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Home > Main Library > History > Historical periods > SPDC Period 1997-2011 > Events of 2007 and their consequences: "The Saffron Revolution" and its aftermath

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Events of 2007 and their consequences: "The Saffron Revolution" and its aftermath

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: All Burma Monks
Description/subject: We are a religious and social service provider organization staffed by and composed of Burmese Buddhist monks from the 2007 Saffron Revolution. We are currently supporting and providing assistance to refugee monks inside and outside of Burma. The A.B.M.A was formed by a group of senior monks as a response to the severe economic and social problems existing in Burma in 2007. The A.B.M.A. leaders are recognized as the primary organizers and coordinators of the activities of the so-called Saffron Revolution in September, 2007. In a very dramatic way, the world was reminded again of the Burmese people’s struggle for democracy. The peaceful marches, demonstrations and rallies led by the saffron-robed monks were ultimately met by violent reactions of the Burmese military regime. Since that time there has been less media attention to the ongoing problems in Burma. However, as a result of their activities in September 2007, thousands of monks and individual citizens have suffered from the reaction and repression of the military regime. Some monks were arrested and tortured, and remain in prison. Some went into hiding inside Burma, and others left Burma as refugees. The A.B.M.A has established an assistance network for these internal and external refugees, both monks and civilian democracy activists. We hope that through the support of sympathetic organizations and individuals we will be able to continue and to expand on the important work we are doing. Exiled Burmese monks living in Thailand, India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka are supported by the A.B.M.A. main office in Mae Sot, Thailand. Groups of exiled monks are also living in refugee status in various cities around the United States, supported by our monastery in Utica, New York. Objectives: * To maintain our support for the assistance network for monks, both inside and outside of Burma * To promote democracy inside Burma, especially in order to defend and preserve the religious and cultural foundations of the nation * To fulfill the customary role of Burmese monks by distributing reading material and sponsoring meetings and discussions on Buddhist beliefs, practices and education * To maintain and update the database of targeted and refugee monks. We have compiled a list of monks under threat, and we will continue to monitor and document information about them from inside Burma. * To support and expand the existing educational programs for both monks and needy families inside Burma. We are trying to procure assistance for educational facilities, schools and training programs for the monks and needy families inside Burma.
Language: English, Burmese
Source/publisher: All Burma Monks
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://allburmamonksalliance.org/
Date of entry/update: 03 December 2009


Title: Detailed List of Detainees since peaceful protests began in Burma on August 19
Description/subject: For other lists, see the alternate URL -- http://aappb.org
Language: English
Source/publisher: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://aappb.org/list_arrest_aug_sep_07.html
Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


Title: List of female detainees from August 19 to date.
Description/subject: Updated 31 January 2008
Language: English
Source/publisher: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.aappb.org/list_arrest_female_aug_sep_07.htm
Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


Title: List of those who disappeared during the protest in Burma
Language: English
Source/publisher: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.aappb.org/disap_sept_07.htm
Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


Title: Sasana Moli - International Burmese Monks Organization
Description/subject: "Mission Statement background Burmese monks from all around the world established the International Burmese Monks Organization (IBMO) in October 2007 under the leadership of two prominent Burmese Buddhist monks, the late Venerable U Kovida and Venerable U Pannya Vamsa. Following the September 2007 street protests in Burma, many Buddhist monks were arrested, disappeared, beaten and even killed. During the crackdown, monks and nuns inside Burma asked monks living outside of the country to continue to their struggle. They asked the IBMO to raise international awareness about Burma’s political struggles. Inside Burma, there is no freedom of speech. To speak out against human rights abuses, to speak out against dictatorship, or to speak out for common human decency, as the Buddhist faith demands, is to invite attack at the hands of the military junta. The IBMO travels the globe in order to provide a voice for our monks and nuns inside Burma who are denied this right. We try to teach others about both the beauty and the harsh realities of military control inside the closed country. Monks are not politicians but is their duty to help relieve the suffering of all the people of Burma. The Buddha gave ten rules for kings to ensure that kings did not harm their subjects. Burma’s generals violate all of these rules every day. According to IBMO Chairman, the Venerable U Pannya Vamsa, the roots of Burma’s crisis are in the military's refusal to hand over power in 1990 to leaders elected in general elections. The IBMO works alongside the Burma democracy movement to lobby international governments to pressure the junta to commence a real dialogue with democratic opposition leaders including the Nobel Peace Laureate, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. Additionally, IBMO partners with the Burmese Diaspora, grassroots advocacy groups, and ecumenical and peace organizations to support direct advocacy efforts on behalf of the Burmese people, such as media interviews, lectures, and testifying before legislators. The IBMO also supports the courageous work of monks and nuns inside Burma. Throughout Burmese history, monks have played a significant role in maintaining peace in our society. The Burmese military dictatorship has total disregard for the welfare of its people. The junta provides no proper education, health care or other public services. People are forced to turn to the monasteries for help. Monks witness the desperate needs of the people every day and in September, they rose up together to answer these needs. Today, monks inside Burma are working desperately to feed and clothe Cyclone Nargis victims taking shelter in monasteries throughout Southern Burma. The IBMO raises funds to send directly to these monks inside Burma to buy rice, medicine, and other much-needed relief supplies..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Sasana Moli
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://sasanamoli.org/
Date of entry/update: 03 December 2009


Individual Documents

Title: Myanmar: Beneath The Surface (video)
Date of publication: 23 December 2009
Description/subject: "Two years ago the world watched in dismay as Myanmar's military junta brutally crushed the so-called Saffron Revolution. It was the only show of mass opposition to have occurred inside the country in almost 20 years. Filmmaker Hazel Chandler entered the country undercover for People & Power to find out how Myanmar's people are fairing, and to investigate disturbing claims that the regime may be trying to develop nuclear weapons."
Author/creator: Hazel Chandler
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (People and Power)
Format/size: Adobe Flash (23 minutes)
Date of entry/update: 25 December 2009


