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Home > Main Library > Health > Threats to Health > Diseases > Communicable (infectious) diseases > Tuberculosis and other lung/respiratory tract diseases

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Tuberculosis and other lung/respiratory tract diseases

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: GANFYD tuberculosis page
Language: English
Source/publisher: GANFYD
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 March 2008


Title: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Myanmar Progress, Plans and Challenges
Description/subject: "The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 9,000 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases occur in Myanmar each year. Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) has been reported since 2007. In 2011, only 2% of MDR-TB cases received adequate diagnosis, treatment and care. Undiagnosed or mismanaged MDR-TB cases lead to further spread of the disease. he Ministry of Health is committed to ighting MDR-TB. In 2009 the National TB Programme (NTP) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) launched an MDR-TB pilot project in 10 townships in Yangon and Mandalay. Following excellent initial results, the NTP is taking MDR-TB management to scale. The 2011-2015 MDR-TB expansion plan will enable treatment of nearly 10,000 MDR-TB cases in 100 townships. he total cost of scaling up MDR-TB managemen is US$ 55 million, out of which US$ 41 million is yet to be raised. While the top priority remains preventing MDR-TB by sustaining and improving basic TB control, the Ministry of Health is working with technical and inancial partners towards the goal of universal access to MDR-TB diagnosis, treatment and care..."
Source/publisher: World Health Organisation (WHO)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2012


Title: Prevention and control of Communicable Diseases Tuberculosis (including TB-HIV)
Description/subject: Providing technical assistance to the National TB Programme (NTP), particularly on: * developing TB control policies and strategies; * building capacity to sustain, improve and further intensify Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) implementation; * scaling up and strengthening inter-sectoral partnerships for DOTS; * improving community awareness and utilization of DOTS; * addressing HIV related TB and anti-TB drug resistance under programme conditions; * measuring progress towards Millennium Development Goals; * designing and disseminating information, education and communication messages; * improving operational research to strengthen DOTS implementation, together with the Department of Medical Research. * Facilitating partnership, including with the Global TB Drug Facility. * Providing technical expertise to the joint programme implementation through Technical Working Group on TB. * Disseminating scientific information. * Organizing external two-yearly review of the NTP. * Advocacy and raising commitment for TB control. * Resource mobilization for TB and TB-HIV. * In-country presence of WHO Advisor for TB and TB-HIV.
Language: English
Source/publisher: WHO Myanmar
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 September 2011


Title: Tobacco Free Initiative Myanmar page on WHO
Description/subject: Fact sheets and reports from Global Health Professionals Survey.
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Health Organization _SEARO
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section1174/Section2469.htm
http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section1174/Section2469/Section2475.htm
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


Title: Wikipedia tuberculosis pages
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 March 2008


Individual Documents

Title: Myanmar cures 130,000 TB patients in 2009
Date of publication: 25 May 2010
Description/subject: YANGON, March 25 — Myanmar is seeking new drugs, diagnosis and vaccine to fight tuberculosis (TB), the deadly disease that is on the rise again. The measures also covers promoting the anti-TB campaign with the cooperation of partners, fighting TB through primary healthcare and disseminating public health knowledge, official daily the New Light of Myanmar said Thursday. The paper quoted an annual report of the health ministry as saying that Myanmar was able to find and cure over 130,000 TB patients in 2009, meeting the millennium goal of the United Nations as discovery rate reached 94 percent and treatment success rate hit 85 percent.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Balita.ph
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://balita.ph/2010/05/10/myanmar-upgrades-labs-in-anti-tb-efforts/
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2010


Title: Three major diseases in Myanmar
Date of publication: June 2008
Description/subject: JAPAN International Cooperation is leading the fight against three major diseases in Myanmar. The Myanmar Times’ Khin Myat met with JICA project leader and tuberculosis specialist, Mr Kosuke Okada, and malaria expert Mr Masatoshi Nakamura to ask about their activities. 1. How much money is JICA spending annually to control these diseases? Our project period is from January 2005 to January 2010. We have been spending around ¥150 million per year on long- and short-term experts, international and domestic training, provision of equipment such as vehicles, lab equipment, microscopes, mosquito nets, lab test kits, local training and consumables.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Times (Volume 22, No. 425)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 November 2010


