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Urban displacement

Websites/Multiple Documents

Language: English
Source/publisher: US Dept. of State
Format/size: html (34K)
Date of entry/update: 08 February 2007

Description/subject: "This compendium focuses on recent articles related to the development of industrial estates in the major urban centres of Myanmar. Although the clustering of traditional craft industries was common in towns and cities throughout Burma in the colonial era, it was not until the 1950s that modern industrial complexes such as those in the Pyay district of central Burma and in several parts of Rangoon began to take shape. The displacement of urban core residents and small enterprises that took place in the late fifties also led to the development of industrial sites in satellite towns on the east side of the capital. But it was only in the 1990s, following the opening to privately owned industries by Burma’s military government, that the push to develop industrial zones throughout the country began in earnest. Today there are more than fifty industrial parks scattered throughout the country, about half of them in the area around the national capital. Some, like the new complexes at Indagaw near Bago and the two near Kyaukse in Upper Myanmar are exclusively reserved for state-owned factories. Others are being developed with foreign capital for foreign-owned enterprises or foreign companies that have entered into joint-venture agreements with holding companies of the military government. Most of the new industrial estates are being developed by the Department of Human Settlement and Housing Development of the Ministry of Construction specifically for privately owned industries. Over 6,000 of the 50,000 privately owned manufacturing enterprises in the country are now accommodated in these zones. Recently, several privately owned land development companies have begun their own industrial parks in the Yangon area in collaboration with the DHSHD. The articles in the compendium are arranged in chronological order with the most recently published at the top of the list. The articles have been selected on the basis that they are representative of initiatives and challenges faced in the rapidly developing industrial zones of Myanmar. Internet search engines such as Google will yield many more references on any one of the many zones named here. Researchers should bear in mind that place names in Myanmar are frequently spelled in a variety of ways in English. Thus, the use of different spellings as search words may result in a considerable increase in the amount of information generated."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Courier Information Services
Format/size: html (445K), Word (558K), pdf (786K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/INDUSTRIAL%20ESTATES%20IN%20MYANMAR.doc
Date of entry/update: 17 April 2005

Title: Land disputes (Category archive BurmaNet News)
Description/subject: Articles on this category from BurmaNet News (2004-2016)
Language: English
Source/publisher: BurmaNet News
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 March 2016

Individual Documents

Date of publication: June 2018
Description/subject: ''Urbanization is the movement of people from rural to urban environments, and the associated changes in the built environment. As political reform and rapid urbanization drastically reshape Myanmar, new opportunities are arising for practical collaboration between government agencies, and between the government and the public, to improve the sense of safety and security of the country’s growing urban population. In order to inform such collaboration, this policy brief provides an explanation of the concept of urban safety, provides examples of what urban safety can mean in the context of Myanmar’s cities, and identifies key government departments with responsibilities for achieving urban safety. The paper also elaborates on international experiences in improving urban safety and offers a number of policy opportunities that Myanmar governance actors may act on. Globally, there is a trend toward urbanization. By 2030, 96 percent of all urbanization will occur in the developing world. Within Myanmar, Yangon’s rapid and poorly-planned urbanization has drastically changed the face of the city, while urban centers around the country are having to adjust to growing populations and demand for services. This shift toward greater concentrations of population is having profound implications for a wide range of issues that will make cities more or less livable, potentially increasing or diminishing the sense of wellbeing among urban populations...''
Author/creator: Jayde Roberts
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: html, pdf (1.7MB)
Alternate URLs: https://asiafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Urban-Safety-Brief-Series_ENfullSeries.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 October 2018

