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Malaria

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Malaria & Infectious Disease
Description/subject: "In addition to recording the second most malaria deaths of any country in Southeast Asia, Myanmar is a regional epicenter of spreading resistance to vital anti-malarial drugs. The situation is worst in ethnic areas in the eastern, western and northern border regions, which receive little or no government health services and are inaccessible to large-scale international efforts. These regions are populated with displaced and vulnerable communities and rife with fake anti-malaria drugs, contributing to a growing reservoir of infection and a “perfect storm” of conditions to encourage increasing resistance to key artemisinin-based drugs. With in-depth mentoring and technical support from CPI, our local partners have conducted the only peer-reviewed surveys in this inaccessible region, demonstrating that malaria accounts for nearly half of all deaths, with a disproportionate impact on children and pregnant women: Nearly 15% of children will die before their fifth birthday, one-third from malaria, and malaria is the leading cause of maternal anemia, stillbirth, premature birth and low birth weight.... For malaria-related articles and reports, see links at right"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Community Partners International
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2014


Title: Malaria control page from Global Health Access Program
Description/subject: Burma records the most malaria deaths of any country in Southeast Asia, but preventive and curative services remain unavailable to the most vulnerable populations living in ethnic areas along the borders of India, China and Thailand. Since 2001 Planet Care/GHAP has increased the capacity of local ethnic health organizations to increase access for villagers to proven preventive and curative malaria interventions. Beginning with a modest pilot program among 1,800 Karen internally displaced peoples (IDPs) in four villages along the Thai-Burma border, effective malaria interventions now reach 60,000 villagers in about 140 villages along three of Burma's borders. The details of the program along each border, described below, are modified according to local guidelines, but are based on over four years of experience reducing malaria transmission along the Thai border.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Global Health Access Program
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


Title: Malaria Situation in SEAR Countries: Myanmar
Description/subject: "Malaria is one of the major public health problems with around 40.6 million people at risk. Although much of the population is at risk of malaria, the most vulnerable are non-immune migrant workers occupied with gem-mining in forests, logging, agriculture and construction. Annually, around 200,000 confirmed malaria cases and around 1200 malaria deaths are recorded every year. The Pf percentage of reported malaria cases are more than 75%. Malaria transmission in the country is perennial. About 60% of the total malaria cases are reported from forest areas. ITNs / LLINs are used as a main tool for vector control. IRS has been applied selectively to control epidemics only. For case detection in the areas not covered by microscopy, the Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) is used. Around 40% of the malaria cases are seeking treatment through the private sector...Myanmar has reported an increase in the number of confirmed malaria cases from 120,029 in 2000 to 447,073 in 2008 and 414,008 in 2009 respectively (Fig.1). This increase in reported confirmed cases was mainly due to increase in the case finding activities (including use of RDT). As a result reported number of probable malaria cases are decreasing. The percentage of P. falciparum cases has increased from 80% in 2000 to 97% in 2008 and 91% in 2009 (as almost all RDTs are used to detect Pf cases only). The number of malaria admissions and malaria attributed deaths declined from 85,409 and 2752 respectively in 2000 to 47,772 and 972 respectively in 2009. Amongst inpatient admissions, the proportion of malaria cases declined from 16% in 2000 to 6-7% and of all admissions in 2008-09. These statistics suggest that there is some improvement in the malaria situation in the country. However, the reasons behind these trends, such as improved diagnostic practices or the effect of increased use of ACTs (Fig2), are not clear. Between 2007 and 2009 2.28 million ITNs were delivered(Fig3)..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Health Organisation (WHO)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 September 2011


