people. As another natural disaster unfolds in western Burma without hope of internal protections or provisions, the Chin people, like the cyclone victims, will be sure to pay a heavy toll unless action is taken immediately. The critical point for action is now."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Chin Human Rights Organization (CHRO)
    Format/size: pdf (731K, 640K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.chro.ca/publications/special-reports.html
    Date of entry/update: 09 July 2008


    Title: Food Shortages in Chin State Bamboo flowers bring starvation, devastation and suffering to Chin Land
    Description/subject: Chin Human Rights Organization believes that at least 120 Chin villages along the Burma India and Bangladesh border approximately 50,000 people or roughly ten percent of the entire population of Chin State may be directly affected by the ongoing famine.
    Author/creator: Naw Cha Mu
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Issues
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 October 2010


  • Food Security in Kachin State

    Individual Documents

    Title: Papun Interview: Maung R---, August 2011
    Date of publication: 29 February 2012
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview submitted to KHRG in August 2011 by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions in Bu Tho Township, Papun District. The villager interviewed Maung R---, a 31-year-old village head, who described extensive demands for forced labour, specifically for villagers to porter military rations, produce thatch shingles and bamboo poles, and tend to plantations owned by Border Guard soldiers. He also detailed demands for money including mandatory payments in lieu of recruitment for portering duties and arbitrary taxation. Threats against villagers were used to ensure compliance with these demands. Past instances of forced recruitment into the Border Guard were mentioned, as well as cases of direct violence, including an attack against villagers with three reported deaths. Other concerns expressed include the absence of basic medical care, and the poor quality of farmland which contributes to food insecurity and can force villagers to seek daily wage work in order to meet their basic food requirements. To mitigate this insecurity villagers employ a range of tactics including the sharing of food, as described by Maung R--- below."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (288K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b20.html
    Date of entry/update: 13 March 2012


  • Food Security in Karen (Kayin) State

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Search the KHRG site for Food & Livelihoods
    Description/subject: Use the drop-down menu to search the KHRG database for "food" -- 98 results -- or "Food & Livelihoods" -- 144 results (October 2010)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 October 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Papun Interview Transcript: Saw L---, June 2011
    Date of publication: 02 March 2012
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted in Dweh Loh Township, Papun District by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The villager interviewed Saw L---, a 49 year old Buddhist paddy farmer, who described demands for forced labour by Tatmadaw soldiers, including portering and guide duty, as well as clearing vegetation for the Border Guard. Saw L--- stated that villagers undertaking forced labour for the Tatmadaw were denied medical treatment and provided with unsuitable rations, such as stale rice. Forced recruitment into the Border Guard was also cited, with villagers from three different villages forced to pay US $389.61 in lieu of military service. Saw L--- also described Tatmadaw soldiers' demands for chicken and rice as putting pressure on already strained resources, and contributing to villagers' food insecurity. Saw L--- noted that some villagers who are unable to produce enough rice engage in daily wage labour in order to meet their basic food requirements, and that villagers who live in Lay Poh Hta village tract have developed support networks at the village level and reportedly share food with others in times of crisis."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (288K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b23.html
    Date of entry/update: 13 March 2012


    Title: Thaton Interview Transcript: Saw T---, April 2011
    Date of publication: 24 February 2012
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during April 2011 in Pa'an Township, Thaton District by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The villager interviewed Saw T---, a 60-year-old Buddhist farmer and village head, who described demands for forced labour that occurred during 2011, including for guide duty and the production of thatch shingles and bamboo poles. Saw T---noted that Karen language is not permitted to be taught in the village school, and expressed concerns over the absence of a medical clinic in the village and a lack of rain during the previous year that resulted in a marked decrease in paddy outputs. Saw T--- noted that villagers share food to deal with increasing food insecurity and described an instance in which villagers only partially complied with a forced labour demand, producing and delivering only 300 thatch shingles to Tatmadaw soldiers, instead of the 500 that had been demanded."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (284K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b18.html
    Date of entry/update: 25 February 2012


