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Non-communicable diseases

  • Cancer

    Individual Documents

    Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 40 -- Non-Communicable Diseases
    Date of publication: September 2010
    Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: NCD DEFINITION and RISK FACTORS... STROKE... ASTHMA vs. COPD... DIABETES MELLITUS... EPIGASTRIC PAIN... CANCER... ALCOHOL USE DISORDER
    Language: Burmese, English
    Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
    Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
    Date of entry/update: 13 January 2011


    Title: Doctors urge early detection for breast cancer
    Date of publication: 2007
    Description/subject: WHEN the biopsy result came back, tears were rolling down 63-year-old Daw Khin Tin’s face. “While I was bathing, just by chance I touched a small lump in my breast. It wasn’t painful but one week later it seemed bigger so I went to a clinic and the doctor urged me to have a biopsy done straight away,” Daw Khin Tin said. “The results showed the cancer was already at stage three,” the final stage before it spreads to other parts of the body. “I was haunted by the disease and lived with the constant fear that I would die.”
    Author/creator: Zon Pann Pwint
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Times (Volume 26, No. 512)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 November 2010


  • Cardiovascular diseases

    Individual Documents

    Title: Understanding the Health Seeking Behavior of Community People with Lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar (Stroke) in Myanmar: A Study in Bago
    Date of publication: 26 July 2015
    Description/subject: Introduction: "In Myanmar, having a stroke is one of the common leading causes of death and constitutes 3.6% of total deaths in 2011 (Heath in Myanmar, 2013). Lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar or “wind disease” is a common chronic illness condition that impacts on socio-­‐economic life of people. Lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar is the Myanmar term for neurological weakness caused by a stroke from the biomedical point of view. Biomedical perspectives explain the causes of lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar (stroke) as the interruption of the blood supply to the brain, usually because a blood vessel bursts or is blocked by a clot. This cuts off the supply of oxygen and nutrients, causing damage to the brain tissue (WHO, 2014). Unlike biomedical explanation, causes of lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar are explained in several different ways in the traditional medical sector in Myanmar. Different disciplines of traditional medical systems explain differently the cause of lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar. Based on Ayurveda concepts, lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar is due to an imbalance of wind, phlegm and bile which creates ill-­‐health conditions in lay knowledge while Buddhist perspectives explains the causes of lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar from the point of “Karma”, the act of an individual in the past or present life. Astrological perspectives describe the cause of lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar from the calculations of zodiac of stars, planets and the time of birth and age (Heath in Myanmar, 2013). Therefore, different schools of thought produces diverse views on lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar in Myanmar. Al though stroke is a common public health issue in Myanmar, the majority of studies conducted have focus on biomedical aspects of stroke and viewed mainly from the point of view of the biomedical perspective. This study will fill the knowledge gap on understanding how people in rural villages of Bago with lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar seek medical attention based on their worldview and will explore different perspectives from the community in relation to the traditional health sector.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw Moe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
    Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2015


    Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 40 -- Non-Communicable Diseases
    Date of publication: September 2010
    Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: NCD DEFINITION and RISK FACTORS... STROKE... ASTHMA vs. COPD... DIABETES MELLITUS... EPIGASTRIC PAIN... CANCER... ALCOHOL USE DISORDER
    Language: Burmese, English
    Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
    Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
    Date of entry/update: 13 January 2011


    Title: Prevalence of Hypertension in Two Selected Villages of Kayin State, Myanmar
    Date of publication: 2004
    Description/subject: Abstract: "The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension among the 15-years-or-above population in Ta-Yoke-Hla (TYH) and Myaning-Ga-Lay (MGL) villages in Kayin state. During the cross-sectional survey conducted in November 2001, 753 respondents (370 in TYH and 383 in MGL) were interviewed. Weight, height, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured for calculation of body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio. Of them, 108 (54 with hypertension and 54 with normal blood pressure) were examined for serum cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) level. The overall percentages of hypertension (systolic ³140 mmHg and diastolic ³ 90 mmHg) were: 22.4% for both townships; 17.3% in TYH; 27.4% in MGL; 18.7% among males, and 24.5% among females. The respective percentages of hypertension among different age groups (15-24 years, 25-39 years, 40 or above) were: 5.5%; 12.7%, and 38.1% for both townships; 3.8%; 11.3%, and 31.3% in TYH; 7.6%; 14.0%, and 43.7% in MGL; 3.9%; 13.2%, and 30.7% among males, and 6.5%; 12.4%, and 42.4% among females. Sixteen (2.1%) persons reported previous history of stroke. Biochemical levels and other known factors associated with hypertension are also described in the study. Health education should include among others, education on taking treatment for hypertension regularly."
    Author/creator: San Shwe, Ohnma, Kyu Kyu Than, Than Tun Sein, Aung Thu, Khin Maung Maung, May San Lwin and Hnin Lwin Tun
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Health Organisation: Regional Health Forum WHO South-East Asia Region Volume 8 Number 1, 2004
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 April 2008


