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Food Security - general

  • Right to Food - standards, definitions and mechanisms

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Food Security - Wikipedia
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2009


    Title: Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food
    Description/subject: Reports, resolutions etc.
    Language: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: The right to food in situations of armed conflict: The legal framework
    Date of publication: 31 December 2001
    Description/subject: [For Burma, the most relevant section is that dealing with non-international armed conflict]. "War is one of the primary obstacles to realization of the right of all people to have adequate food. This article examines the relevant provisions, belonging to human rights law or international humanitarian law, of the various international law treaties The author concludes that the body of rules codified by the instruments of international humanitarian law in force today are sufficient to ensure adequate food for persons affected by armed conflict. Unlike the human rights treaties, the humanitarian law conventions do not create subjective rights for the persons concerned, but binding obligations for States."...Résumé de l'article: "La guerre est l’un des obstacles majeurs à la réalisation du droit de chacun à une alimentation adéquate. Cet article examine les dispositions pertinentes des différents traités de droit international, qu’elles appartiennent au droit des droits de l’homme ou au droit international humanitaire. L’auteur conclut que les instruments de droit international humanitaire en vigueur ont codifié un corps de règles suffisant pour assurer une alimentation adéquate aux personnes touchées par un conflit armé. Contrairement aux traités relatifs aux droits de l’homme, les conventions de droit humanitaire ne créent pas des droits subjectifs pour les personnes concernées, mais des obli-gations qui lient les États."
    Author/creator: Jelena Pejic
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ICRC: International Review of the Red Cross No. 844, p. 1097-1110.
    Format/size: PDF (86K) Full text
    Alternate URLs: http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/57jrlg.htm
    Date of entry/update: 29 November 2010


    Title: Commission on Human Rights Resolution E/CN.4/Res/2000/10
    Date of publication: 17 April 2000
    Description/subject: Establishing the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Right to Food: International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
    Date of publication: 03 January 1976
    Description/subject: See especially Article 11... Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966 entry into force 3 January 1976, in accordance with article 27
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Right to Food: Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Burmese)
    Date of publication: 10 December 1948
    Description/subject: See especially Article 25
    Language: Burmese/ မြန်မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: pdf (39K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Right to Food: Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Pwo-Karen)
    Date of publication: 10 December 1948
    Description/subject: See Article 25
    Language: Pwo-Karen
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: pdf (82K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Right to Food: Universal Declaration of Human Rights - English
    Date of publication: 10 December 1948
    Description/subject: See Article 25
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: pdf (116K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Right to Food: Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Falam (Chin)
    Date of publication: 10 December 1948
    Description/subject: See Article 25
    Language: Falam (Chin)
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: pdf (30K)
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2009


    Title: Right to Food: Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Hakha (Chin)
    Date of publication: 10 December 1948
    Description/subject: See Article 25
    Language: Hakha (Chin)
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: pdf (32K)
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2009


    Title: Right to Food: Universal Declaration of Human Rights - S'gaw-Karen
    Date of publication: 10 December 1948
    Description/subject: See Article 25
    Language: S'gaw-Karen
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: pdf (91K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Right to Food: Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Shan
    Date of publication: 10 December 1948
    Description/subject: See Article 25
    Language: Shan
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: pdf (61K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Right to Food: Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Thai
    Date of publication: 10 December 1948
    Description/subject: See Article 25
    Language: Thai
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: pdf (658K)
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2009


    Title: Right to Food: Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Tiddim (Chin)
    Date of publication: 10 December 1948
    Description/subject: See Article 25
    Language: Tiddim (Chin)
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: pdf (31K)
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2009


  • Food Security - international and regional reports

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: FAO Food Security statistics
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2009


    Title: Food Security - Eldis
    Description/subject: Useful links
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Eldis
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2009


    Title: Improving Food Security Research and Analysis Capacity in Burma (Myanmar)
    Description/subject: Project Overview...Research Reports...Policy Presentations...MDRI Background and Papers ...Data [not much there]...Links [useful set of links to individual articles and papers, web portals with onward links to information on Myanmar (Burma)and networks]
    Source/publisher: Michigan State University
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 June 2013


    Title: Misereor's Publications on "Food security and agriculture"
    Description/subject: Rural development...Sustainable agriculture...Patents on life...Water...Biodiversity...Access to markets...Ecofair trade
    Language: Deutsch, German, English, French, Spanish
    Source/publisher: Misereor
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.misereor.org
    Date of entry/update: 24 February 2014