Title: The Resistance of the Monks: Buddhism and Activism in Burma
Date of publication: 22 September 2009
Description/subject: "Since the Burmese army’s brutal military crackdown on Buddhist monks and other peaceful protestors in September 2007, a constant refrain has been, “What happened to the monks?” ...This report attempts to answer that question. It tells the story of many among hundreds of monks who were arrested and beaten, and the more than 250 monks and nuns who remain in prison today, often with decades remaining on their sentences. It tells the story of large numbers of monks who left their monasteries, returning to their villages or seeking refuge in other countries. And it tells the story of monks who remained, many of whom live under constant surveillance...".....TABLE OF CONTENTS: * The Resistance of the Monks * Map of Burma * I. Summary * II. Burma: A Long Tradition of Buddhist Activism * III. The Role of the Sangha in the 1988 Uprising and After the 1990 Election * IV. Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhism * V. The SPDC and Buddhism * VI. The Reemergence of Buddhist Political Activism in Burma * VII. The September 2007 Crackdown * VIII. Cyclone Nargis and Its Aftermath * IX. International Networks * X. Conclusion * XI. Recommendations * Acknowledgments * Appendix I: Terminology and Abbreviations * Appendix II: Letter to the Penang Sayadaw U Bhaddantapannyavamsa from the Burmese Foreign Ministry, October 27, 2007[195] * Appendix III: Statement by Sasana Moli, the International Burmese Monks Organization, May 2008
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 22 September 2009


Title: NEITHER SAFFRON NOR REVOLUTION (Part 1)
Date of publication: 2009
Description/subject: A Commentated and Documented Chronology of the Monks' Demonstrations in Myanmar in 2007 and their Background...The account published here does hot and cannot claim to present the "true story" of what happened in August and September 2007 in Myanmar. The time span between the events and the writing about them is too short for an account putting the events into a proper historical perspective. Moreover, the emotional reactions to the events which are a little bit elaborated at the beginning of chapter 8 are on the one hand very appropriate given the dramatic nature of what happened. At the same time, they point to the limits an unbiased evaluation of the episode under review here. The main aim of this account, therefore, is to present some material which allows the reader with some interest in Myanmar to make up his own mind and to preserve some information, impressions and assessments which otherwise might get lost. Hopefully, the reader will share the opinion that the meaning of the monks' demonstrations can only be understood if one considers them as part of a global and extremely complex net of interdependences which defies simple judgements and that the people of Myanmar need not just sympathy but a thorough investigation into the causes of their problems as well which may be related to some of our own troubles....1 INTRODUCTION... 2 GLIMPSES INTO HISTORY: ECONOMICS, PROTESTS AND STUDENTS 2.0 From 1824 to 1988 - In Fast Motion 2.1 From 1988 to 2007... 3 FROM AUGUST 15 TO SEPTEMBER 5 3.0 Narration of Events 3.1 The Media 3.2 Summary and Open Questions... 4 PAKOKKU 4.0 Preliminary Remarks 4.1 Undisputed facts 4.2 On the Coverage of the Events - Media Reports 4.3 Summary and Disputed News 4.4 Interpretations, contexts and analogies 4.5 Open Questions 4.6 Conclusions... 5 THE ROLE OF THE MEDIA 5.1 Reflections on the Sources Taken from the Media 5.2 The Media 5.3 Conclusions... 6 THE MONKS' DEMONSTRATIONS - SEPTEMBER 18 TO SEPTEMBER 25 6.0 Preliminary Remarks 6.1 Undisputed Information 6.2 On the Coverage of the Events - Media Reports 6.3 Summary and Disputed Information 6.4 Interpretations, contexts and analogies 6.5 Open Questions 6.6 Conclusions... 7 MONKS, SOCIETY AND THE TURNOVER OF THE ALMS BOWL 7.1 The two Sides of the Alms Bowl 7.2 From Early Times to the End of the Burmese Kingdom 1885 7.3 The Colonial Period 7.4 After Independence 7.5 Conclusion... 8 CRACKDOWN AND SUPPRESSION 8.0 Preliminary Remarks 8.1 Undisputed Information 8.2 On the Coverage of the Events - Media Reports 8.3 Summary and Disputed Information 8.4 Interpretations, contexts and analogies 8.5 Open Questions 8.6 Conclusion: Two Pyrrhic Victories... 9 EPILOGUE 9.1 The Aftermath 9.2 Instead of a Conclusion... BIBLIOGRAPHY
Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institut fur Asien- und Afrikawissenschaften Philosophische FakuItat III der Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin - Sudostasien Working Papers No. 36
Format/size: pdf (9.7MB)
Date of entry/update: 20 March 2010


Title: NEITHER SAFFRON NOR REVOLUTION (Part 2 -Documents)
Date of publication: 2009
Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institut fur Asien- und Afrikawissenschaften Philosophische FakuItat III der Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin - Sudostasien Working Papers No. 37
Format/size: pdf (7.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 20 March 2010


Title: Internal dynamics of the Burmese military: before, during and after the 2007 demonstrations
Date of publication: December 2008
Description/subject: "Since the military takeover in 1962, the internal dynamics in the Burmese military, which is not monolithic, have greatly affected the way successive military governments have organised themselves and operated. Top military leaders have devised their ideas, built up their power bases and purged rival factions in order to maintain their hardline approaches and their hold on power. This chapter explains how the internal dynamics of the Burmese military played out before, during and after the September 2007 demonstrations and analyses their impact, especially on political and socioeconomic reforms. It also considers possible future internal dynamics, how they might play out and the potential impacts for the country as a whole..."
Author/creator: Win Min
Language: English
Source/publisher: 2007 Myanmar/Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
Format/size: pdf (146K)
Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf_instructions.html
http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf/whole_book.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