    Title: Thaton Interview: U Kh---, December 2011
    Date of publication: 17 February 2012
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during September 2011 by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The villager interviewed U Kh---, a 48-year-old farmer who described being forced to porter for Tatmadaw LIB #220 troops for four days at the beginning of September 2011 during which time he witnessed the looting of villagers' animals, as well as the arrest and detention of two P--- villagers to serve as recruits for Border Guard troops and subsequent demands for the payment of 200,000 kyat (US $259.74) in lieu of each recruit. He described the firing of mortars and small arms in civilian areas and detailed demands for food, weapons, and a motorboat to Border Guard troops. U Kh--- mentioned that he anticipated widespread food shortages as a result of extensive flood damage to paddy crops during the 2011 monsoon season and noted that demands for unpaid forced labour further strained villagers' ability to pursue their own livelihoods effectively. U Kh--- explained that villagers counter burdensome demands by negotiating with local commanders to reduce the number of recruits and pay a smaller sum than demanded in lieu of the provision of recruits"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (287K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b17.html
    Date of entry/update: 17 February 2012


    Title: Nyaunglebin Situation Update: September to October 2011 [News Bulletin]
    Date of publication: 17 January 2012
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in November 2011 by a villager describing events occurring in Nyaunglebin District, during the period between September and October 2011. It details an incident that occurred in October 2011, in which a villager was shot and injured while working in his betelnut field; the villager who wrote this report noted that some villagers living in these areas respond to the threat of violence by fleeing approaching Tatmadaw patrols. Following the shooting, Tatmadaw troops imposed movement restrictions that prevented villagers from traveling to or staying in their agricultural workplaces in the area where the shooting occurred. This report includes additional information about the use of villagers to provide forced labour at Tatmadaw camps, specifically to perform sentry duty along roads, and also raises villagers' concerns about food security after unseasonable rain prevented villagers in some areas from burning brush on their hill fields preparatory to planting and paddy crops in other areas were destroyed by insects and by flooding during the monsoon."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (215K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b4.html
    Date of entry/update: 18 January 2012


    Title: Papun Situation Update: Lu Thaw Township, November 2011
    Date of publication: 17 January 2012
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in November 2011 by a villager living in a hiding site in northern Lu Thaw Township, Papun District. The villager described an incident that occurred in October 2011 in which Tatmadaw soldiers fired six mortar shells into an area in which civilians are actively seeking to avoid attacks by Tatmadaw troops; no one was killed or injured during the attack. This situation update places the occurrence of such incidents in the context of the repeated and prolonged displacement of villagers in northern Luthaw who continue to actively seek to avoid contact with government troops due to ongoing attacks against civilian objects. The villager who wrote this report raised concerns about food shortages in hiding site areas where the presence of Tatmadaw soldiers proximate to previously cultivated land has resulted in overcrowding on available farmland and the subsequent degradation of soil quality, severely limiting villagers' abilities to support themselves using traditional rotational cropping methods. For detailed analysis of the humanitarian situation in this area of Luthaw Township, see the previous KHRG report Acute food shortages threatening 8,885 villagers in 118 villages across northern Papun District, published in April 2011."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (274K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b3.html
    Date of entry/update: 18 January 2012