Title: Displacement and disease: the Shan exodus and infectious disease implications for Thailand
Date of publication: 14 March 2008
Description/subject: Abstract: "Decades of neglect and abuses by the Burmese government have decimated the health of the peoples of Burma, particularly along her eastern frontiers, overwhelmingly populated by ethnic minorities such as the Shan. Vast areas of traditional Shan homelands have been systematically depopulated by the Burmese military regime as part of its counter-insurgency policy, which also employs widespread abuses of civilians by Burmese soldiers, including rape, torture, and extrajudicial executions. These abuses, coupled with Burmese government economic mismanagement which has further entrenched already pervasive poverty in rural Burma, have spawned a humanitarian catastrophe, forcing hundreds of thousands of ethnic Shan villagers to flee their homes for Thailand. In Thailand, they are denied refugee status and its legal protections, living at constant risk for arrest and deportation. Classified as “economic migrants,” many are forced to work in exploitative conditions, including in the Thai sex industry, and Shan migrants often lack access to basic health services in Thailand. Available health data on Shan migrants in Thailand already indicates that this population bears a disproportionately high burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV, tuberculosis, lymphatic filariasis, and some vaccine-preventable illnesses, undermining progress made by Thailand’s public health system in controlling such entities. The ongoing failure to address the root political causes of migration and poor health in eastern Burma, coupled with the many barriers to accessing health programs in Thailand by undocumented migrants, particularly the Shan, virtually guarantees Thailand’s inability to sustainably control many infectious disease entities, especially along her borders with Burma."
Author/creator: Voravit Suwanvanichkij
Language: English
Source/publisher: Conflict and Health 2008, 2:4
Format/size: pdf (170K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.conflictandhealth.com/content/2/1/4
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2008


Title: The Gathering Storm: Infectious Diseases and Human Rights in Burma
Date of publication: July 2007
Description/subject: "Decades of repressive military rule, civil war, corruption, bad governance, isolation, and widespread violations of human rights and international humanitarian law have rendered Burma’s health care system incapable of responding effectively to endemic and emerging infectious diseases. Burma’s major infectious diseases—malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis (TB)—are severe health problems in many areas of the country. Malaria is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease in Burma. Eighty-nine percent of the estimated population of 52 million lived in malarial risk areas in 1994, with about 80 percent of reported infections due to Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous form of the disease. Burma has one of the highest TB rates in the world, with nearly 97,000 new cases detected each year.4 Drug resistance to both TB and malaria is rising, as is the broad availability of counterfeit antimalarial drugs. In June 2007, a TB clinic operated by Médecins Sans Frontières–France in the Thai border town of Mae Sot reported it had confirmed two cases of extensively drugresistant TB in Burmese migrants who had previously received treatment in Burma. Meanwhile, HIV/AIDS, once contained to high-risk groups in Burma, has spread to the general population, which is defined as a prevalence of 1 percent among reproductive-age adults.5 Meanwhile, the Burmese government spends less than 3 percent of national expenditures on health, while the military, with a standing army of over 400,000 troops, consumes 40 percent.6 By comparison, many of Burma’s neighbors spend considerably more on health: Thailand (6.1%7), China (5.6 %8), India (6.1%9), Laos (3.2%10), Bangladesh (3.4%11), and Cambodia (12%12).....The report recommends that: • The Burmese government develop a national health care system in which care is distributed effectively, equitably, and transparently. • The Burmese government increase its spending on health and education to confront the country’s long-standing health problems, especially the rise of drug-resistant malaria and tuberculosis. • The Burmese government rescind guidelines issued last year by the country’s Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development because these guidelines have restricted such organizations as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) from providing relief in Burma. • The Burmese government allow ICRC to resume visits to prisoners without the requirement that ICRC doctors be accompanied by members of the Union Solidarity and Development Association or other organizations. • The Burmese government take immediate steps to halt the internal conflict and violations of international human rights and humanitarian law in eastern Burma that are creating an unprecedented number of internally displaced persons and facilitating the spread of infectious diseases in the region. • Foreign aid organizations and donors monitor and evaluate how aid to combat infectious diseases in Burma is affecting domestic expenditures on health and education. • Relevant national and local government agencies, United Nations agencies, NGOs establish a regional narcotics working group which would assess drug trends in the region and monitor the impact of poppy eradication programs on farming communities. • UN agencies, national and local governments, and international and local NGOs cooperate closely to facilitate greater information-sharing and collaboration among agencies and organizations working to lessen the burden of infectious diseases in Burma and its border regions. These institutions must develop a regional response to the growing problem of counterfeit antimalarial drugs."
Author/creator: Eric Stover, Voravit Suwanvanichkij, Andrew Moss, David Tuller, Thomas J. Lee, Emily Whichard, Rachel Shigekane, Chris Beyrer, David Scott Mathieson
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Center, University of California, Berkeley; Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Format/size: pdf (5.1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.jhsph.edu/humanrights/images/GatheringStorm_BurmaReport_2007.pdf
Date of entry/update: 29 June 2007