Title: The dramatic events of 2007 in Myanmar: domestic and international implications
Date of publication: December 2008
Description/subject: "In the second half of September 2007, events in Myanmar exploded onto television screens around the world. The pictures—first showing ordered columns of orange-robed monks marching through the streets of Yangon, then showing the brutal response by security forces—generated surprise and shock. The events took place while the UN General Assembly was meeting in New York, amplifying their international political impact. No-one seemed to have anticipated the sudden involvement of the monks or the speed with which the demonstrations gathered pace. In particular, the regime itself appeared to be taken by surprise. Then, once the demonstrations had been effectively put down, there was a sense that this was a watershed moment, and that the situation in Myanmar could never be quite the same. In the words of the Special Adviser to the UN Secretary-General, Professor Ibrahim Gambari, ‘a return to the status quo ante is unsustainable’..... In part one, this chapter explores the origin of the demonstrations, in particular the fuel-price protests of August 2007, in an attempt to understand the events that ultimately led to the large-scale demonstrations in September. It investigates why it was that the recent increase in fuel costs gave rise to persistent (if small-scale) demonstrations, when even sharper fuel-price increases in 2005 prompted no public reaction..... In part two, the chapter looks at how the September demonstrations by the monks evolved, and at the nature of the response of the security forces. It discusses the reasons why the monks took to the streets in such large numbers and the domestic impact of the regime’s violent response. It then discusses whether a return to the status quo ante is inconceivable, and whether it would indeed be unsustainable..."
Author/creator: Richard Horsey
Language: English
Source/publisher: 2007 Myanmar/Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
Format/size: pdf (158K)
Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf_instructions.html
http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf/whole_book.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


Title: Burma’s ‘saffron revolution’ and the limits of international influence
Date of publication: September 2008
Description/subject: Abstract: "The demonstrations in September 2007 were the most significant civil protests seen in Burma since the ill-fated pro-democracy uprising of 1988. The military government’s brutal response to the latest unrest prompted an unprecedented level of diplomatic activity and a rare consensus on the need for political change. Since then, however, efforts to resolve the crisis have withered away, underlining the international community’s inability over the past 20 years to make a significant impact on the situation in Burma. Neither the principled approach of some countries and organisations, nor the more pragmatic attitude adopted by others, has persuaded the regime to abandon any of its core positions. Indeed, by demonstrating the international community’s continuing disagreement over Burma, and the limited policy options available, the lack of concerted action since the protests has probably encouraged the regime’s obduracy and increased its confidence that it can survive external pressures. An appreciation of the generals’ threat perceptions may help the international community to understand the regime’s intransigence, but it is still difficult to see what policies can be effective against a government that puts its own survival before accepted norms of behaviour and the welfare of its people. Real and lasting change will have to come from within Burma itself, but the events of 2007 suggest that this is a distant prospect."
Author/creator: Andrew Selth
Language: English
Source/publisher: Australian Journal of International Affairs Vol. 62, No. 3, pp. 281-297,
Format/size: pdf (142MB)
Date of entry/update: 15 February 2009


Title: Saffron Revolution Imprisoned, law demented
Date of publication: September 2008
Description/subject: Contents: SPECIAL EDITION: SAFFRON REVOLUTION IMPRISONED, LAW DEMENTED... Foreword: Dual policy approach needed on Burma Basil Fernando... Introduction: Saffron Revolution imprisoned, law demented Editorial board, article 2... Ne Win, Maung Maung and how to drive a legal system crazy in two short decades, Burma desk, Asian Human Rights Commission, Hong Kong... Ten case studies in illegal arrest and imprisonment..... APPENDIX: Nargis: World’s worst response to a natural disaster, Asian Human Rights Commission, Hong Kong.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Article 2 (Vol. 7, No. 3)
Format/size: pdf (1.31MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.article2.org/pdf/v07n03.pdf
Date of entry/update: 15 November 2008


Title: The Role of Monkhood in Contemporary Myanmar Society
Date of publication: September 2008
Description/subject: Introduction: "Recent events in Myanmar, particularly the “Saffron Revolution” in 2007 and cyclone Nargis in 2008 placed Myanmar monks in the focus of the international community. Not for the first time in history, the Myanmar "Sangha" took a leading role in times of emergency, and was able to mobilise rapidly their forces in order to help and represent the people of Myanmar. In 1988 they went to the streets with other citizens to call for democratic and economic reforms in the country. Similarly, in 2007, monks participated in the nation-wide protests against rising fuel and commodity prices. The visible and silent support of the monks provided encouragement and moral guidance for the predominantly Buddhist na-tion. Facing the post-Nargis devastation and indecisiveness related to access of interna-tional humanitarian aid, Myanmar monks became the only organised group able to respond promptly with aid for traumatised victims, providing them with shelter and distributing basic commodities in their communities. The saffron revolution did not succeed. How-ever, for some analysts it was not the end but rather the beginning of a new chapter in Myanmar’s contemporary history, marking the emergence of a new potential social and political force, nourishing hopes of the opposition and for all who expect general changes in Myanmar. Monks, particularly the younger generation, became more aware of their strength and responsibility for the country. In Myanmar most independent activity is suppressed or under strict control of the state. The monkhood, in contrast, enjoys a high level of immunity and freedom, for instance, with regard to freedom of movement (within the country and abroad)3 or various social activities, mostly in the local area. The recent events showed that their role in the society is not limited to the preservation of religion and rituals..."
Author/creator: Sylwia Gil
Language: English
Source/publisher: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung
Format/size: pdf (288K)
Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


Title: A Monk’s Tale
Date of publication: April 2008
Description/subject: A leading activist monk recounts his personal experiences of oppression and torture at the hands of Burma’s self-appointed protectors of the Buddhist faith... "ASHIN Pyinnya Jota is the deputy abbot of Rangoon’s Maggin Monastery. He has also been a political prisoner twice since 1990. Now, nearly six months after Burma’s military rulers crushed monk-led protests last September, he is in hiding in a monastery in the Thai border town of Mae Sot, opposite Myawaddy. The 48-year-old monk played a leading role in last year’s uprising as one of the founding members of the All Burma Monks Alliance. After months of evading the authorities in Burma, he finally fled to Thailand in early February. Monks praying at Shwedagon Pagoda in Rangoon before joining an anti-government march on September 24, 2007. (Photo: Reuters) Speaking from a Thai monastery where more than a dozen Burmese monks have taken refuge since last year’s crackdown, he described the injustices that fueled the monks’ movement and the Buddhist basis for his decades of political activism..."
Author/creator: Wai Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 4
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


