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Nutrition

Individual Documents

Title: Nutrition - WFP Myanmar
Date of publication: April 2016
Description/subject: Context: "Despite recent progress, undernutrition rates in Myanmar continue to be among the highest of the region. According to the MICS 2009-2010 more than one third of all the children under five (35 percent) are undernourished and too short for their age. Micronutrient deficiencies are also common in Myanmar, further adding to the burden of malnutrition. Young children and pregnant and lactating women (PLW) are at particular risk of malnutrition due to the increased nutritional requirements to support the pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life, and rapid child growth. Causes of malnutrition are multifaceted including inadequate dietary intake, high morbidity, household food insecurity, inadequate care and feeding practices, poor water and sanitation and health care access. The pace of progress has been uneven and the country is facing significant challenges: Myanmar is off course to meet the World Health Assembly targets for wasting, anemia and stunting. Response: Reducing undernutrition and eliminating food insecurity have been WFP’s priorities. The causes of undernutrition and food insecurity are complex and interconnected and rooted in the underlying contexts of poverty, women’s status, cultural and political organisation and environmental degradation. WFP Myanmar, therefore, adopts nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions and contributes to the development of a high level mechanism for multi-setoral nutrition governance. WFP implements nutrition activities in Chin, Kachin, Magway, northern Shan and Rakhine, targeting to reach 145,000 PLW and young children with more than 4,100 tons of blended food in 2016. WFP’s nutrition activities in Myanmar focus on three key areas: i) treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM); ii) prevention of acute malnutrition (wasting); and iii) prevention of stunting. PLW receive a monthly ration of Super Cereal to support their own good nutrition and that of their child during the first 1,000 days. For children, WFP Myanmar provides a monthly ration of Super Cereal Plus- Wheat Soya Blend (WSB), which is manufactured from fresh wheat grain and soya beans blended with sugar, dried skimmed milk and oil, and fortified with various micronutrients. It meets the daily recommended nutritional intake (RNI) for essential nutrients required for growth and energy for physical activity, supporting good health and cognitive development..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Food Programme (WFP)
Format/size: pdf (780K-reduced version; 2MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://www.wfp.org/sites/default/files/WFPMYA_Nutrition_Apr16.pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 May 2016


Title: UNDERNUTRITION IN MYANMAR Part 1: A Critical Review of Literature
Date of publication: March 2016
Description/subject: Abstract: "Despite improvements in recent years, the prevalence of undernutrition among women and children in Myanmar remains unacceptably high. One in three children are stunted and about 8% are acutely malnourished. Micronutrient deficiencies are common among infants, young children and pregnant women. In fact, more than 80% of children 6 to 23 months of age and 70% of pregnant women are anemic. To better understand the determinants of undernutrition and the linkages between food security, livelihoods and nutrition in Myanmar as a whole as well as in specific geographic areas where programs supported by the Livelihoods, Food Security Trust Fund (LIFT) are being implemented, the LEARN project has reviewed food and nutrition security data from the past five years and synthesized relevant findings into this user-friendly report. Guided by the conceptual framework of the determinants of undernutrition initially developed by UNICEF and adapted by the authors of the 2008 Lancet Series on Maternal and Child Undernutrition, this report presents what is known about the immediate determinants of undernutrition and how they are affected by underlying food security, caregiving, and environmental conditions, which are in turn shaped by income poverty, lack of access to capital and basic economic and social conditions. As the purpose of this report is as much to present what is known about food and nutrition security in Myanmar as it is to identify what is not known, the structure of the report is intended to highlight gaps in knowledge and areas for further research. Following the Introduction, Section 2 presents national level data on the food and nutrition security situation in Myanmar in the past five years. Sections 3, 4 and 5 present data on food and nutrition security from the various agro-ecological zones that are of interest to LIFT, namely the Coastal/Delta, Dry, and Uplands. Each section is organized in the same way, beginning with data on the prevalence of undernutrition in the geographic area, followed by findings on potential causes of undernutrition, organized according to immediate, underlying and basic determinants. This report will contribute to the overall knowledge base of the food and nutrition security sector as well as inform decisions related to the selection of interventions aimed at improving the nutritional status of families and communities in Myanmar."
Author/creator: Jennifer Cashin
Language: English
Source/publisher: LIFT-Fund
Format/size: pdf (3.4MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lift-fund.org/sites/lift-fund.org/files/uploads/Publications/LEARN_UnderNutrition-in-Mya...
Date of entry/update: 02 August 2016