Title: URBAN SAFETY AND SECURITY IN MYANMAR (Urban Safety Project) - ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏ၿမိဳ႔ျပေဘးကင္းလံုျခံဳေရးဆိုင္ရာ
Date of publication: June 2018
Description/subject: Burmese versions: 1.Introduction 2.Crime Prevention 3.Urban Policing 4.Countering Narcotics 5.Crowd Safety "ေဝးလံေခါင္သီေသာ ေက်းလက္ေဒသရွိလူမ်ားမွ ၿမိဳ႕ျပပတ္ဝန္းက်င္မ်ားသို႔ ေျပာင္းေရႊ႕လာၿပီး၊ ၎ျဖစ္စဥ္ေၾကာင့္ ျဖစ္ေပၚလာေသာ အဆုိပါပတ္ဝန္းက်င္တစ္ဝိုက္ရွိ ေျပာင္းလဲမႈမ်ားကုိ ၿမိဳ႕ျပျဖစ္ထြန္းလာျခင္း (Urbanization) ဟုေခၚသည္။ ႏုိင္ငံေရးျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲမႈ မ်ားႏွင့္ လ်င္ျမန္ေသာ ၿမိဳ႕ျပျဖစ္ထြန္းလာျခင္းမ်ားသည္ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံကုိ ပမာဏႀကီးမားစြာ အသြင္ေျပာင္းလဲေစေသာေၾကာင့္ ႏုိင္ငံ၏တုိးတက္လာေသာ ၿမိဳ႕ျပ လူဦးေရႏွင့္ ၎တုိ႔၏ လံုၿခံဳေရးႏွင့္ လံုၿခံဳေရးအသိကုိ အဆင့္ျမႇင့္ရန္၊ အစိုးရ႐ံုးဌာနမ်ား အခ်င္းခ်င္းၾကားႏွင့္ အစိုးရႏွင့္ လူထုၾကားတြင္ လက္ေတြ႕ပူးေပါင္းလုပ္ေဆာင္ရန္ အခြင့္အေရးသစ္မ်ား ေပၚထြက္လာၿပီျဖစ္သည္။ ထုိသို႔ေသာ ပူးေပါင္းလုပ္ေဆာင္မႈမ်ားကုိ အသိေပးရန္ ျပဳလုပ္ရာတြင္ ဤမူဝါဒ စာတမ္းငယ္မွ ၿမိဳ႕ျပလံုၿခံဳေရးအယူအဆသေဘာထားကုိ ရွင္းျပေပးၿပီး ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံရွိ ၿမိဳ႕မ်ားအတြင္းတြင္ ၿမိဳ႕ျပလံုၿခံဳေရးသည္ မည္သုိ႔အဓိပၸာယ္သက္ေရာက္သည္ကုိ ဥပမာမ်ားေဖာ္ျပေပးကာ၊ ၿမိဳ႕ျပလံုၿခံဳေရး ရရွိႏုိင္ရန္တာဝန္ရွိသည့္ အဓိက အစိုးရဌာနမ်ားကုိ ေဖာ္ထုတ္ျပထားသည္။ ဤစာတမ္းတြင္ ၿမိဳ႕ျပလံုၿခံဳေရးကုိ အဆင့္ျမႇင့္တင္ရာတြင္ ႏုိင္ငံတကာအေတြ႕အႀကံဳမ်ားကုိ စုစည္းတင္ျပထားၿပီး ျမန္မာအစိုးရတာဝန္ရွိသူမ်ားမွ လုပ္ေဆာင္ႏုိင္မည့္ မူဝါဒအခြင့္အလမ္းမ်ားကုိလည္း ေဖာ္ျပထားသည္။"
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: html, pdf (4.2MB)
Alternate URLs: https://asiafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Urban-Safety-Brief-Series_1-_Urban-Safety-Int...
Date of entry/update: 03 October 2018

Title: City Life Survey: Myanmar 2017 Pilot Initiative
Date of publication: 27 June 2017
Description/subject: ''Myanmar’s cities are growing - in size, complexity and importance. Urbanization, the movement of people from rural to urban areas, is taking place and over a third of Myanmar’s population now live in towns and cities. The experience of other Asian countries and the rest of the world suggests this trend will continue.1 Over the next decades Yangon is expected to grow faster than most other cities in Asia, and the urban population outside Yangon is expected to grow faster still.2 Cities are important hubs of economic and social activity. They can be powerful forces for economic development and centers for human development. But without effective management cities can become plagued with problems of congestion, victims of their own success in attracting people. Lengthy traffic jams, piles of uncollected garbage, expanding slums and flooded streets are all too familiar examples. The management of cities is a difficult challenge in any country, but especially in Myanmar where decision makers have less access to data and evidence than their international peers. Good decisions require access to good information. That means drawing on a range of data sources. One source of information, that has historically been ignored, is the direct views and opinions of the people of Myanmar. Under Myanmar’s periods of military rule, this meant the public had “little or no influence on problem recognition and issue selection by government”.3 The democratic transition, however nascent, has galvanized many in government to seek to understand the needs of the people so that they can better respond to them...''
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: html, pdf (2.9MB)
Alternate URLs: https://asiafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/City-Life-Survey-2017-English_27-June-2018.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 October 2018