Title: Human Rights Council - 7th Session: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar - update
Date of publication: 07 March 2008
Description/subject: "...The present report is submitted pursuant to Council resolution 6/33. It is based on information gathered since the Special Rapporteur's report (A/HRC/6/14) on the human rights implications of the crackdown on the peaceful demonstrations in Myanmar in September 2007, its causes and consequences. The report covers the period from December 2007 to March 2008"
Language: English, Arabic, French, Russian, Spanish
Source/publisher: United Nations (A/HRC/7/24)
Format/size: pdf (English - 60K; Arabic - 147K; French - 155K; Russian - 175K, Spanish - 145K)
Alternate URLs: http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/SRM-HRC-7-24-ar.pdf
http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/SRM-HRC-7-24-fr.pdf
http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/SRM-HRC-7-24-ru.pdf
http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/SRM-HRC-7-24-sp.pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 March 2008


Title: BULLETS IN THE ALMS BOWL - An Analysis of the Brutal SPDC Suppression of the September 2007 Saffron Revolution
Date of publication: March 2008
Description/subject: Table of Contents: Acronyms and Abbreviations... Maps... Map of Burma Showing Protest Locations... Map of Rangoon... I Executive Summary... II Government by Exploitation: The Burmese Way to Capitalism?... Macroeconomic Policy... Fiscal Policy... Monetary Policy... The Economic Cost of Militarization... The Straw that Broke the Camel’s Back... III Growing Discontent: The Economic Protests... Early Signs of Dissatisfaction... Protesting the Fuel Price Rise....... IV The Saffron Revolution... The SPDC and the Sangha... Interdependence of the Monastic and Lay Communities... Pakokku and the Call of Excommunication... Nationwide Protests Declared... V Crackdown on the Streets... Wednesday, 26 September 2007... Shwedagon Pagoda... Downtown Rangoon... Thakin Mya Park... Yankin Post Office... Thursday, 27 September 2007... South Okkalapa Township... Sule Pagoda... Pansodan Road Bridge... Thakin Mya Park... Tamwe Township State High School No3... Friday, 28 September 2007... Pansodan Road... Pazundaung Township... Latha Township ... Saturday, 29 September 2007, onwards... VI The Monastery Raids... Invitations to ‘Breakfast’ ... Maggin Monastery ... Ngwe Kyar Yan Monastery ... Additional Raids in Okkalapa ... Thaketa Township... Raids in Other Locations around the Country...Arakan State Mandalay Division... Kachin State... Continued Raids... VII A Witch Hunt... Night Time Abductions... Arrested for Harbouring... Arrests in Lieu Of Others... Collective Punishment of Entire Neighbourhoods... Release of Detainees... Continuing Arrest and Detention of Political Activists... VIII Judicial Procedure and Conditions of Detention... Prolonged Detention without Charge... Judicial Procedure... Conditions of Detention... Interrogation and Torture of Detainees.... Denial of Medical Care... Deaths in Custody... Treatment of Monks... IX Analysis of the Crackdown: Intent to Brutalise, Cover Up and Discredit... Hired Thugs... Targeted and Intentional Killings... Removal of the Dead and Wounded... Treatment of the Injured... Secret Cremations... Suppression of Information... The Internet... Telephone Networks Severed... The National Press... Deliberate Targeting of Journalists... Providing Information to the Media... Defamation of the Sangha... The Pro-SPDC Rallies... X Conclusion... XI Recommendations.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
Format/size: pdf (4.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 13 March 2008


Title: Compassionate Confrontation
Date of publication: March 2008
Description/subject: "...Metta, usually rendered as “loving-kindness” in English, is a strong wish for the well-being and happiness of all living things. A mind with metta is inclusive and nondiscriminatory and has the power to transform any situation. This is what the Buddha taught and exemplified. As the Burmese monks who participated in last September’s protests demonstrated, metta is not an attitude of passive acquiescence. Metta does not accept evil, but confronts it directly with a force that is its exact opposite. In times of trouble, the revered Sangha, or community of monks, cannot merely insulate itself from the suffering of ordinary people. The monks who protested in Burma showed that they are not just peace lovers, but peacemakers. They did not stop at praying for the benefit of the Burmese people, but took to the streets to oppose the malice manifested in the exclusionary politics of military domination..."
Author/creator: Min Zin
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 3
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


Title: Stanley Van Tha ist zurück in der Schweiz â�" in Burma geht die Repression weiter.
Date of publication: 18 February 2008
Description/subject: Die allgemeine Lage in Burma hat sich seit den Protesten signifikant verschlechtert. 80 Prozent der Anführer der Mönche und der Studentengruppen, welche die Proteste anführten, sind im Gefängnis, der Rest ist auf der Flucht. Die burmesische Militärdiktatur schreckt vor ausgiebiger Folter nicht zurück, um sich durch das Aktivistennetzwerk zu arbeiten und auf ebenso brutale Art und Weise wurden weitere Proteste auf der Strasse umgehend unterdrückt. Im Januar wurden neue Bemühungen unternommen, den Internetzugang in Burma zu erschweren. Rolle von burmesischen Kindern; schweizer Asylpolitik; Stanley Van Tha; role of burmese children; suisse asylum policy;
Author/creator: Nina Sahdeva
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Fairunterwegs
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.fairunterwegs.org/aktuell/news/article/stanley-van-tha-ist-zurueck-in-der-schweiz-in-bur...
Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


Title: Subdued but Unbowed
Date of publication: February 2008
Description/subject: "Fiery Pakokku monks who were in the forefront of anti-junta demonstrations have been under constant surveillance from authorities... A 35-year-old, slender, dark man with a long face wearing a white shirt and longyi is sitting in a teashop opposite a A-Nauk Taik, a famous monastery in western Pakokku. Many people, including the teashop owner, notice him. They know he is an undercover police officer assigned to watch the monks’ activities in A-Nauk Taik, also known as Mandalay Monastery. Pakokku residents said that since the September monk-led protests, the authorities have assigned various officers in plain clothes to areas surrounding Buddhist monasteries, many of which are also monastic schools that train monks in the higher Buddhist scriptures..."
Author/creator: Kyo Wai
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 2
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