    Title: Nyaunglebin Situation Update: August to October 2011 [News Bulletin]
    Date of publication: 09 December 2011
    Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in November 2011 by a villager describing events occurring in Ler Doh Township, Nyaunglebin District between August and October 2011. The report describes the an incident of forced labour in which villagers were forced to clear undergrowth from a palm oil plantation at IB #60 military headquarters, as well as arbitrary demands for villagers to provide money, firewood, wooden logs and food to Tatmadaw troops. The villager who wrote this report notes that governmental administrative reforms at the village tract level have resulted in increased demands for payment from civilian officials at a time when flooding in flat areas of paddy cultivation adjacent to the Sittaung River at the end of the 2011 monsoon has substantially impacted villagers’ food security. The villager also raises local communities’ concerns regarding the proposed construction of a dam on the Theh Loh River; and requirements that civilians provide guarantees that non-state armed groups will not attack Tatmadaw troops, which villagers fear will lead to reprisals from Tatmadaw soldiers if fighting does occur. This report also documents several ways in which villagers in Ler Doh Township have responded to abuses, including the formation of Mu Kha Poe village security groups to monitor Tatmadaw troop activity and warn other community members of incoming Tatmadaw patrols and attacks;; and cooperation with other villagers and with local community-based aid groups to secure food support, communication equipment, education materials and medical treatment."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (867K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b52.html
    Date of entry/update: 18 January 2012


    Title: Papun Incident Reports: November 2010 to January 2011
    Date of publication: 24 August 2011
    Description/subject: This report contains 12 incident reports written by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions, based on information provided by 12 different villagers living in hiding sites in Lu Thaw Township, Papun District between November 2010 and January 2011.[1] The twelve villagers described human rights concerns for civilians prior to and during displacement to their current hiding sites, including: deliberate firing of mortars and small arms into civilian areas; burning and destruction of houses, food and food preparation equipment; theft and looting of villagers' animals and possessions; and use of landmines by the Tatmadaw, non-state armed groups, and local gher der 'home guard' groups in civilian areas, resulting in at least one civilian death and two civilian injuries. The reports register villagers' serious concerns about food security in hiding areas beyond Tatmadaw control, caused by effective limits on access to arable land due to the risk of attack when villagers cultivating land proximate to Tatmadaw camps, depletion of soil fertility in cultivable areas, and a drought during the 2010 rainy season which triggered widespread paddy crop failure.[2] To address the threat of Tatmadaw attacks targeting villagers, their food stores and livelihoods activities, villagers reported that they form gher der groups to monitor and communicate Tatmadaw activity; utilise early-warning systems; and communicate amongst themselves and with non-state armed groups to share information about Tatmadaw troop movements. Two villagers stated that the deployment of landmines by gher der groups and KNLA soldiers prevents access to civilian areas by Tatmadaw troops and facilitates security for villagers to pursue their agricultural activities. Another villager described how his community maintained communal agricultural projects to support families at risk from food shortages. These reports were received by KHRG in May 2011, along with other information concerning the situation in Papun District, including 11 other incident reports, 25 interviews, 137 photographs and a general update on the situation in Lu Thaw Township.[3]
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (840K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b25.html
    Date of entry/update: 12 February 2012


    Title: Nyaunglebin Interview: Naw P---, May 2011
    Date of publication: 26 July 2011
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted by a KHRG researcher in May 2011 with a villager from Ler Doh Township, Nyaunglebin District. The researcher interviewed Naw P---, a 40-year-old farmer who described her experiences living in a Tatmadaw-controlled relocation site, and in her original village in a mixed-administration area under effective Tatmadaw control. Naw P--- described the following human rights abuses: rape and sexual violence; indiscriminate firing on villagers by Tatmadaw soldiers; forced relocation; arrest and detention; movement restrictions; theft and looting; and forced labour, including use of villagers as military sentries and porters. Naw P--- also raised concerns regarding the cost of health care and about children's education, specifically Tatmadaw restrictions on children's movement during perceived military instability and the prohibition of Karen-language education. In order to address these concerns, Naw P--- told KHRG that some villagers pay bribes to avoid forced labour and to secure the release of detained family members; lie to Tatmadaw commanders about the whereabouts of villagers working on farms in violation of movement restrictions; and organise covert Karen-language education for their children."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (158K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b18.html
    Date of entry/update: 19 February 2012