    Title: Publications on "Food security and agriculture"
    Description/subject: Who feeds the world?...Rural development...Sustainable agriculture...Patents on life...Water...Biodiversity...Right to food...Access to markets...Ecofair trade
    Language: English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese
    Source/publisher: Misereor
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 25 March 2014


    Individual Documents

    Title: 2012 Global Hunger Index
    Date of publication: November 2012
    Description/subject: The Challenge of hunger: ensuring sustainable food security under land, water and energy stresses..."World hunger, according to the 2012 Global Hunger Index (GHI), has declined somewhat since 1990 but remains “serious.” The global average masks dramatic differences among regions and countries. Regionally, the highest GHI scores are in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. South Asia reduced its GHI score significantly between 1990 and 1996—mainly by reducing the share of underweight children—but could not maintain this rapid progress. Though Sub-Saharan Africa made less progress than South Asia in the 1990s, it has caught up since the turn of the millennium, with its 2012 GHI score falling below that of South Asia. From the 1990 GHI to the 2012 GHI, 15 countries reduced their scores by 50 percent or more. In terms of absolute progress, between the 1990 GHI and the 2012 GHI, Angola, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Malawi, Nicaragua, Niger, and Vietnam saw the largest improvements in their scores. Twenty countries still have levels of hunger that are “extremely alarming” or “alarming.” Most of the countries with alarming GHI scores are in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (the 2012 GHI does not, however, reflect the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, which intensified in 2011, or the uncertain food situation in the Sahel). Two of the three countries with extremely alarming 2012 GHI scores—Burundi and Eritrea—are in Sub-Saharan Africa; the third country with an extremely alarming score is Haiti. Its GHI score fell by about one quarter from 1990 to 2001, but most of this improvement was reversed in subsequent years. The devastating January 2010 earthquake, although not yet fully captured by the 2012 GHI because of insufficient availability of recent data, pushed Haiti back into the category of “extremely alarming.” In contrast to recent years, the Democratic Republic of Congo is not listed as “extremely alarming,” because insufficient data are available to calculate the country’s GHI score. Current and reliable data are urgently needed to appraise the situation in the country. Recent developments in the land, water, and energy sectors have been wake-up calls for global food security: the stark reality is that the world needs to produce more food with fewer resources, while eliminating wasteful practices and policies. Demographic changes, income increases, climate change, and poor policies and institutions are driving natural resource scarcity in ways that threaten food production and the environment on which it depends. Food security is now inextricably linked to developments in the water, energy, and land sectors. Rising energy prices affect farmers’ costs for fuel and fertilizer, increase demand for biofuel crops relative to food crops, and raise the price of water use. Agriculture already occurs within a context of land scarcity in terms of both quantity and quality: the world’s best arable land is already under cultivation, and unsustainable agricultural practices have led to significant land degradation. The scarcity of farmland coupled with shortsighted bioenergy policies has led to major foreign summary investments in land in a number of developing countries, putting local people’s land rights at risk. In addition, water is scarce and likely to become scarcer with climate change. To halt this trend, more holistic strategies are needed for dealing with land, water, energy, and food, and they are needed soon. To manage natural resources sustainably, it is important to secure land and water rights; phase out inefficient subsidies on water, energy, and fertilizers; and create a macroeconomic environment that promotes efficient use of natural resources. It is important to scale up technical solutions, particularly those that conserve natural resources and foster more efficient and effective use of land, energy, and water along the value chain. It is also crucial to tame the drivers of natural resource scarcity by, for example, addressing demographic change, women’s access to education, and reproductive health; raising incomes and lowering inequality; and mitigating and adapting to climate change through agriculture. Food security under land, water, and energy stress poses daunting challenges. The policy steps described in this report show how we can meet these challenges in a sustainable and affordable way."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Concern Worldwide, Welthungerhilfe and Green Scenery:
    Format/size: pdf (3MB)
    Date of entry/update: 02 November 2012