Title: The mean streets of Hlaing Tharyar
Date of publication: 28 August 2015
Description/subject: "...While all-out street brawls might not be an everyday occurrence in Hlaing Tharyar, the township is awash with crime – everything from fistfights, robberies, rapes and extortion to assaults and home detentions by lenders against debtors. A senior police officer from the Hlaing Tharyar Myoma Police Station said some of these cases are brought to the attention of police, but many others are “solved” by calling in local toughs who rely on intimidation. Among the obstacles to maintaining rule of law in the township are the huge growth in population, and an insufficient police force. Last year’s census identified 684,700 residents, about half of whom are squatting illegally on land they do not own or rent. Many of these squatters are thought to have migrated to the area in the wake of Cyclone Nargis in May 2008..."
Author/creator: Khin Wine Phyu Phyu
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 August 2015

Title: Police roundup pushes homeless people out of Pyay City, Bago Division, August 2012
Date of publication: 08 July 2013
Description/subject: "This report is based on information submitted to KHRG in September 2012 by a community member from Yangon Region trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. It describes events occurring in Pyay City, Bago Division, on August 3rd 2012 when City Development Committee staff and policemen carried out a nighttime city-sweep to remove homeless families. The authorities used a public rubbish truck to forcibly detain the families and then to transport them to Okshittpin Forest, which is halfway between Pyay City and the border with Rakhine State. The families were abandoned in the forest during a monsoon rain, and were threatened not to return to Pyay. Both children and adults were threatened with prison if they returned. However, the families did return to Pyay, after they encountered several problems along the way, including being without food to eat for two days, not having baby formula for infants, inadequate shelter under which to sleep, and most of the younger children became sick. Once they returned to Pyay City, the families were assisted with medicine. Pocket money and education was provided to the children by a local organization."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
Format/size: html, pdf (85K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg13b43.pdf
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2013

Title: Forced relocation in Burma’s former capital
Date of publication: 22 April 2008
Description/subject: The population of Yangon has experienced coercive resettlement on a truly massive scale under military rule..."With its ‘huts to apartments’ scheme, the SPDC claims to have placed many squatters in new multi-storey housing on the site of or near their former dwellings. However, forced relocation in Yangon, Mandalay and other cities in central Burma continues today; victims of fires, for example, are not allowed to rebuild their old neighbourhoods and residential areas are cleared to make way for new roads, apartments and shopping centres. This is an environment where the land rights of ordinary citizens, whatever their ethnicity, remain unrecognised..."
Author/creator: Donald M Seekins
Language: English, Burmese
Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
Format/size: pdf (Burmese, 143K; English, 304K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/10-1.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008

Title: SPDC Army atrocities in Ler Muh Bplaw village tract in the words of a local resident
Date of publication: 24 October 2007
Description/subject: "While the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) continues its diplomatic manoeuvring claiming a 'return to normalcy' and courting favour with United Nations special envoy to Burma, Ibrahim Gambari, attacks on villages and military atrocities in northern Karen State have continued unabated. Nevertheless, local villagers continue to resist such abuse and speak out, where possible, against its daily perpetration. The report below comprises a translated account of the situation in Ler Muh Bplaw village tract, Lu Thaw township, Papun District written not by a KHRG researcher or any other of the organisation's staff, but rather by a local village head from Ler Muh Bplaw village tract who testifies in his own words to the atrocities that continue to undermine rural lives and livelihoods. The report discusses SPDC operations including attacks on villages and the killing of civilians as well as the state of health and education for the communities of Ler Muh Bplaw village tract. The text of the report is supported with photographs taken by KHRG field researchers..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2007-F9)
Format/size: html, pdf (517 MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg07f9.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2009

Title: Dead Set on Helping
Date of publication: December 2003
Description/subject: "Burma’s poverty means that even providing funerals for loved ones can be difficult if not impossible. But a new social welfare association is lending a helping hand... Accompanied by some poor people, a famous Burmese movie star carries a coffin in Rangoon. In the coffin is the corpse of a poor man who is unrelated to the actor. This is not a scene for a film; it’s real. And to many people it’s amazing, because it’s so unheard of. The movie star, Kyaw Thu, has participated in many funerals as a sort of gravedigger, and he is vice president of a social welfare association known as the Free Funeral Services Society (FFSS)..."
Author/creator: Htain Linn
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 10, December 2003
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 February 2004