Title: UNDERNUTRITION IN MYANMAR Part 2: A Secondary Analysis of LIFT 2013 Household Survey Data
Date of publication: March 2016
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The multi-donor Livelihoods and Food Security Trust Fund (LIFT) commenced operations in Myanmar in 2010, supporting implementing partners (IPs) to assist poor families to increase their food availability and incomes in three of the country‘s main agro-ecological zones: the Uplands, Dry Zone, and Delta Zone. LIFT programming was later initiated in Rakhine State in the Coastal Zone. LIFT has funded a consortium of Save the Children (SCI), Action Contre la Faim (ACF) and Helen Keller International, to implement the LEARN project. The goal of this three-year project (December 2012 – December 2015) is to build the capacity of IPs and to provide technical support to LIFT to maximize the nutritional impact of their food security and livelihoods (FSL) programming throughout the country. In 2013, LIFT contracted ICF International, Inc., which worked with Myanmar Survey Research, to carry out its second household survey that included 2,400 LIFT households and 800 comparison households in 200 villages. In order to better understand the contributing factors of undernutrition in LIFT program areas and the links between child nutritional status and independent variables of programmatic importance to LIFT (such as income, livelihoods, food security, and water, sanitation and hygiene [WASH]), LEARN commissioned a secondary analysis of nutrition-related data from the 2013 LIFT Household Survey. The purpose of this report is to present the findings of this analysis."
Author/creator: Zaw Win and Jennifer Cashin
Language: English
Source/publisher: LIFT-Fund
Format/size: pdf (3.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lift-fund.org/under-nutrition-myanmar-part-2-secondary-analysis-lift-2013-household-surv...
Date of entry/update: 02 August 2016


Title: Breastfeeding Promotion and Protection for Maternal, Infant and Childhood Health and Nutrition in Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 August 2015
Description/subject: "The Government of Myanmar has demonstrated their interest and commitment to promoting and protecting breast feeding and to improve Maternal, Infant and Child Health and Nutrition with the launching of Scaling Up Nutrition(SUN) Movement in 2013 and the adoption of a new Food Law “The Order of Marketing of Formulated Food for infant and Young Child” (OMFFIYC) in 2014. The SUN Movement is a global movement founded on the principle that all people have a right to food and good nutrition and it unites people from government, civil society, United Nations, donors, businesses and researchers in a collective effort to improve nutrition and eradicate malnutrition. In February, 2014, the SUN Movement partnered with the Civil Society Alliance (CSA), a sectorial network of NGO’s and CBO’s, for addressing food security and nutrition and to confirm active engagement of executive level political leadership. With of the adoption of the new National Food Law (OMFFIYC), the Government of Myanmar is striving: (1) to support and protect breastfeeding for infants and young children (2) to ensure appropriate use of breast-­‐milk substitutes, if necessary and to introduce proper complementary foods at the right time to infants and (3) to publish correct and adequate information and to monitor the marketing of formulated breast milk substitutes and complementary foods.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Thelma Tun Thein
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (128K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2015


Title: "Health Messenger" Junior No. 7 - Nutrition
Date of publication: January 2007
Language: Burmese, English
Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
Format/size: pdf (English, 8.5MB, Burmese, 8.5MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs4/HMJ-7-nutrition-bu.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2008