    Title: Toungoo Interviews: March and April 2011
    Date of publication: 20 July 2011
    Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcripts of three interviews conducted during March and April 2011 in Tantabin Township, Toungoo District by a villager trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The three female interviewees described the following abuses: attacks on villages, villagers and livelihoods; killing of villagers; theft and looting; taxation and demands; forced displacement; and forced labour, including the production and supply of building materials and forced portering. They also raised concerns regarding food shortage, the provision of education for children during displacement caused by Tatmadaw attacks, and access to healthcare. One of the women explained that villagers communicate with non-state armed groups and other villagers to share information about Tatmadaw movements, prepare secret caches of food in the forest outside their village in case of a Tatmadaw attack, and hold school classes outside of their village in agricultural areas during displacement caused by Tatmadaw attack. These interviews were received along with other information from Toungoo District, including a general update on the situation in Toungoo District, ten incident reports, seven other interviews and 350 photographs.Toungoo Interviews: March and April 2011
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (286K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b16.html
    Date of entry/update: 19 February 2012


    Title: Thaton Situation Updates: May 2010 to January 2011
    Date of publication: 18 May 2011
    Description/subject: "This report includes two situation updates written by villagers describing events in Thaton District during the period between May 13th 2010 and January 31st 2011. The villagers writing the updates chose to focus on issues including: updates on recent military activity, specifically the rebuilding of Tatmadaw camps, and the following human rights abuses: demands for forced labour, including the provision of building materials; and movement restrictions, including road closure and requirements for travel permission documents. In these situation updates, villagers also express serious concerns regarding food security due to abnormal weather in 2010; rising food prices; the unavailability of health care; and the cost and quality of children's education."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (256K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b7.html
    Date of entry/update: 29 February 2012


    Title: Acute food shortages threatening 8,885 villagers in 118 villages across northern Papun District
    Date of publication: 11 May 2011
    Description/subject: "At least 8,885 villagers in 118 villages in Lu Thaw Township, Papun District have either exhausted their current food supplies or are expecting to do so prior to the October 2011 harvest. The 118 villages are located in nine village tracts, where attacks on civilians by Burma's state army, the Tatmadaw, have triggered wide scale and repeated displacement since 1997. As tens of thousands of civilians in northern Karen State have been displaced, over-population in hiding areas where civilians can more effectively avoid attacks has created shortages of arable land, depleted soil fertility and reduced potential crop yields. Civilians forced to cultivate land or live near Tatmadaw camps, meanwhile, have faced recent attacks, including indiscriminate shelling and attacks on food supplies, buildings and livelihoods. These existing obstacles to food security were compounded by an unusually dry rainy season in 2010, coupled with other environmental factors, causing the 2010 harvest to fail. The impact of acute food shortages on the civilian population is magnified by budgetary constraints of local relief organisations, which can access the affected area but are currently unable to provide emergency assistance to many of those facing food shortages. This regional report is based on research conducted by KHRG researchers in Lu Thaw Township in February and March 2011, including 41 interviews with villagers and village and village tract leaders in the affected areas. This research was augmented by interviews with members of local relief organisations in February, March and April 2011."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (1.31MB), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg1101.html
    http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg1101%20-%20Briefer.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 February 2012


    Title: Human rights abuses and obstacles to protection: Conditions for civilians amidst ongoing conflict in Dooplaya and Pa'an districts
    Date of publication: 21 January 2011
    Description/subject: "Amidst ongoing conflict between the Tatmadaw and armed groups in eastern Dooplaya and Pa'an districts, civilians, aid workers and soldiers from state and non-state armies continue to report a variety of human rights abuses and security concerns for civilians in areas adjacent to Thailand's Tak Province, including: functionally indiscriminate mortar and small arms fire; landmines; arbitrary arrest and detention; sexual violence; and forced portering. Conflict and these conflict-related abuses have displaced thousands of civilians, more than 8,000 of whom are currently taking refuge in discreet hiding places in Thailand. This has interrupted education for thousands of children across eastern Dooplaya and Pa'an districts. The agricultural cycle for farmers has also been severely disrupted; many villagers have been prevented from completing their harvests of beans, corn and paddy crops, portending long-term threats to food security. Due to concerns about food security and disruption to children's education, as well as villagers' continuing need to protect themselves and their families from conflict and conflict-related abuse, temporary but consistent access to refuge in Thailand remains vital until villagers feel safe to return home. Even after return, food support will likely be necessary until disrupted agricultural activities can be resumed and civilians can again support themselves."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: pdf (Main text, 688K; Appendix 188K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11f2_appendixes.pdf (Appendix)
    http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11f2.html
    Date of entry/update: 26 February 2012