Title: The Lingering Question
Date of publication: February 2008
Description/subject: "Why didn’t the ethnic groups do more to help the September protesters? Nearly five months after the anti-regime demonstrations that shook Burma late last year, one central question is still waiting for a definitive answer: Couldn’t the ethnic groups have done more to support the protesters in Rangoon and other cities? As monks and lay protesters filled the streets, there was some speculation that the armed forces of the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) and the Shan State Army—South (SSA-S) might at the very least launch offensives to pin down Burma Army divisions in Karen and Shan State. At the height of the brutal crackdown on the demonstrations in Rangoon it was reported that government troops had been sent from Karen State to help suppress the protests..."
Author/creator: Violet Cho and Shan Paung
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 2
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


Title: BURMA/MYANMAR: AFTER THE CRACKDOWN
Date of publication: 31 January 2008
Description/subject: "The violent crushing of protests led by Buddhist monks in Burma/Myanmar in late 2007 has caused even allies of the military government to recognise that change is desperately needed. China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have thrown their support behind the efforts by the UN Secretary-General's special envoy to re-open talks on national reconciliation, while the U.S. and others have stepped up their sanctions. But neither incomplete punitive measures nor intermittent talks are likely to bring about major reforms. Myanmar's neighbours and the West must press together for a sustainable process of national reconciliation. This will require a long-term effort by all who can make a difference, combining robust diplomacy with serious efforts to address the deep-seated structural obstacles to peace, democracy and development. The protests in August-September and, in particular, the government crackdown have shaken up the political status quo, the international community has been mobilised to an unprecedented extent, and there are indications that divergences of view have grown within the military. The death toll is uncertain but appears to have been substantially higher than the official figures, and the violence has profoundly disrupted religious life across the country. While extreme violence has been a daily occurrence in ethnic minority populated areas in the border regions, where governments have faced widespread armed rebellion for more than half a century, the recent events struck at the core of the state and have had serious reverberations within the Burman majority society, as well as the regime itself, which it will be difficult for the military leaders to ignore. While these developments present important new opportunities for change, they must be viewed against the continuance of profound structural obstacles. The balance of power is still heavily weighted in favour of the army, whose top leaders continue to insist that only a strongly centralised, military-led state can hold the country together. There may be more hope that a new generation of military leaders can disown the failures of the past and seek new ways forward. But even if the political will for reform improves, Myanmar will still face immense challenges in overcoming the debilitating legacy of decades of conflict, poverty and institutional failure, which fuelled the recent crisis and could well overwhelm future governments as well. The immediate challenges are to create a more durable negotiating process between government, opposition and ethnic groups and help alleviate the economic and humanitarian crisis that hampers reconciliation at all levels of society. At the same time, longer-term efforts are needed to encourage and support the emergence of a broader, more inclusive and better organised political society and to build the capacity of the state, civil society and individual households alike to deal with the many development challenges. To achieve these aims, all actors who have the ability to influence the situation need to become actively involved in working for change, and the comparative advantages each has must be mobilised to the fullest, with due respect for differences in national perspectives and interests..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Asia Report N°144)
Format/size: pdf (806K)
Date of entry/update: 15 March 2008


Title: Sangha under Siege
Date of publication: January 2008
Description/subject: Yeni looks at the plight of Burmese monks, who took the lead in organizing pro-democracy opposition to the junta and are now feeling the brunt of the junta’s brutality.... "the sonorous sounds of bronze bells and wooden gongs dispel the early morning darkness, monks in maroon robes set off with their alms bowls on their daily rounds of the neighborhoods around their monasteries. This serene picture is part of the cultural tapestry of Burma, the “land of pagodas.” The crackdown on the September demonstrations scattered the protesting monks—and at the same time shattered an age-old picture. The number of monks making their morning rounds has shrunk dramatically. Many monasteries are empty..."
Author/creator: Yeni
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 1
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


Title: Who Lost the Most in the 2007 Uprising?
Date of publication: January 2008
Description/subject: "Who were the true winners and losers in the uprising now widely known as the “Saffron Revolution”? The truth is everyone involved lost—the Burmese people, the military junta and the international community. Most Burmese people lost faith in a better future, their dreams again destroyed by the dark reality of oppression and ruthlessness. The generals lost their chance to show the world they wished to move towards a legitimate government and gain the world’s recognition as leaders who guided Burma to true democracy. The generals might have gone down in history as men of vision, but because they stayed true to their past they will be remembered only as unenlightened villains who have the people’s blood on their hands. The international community lost in its efforts to effect peaceful change and is now searching for new ways to move the regime toward national reconciliation—which seems farther away than ever. Asean, especially, lost its chance to turn a new page, on which it could show it understands its responsibilities within the world community..."
Author/creator: Editorial
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 1
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


Title: Burma VJ - reporting from a closed country (video)
Date of publication: 2008
Description/subject: 84 MINUTES RUNNING TIME. TRAILER PLUS 9 PARTS. FOR PARTS 1-9, CLICK ON ALTERNATE LINKS, BELOW, OR IN RIGHT HAND COLUMN OF YOUTUBE PAGE..."Armed with small handycams undercover Video Journalists in Burma keep up the flow of news from their closed country despite risking torture and life in jail. Their material is smuggled out of Burma and broadcast back via satellite. Joshua, age 27, becomes tactical leader of a group of reporters, as Buddhist monks in September 2007 lead a massive uprising. Foreign TV crews are banned from the country, so its left to Joshua and his crew to keep the revolution alive on TV screens all over. As government intelligence understands the power of the camera, the VJs become their prime target."
Author/creator: ANDERS OËœSTERGAARD, Khin Maung Win et al
Language: Burmese, English
Source/publisher: Magic Hour Films
Format/size: Adobe Flash Player (84 minutes playing time)
Alternate URLs: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t6DfCLqLVUg&feature=related (pt I)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pc4tnvuFoPc&feature=related (pt II)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S-i9V2Qpzqw&feature=related (pt III)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lsnoYEthIb8&feature=related (pt IV)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cOnhJ-yY824&feature=related (pt V)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RtWrYfl2pb0&feature=related (pt VI)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0s94tsVAZuY&feature=related (pt VII)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3wLaOqrAdpM&feature=related (pt VIII)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6vaXSwWF6aM&feature=related (pt IX - final)
http://burmavjmovie.com/
Date of entry/update: 25 December 2009