Title: Community Agriculture and Nutrition - Handbook (Burmese)
Date of publication: 2007
Description/subject: This Handbook is designed for both farmers and students to use in the field and during training. It is divided into eight sections, each one containing several topics and all illustrated with large clear pictures. The Handbook can be read from beginning to end or each topic can be read separately. Space is provided for readers to take notes and to add their own local knowledge...Our people have always been farmers. Farmers of the river lands, of the mountains, and of the forests. Due to civil war in Burma, more and more of us have migrated from our native lands and many now live in refugee camps along the Thai-Burmese border. The Royal Thai Government, its citizens, and non-government organisations have been very generous in their support to us. We have food, shelter, health care and education, and for this we are very thankful. But while we have been living in refugee camps we have slowly been losing our heritage, our wisdom, and our ways. For our children, rice comes from a warehouse, not grown on our own land by our own hands. In 1999, I asked the organisations that were already supporting us if they could help me look for ways to teach our children about agriculture and to help us live more self-sufficiently. The result of this is now called the CAN Project (Community Agriculture and Nutrition). This Handbook is the latest step in its ongoing development over 7 years with refugees and internally displaced people along the Thai-Burma border. There are many good books and resources on sustainable agriculture and we have learnt much from them. However refugees are constrained in their agricultural practices due to limited access to land, water and other resources. This Handbook attempts to present a summary of simple adaptations of ideas found in other books, manuals and resources on sustainable agriculture. This Handbook is not a textbook as such, but a compilation of different subjects for people to pick and choose. We know that it is not complete and I would ask anyone with ideas or suggestions to forward them so we can keep on learning. In the year 2000 I wrote a draft CAN Handbook. Then Jacob Thomson and I wrote the first CAN curriculum in 2001. Since then it has been used in training with nearly 5,000 school children, teachers, villagers, and staff of community-based and non-government organisations. Needless to say, since the first curriculum was drafted, we have had many experiences, learnt many lessons and made many changes.
Author/creator: David Saw Wah
Language: Burmese
Source/publisher: Community Agriculture Nutrition (CAN)
Format/size: pdf (3.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 February 2012


Title: Community Agriculture and Nutrition - Handbook (English)
Date of publication: 2007
Description/subject: This Handbook is designed for both farmers and students to use in the field and during training. It is divided into eight sections, each one containing several topics and all illustrated with large clear pictures. The Handbook can be read from beginning to end or each topic can be read separately. Space is provided for readers to take notes and to add their own local knowledge...Our people have always been farmers. Farmers of the river lands, of the mountains, and of the forests. Due to civil war in Burma, more and more of us have migrated from our native lands and many now live in refugee camps along the Thai-Burmese border. The Royal Thai Government, its citizens, and non-government organisations have been very generous in their support to us. We have food, shelter, health care and education, and for this we are very thankful. But while we have been living in refugee camps we have slowly been losing our heritage, our wisdom, and our ways. For our children, rice comes from a warehouse, not grown on our own land by our own hands. In 1999, I asked the organisations that were already supporting us if they could help me look for ways to teach our children about agriculture and to help us live more self-sufficiently. The result of this is now called the CAN Project (Community Agriculture and Nutrition). This Handbook is the latest step in its ongoing development over 7 years with refugees and internally displaced people along the Thai-Burma border. There are many good books and resources on sustainable agriculture and we have learnt much from them. However refugees are constrained in their agricultural practices due to limited access to land, water and other resources. This Handbook attempts to present a summary of simple adaptations of ideas found in other books, manuals and resources on sustainable agriculture. This Handbook is not a textbook as such, but a compilation of different subjects for people to pick and choose. We know that it is not complete and I would ask anyone with ideas or suggestions to forward them so we can keep on learning. In the year 2000 I wrote a draft CAN Handbook. Then Jacob Thomson and I wrote the first CAN curriculum in 2001. Since then it has been used in training with nearly 5,000 school children, teachers, villagers, and staff of community-based and non-government organisations. Needless to say, since the first curriculum was drafted, we have had many experiences, learnt many lessons and made many changes.
Author/creator: David Saw Wah
Language: English
Source/publisher: Community Agriculture Nutrition (CAN)
Format/size: pdf (2.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 16 February 2012