  • Deficiency diseases

    Individual Documents

    Title: Understanding the Health Seeking Behavior of Community People with Lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar (Stroke) in Myanmar: A Study in Bago
    Date of publication: 26 July 2015
    Description/subject: Introduction: "In Myanmar, having a stroke is one of the common leading causes of death and constitutes 3.6% of total deaths in 2011 (Heath in Myanmar, 2013). Lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar or “wind disease” is a common chronic illness condition that impacts on socio-­‐economic life of people. Lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar is the Myanmar term for neurological weakness caused by a stroke from the biomedical point of view. Biomedical perspectives explain the causes of lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar (stroke) as the interruption of the blood supply to the brain, usually because a blood vessel bursts or is blocked by a clot. This cuts off the supply of oxygen and nutrients, causing damage to the brain tissue (WHO, 2014). Unlike biomedical explanation, causes of lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar are explained in several different ways in the traditional medical sector in Myanmar. Different disciplines of traditional medical systems explain differently the cause of lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar. Based on Ayurveda concepts, lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar is due to an imbalance of wind, phlegm and bile which creates ill-­‐health conditions in lay knowledge while Buddhist perspectives explains the causes of lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar from the point of “Karma”, the act of an individual in the past or present life. Astrological perspectives describe the cause of lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar from the calculations of zodiac of stars, planets and the time of birth and age (Heath in Myanmar, 2013). Therefore, different schools of thought produces diverse views on lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar in Myanmar. Al though stroke is a common public health issue in Myanmar, the majority of studies conducted have focus on biomedical aspects of stroke and viewed mainly from the point of view of the biomedical perspective. This study will fill the knowledge gap on understanding how people in rural villages of Bago with lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar seek medical attention based on their worldview and will explore different perspectives from the community in relation to the traditional health sector.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
    Author/creator: Aung Zaw Moe
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
    Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
    Date of entry/update: 11 August 2015


  • Diabetes

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: On the cusp of disease transition in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 29 October 2013
    Description/subject: "Non communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading global cause of death and disability. Between and within countries, however, there is still a marked diversity in the causes and nature of this disease transition. In Myanmar, economic and political reforms, and the ways in which these intersect with health, have created a unique public health and development context with major ramifications for public health. Myanmar’s transition creates anl opportunity to learn from the public health and development mistakes made elsewhere, but signs are at present that the rush towards short term economic opportunities is taking precedence. This piece illustrates some of the local dynamics that drive NCDs in Myanmar, and potential entry points for the international community to help address Myanmar’s next major health challenge..."
    Author/creator: Sam Byfield and Maeve Kennedy, Guest Contributors
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 July 2014


    Title: Wikipedia section on Diabetes
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 05 March 2008


    Individual Documents

    Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 40 -- Non-Communicable Diseases
    Date of publication: September 2010
    Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: NCD DEFINITION and RISK FACTORS... STROKE... ASTHMA vs. COPD... DIABETES MELLITUS... EPIGASTRIC PAIN... CANCER... ALCOHOL USE DISORDER
    Language: Burmese, English
    Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
    Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
    Date of entry/update: 13 January 2011


  • Substance abuse

    Individual Documents

    Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 40 -- Non-Communicable Diseases
    Date of publication: September 2010
    Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: NCD DEFINITION and RISK FACTORS... STROKE... ASTHMA vs. COPD... DIABETES MELLITUS... EPIGASTRIC PAIN... CANCER... ALCOHOL USE DISORDER
    Language: Burmese, English
    Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
    Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
    Date of entry/update: 13 January 2011