Title: Burma: schon vergessen?
Date of publication: 06 December 2007
Description/subject: Anfang Dezember verkündeten die Militärbehörden, sie hätten seit Mitte November über 8'500 Gefangene frei gelassen, darunter auch 10 politische Häftlinge. Damit unterstreiche die Regierung ihre Bereitschaft, den nationalen Zusammenhalt und die Zusammenarbeit mit der internationalen Gemeinschaft und den Vereinten Nationen zu fördern, liess das offizielle Organ „New Light of Myanmar“ verlauten. Die offiziellen Angaben sind verwirrlich, so bleibt unklar, ob die jetzt Freigelassenen im Zuge der Niederschlagung der Proteste vom vergangenen Herbst verhaftet worden waren. Offiziellen Quellen zufolge sind dabei 10 Menschen ums Leben gekommen und 2'927 in Haft genommen worden, darunter 596 Mönche; noch 80 Menschen, davon 21 Mönche, würden weiter in Haft gehalten. Menschenrechtsorganisationen fürchten allerdings, die Zahl der Todesopfer und Inhaftierten sei sehr viel höher. Repression nach den Aufständen 2007; repression after the uprisings 2007
Author/creator: Christine Pluess, Arbeitskreis Tourismus & Entwicklung
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Fairunterwegs
Alternate URLs: http://www.fairunterwegs.org/news-medien/news/detail/burma-schon-vergessen-diktatorische-volksabsti...
Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


Title: 2007: The Year in Review
Date of publication: December 2007
Description/subject: The Irrawaddy presents a chronology of significant events in words and photographs for 2007.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 12
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


Title: Burma’s "Saffron Revolution” is not over - Time for the international community to act
Date of publication: December 2007
Description/subject: Executive summary" "The situation in Burma after the “Saffron Revolution” is unprecedented. The September 2007 peaceful protests and the violent crackdown have created new dynamics inside Burma, and the country’sfuture is still unknown. This led the FIDH and the ITUC to conduct a joint mission along the Thai-Burma border between October 13th-21st 2007 to investigate the events and impact of the September crackdown, and to inform our organizational strategies and political recommendations. The violence and bloodshed directed at the monks and the general public who participated in the peace walks and protests have further alienated the population from its current military leaders. The level of fear, but also anger amongst the general population is unprecedented, as even religious leaders are now clearly not exempt from such violence and repression. This is different from the pro-democracy demonstrations in 1988, when monks were not directly targeted. In present-day Burma, all segments of the population have grown hostile to the regime, including within the military’s own ranks. The desire for change is greater than ever. Every witness -from ordinary citizens to monks, and Generation ‘88 leaders- told mission participants the movement was not over, despite the fear of reprisals and further repression. The question is what will happen next, and when? The future will depend of three factors: the extent to which the population will be able to organize new rounds of a social movement, the reaction of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), and the influence the international community can exert on the junta. What happened in Burma since the crackdown has proven that the international community has influence on the regime. The UN Secretary General's Special Envoy Ibrahim Gambari’s good offices mission was accepted. The UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights, Sergio Pinheiro was allowed access to the country for the first time in four years, and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and members of the National League for Democracy (NLD) were given permission to meet with each other for the first time since Daw Suu was placed under renewed house arrest, in May 2003. Yet these positive signs are still weak: a genuine process of political change has not started yet. Such a process, involving the democratic parties and ethnic groups, is fundamental to establishing peace, human rights and development in Burma. To achieve that, the international community must keep its focus on Burma, and maximise its efforts and capacity to help bring about political transition..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Federation Internationale des Droits de l'Homme (FIDH)
Format/size: pdf (388K)
Alternate URLs: http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/FIDH-ITUC-Saffron-rev..pdf
Date of entry/update: 14 December 2007


Title: Crackdown: Repression of the 2007 Popular Protests in Burma
Date of publication: December 2007
Description/subject: Summary: "In August and September 2007, Burmese democracy activists, monks and ordinary people took to the streets of Rangoon and elsewhere to peacefully challenge nearly two decades of dictatorial rule and economic mismanagement by Burma’s ruling generals. While opposition to the military government is widespread in Burma, and small acts of resistance are an everyday occurrence, military repression is so systematic that such sentiment rarely is able to burst into public view; the last comparable public uprising was in August 1988. As in 1988, the generals responded this time with a brutal and bloody crackdown, leaving Burma’s population once again struggling for a voice. The government crackdown included baton-charges and beatings of unarmed demonstrators, mass arbitrary arrests, and repeated instances where weapons were fired shoot-to-kill. To remove the monks and nuns from the protests, the security forces raided dozens of Buddhist monasteries during the night, and sought to enforce the defrocking of thousands of monks. Current protest leaders, opposition party members, and activists from the ’88 Generation students were tracked down and arrested – and continue to be arrested and detained. The Burmese generals have taken draconian measures to ensure that the world does not learn the true story of the horror of their crackdown. They have kept foreign journalists out of Burma and maintained their complete control over domestic news. Many local journalists were arrested after the crackdown, and the internet and mobile phone networks, used extensively to send information, photos, and videos out of Burma, were temporarily shut down, and have remained tightly controlled since. Of course, those efforts at censorship were only partially successful, as some enterprising and brave individuals found ways to get mobile phone video footage of the demonstrations and crackdown out of the country and onto the world’s television screens. This provided a small window into the violence and repression that the Burmese military government continues to use to hold onto power..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
Format/size: pdf (1.88MB)
Date of entry/update: 08 December 2007


Title: Death of a Journalist
Date of publication: December 2007
Description/subject: The shooting of a Japanese cameraman by Burmese security forces shocked the Japanese public and government, but what about official foreign policy?
Author/creator: Yamamoto Munesuke
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 12
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 28 April 2008


Title: Editorial_December 2007
Date of publication: December 2007
Description/subject: Ups and Downs in 2007... "The year 2007 brought high hopes to the Burmese people when protesters led by monks took to the streets demanding democratic change. But the hopes were short lived. The brutal crackdown unleashed by the military regime killed not only innocent people but also the people’s hope for change. However, the people of Burma, tired of their life under a repressive regime, have pressed the fast forward button for change, and I believe they won’t let up that pressure. Regional players and allies of the regime have failed to back this indefatigable will for change. They have also seen many ups and downs since Burma joined Asean in 1997..."
Author/creator: Aung Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 12
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