Title: Shoklo Malaria Research Unit (SMRU)
Description/subject: SMRU was established in 1986 in Shoklo. It is a field station of the faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, and is part of the Mahidol-Oxford Research Unit (MORU) supported by the Wellcome Trust (UK)... Location: The S.M.R.U base is in Mae Sot and the activities extend to the populations living along the Thai-Myanmar border... Beneficiaries: Population living along the border, including refugees and other migrants... Objectives: 1. To treat and care for patients with malaria.... 2. To define the epidemiology, entomology, and clinical features of malaria in this area of low (unstable) transmission, and to determine the best methods of prevention and treatment... 3. To advise the Thai Medical Institutions and the Non Governmental Organisations involved in the treatment and the control of malaria in the South East Asia region. Project Objectives: The projects are designed to be of direct benefit to the local community, and also to provide information useful to other populations living in malaria endemic areas elsewhere in the world through publications in mainstream international scientific journals... Project Areas: 1. Malaria in Pregnancy and Infancy; 2. Malaria treatment studies; 3. Entomology; 4. HIV/Aids awareness and prevention of vertical transmission; 5. Nutrition and Anaemia; 6. Laboratory studies; 7. Control of malaria and detection of epidemics along the border..." ...Very useful site with news, abstracts of publications -- not full text, unfortunately)-- Substantial "Laboratory Manual for Laboratory Technician Training" and other training documents in Burmese and English..."
Language: English, Burmese
Source/publisher: Shoklo Malaria Research Unit (SMRU)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 05 November 2010


Title: Wikipedia Malaria Page
Description/subject: * 1 History * 2 Symptoms * 3 Mechanisms of the disease o 3.1 Mosquitoes o 3.2 The malarial parasite * 4 Diagnosis * 5 Treatment * 6 Prevention and disease control o 6.1 Prophylactic drugs o 6.2 Mosquito eradication o 6.3 DDT Insecticide o 6.4 Economics o 6.5 Mosquito Nets and Prevention of mosquito bites o 6.6 Vaccination * 7 Social and economic impacts of malaria * 8 References * 9 External links o 9.1 Vaccine and other research o 9.2 DDT o 9.3 Animations, images and photos
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


Individual Documents

Title: WHO warns about surge in drug-resistant malaria in Southeast Asia
Date of publication: 27 September 2012
Description/subject: The World Health Organization said Thursday that governments in the Mekong region must act “urgently” to stop the spread of drug-resistant malaria which has emerged in parts of Vietnam and Myanmar. There is growing evidence that the malaria parasite is becoming resistant to a frontline treatment, the anti-malarial drug artemisinin, in southern and central Vietnam and in southeastern Myanmar, the WHO said in a statement.
Language: English
Source/publisher: rawstory.com
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 September 2012


Title: "Drug resistant malaria spreads"
Date of publication: 05 April 2012
Description/subject: "New research shows that artemisinin-resistant malaria has emerged and increased rapidly along the Thailand-Myanmar border, with implications for the regions containment strategy" - "The Lancet"....For the full text of "The Lancet" article, go to http://www.thelancet.com and search for Artemisinin-resistant malaria - you will need to register to read it - free...The other article, in "Science" of 6 April can be accessed at http://www.sciencemag.org -- similar search, but you have to pay to register.
Language: English
Source/publisher: AFP via "Bangkok Post" from "The Lancet" 5 April and "Science" 6 April
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.google.co.th/search?num=100&hl=en&safe=off&q=artemisinin-resistant+malaria+April+2012&oq=artemisinin-resistant+malaria+April+2012&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&gs_l=serp.12...13071l28934l0l31759l12l12l0l0l0l0l228l1845l1j9j2l12l0.frgbld. (Google search results for artemisinin-resistant malaria April 2012)
Date of entry/update: 08 April 2012


Title: Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Regional and Country Profiles
Date of publication: 28 April 2010
Description/subject: Acknowledgements ... Abbreviations ... Regional Profi le of Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion ... 1. Background and epidemiology 2. National Malaria Control Programmes 3. Key challenges facing malaria control in the Region 4. International partners in malaria control in the GMS ... Country Profiles: Cambodia 1. Epidemiological profi le 2. Overview of malaria control activities ... China–Yunnan province 1. Epidemiological profile 2. Overview of malaria control activities ... Lao PDR 1. Epidemiological profile 2. Overview of malaria control activities ... Myanmar 1. Epidemiological profile 2. Overview of malaria control activities ... Thailand 1. Epidemiological profile 2. Overview of malaria control activities ... Viet Nam 1. Epidemiological profile 2. Overview of malaria control activities ... Annex I: Approved GFATM Malaria Proposals for the Greater Mekong Subregion
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Health Organization _SEAR, WPR
Format/size: pdf (990.83 K- full text; 73K - Myanmar section)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/Malaria_in_the_GMS-Myanmar.pdf (extract on Myanmar)
Date of entry/update: 10 November 2010