    Title: Livelihood consequences of SPDC restrictions and patrols in Nyaunglebin District
    Date of publication: 22 September 2009
    Description/subject: "This report presents information on abuses in Nyaunglebin District for the period of April to July 2009. Though Nyaunglebin saw a reduction in SPDC activities during the first six months of 2009, patrols resumed in July. Since then, IDP villagers attempting to evade SPDC control report that they have subsequently been unable to regularly access farm fields or gardens, exacerbating cycles of food shortages set in motion by the northern Karen State offensive which began in 2006. Other villagers, from the only nominally controlled villages in the Nyaunglebin's eastern hills to SPDC-administered relocation sites in the west, meanwhile, report abuses including forced labour, conscription into government militia, travel restrictions and the torture of two village leaders for alleged contact with the KNLA..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2009-F15)
    Format/size: pdf (821 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg09f15.html
    Date of entry/update: 28 October 2009


    Title: SPDC and DKBA order documents: August 2008 to June 2009
    Date of publication: 27 August 2009
    Description/subject: "This report includes translated copies of 75 order documents issued by Burma Army and Democratic Karen Buddhist Army officers to village heads in Karen State between August 2008 and June 2009. These documents serve as supplementary evidence of ongoing exploitative local governance in rural Burma. The report thus supports the continuing testimonies of villagers regarding the regular demands for labour, money, food and other supplies to which their communities are subject by local military forces. The order documents collected here include demands for attendance at meetings; the provision of money and alcohol; the production and delivery of thatch shingles and bamboo poles; forced labour as messengers and porters for the military; forced labour on road repair; the provision of information on individuals and households; registration of villagers in State-controlled 'NGOs'; and restrictions on travel and the use of muskets. In almost all cases, such demands are uncompensated and backed by an implicit threat of violence or other punishment for non-compliance. Almost all demands articulated in the orders presented in this report involve some element of forced labour in their implementation..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Orders Reports (KHRG #2009-04 )
    Format/size: pfd (1.2 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg0904.html
    Date of entry/update: 15 November 2009


    Title: IDP responses to food shortages in Nyaunglebin District
    Date of publication: 10 April 2009
    Description/subject: "Since the beginning of 2009, SPDC troops have patrolled areas near displaced hiding sites in Nyaunglebin District. These patrols prevent displaced villagers from cultivating their secret crops or otherwise accessing food, which in turn exacerbates food insecurity for these civilians. Despite such hardships, villagers have responded by cooperating with each other-often sharing food or helping each other cultivate crops and sell goods in 'jungle markets'. This report describes the situation of displaced villagers in Nyaunglebin District from December 2008 to March 2009..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2009-F7)
    Format/size: pdf (881 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg09f7.html
    Date of entry/update: 31 October 2009


    Title: Attacks, killings and the food crisis in Papun District
    Date of publication: 04 February 2009
    Description/subject: "SPDC abuses against civilians continue in northern Karen State, especially in the Lu Thaw and Dweh Loh townships of Papun District. Abuses have been particularly harsh in Lu Thaw, most of which has been designated a "black area" by the SPDC and so subject to constant attacks by Burma Army forces. Villagers who decide to remain in their home areas are often forced to live in hiding and not only face constant threats of violence by the SPDC, but also a worsening food crisis due to the SPDC's disruption of planting cycles. This report covers events in Papun District from August 2008 to January 2009..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2009-F2)
    Format/size: pdf (578 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg09f2.html
    Date of entry/update: 31 October 2009