Title: Myanmar: Briefing Paper: No Return to "Normal"
Date of publication: 09 November 2007
Description/subject: "The violent suppression by the Myanmar authorities of peaceful demonstrations in 66 cities country-wide from mid-August through September 2007 provoked international condemnation. Amnesty International continues to document serious human rights violations. The situation has not returned to normal. Based on numerous first-hand accounts from victims and eye-witnesses, this briefing paper outlines some key human rights abuses committed since the start of the crackdown."
Language: English, Francais, Espanol
Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/037/2007)
Format/size: pdf (55.7K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/037/2007/en/4d4b5c93-d358-11dd-a329-2f46302a8cc6/asa1...
http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/037/2007
http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/037/2007/en/55be999b-d358-11dd-a329-2f46302a8cc6/asa1... (Francais)
http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/037/2007/en/53392708-d358-11dd-a329-2f46302a8cc6/asa1... (Espanol)
Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


Title: A Rangoon Diary
Date of publication: November 2007
Description/subject: "They were nine days that not only rocked Burma but shook the conscience of the free world. Just over one week of bloody suppression of peaceful demonstrations in Rangoon and other cities and in the country’s monasteries—a period that will go down in Burmese history as the Uprising of September 2007. Bangkok-based author and photojournalist Thierry Falise lived through the events in Rangoon and wrote a diary of the nine days of terror..."
Author/creator: Thierry Falise
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 11
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


Title: Burma’s Long Road to Democracy
Date of publication: November 2007
Description/subject: Summary: • In August and September 2007, nearly twenty years after the 1988 popular uprising in Burma, public anger at the government’s economic policies once again spilled into the country’s city streets in the form of mass protests. When tens of thousands of Buddhist monks joined the protests, the military regime reacted with brute force, beating, killing, and jailing thousands of people. Although the Saffron Revolution was put down, the regime still faces serious opposition and unrest. • Burma’s forty-five years of military rule have seen periodic popular uprisings and lingering ethnic insurgencies, which invariably provoke harsh military responses and thereby serve to perpetuate and strengthen military rule. The recent attack on the monks, however, was ill considered and left Burma’s devoutly religious population deeply resentful toward the ruling generals. • Despite the widespread resentment against the generals, a successful transition to democracy will have to include the military. Positive change is likely to start with the regime’s current (though imperfect) plan for return to military-dominated parliamentary government, and achieving real democracy may take many years. When Than Shwe, the current top general, is replaced, prospects for working with more moderate military leaders may improve. In the end, however, only comprehensive political and economic reform will release the military’s grip on the country. • Creating the conditions for stable, effective democracy in Burma will require decades of political and economic restructuring and reform, including comprehensive macroeconomic reform, developing a democratic constitution and political culture, re- establishing rule of law, rebuilding government structures at national and state levels, and building adequate health and educational institutions. • The international community must give its sustained attention to Burma, continuing to press the regime for dialogue with the forces of democracy, beginning with popular democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi, and insisting on an inclusive constitutional process. International players should also urge the regime immediately to establish a national commission of experts to begin studying and making recommendations for economic restructuring to address the underlying concerns that brought about the Saffron Revolution. • Though China is concerned about the Burmese regime’s incompetence, it has only limited sway with the generals, who are fiercely anticommunist and nationalistic. Nonetheless, Beijing will cautiously support and contribute to an international effort to bring transition, realizing that Burma will be seen as a test of China’s responsibility as a world power. • The United States should restrain its tendency to reach simply for more unilateral sanctions whenever it focuses on Burma. Because a transition negotiated with opposition parties is still likely to produce an elected government with heavy military influence, the United States must prepare to engage with an imperfect Burmese democracy and participate fully in reconstruction and reform efforts, which will require easing some existing sanctions.
Author/creator: Priscilla Clapp
Language: English
Source/publisher: United States Institute for Peace (Special Report 193 November 2007)
Format/size: pdf (215K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/Burma%27s%20long%20road%20to%20democracy%20-%20Clapp.pdf
Date of entry/update: 09 September 2011


Title: The Long Nightmare
Date of publication: November 2007
Description/subject: Rangoon’s weeks of terror left few untouched... "There can be very few, in this city of five million, who have not been touched by the events of the last few weeks. Everyone I meet has a story to tell or a memory of where they were when the shooting started. No amount of censorship can erase these memories or the emotions they have aroused. No matter how many lines of communication are cut, the accounts of what people saw, heard or felt during the uprising will continue to circulate. Many of those with whom I have spoken confess to feelings of guilt because they did not or could not take part in the demonstrations. That the monks who walked in peaceful protest on their behalf should have been treated with such callous disregard has fermented in them a new sense of defiance. Even among very ordinary people whose silence has traditionally been taken by the regime as a sign of agreement, there is a growing mood of resentment. The scales have most decidedly tipped—but in whose favor? ..."
Author/creator: Naomi Mann
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 11
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


Title: Where There’s Struggle, There’s Hope
Date of publication: November 2007
Description/subject: "The September 2007 uprising was a struggle between the sons of Buddha and the forces of darkness and repression. In the struggle for democracy, hope is the key. The battle lines are drawn more clearly now than ever before..."
Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 11
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


Title: Burma Berichterstattung
Date of publication: 24 October 2007
Description/subject: Burma 3 Wochen nach den Aufständen; Rolle und Möglichkeiten der NLD und der ethnsichen Minderheiten; Burma 3 weeks after the uprisings; role and possibilities of the NLD and ethnic minorities;
Author/creator: Rebecca Vermot
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Comedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