Title: Social franchising of TB care through private GPs in Myanmar: an assessment of treatment results, access, equity and financial protection
Date of publication: 12 April 2007
Description/subject: This article assesses whether social franchising of tuberculosis (TB) services in Myanmar has succeeded in providing quality treatment while ensuring equity in access and financial protection for poor patients. Newly diagnosed TB patients receiving treatment from private general practitioners (GPs) belonging to the franchise were identified. They were interviewed about social conditions, health seeking and health care costs at the time of starting treatment and again after 6 months follow-up. Routine data were used to ascertain clinical outcomes as well as to monitor trends in case notification.
Author/creator: # Knut Lönnroth, Tin Aung, Win Maung, Hans Kluge and Mukund Uplekar
Language: English
Source/publisher: The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine via Health Policy and Planning
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://heapol.oxfordjournals.org/content/22/3/156.full.pdf+html
Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


Title: STUDY OF DRUG RESISTANT CASES AMONG NEW PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS ATTENDING A TUBERCULOSIS CENTER, YANGON, MYANMAR
Date of publication: January 2007
Description/subject: Abstract: "A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at a tuberculosis center, Yangon, Myanmar from October 2003 to July 2004 to analyze the drug susceptibility of new sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. A total of 202 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were tested for resistance to isoniazid, streptomycin, rifampicin and ethambutol. Resistance to at least one anti-tuberculosis drug was documented in 32 (15.8%) isolates. Monoresistance (resistance to one drug) was noted in 15 (7.4%) isolates and poly-resistance (resistance to two or more drugs) was noted in 17 (9.4%) isolates, including 8 (4.0%) multi-drug resistant isolates (resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin). Total resistance to individual anti-tuberculosis drugs were: isoniazid (29, 14.3%), streptomycin (11, 5.4%), rifampicin (10, 4.9%) and ethambutol (1, 0.5%). The demographic data and possible contributing factors of drug resistance were evaluated among the drug resistant patients. Poly-resistant cases had significantly longer intervals between symptom appearance and achieving effective anti-tuberculosis treatment than mono-resistant cases (p = 0.015)."
Author/creator: Wah Wah Aung, Ti Ti, Kyu Kyu Than, Myat Thida, Mar Mar Nyein, Yin Yin Htun, Win Maung,Aye Htun
Language: English
Source/publisher: SOUTHEAST ASIAN J TROP MED PUBLIC HEALTH Vol 38 No. 1 January 2007
Format/size: pdf (46K)
Date of entry/update: 30 January 2010