    Title: Forced labour and extortion in Pa'an District
    Date of publication: 08 August 2008
    Description/subject: "At a time when civilians in Pa'an District are already struggling with rising food prices and unemployment, an increasing number of villagers are being subjected to forced labour and extortion by local SPDC and DKBA forces. This is especially true in eastern Karen State, near the Thoo Mweh (Moei) river, where DKBA commanders are forcing villagers to ignore their own livelihoods in order to help these leaders cultivate their personal rubber plantations. The result of these abuses is a worsening food crisis and constant economic migration to other areas both in Burma and in neighbouring Thailand, places where villagers hope to find more sustainable employment opportunities. This report describes the situation in the Dta Greh and T'Nay Hsah townships of Pa'an District from January to June 2008..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2008-F11)
    Format/size: pdf (511 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08f11.html
    Date of entry/update: 01 November 2009


    Title: Military expansion and exploitation in Nyaunglebin District
    Date of publication: 05 August 2008
    Description/subject: "With the SPDC Army's continued expansion in Nyaunglebin District, local villagers not under military control have had to once again flee into the surrounding forest while troops have forcibly interned other villagers in military-controlled relocation sites. These relocation sites, typically in the plains of western Nyaunglebin, alongside army camps or SPDC-controlled vehicle roads, serve as containment centres from which army personnel appropriate labour, money, food and supplies to support the military's ongoing expansion in the region. Extortion by military officers operating in Nyaunglebin District has included forced 'donations' allegedly collected for distribution to survivors of Cyclone Nargis in the Irrawaddy Delta. This field report looks at the situation in Nyaunglebin up to the end of May 2008..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2008-F10)
    Format/size: pdf (697 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08f10.html
    Date of entry/update: 01 November 2009


    Title: Attacks, killings and the food crisis in Toungoo District
    Date of publication: 01 August 2008
    Description/subject: "SPDC troops have continued to target internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Toungoo District. Civilians continue be killed or injured by the attacks while many of the survivors flee their homes and take shelter in forest hiding sites. Some who have moved into SPDC forced relocation sites continue to secretly return to their villages to cultivate their crops, constantly risking punishment or execution by troops patrolling the areas. The SPDC's repeated disruption of regular planting cycles has created a food crisis in Toungoo, further endangering the IDPs living there. This report examines the abuses in Toungoo District from April to June 2008..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2008-F9)
    Format/size: pdf (880 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08f9.html
    Date of entry/update: 01 November 2009


    Title: Burma Army attacks and civilian displacement in northern Papun District
    Date of publication: 12 June 2008
    Description/subject: "Following the deployment of new Burma Army units in the area of Htee Moo Kee village, Lu Thaw township of northern Karen State, Papun District, during the first week of March 2008, at least 1,600 villagers from seven villages were forced to relocate to eight different hiding sites in order to avoid the encroaching army patrols. These displaced communities are now facing heightened food insecurity and an ongoing risk of military attack. This report is based on in-depth interviews with displaced villagers from Lu Thaw township regarding the recent Burma Army operations and the resultant effects on the local communities. It also includes information on the recent military attack on Dtay Muh Der village, Lu Thaw township, Papun District which Burma Army forces conducted during the first week of June 2008 and which led to the further displacement of over 1,000 villagers..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2008-F6)
    Format/size: pdf (537 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08f6.html
    Date of entry/update: 01 November 2009