Title: SAFFRON REVOLUTION: UPDATE
Date of publication: 15 October 2007
Description/subject: In the "Saffron Revolution," tens of thousands of Buddhist monks led massive anti-junta demonstrations. It was the largest show of peaceful protests against the military regime since 1988. Between 19 August and 2 October, 227 rallies defied military rule in 66 cities across all of Burma's States and Divisions. The SPDC arrested up to 6,000 people, including at least 1,400 monks, since the beginning of the crackdown on 26 September. This briefer contains the latest accounts of resistance and documentation of human rights abuses perpetrated during crackdowns.
Language: English
Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
Format/size: pdf (80K)
Date of entry/update: 28 October 2007


Title: Inside Myanmar: The Crackdown - 10 Oct 07 (video)
Date of publication: 11 October 2007
Description/subject: IN 2 PARTS - FOR PART 2, CLICK ON ICON IN RIGHT HAND COLUMN OR link in "ALTERNATE URLs, BELOW... "For this extended special news programme, Al Jazeera's Tony Birtley went undercover in Myanmar to report exclusively on the people's protests and resulting bloody crackdown by Myanmar's military government, talking to the protesters, filming the bloody crackdown and gauging the mood of the nation "
Author/creator: Tony Birtley
Language: English commentary, Burmese background
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
Format/size: Adobe Flash (12:45, 10:07)
Alternate URLs: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h2goTVC5g3M (part 2)
Date of entry/update: 26 December 2009


Title: Globale Unterstützung der "Safran-Revolution"
Date of publication: 07 October 2007
Description/subject: Weltweit haben am Wochenende Bürger und Menschenrechtsorganisationen Solidarität mit den Demonstranten und den buddhistischen Mönchen in Birma bekundet. In Australien, Asien, Nordamerika und Europa hielten Tausende Menschen mit Kerzen in den Händen Mahnwachen zum Gedenken an die Opfer der gewaltsamen Protest-Niederschlagung; Rolle Russlands, Indiens und Chinas; international support for the demonstrators; role of Russia, China, India
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Aller-Zeitung
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


Title: Einige Aspekte der Situation in Birma/Myanmar
Date of publication: 01 October 2007
Description/subject: Die Zuspitzung der von buddhistischen Mönchen angeführten Proteste gegen das Militärregime in Birma bzw. Myanmar sowie das harte Vorgehen der Militärjunta haben Birma in den Blickpunkt der Weltöffentlichkeit gerückt. Seit Jahren wird von seiten vor allem der US-Regierung, aber auch Großbritanniens und teils auch der EU Propaganda gegen das Militärregime dort gemacht, wurden Drohungen ausgesprochen und Sanktionen verhängt. Und sie drängen auch jetzt zu verschärften Maßnahmen gegenüber Birma und setzen zunehmend China, Indien und die ASEAN-Staaten unter Druck, gegen die Militärjunta vorzugehen und noch mehr, sie drängen dazu, zu einem Machtwechsel in Birma beizutragen.USA-Burma Beziehungen, Aufstände 2007; USA-Burma relations; uprisings 2007
Author/creator: Uwe Mueller
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Neue Einheit
Format/size: Html (17 kb)
Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


Title: No Soft Touch
Date of publication: October 2007
Description/subject: As the mother of a four-month-old baby, Nilar Thein should be at home now, caring for her little daughter. Instead, she’s a fugitive with a price on her head, in hiding from Burmese government forces desperate to silence her and other outspoken activists.For Nilar Thein, 35, it was a clear choice—whether to remain silent in the interests of her family or to join in the movement to bring democracy to Burma, knowing she risked jail and separation from her baby. She took the second course of action, believing that in the long run it would benefit her daughter far more than if she had done nothing. By working for democratic change in Burma, she hoped to “bring about a bright future for my daughter,” Nilar Thein told The Irrawaddy from her hiding place..."
Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 10
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8907
Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


Title: Risiken und Nebenwirkungen einer Farbrevolution in Birma
Date of publication: October 2007
Description/subject: Eine Beleuchtung der Hintergründe und Akteure des Aufstandes, im Vergleich zu den Aufständen von 1988. background and actors of the uprisings 2007; uprisings 1988
Author/creator: Wolfram Schaffer
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Zeitschrift-Peripherie
Format/size: Pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


Title: The Power Behind the Robe
Date of publication: October 2007
Description/subject: Why Burma’s generals fear the influence of the Sangha... "The Lord Buddha shunned worldly affairs, but in his teachings he stressed the need for good governance and good rulers in the practice of politics. The Buddha said: “When the ruler of a country is just and good, the ministers become just and good; when the ministers are just and good, the higher officials become just and good; when the higher officials are just and good, the rank and file become just and good; when the rank and file become just and good, the people become just and good.” If these admonitions are followed by the large community of monks—the Sangha—in predominantly Buddhist Burma, the lingering “love lost” relationship between the country’s military rulers and its monks should be no surprise..."
Author/creator: Aung Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 10
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8908
Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


Title: Walking a Stony Path
Date of publication: October 2007
Description/subject: The pro-democracy activists who first took to the streets in the lead up to the mass demonstrations knew in advance that they faced arrest, imprisonment and possible torture. Many of them were well prepared for the ordeal, however, after serving many years in prison following the 1988 uprising, writes Yeni... "Spirits were high as around 500 demonstrators, led by prominent pro-democracy activists, paraded through Rangoon on that fateful day in August. The demonstrators were a happy, optimistic crowd, talking about their hopes for a better life some time in the future. For some prominent members of the 88 Generation Students group—notably Min Ko Naing, Ko Ko Gyi and Min Zeya—the demonstration would lead to imprisonment. But they were well prepared for it after each spending at least 15 years behind bars for their leadership role in the 1988 uprising. .."
Author/creator: Yeni
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 10
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8904
http://www.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=8904
Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


Title: Burmas Mönche zwischen Gleichschaltung und Rebellion
Date of publication: 25 September 2007
Description/subject: Zehntausende buddhistische Mönche demonstrieren in Burma für Demokratie und den Sturz der Militärjunta. Sie riefen sogar zur "Exkommunikation" der herrschenden Generäle auf, indem sie erklärten, von Militärs keine Nahrungsmittelspenden oder Almosen mehr anzunehmen. Da sich Buddhisten mit diesen Gaben traditionell jedoch Verdienste für das nächste Leben erwerben wollen, strafen die Mönche die Militärs mit ihrer Verweigerung wirksam ab.
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker
Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008