Title: New strain of malaria hits Thailand (Video)
Date of publication: 01 April 2010
Description/subject: "A drug-resistant strain of the disease malaria - first detected about 18 months ago near the Thailand-Cambodia border - is now showing up again along Thailand's border with Myanmar. Many patients in the region taking anti-malarial drugs are now taking much longer to respond to treatment. Medics fear the resistant strain could eventually spread to Africa, where most of the world's malaria cases and deaths occur. Aela Callan reports from a clinic near the Thai town of Mae Sot on the border with Myanmar."
Author/creator: Aela Callan
Language: English
Source/publisher: Aljazeera
Format/size: Adobe Flash (2 minutes 37 seconds)
Date of entry/update: 29 April 2010


Title: Internally displaced human resources for health: villager health worker partnerships to scale up a malaria control programme in active conflict areas of eastern Burma
Date of publication: 17 November 2008
Description/subject: "Approaches to expand malaria control interventions in areas of active conflict are urgently needed. Despite international agreement regarding the imperative to control malaria in eastern Burma, there are currently no large-scale international malaria programmes operating in areas of active conflict. A local ethnic health department demonstrated that village health workers are capable of implementing malaria control interventions among internally displaced persons (IDPs). This paper describes how these internally displaced villagers facilitated rapid expansion of the programme. Clinic health workers received training in malaria diagnosis and treatment, vector control and education at training sites along the border. After returning to programme areas inside Burma, they trained villagers to perform an increasingly comprehensive set of interventions. This iterative training strategy to increase human resources for health permitted the programme to expand from 3000 IDPs in 2003 to nearly 40,000 in 2008. It was concluded that IDPs are capable of delivering essential malaria control interventions in areas of active conflict in eastern Burma. In addition, health workers in this area have the capacity to train community members to take on implementation of such interventions. This iterative strategy may provide a model to improve access to care in this population and in other conflict settings..." Keywords: internally displaced persons; village health workers; human rights; human resources for health; malaria control
Author/creator: C.I. Lee, L.S. Smith, E.K. Shwe Oo, B.C. Scharschmidt, E. Whichard, Thart Kler, T.J. Leea, and A.K. Richards,
Language: English
Source/publisher: Global Public Health Vol. 00, No. 0,
Format/size: pdf (93K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Malaria-VHW%20Paper%20MCP.pdf
Date of entry/update: 15 February 2012


Title: Three major diseases in Myanmar
Date of publication: June 2008
Description/subject: JAPAN International Cooperation is leading the fight against three major diseases in Myanmar. The Myanmar Times’ Khin Myat met with JICA project leader and tuberculosis specialist, Mr Kosuke Okada, and malaria expert Mr Masatoshi Nakamura to ask about their activities. 1. How much money is JICA spending annually to control these diseases? Our project period is from January 2005 to January 2010. We have been spending around ¥150 million per year on long- and short-term experts, international and domestic training, provision of equipment such as vehicles, lab equipment, microscopes, mosquito nets, lab test kits, local training and consumables.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Times (Volume 22, No. 425)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 November 2010


Title: SMRU Malaria Handout (English and Burmese)
Date of publication: November 2007
Description/subject: "The 15th Edition of SMRU Malaria handout: English and Burmese Edition (November 2007) prepared for the NGOs working along the Thai-Burma border and other groups confronting malaria in the region. It is composed of short summaries on treatment of uncomplicated malaria and of uncomplicated hyperparasitaemia, treatment of severe malaria and malaria in pregnancy."
Language: English, Burmese
Source/publisher: Shoklo Malaria Research Unit
Format/size: pdf (656K- English; 182K - Burmese)
Alternate URLs: http://www.shoklo-unit.com/smru_meeting/SMRU_Malaria_Handout_Burmese_version_15_Edition.pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 April 2008