    Title: Landmines, Killings and Food Destruction: Civilian life in Toungoo District
    Date of publication: 09 August 2007
    Description/subject: "The attacks against civilians continue as the SPDC increases its military build-up in Toungoo District. Enforcing widespread restrictions on movement backed up by a shoot-on-sight policy, the SPDC has executed at least 38 villagers in Toungoo since January 2007. On top of this, local villagers face the ever present danger of landmines, many of which were manufactured in China, which the Army has deployed around homes, churches and forest paths. Combined with the destruction of covert agricultural hill fields and rice supplies, these attacks seek to undermine food security and make life unbearable in areas outside of consolidated military control. However, as those living under SPDC rule have found, the constant stream of military demands for labour, money and other supplies undermine livelihoods, village economies and community efforts to address health, education and social needs. Civilians in Toungoo must therefore choose between a situation of impoverishment and subjugation under SPDC rule, evasion in forested hiding sites with the constant threat of military attack, or a relatively stable yet uprooted life in refugee camps away from their homeland. This report documents just some of the human rights abuses perpetrated by SPDC forces against villagers in Toungoo District up to July 2007..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2007-F6)
    Format/size: pdf (1.24 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2007/khrg07f6.html
    Date of entry/update: 08 November 2009


    Title: The Compounding Consequences of DKBA Oppression: Abuse, poverty and food insecurity in Thaton District
    Date of publication: 09 July 2007
    Description/subject: "As the principal means of establishing control over the people of Thaton District, the SPDC has supported a more aggressive DKBA role in the area. With the junta's political, military and financial backing the DKBA has sought to expand its numbers, strengthen its position vis-à-vis the civilian population and eradicate the remaining KNU/KNLA presence in the region. To those ends, the DKBA has used forced labour, looting, extortion, land confiscation and movement restrictions and embarked on a hostile campaign of forced recruitment from amongst the local population. These abuses have eroded village livelihoods, leading to low harvest yields and wholly failed crops; problems which compound over time and progressively deepen poverty and malnourishment. With the onset of the rainy season and the 2007 cultivation period, villagers in Thaton District are faced with depleting provisions. This food insecurity will require that many harvest their 2007 crop as early as October while still unripe. The low yield of an early harvest, lost time spent on forced labour and the harmful fallout of further extortion and other abuses will all combine to ensure once again that villagers in Thaton District confront food shortages and increasing poverty..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2007-F5)
    Format/size: pdf (527 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2007/khrg07f5.html
    Date of entry/update: 08 November 2009


    Title: Eastern Pa'an District: Forced Labour, Food Security and the Consolidation of Control
    Date of publication: 23 March 2004
    Description/subject: "The SPDC and DKBA continued to consolidate their control over Pa'an District in 2003, especially in the mountainous eastern part of the district. Fighting between the SPDC and the DKBA was ongoing up until the ceasefire talks began in December 2003, culminating in an offensive against the KNLA's 7th Brigade headquarters in October. In order to expand their influence DKBA units are actively recruiting in the area. Villagers must also face demands from both the SPDC and the DKBA for forced labour, building materials and extortion money. Fulfilling these demands have left the villagers with little time to work their fields. Many villagers are unable to get enough food to eat, making food security a serious issue in the area..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 09 November 2009


    Title: Karen Human Rights Group Commentary #2000-C2
    Date of publication: 06 April 2000
    Description/subject: After they get a lot of paddy, they report to other countries that their country produces a lot of paddy. But really they beat civilians and take the paddy from us. They are just starting to do this now so we still have enough rice to eat, but if they keep doing this for many years, I don't think there will be enough.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Right Group Commentaries (KHRG #2000-C2)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Food Security in Magwe Region