Title: Residents Speak Out Against Forced Relocation
Date of publication: 02 April 2002
Description/subject: "Homeowners in Rangoon's Kamaryut Township were told by military officials last week to evacuate their homes by April 5 or face arrest. The residents were not given any reasons for the forced relocation nor have they been offered any compensation thus far, Kamaryut residents told The Irrawaddy..."
Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 January 2007

Date of publication: 17 January 1997
Description/subject: "...Sources say the industrial zones are creating another headache: forced relocations of villagers. The source says that farmers have been forced to give up their prized land in Mingaladon north of Rangoon to make way for Mitsui's industrial park. "There is no negotiation between the farmers and the government. The govenrment simply puts up a sign saying, 'Everybody must move by this date.' Everybody must obey it or else. Villages are silently angry but they don't dare protest." Adds another local resident, explaining the public mentality about reallocations, "We have to obey the king. When the king says move, we have to move."..."
Author/creator: B.J. Lee
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Nation"
Format/size: html (22K)
Date of entry/update: 25 January 2007

Title: Urban Development
Date of publication: 01 January 1997
Description/subject: "RIP: Rest In Pieces"... On Nov 14th 1996, the Slorc posted a notice at the gate of Kyandaw Cemetery giving relatives one month's notice to move the remains to a new site at Shwe Nyaung-bin, two hours drive from Rangoon. Kyandaw cemetery is located on 50-70 acres of what has become prime real estate in downtown Rangoon, near Hantha-waddy intersection. Both Burmese and foreigners are buried there of Christian, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist faiths. Rumours abound in Rangoon as to what the military government wants the land for; a casino to be built by Khun Sa, a hotel to be built with foreign investment, or, a Japanese shopping center. Whatever is planned for this land remains unknown as the Slorc refuse to specify at this stage. A Slorc spokesman, Major Hla Min stated on a recent Asian Business News television interview: "Yangon has changed, and the location of the cemetery, once it was probably on the outskirts of Yangon, but today its almost in the center of the city, so naturally it has to be relocated." ..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 5, No. 1
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 January 2007

Date of publication: 1991
Description/subject: The oft-cited UN Habitat report on the 1989-1990 urban resettlement programme in Burma which the report estimates affected 1.5 million people (16 percent of the urban population). "...During the early months of 1990 international attention was focused on the Yangon squatter clearance and resettlement programme launched by the Government in 1989. The Mission found that the programme is not limited to Yangon, but has broad national coverage. The scale and characteristics of the land-development and other works was considered by the Mission to be of such overwhelming significance to the present and future urban situation that the Mission concentrated its resources on attempting to assemble a comprehensive record of the programme and assessing the impacts and implications. The programme consists of: (a) land development for sites-and- services resettlement schemes, and for complete housing units for public servants; (b) new and improved roads; (c) urban rail transport; (d) road, rail and pedestrian bridges; (e) parks and gardens; (f) redevelopment for commercial and residential uses of sites cleared as a result of resettlement and fires; (g) clean-up campaigns, building renovations, and repainting of facades; and (h) rehabilitation of drains and water bodies. For the size of the overall country population and for an urban population of less than 10 million, the scale of works within the time period allocated is probably unprecedented internationally. Based on visits to selected towns, analysis of maps and layout plans, and the data supplied by GAD and HD, the Mission estimates that the total population affected by the resettlement and new housing components is in the order of 1.5 million, or 4 per cent of the total population, and 16 percent of the urban population. Roughly 50 per cent of this number is in Yangon, Mandalay, Taunggyi and Bago, all centres visited by the Mission..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: The United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat)
Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 10 January 2007

Title: Interviews in Satellite Villages
Date of publication: 05 July 1990
Description/subject: from Dawn, Vol. 2 No. 13, July 1990... "Recently, a report, with, photos was received from friends inside Burma. The report contains interviews with people who were recently relocated, under duress, to areas around Rangoon called "New Towns". Few such reports have been received, so DAWN wishes to give extra space in this issue to this reality of life in Burma today..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Dawn
Format/size: pdf (32K - text; 246K - with photos)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/Satellite_interviews_with_pics.pdf
Date of entry/update: 04 March 2007