Title: Prevalence of plasmodium falciparum in active conflict areas of eastern Burma: a summary of cross-sectional data
Date of publication: 05 September 2007
Description/subject: Abstract: :Background: Burma records the highest number of malaria deaths in southeast Asia and may represent a reservoir of infection for its neighbors, but the burden of disease and magnitude of transmission among border populations of Burma remains unknown. Methods: Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) parasitemia was detected using a HRP-II antigen based rapid test (Paracheck-Pf®). Pf prevalence was estimated from screenings conducted in 49 villages participating in a malaria control program, and four retrospective mortality cluster surveys encompassing a sampling frame of more than 220,000. Crude odds ratios were calculated to evaluate Pf prevalence by age, sex, and dry vs. rainy season. Results: 9,796 rapid tests were performed among 28,410 villagers in malaria program areas through four years (2003: 8.4%, 95% CI: 8.3 – 8.6; 2004: 7.1%, 95% CI: 6.9 – 7.3; 2005:10.5%, 95% CI: 9.3 – 11.8 and 2006: 9.3%, 95% CI: 8.2 – 10.6). Children under 5 (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.93 – 2.06) and those 5 to 14 years (OR = 2.24, 95% CI: 2.18 – 2.29) were more likely to be positive than adults. Prevalence was slightly higher among females (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02 – 1.06) and in the rainy season (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.16 – 1.88). Among 5,538 rapid tests conducted in four cluster surveys, 10.2% were positive (range 6.3%, 95% CI: 3.9 – 8.8; to 12.4%, 95% CI: 9.4 – 15.4). Conclusion: Prevalence of plasmodium falciparum in conflict areas of eastern Burma is higher than rates reported among populations in neighboring Thailand, particularly among children. This population serves as a large reservoir of infection that contributes to a high disease burden within Burma and likely constitutes a source of infection for neighboring regions."
Author/creator: Adam K Richards, Linda Smith, Luke C Mullany, Catherine I Lee, Emily Whichard, Kristin Banek, Mahn Mahn, Eh Kalu Shwe Oo, and Thomas J Lee
Language: English
Source/publisher: Conflict and Health
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 January 2008


Title: The Gathering Storm: Infectious Diseases and Human Rights in Burma
Date of publication: July 2007
Description/subject: "Decades of repressive military rule, civil war, corruption, bad governance, isolation, and widespread violations of human rights and international humanitarian law have rendered Burma’s health care system incapable of responding effectively to endemic and emerging infectious diseases. Burma’s major infectious diseases—malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis (TB)—are severe health problems in many areas of the country. Malaria is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease in Burma. Eighty-nine percent of the estimated population of 52 million lived in malarial risk areas in 1994, with about 80 percent of reported infections due to Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous form of the disease. Burma has one of the highest TB rates in the world, with nearly 97,000 new cases detected each year.4 Drug resistance to both TB and malaria is rising, as is the broad availability of counterfeit antimalarial drugs. In June 2007, a TB clinic operated by Médecins Sans Frontières–France in the Thai border town of Mae Sot reported it had confirmed two cases of extensively drugresistant TB in Burmese migrants who had previously received treatment in Burma. Meanwhile, HIV/AIDS, once contained to high-risk groups in Burma, has spread to the general population, which is defined as a prevalence of 1 percent among reproductive-age adults.5 Meanwhile, the Burmese government spends less than 3 percent of national expenditures on health, while the military, with a standing army of over 400,000 troops, consumes 40 percent.6 By comparison, many of Burma’s neighbors spend considerably more on health: Thailand (6.1%7), China (5.6 %8), India (6.1%9), Laos (3.2%10), Bangladesh (3.4%11), and Cambodia (12%12).....The report recommends that: • The Burmese government develop a national health care system in which care is distributed effectively, equitably, and transparently. • The Burmese government increase its spending on health and education to confront the country’s long-standing health problems, especially the rise of drug-resistant malaria and tuberculosis. • The Burmese government rescind guidelines issued last year by the country’s Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development because these guidelines have restricted such organizations as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) from providing relief in Burma. • The Burmese government allow ICRC to resume visits to prisoners without the requirement that ICRC doctors be accompanied by members of the Union Solidarity and Development Association or other organizations. • The Burmese government take immediate steps to halt the internal conflict and violations of international human rights and humanitarian law in eastern Burma that are creating an unprecedented number of internally displaced persons and facilitating the spread of infectious diseases in the region. • Foreign aid organizations and donors monitor and evaluate how aid to combat infectious diseases in Burma is affecting domestic expenditures on health and education. • Relevant national and local government agencies, United Nations agencies, NGOs establish a regional narcotics working group which would assess drug trends in the region and monitor the impact of poppy eradication programs on farming communities. • UN agencies, national and local governments, and international and local NGOs cooperate closely to facilitate greater information-sharing and collaboration among agencies and organizations working to lessen the burden of infectious diseases in Burma and its border regions. These institutions must develop a regional response to the growing problem of counterfeit antimalarial drugs."
Author/creator: Eric Stover, Voravit Suwanvanichkij, Andrew Moss, David Tuller, Thomas J. Lee, Emily Whichard, Rachel Shigekane, Chris Beyrer, David Scott Mathieson
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Center, University of California, Berkeley; Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Format/size: pdf (5.1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.jhsph.edu/humanrights/images/GatheringStorm_BurmaReport_2007.pdf
Date of entry/update: 29 June 2007