Title: Report on Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) and Global School Personnel Survey (GSPS) 2007 in Myanmar
Date of publication: 2007
Description/subject: Summary: Myanmar as a Party to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control had adopted the Control of Smoking and Consumption of Tobacco Products Law in 2006 which came into effect in May, 2007. Ministry of Health has been implementing tobacco control activities in collaboration with related ministries; school-based tobacco control activities are being conducted in coordination with the Ministry of Education. Myanmar conducted Global Youth Tobacco Surveys (GYTS) in 2001, 2004 and 2007 and the Global School Personnel Surveys (GSPS) in 2004 and 2007. The GYTS is a school-based survey of students aged 13-15 years. The GSPS is also a school-based survey of all school personnel from the schools that the GYTS was conducted. The GYTS and GSPS were conducted as a nation-wide survey in Myanmar. Between 2001 and 2007, a significant reduction in the proportion of students currently smoked cigarettes is observed (a fall from overall prevalence among 13-15 year olds of 10.2% to 4.9%) but reported use of other tobacco products had increased during the period from 5.7% to 14.1%. Over the period, exposure to SHS at home and in public places did not change and stayed significantly high. There is very high demand from these children to ban smoking in public places (almost 90% of the children expressed this desire in both years). The ability to purchase cigarettes in a store had reduced significantly from 72.9% to 23.7%; percent who have been offered “free “cigarettes by a tobacco company had also reduced significantly from 17.1% to 8.7%. There is no change in percent of students receiving education on dangers of tobacco. There was relatively high prevalence of tobacco use among male school personnel ( 17% daily chewers, 22% occasional chewers ) ( 7.4% daily cigarette smokers, 29% occasional cigarette smoker)( 15% daily cheroot smokers and 18.4% occasional cheroot smokers). Schools had policy prohibiting tobacco use among students as well as students inside school buildings and on school premises, but enforcement was weak, especially for school personnel. Only one third of the school personnel had received training on prevention of tobacco use among youth.
Author/creator: Dr. Nyo Nyo Kyaing
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Health Organization _SEARO /New Delhi
Format/size: pdf (125.50 K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section1174/Section2469/Section2480_14190.htm
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 33 -- special issue on Communicable Disease Control
Date of publication: September 2006
Description/subject: Introduction: Overview of Communicable Diseases; Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases; Principles of Prevention and Control of Communicable Diseases... Disease Control Tools: Basic Concepts of Health Measurement/Disease Frequency in Epidemiology... Different Approaches: 4Role in Prevention, One Example of Immunization: Measles; Outline of Surveillance and Response Plans: Bird flu in Thailand; How to Break the Chain of Transmission: Tuberculosis; Steps in Outbreak Management: Meningitis; Dealing with Drug Resistance: Malaria; Fighting Against Vectors: An Example of Mosquito Control... From the Field: 100 HIV/AIDS Control: A Comprehensive Approach; Highly Active Anti Retro Viral Therapy (HAART): Adherence and Influencing Factors; Community Education on Birdflu: A Method of Participatory Learning and Action.
Language: Burmese, English
Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
Format/size: pdf (6MB - low res; 50MB - original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.sylvainsilleran.com/index_ngo4.html
Date of entry/update: 17 July 2007


Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 31 -- special issue on Acute Respiratory Infections
Date of publication: March 2006
Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: Structures and functions of respiratory tract; Bird flu at a glance� DIAGNOSIS: Clinical approach to children with cough and/or difficulty breathing Clinical features of acute upper respiratory tract infections; Acute community acquired pneumonia in previously healthy lungs� MANAGEMENT: Treatment of acute community acquired pneumonia in previously healthy lungs; How to deal with an acute asthma patient? Coping with common cold and flu� FROM THE FIELD: Pneumonia case study; Recurrent respiratory infections in children� PREVENTION: Prophylaxis of Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia in HIV-AIDS; Glossary... Obese file in course of treatment
Language: Burmese, English
Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
Format/size: pdf (36.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 02 July 2007


Title: Responding to AIDS, TB, Malaria and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Burma: Dilemmas of Policy and Practice
Date of publication: March 2006
Description/subject: "...This report seeks to synthesize what is known about HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB and other disease threats including Avian influenza (H5N1 virus) in Burma; assess the regional health and security concerns associated with these epidemics; and to suggest policy options for responding to these threats in the context of tightening restrictions imposed by the junta..." ...I. Introduction [p. 9-13] II. SPDC Health Expenditures and Policies [p.14-18] III. Public Health Status [p.19-42] a. HIV/AIDS b. TB c. Malaria d. Other health threats: Avian Flu, Filaria, Cholera IV. SPDC Policies Towards the Three "Priority Diseases" [p. 43-45] and Humanitarian Assistance V. Health Threats and Regional Security Issues [p. 46-51] a. HIV b. TB c. Malaria VI. Policy and Program Options [p. 52-56] VII. References [p. 57-68] Appendix A: Official translation of guidelines Appendix B: Statement by Bureau of Public Affairs Appendix C: Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Avian Flu notification.
Author/creator: Chris Beyrer, MD, MPH; Luke Mullany, PhD; Adam Richards, MD, MPH; Aaron Samuals, MHS; Voravit Suwanvanichkij, MD, MPH; om Lee, MD, MHS; Nicole Franck, MHS
Language: English, Burmese, Chinese
Source/publisher: Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/respondingburmese-ES-bu.pdf (Executive Summary, Burmese, 83K)
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/respondingburmese-ES-ch.pdf (Executive Summary, Chinese, 144K)
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