    Title: Sustainable agriculture and Food Security in Asia and the Pacific
    Date of publication: April 2009
    Description/subject: "The sixty-fourth session of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific took place at a time when rocketing prices of both food and oil were causing serious hardship. In response, the Commission decided that the theme topic for the sixty-fifth session in 2009 should be on food security and sustainable agriculture. Since then, the picture has been transformed. The global economy has sunk into recession – and prices for food, oil and other commodities have fallen back sharply. From this, you might conclude that the food emergency has passed – that we should concentrate only on the financial and economic crises. In fact, however, the economic crisis makes it even more urgent that we tackle food insecurity now. For millions of people across the Asia-Pacific region, the economic crisis will also be a food crisis. The prices they pay may have fallen, but their incomes have fallen further still. As governments face up to the current economic storms, they must ensure that everyone, everywhere, has enough to eat. This is a clear humanitarian and development priority, but it is also a political imperative; food insecure people make angry citizens. The first priority, therefore, is to check the resilience of social safety nets – and, if necessary, bolster them to meet the immediate crisis. But the region also needs to look to the future. As this study emphasizes, the world’s food system has become increasingly fragile. Food prices have dipped, but they will surely surge again when the global economy and the demand for food starts to recover. On present trends, the region will be hard pressed to meet that demand. Food security is being threatened from many directions, not least from unsustainable forms of agriculture that are degrading the soil, water and biological diversity – problems that will be exacerbated by climate change. Time to turn again, therefore, to sustainable agriculture – ensuring that farmers, and particularly small producers, have the support they need to grow nutritious food in ways that meet human needs today, while protecting vital environmental resources for future generations. Time also to capitalize on our efforts in regional cooperation – ensuring that we avoid food protectionism and, instead, use our regional strengths to build flexible and resilient systems of food security."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNESCAP
    Format/size: pdf (2.8MB)
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2009


    Title: Ensuring Food Security – A Case for ASEAN Integration
    Date of publication: December 2005
    Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "The ASEAN member countries can be grouped into three sub-groups, each of which exhibits a distinct pattern with respect to food security issues. The first group is made up of the relatively food-secure countries of Singapore and Brunei. The second group consists of Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam. In these countries, except for Vietnam, agriculture has contributed a declining share in GDP, employment, and international trade. In addition, food habits in these countries have changed dramatically in recent decades. The third group is composed of Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Myanmar—economies in transition that require special attention. A simple exercise shows that the area can collectively achieve food security via trade in rice and maize. Trade facilitation measures and the harmonization/equivalency of food regulation and control standards will reduce the cost of trade in food products. While specialization and revealed comparative and competitive indices point to complementarities between trade patterns among the ASEAN member countries, intra-ASEAN trade in agriculture is quite small. However, integration could address this problem. Further, if integration is to be used as a venue for ensuring food security, the member countries must agree on what food security collectively means to them, and what food items are important to each of them and the region, in general, so that regional integration and cooperation under the auspices of ASEAN can be promoted."
    Author/creator: Amelia L. Bello
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development", Vol. 2, Nos. 1&2
    Format/size: pdf (548K)
    Date of entry/update: 01 January 2010


    Title: Publications on "Access to land"
    Description/subject: "Appetite for land" (pdf, 225 KB) Large-Scale Foreign Investment in Land Available in German (pdf, 265 KB) and French (pdf, 270 KB) Promoting the right to food. Experience gained at the interface of human rights and development work, with particular focus on Central America This publication was compiled by a work group on land rights in Central America who have been studying the issue for a number of years and have supported local initiatives engaged in activities to promote the right to food in Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Collaborating in this work group are MISEREOR, Bread for the World, FIAN International, EED, Terre des Hommes, and Christliche Initiative Romero. The document takes stock of 10 years of experience gained in activities to advance the right to food. Available in German: "Das Recht auf Nahrung fördern" (pdf, 3,8 MB) and Spanish: "Promover el derecho a la alimentación" (pdf, 4 MB) Discussion paper "Access to land as a food security and human rights issue" (pdf, 3,7 MB) A Misereor discussion paper for dialogue with its partners The policy paper identifies several problems involved, such as the lack of access to productive resources, including land, water, forests, biological diversity etc. and the diverse problems concerning ownership which may even evolve in violent conflicts. Not only the growing concentration of land and the failure of land reform processes, but also the fragmentation of land and the overuse of existing natural resources have a tremendous impact on the scarcity of land. A dialogue with partners on "Access to land as a food security and human rights issue - a dialogue process" (pdf, 18 KB)
    Language: English, German, French
    Source/publisher: Misereor
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 25 March 2014