Title: Responding to AIDS, TB, Malaria and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Burma: Dilemmas of Policy and Practice
Date of publication: March 2006
Description/subject: "...This report seeks to synthesize what is known about HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB and other disease threats including Avian influenza (H5N1 virus) in Burma; assess the regional health and security concerns associated with these epidemics; and to suggest policy options for responding to these threats in the context of tightening restrictions imposed by the junta..." ...I. Introduction [p. 9-13] II. SPDC Health Expenditures and Policies [p.14-18] III. Public Health Status [p.19-42] a. HIV/AIDS b. TB c. Malaria d. Other health threats: Avian Flu, Filaria, Cholera IV. SPDC Policies Towards the Three "Priority Diseases" [p. 43-45] and Humanitarian Assistance V. Health Threats and Regional Security Issues [p. 46-51] a. HIV b. TB c. Malaria VI. Policy and Program Options [p. 52-56] VII. References [p. 57-68] Appendix A: Official translation of guidelines Appendix B: Statement by Bureau of Public Affairs Appendix C: Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Avian Flu notification.
Author/creator: Chris Beyrer, MD, MPH; Luke Mullany, PhD; Adam Richards, MD, MPH; Aaron Samuals, MHS; Voravit Suwanvanichkij, MD, MPH; om Lee, MD, MHS; Nicole Franck, MHS
Language: English, Burmese, Chinese
Source/publisher: Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/respondingburmese-ES-bu.pdf (Executive Summary, Burmese, 83K)
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/respondingburmese-ES-ch.pdf (Executive Summary, Chinese, 144K)
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