    Individual Documents

    Title: A Nutrition and Food Security A ssessment of the Dry Zone of Myanmar in June and July 2013
    Date of publication: July 2013
    Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "This assessment of the rural Dry Zone reveals the nutrition situation to be a concern, with high rates of wasting and medium rates of stunting, high rates of low birth weight and high rates of undernutrition among mothers; particularly those who are pregnant and/or lactating. The pattern of indicators suggests that flood plains and irrigated areas are best off, and the highlands may be worst, but the situation is far from acceptable in the Dry Zone as a whole. A wide range of likely causes of undernutrition needs addressing. Acute and chronic malnutrition have shared determinants and there is a need to tackle one to tackle the other. Children’s and mother’s nutrition status are associated, and a child’s birth weight is an important determinant of their later nutrition status. This reminds us of the imortance of the 1000 day window of opportunity between a child’s conception and their second birthday, and the need to take a life-cycle approach; paying p articular attention to pregnant and breastfeeding mothers. Dietary factors and their determinants seem likely to be particularly important drivers of undernutrition as do deficiencies in water, sanitation, hygiene and the public health environment. An absence of consistent associations between household economic status and nutrition indicators is likely in part because of widespread poverty as well as the focus on data from the current situation. However, analysis of associations revealed only small contributions of any specific explanatory variable to the variance of any of the nutrition outcomes (including indicators of food security) which together with analysis of risk factors reinforces that there is not just two or three important causes of undernutrition in the Dry Zone. Rather,a multi-sector approach is required for malnutrition prevention and nutrition status improvement."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Save the Children, WFP and the Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Rural Development
    Format/size: pdf(1.6MB)
    Date of entry/update: 18 December 2014


    Title: Myanmar - An Analysis of Markets Across Magway Division, May 2010
    Date of publication: May 2010
    Description/subject: "...From the data collected, it is clear that markets in Magway sell a variety of food and that most of this food is available / sold in most markets across all townships. A t the current time very few items depict show low availability and do so due to seasonality of the crop. The only exception being petrol. The transport costs incurred in obtaining and selling petrol in markets would drive the costs up thus limiting 2 access and demand for the same. This could be a reason for the lack of availability of petrol in 50% of the sampled markets..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Food Program (WFP)
    Format/size: html, pdf(385K)
    Alternate URLs: http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/ena/wfp221540.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 December 2014


    Title: FOOD SECURITY ASSESSMENT IN MAGWAY DIVISION
    Date of publication: December 2009
    Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: The food security situation in the Magway Division has not changed significantly following the drought conditions that affected the area in mid 2009. Levels of food insecurity are similar to those pre-drought. The assessment shows that food consumption of approximately 65% of the sample can be classified as ‘Inadequate” and 35% as ‘Adequate’. The 2008 November WFP Food Security Profile states that 71% of the sample was either moderately (39%) and / or severely (32%) food insecure. This is more-or- less a similar situation today, post-drought. What is striking is that both surveys identify the same Zones (B & A) as being the most vulnerable..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Food Program (WFP)
    Format/size: html, pdf (568K)
    Date of entry/update: 18 December 2014


    Title: Food Security Profile
    Date of publication: November 2008
    Description/subject: "This Report summarizes the findings of the Food Security Profiling assessment carried out across the Dry Zone, especially in Magway Division in August 2008. This is the first time a Food Security Prof iling exercises has been conducted in the Dry Zone by the WFP and its Cooperating Partne rs, including OISCA, TDH, REAM, ADRA, and World Vision and the line department for Dryzone Department of Development Affairs. This profile attempts to present a sn apshot of household food security in the Dry Zone; 463 households in 59 villages under WFP project area of 6 townships: Pakokku, Pauk, Yesagyo, Natmauk, Chauk & Yenanchaung were covered under this assessment. It should be noted that the sample size has statistical limitations. However care was taken to ensure that the geographic coverage of the sample was considerable. The Dry Zone area is one of the more critical areas in the Union where the fragile ecosystem (a result of natural and human behaviour) has had adverse effects on household food security. Magway Division includes a vast semi-arid lowland surrounded by Mandalay Division the East and the Rahine Yoma and Chin hills on the West, Bago Division on the South and Sagaing Division in the north. The region also includes two major rivers, Ayeyarwady and Chindwin that flow through the Dry Zone from North to South towards the Delta. Average annual rainfall is low (500 to 1000 mm) compared to 5000 mm in other parts of the country..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Food Program (WFP)
    Format/size: html, pdf (461K)
    Alternate URLs: http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/ena/wfp194986.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 December 2014