Title: THE GLOBAL FUND TERMINATES GRANTS TO MYANMAR
Date of publication: 19 August 2005
Description/subject: New Government Restrictions Make Grant Implementation Impossible Geneva - Given new restrictions recently imposed by the government of Myanmar, the Global Fund has concluded that its grants to the country cannot be managed in a way that ensures effective program implementation. As a result the Global Fund yesterday terminated its grant agreements to Myanmar. The decision means that three grants, one each for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, with a total value of US$ 35.7 million over two years, will be phased out by the end of the year. The decision has been taken after consultations with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), which is the Principal Recipient of Global Fund grants in Myanmar. The Principal Recipient is responsible for grant implementation in the country.
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://www.theglobalfund.org/content/pressreleases/pr_050819_factsheet.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2010


Title: A Global Youth Tobacco Study among 8th, 9th and 10th Grade Students in Myanmar, 2004
Date of publication: 2004
Description/subject: OBJECTIVES: This report aims to describe the prevalence of cigarette and other tobacco use as well as information on five determinants of tobacco use of 8th, 9th and 10th students in Myanmar: access/ availability and price, environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS), cessation, media and advertising, and school curriculum. These determinants are components of the comprehensive tobacco control programme of Myanmar. The report also describes the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding to tobacco use, the extent to which they receive anti-tobacco information in schools and from media and the extent they were exposed to pro-tobacco messages..... METHODS: A multi-stage, school-based, two –cluster survey ( n= 6,100, 8th, 9th and 10th graders) was conducted in 100 basic education middle and high schools of Myanmar, using a pre-tested, modified questionnaire based on the Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire developed by Office on Smoking and Health of Center for Communicable Disease Control, Atlanta..... INTRODUCTION: Tobacco use is the biggest public health tragedy since it is estimated to kill approximately half of its long-term users, and of these, half will die during productive middle age, losing 20 to 25 years of life. Peto and Lopez estimated that about 100 million people were killed by tobacco in the 20th century and that for the 21st century; the cumulative number could be 1 billion of current smokers.1 The increased use of tobacco is one of the greatest public health threats for the 21st century and the tobacco epidemic is being spread and reinforced through complex mix of factors that transcend national borders. For the international public health community tobacco is clearly a global threat. Globalization of the tobacco epide mic restricts the capacity of countries to regulate tobacco through domestic legislation alone. In response to the globalization of the tobacco epidemic, the 191 member States of World Health Organization unanimously adopted the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control at the 56th World Health Assembly in May 2003, as a global complement to national actions. Myanmar, along with other Member Countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region is one of the Parties to the Convention. Surveillance of tobacco use is one of the components of the WHOFCTC; more than a surveillance tool on prevalence of tobacco use, the GYTS covers many important determinants of tobacco use which has been addressed in the FCTC such as advertising, cessation, education at schools, promoting of community awareness through anti-tobacco campaigns, access of tobacco products by minors and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Health Organization
Format/size: pdf (52.15 K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section1174/Section2469/Section2480_14190.htm
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 7 -- Special Issue on Tuberculosis
Date of publication: December 1999
Description/subject: Obese file undergoing treatment
Language: English, Burmese
Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
Format/size: pdf (15.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 24 January 2005


Title: Global tuberculosis control - surveillance, planning, financing -- Myanmar
Description/subject: "Each year since 1999 the NTP of Myanmar has detected more TB cases, with improving treatment success rates since 2003. High notification rates, coupled with preliminary results of a disease prevalence survey in Yangon, suggest that the burden of TB is probably higher than currently estimated. Slightly less than half of the 2006 TB control budget was funded, and funding gaps for 2007 and 2008 are larger still. The absence of a secure supply of first-line drugs poses a serious threat to the work of the NTP, the possible consequences of which include increasing drug resistance and loss of public confidence in TB control services."
Source/publisher: WHO REPORT 2008
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/2008/en/
Date of entry/update: 24 February 2009


Title: Tuberculosis -- Myanmar country profile 2007 and 2009
Description/subject: "Despite limited resources, the NTP continues to improve the quality of and access to TB services, and is close to reaching the global target for treatment success. Although Myanmar maintains a high rate of case detection, analysis from a recent TB prevalence survey in Yangon is likely to show an underestimate of the TB burden. The arrival of the new Three Diseases Fund will allow the NTP to continue basic programme needs while scaling up collaborative TB/HIV activities and initiatives to engage all care providers and involve the community..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: WHO
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://apps.who.int/globalatlas/predefinedReports/TB/PDF_Files/mmr.pdf (2009 report)
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2010