Title: Community Agriculture Nutrition - CAN - Handbook (Thai)
Date of publication: 2007
Description/subject: "...There are many good books and resources on sustainable agriculture and we have learnt much from them. However refugees are constrained in their agricultural practices due to limited access to land, water and other resources. This Handbook attempts to present a summary of simple adaptations of ideas found in other books, manuals and resources on sustainable agriculture. This Handbook is not a textbook as such, but a compilation of different subjects for people to pick and choose. We know that it is not complete and I would ask anyone with ideas or suggestions to forward them so we can keep on learning..."
Author/creator: Community Agriculture Nutrition
Language: Thai
Source/publisher: Community Agriculture Nutrition (CAN) Project
Format/size: pdf (4.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 18 May 2015


Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 26 -- special issue on Nutrition
Date of publication: December 2004
Description/subject: General Health: Underlying causes of malnutrition -- Why health workers should feel concerned by nutritional issues? Misconceptions Concerning Nutrition: Voices of Community Health Educators and TBAs along the Thai-Burmese Border; Micronutrients: The Hidden Hunger; Iron Deficiency Anaemia; The Vicious Circle of Malnutrition and Infection; Treatment: IDENTIFYING MALNUTRITION; MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE SEVERE MALNUTRITION; GROWTH MONITORING: THE BEST PREVENTION; Fortified Flour for Refugees living in the camp; Making Blended Flour at Local Level; The example of MISOLA Flour in Africa. Health Education: Pregnancy and Nutrition; Breastfeeding; WHEN RICE SOUP IS NOT ENOUGH: First Foods - the Key to Optimal Growth and Development; BUILDING A BALANCED DIET FOR GOOD HEALTH; From the Field: How Sanetun became a malnourished child?
Language: Burmese, English
Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
Format/size: pdf (5.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 01 July 2007


Title: Articles on Nutritional Health / အဟာရႏွင့္ဆိုင္ေသာ က်န္းမာေရး ေဆာင္းပါးမ်ား
Date of publication: November 2003
Author/creator: Doctor Aye Kyaw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Format/size: pdf (805K)
Date of entry/update: 02 October 2012


Title: Strengthening Nutrition Through Primary Health Care - The Experience of JNSP in Myanmar
Date of publication: December 1991
Description/subject: Summary: "Summarizes the objectives, implementation, and results of the highly successful Joint WHO/UNICEF Nutrition Support Programme (JNSP) in Myanmar (previously known as Burma). Initiated in 1983, JNSP aims to reduce infant and young child mortality, to improve child growth, and to reduce malnutrition in mothers. To date, the Programme has been implemented in 17 countries with widely varying results. The Myanmar project was distinguished from other JNSP projects because of its focus on the entire population, rather than on model districts or provinces, and its concentration on activities administered almost exclusively through the Ministry of Health. The Myanmar project was further characterized by a situation analysis, conducted prior to the start of the project, which yielded detailed and precise recommendations on how to improve nutrition. A description of the objectives and operation of the programme shows how the situation analysis allowed selection of a few activities for careful implementation and monitoring. The report also explains how a deliberate focus on education, coupled with nutrition monitoring, made it possible to do a few things very well at as low a cost as possible. Other distinctive features include operation through the existing infrastructure for primary health care services and avoidance of providing food supplements. A section devoted to the results of the project documents a decrease of under-three-year-old mortality, faster growth, a decline in protein-energy malnutrition, and improvements in young child feeding practices and health seeking behaviour of mothers. The report concludes that, despite poverty and a deteriorating economic situation, improvements in child health and nutrition can be achieved in a large population, over a short period of time, and at low per capita cost. A final section discusses the project in relation to the theory and practice of nutrition policies and programmes conducted in other countries. The Myanmar project was judged to be sustainable and suitable for replication, at low cost, in all countries that implement primary health care"
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Health Organisation (Regional Health Paper, SEARO, No. 20)
Format/size: pdf (220K)
Alternate URLs: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/searo/rhp/SEARO_RHP_20.pdf (original image file, 1.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 18 April 2008


Title: Specific Effects of Honey(from-The_Koran) / က်မ္းျမတ္ ကုရ္အန္ႏွင့္ ဟဒီးဆ္က်မ္းလာ ပ်ားရည္ ၏ထူးျခားသည့္ အာနိသင္မ်ား
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Format/size: pdf (1.89MB)
Date of entry/update: 02 October 2012