    Title: Myanmar Country Advocacy Brief Injecting Drug Use and HIV
    Date of publication: 04 February 2010
    Description/subject: Myanmar is one of the few countries in East Asia that has reported a decrease in the overall prevalence of HIV in recent years. Estimates indicate that HIV prevalence peaked at about 0.9% (15-49%). By 2007, the estimated prevalence was 0.7% (range: 0.4-1.1%)..... Myanmar remains the second largest opium poppy growing country after Afghanistan, contributing 20% of opium poppy cultivation in major cultivating countries in 2008.3 Heroin use has become widespread and is the primary drug of choice among people who inject drugs. While the use of heroin and opium has been observed to be declining in recent years, the use of methamphetamine has been increasing since 2003. Injecting of amphetamine type stimulants has also been reported to occur, as well as injecting of a mixture of opiates and pharmaceutical drugs.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNAIDS, UNODC
    Format/size: pdf (255.94 K)
    Date of entry/update: 05 November 2010


    Title: Substance Abuse, Drugs and Addictions: Guidebook
    Date of publication: September 2009
    Description/subject: "Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. It can also be simply defined as a pattern of harmful use of any substance for mood-altering purposes. Generally, when most people talk about substance abuse, they are referring to the use of illegal drugs. But illegal drugs are not the only substances that can be abused. Alcohol, prescribed medications, inhalants and even coffee and cigarettes, can be used to harmful excess. Substance abuse can lead to dependence syndrome - a cluster of behavioural, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated use including a strong desire to take the drug, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, increased tolerance, and a physical withdrawal state. In this guidebook, based upon the situation in our community, we present the most common substances that are often abused, how they are used, their street names, and their intoxicating and health effects.".....CONTENTS:- Part I: Alcohol... Amphetamine, Yaba, Ecstasy... Benzodiazepines... Betel Nut and Betal Leaf (Kwan-ya)... Cannabis... Cocaine - (Crack)... Codeine... Heroin... Volatile Substance or Inhalants ... Methadone... Opium... Tobacco..... PART II:- General Views of Substance Abuse... Chronic Effects of Alcoholism... Management in Substance Abuse Overdose... Psycho-Counselling for Substance Abuse.
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: Aide Médicale Internationale, UNHCR
    Format/size: pdf (13MB - reduced version; 15 MB - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/DrugGuidebook-LowReso-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 09 September 2009


    Title: Living Ghosts The spiraling repression of the Karenni population by the Burmese military junta_ Chapter 6: Drugs
    Date of publication: 2008
    Description/subject: Chapter Overview: Farmers are turning to illegal drug cultivation as a way to escape extreme poverty thrust upon them by the relentless civil war. As the situation in Karenni State worsens, more and more farmers will turn to poppy cultivation and the more secure future it promises. Whilst the income that farmers can earn from drugs is significantly higher than from other crops, they remain vulnerable to economic hardships, exploitation and abuses from the Burmese military regime and non-state actors. Furthermore, the increased drug production has led to increased drug abuse amongst the Karenni people, in two districts 35 per cent of males are using opium. This adds pressure to an already inadequate health system while eroding the fragile social fabric of the Karenni people. In this chapter: * Types of drugs produced in Karenni State * Why villagers are producing drugs * Eradication Programmes * Social Problems
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Issue
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/livingghosts.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 November 2010


    Title: Poisoned Flowers: The Impacts of Spiraling Drug Addiction on Palaung Women in Burma,
    Date of publication: 09 June 2006
    Description/subject: "'Poisoned Flowers: The Impacts of Spiraling Drug Addiction on Palaung Women in Burma', based on interviews with eighty-eight wives and mothers of drug addicts, shows how women in Palaung areas have become increasingly vulnerable due to the rising addiction rates. Already living in dire poverty, with little access to education or health care, wives of addicts must struggle single-handedly to support as many as ten children. Addicted husbands not only stop providing for their families, but also sell off property and possessions, commit theft, and subject their wives and children to repeated verbal and physical abuse. The report details cases of women losing eight out of eleven children to disease and of daughters being trafficked by their addicted father. The increased addiction rates have resulted from the regime allowing drug lords to expand production into Palaung areas in recent years, in exchange for policing against resistance activity and sharing drug profits. The collapse of markets for tea and other crops has driven more and more farmers to turn to opium growing or to work as labourers in opium fields, where wages are frequently paid in opium. The report throws into question claims by the regime and the UNODC of a dramatic reduction of opium production in Burma during the past decade, and calls on donor countries and UN agencies supporting drug eradication programs in Burma to push for genuine political reform..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Palaung Women's Organization
    Format/size: pdf (632K), Word (360K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.womenofburma.org/Report/PoisonedFlowers.pdf
    http://www.womenofburma.org/Report/PoisonedFlowers.doc
    Date of entry/update: 08 June 2006