Title: Evaluation of chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) therapy in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Indo-Myanmar border areas
Date of publication: May 2005
Description/subject: Summary: Chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) are two first-line antimalarials used under the existing Indian National Drug Policy in the north-eastern region of India bordering several countries including Myanmar. Although widespread resistance to antimalarials in Plasmodium falciparum has been reported from western Myanmar, information from the Indian side of the border is scarce. We studied the therapeutic response to CQ and SP at four sites in Changlang and Lohit, two administrative districts of Arunachal Pradesh bordering Myanmar. We monitored uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients after treatment with standard regimens of CQ and SP for 28 days following the revised in-vivo protocol of the World Health Organization. A total of 236 patients, 95 in the CQ group and 141 in the SP group, participated. We recorded 23.8% early treatment failures to CQ and 14.1% to SP; late clinical failures of 14.3 and 12.6%; late parasitological failures of 10.7 and 8.1% and adequate clinical and parasitological responses of 51.2 and 65.2%, respectively. The significantly different treatment failure rates seen in Chowkham (furthest from Indo-Myanmar border) and Jairampur/Nampong (nearest to Indo-Myanmar border) for chloroquine (Cox proportion hazard ratio 9.1, P < 0.0001) and SP (Cox proportion hazard ratio 7.35, P ¼ 0.001) denote a non-response gradient to the two antimalarials extending from the international border. The gradient is probably indicative of the direction of movement of the drug-resistant P. falciparum parasite. The utility of chloroquine as the first-line drug under the present National Drug Policy in these areas needs reconsideration... Keywords: antimalarial, drug resistance, in-vivo sensitivity, border area malaria, chloroquine, sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine, therapeutic failure
Author/creator: P. K. Mohapatra, Anil Prakas, K. Taison, K. Negmu, A. C. Gohain, N. S. Namchoom, D. Wange, D. R. Bhattacharyya , B. K. Goswami, B. K. Borgohain, J. Mahanta
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Tropical Medicine & International Health" Volume 10, Issue 5, pages 478–483, May 2005
Format/size: pdf (121K)
Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


Title: Overivew of malaria control activities and programme progress - Myanmar country profile
Date of publication: 27 April 2005
Description/subject: "...Malaria is one of the major public health problems in Myanmar and is reported as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. A major risk group is non-immune adult migrants in forests who work in gem mining, logging, agriculture, plantations and construction. In addition to their lack of immunity against clinical malaria, migrant workers are also vulnerable to poor access to laboratory and treatment services and language barriers. As a result, about 70% of reported malaria cases in Myanmar are olde than 15 years of age, and about 60% of cases are related to forestry work. Myanmar experienced 56 malaria outbreaks between 1991 and 2000, with international migration being the most important factor of those outbreaks. Given poor access to health care in remote areas where most cases originate, the total malaria burden is likely to be much higher than reported. Moreover, self-treatment is common, and malaria reporting does not include cases treated in the private sector or through traditional medicine practices..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Health Organization
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 April 2008


Title: GOVERNANCE AND PUBLIC HEALTH: AN ANALYSIS OF MALARIA AND PUBLIC HEALTH LAW IN BURMA
Date of publication: September 2002
Description/subject: With a Pilot Study on the Right to Health in Constitution. A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Master's in Law (LL.M) Table of Contents: Chapter I: Introduction... Chapter II: Malaria As Public Health Problem Globally and in Burma: 2.2 Malaria as a Global Public Health Problem; 2.2.1Basic Description of Malaria as a Disease; 2.3 The Global Disease Burden of Malaria; 2.3.1 Epidemiological Data; 2.3.2 Economic Cost of Malaria; 2.3.3 The Causal Factors Behind Malaria's Global Disease Burden; 2.3.3.1Health System Failure; 2.3.3.2 Drug Resistance; 2.3.3.3 Population Movement; 2.3.3.4 Deteriorating; 2.3.3.5 Poverty; 2.3.3.6 Environmental Degradation 2.4 Malaria as a Public Health Problem in Burma 2.4.1 The Burden of Malaria in Burma; 2.4.2 Causal Factors Behind Burma's Growing Malaria Problem; 2.4.2.1 Political Instability and Oppression; 2.4.2.2 Failure of the Burmese Public Health and Healthcare System; 2.4.2.3 Environmental Degradation Along Burma Frontier... Chapter III: Law, Public Health and Malaria in Burma: 3.2 Law and Public Health; 3.2.1 Public Health as a Government Responsibility; 3.2.2 Law as Critical to the Public Health Endeavor; 3.3 Gostin's Definition and Theory of Public Health; 3.3.1 Gostin's Definition of Public Health Law 3.3.2 Gostin's Theory of Public Health Law; 3.3.2.1 The Government; 3.2.2 Populations; 3.3.2.3 Relationships; 3.3.2.4 Services; 3.3.2.5 Coercion; 3.4 Law, Public Health, and Malaria Control in Burma; 3.4.1Burma and the Rule of Law; 3.4.2 Burmese Definition of Public Health Law; 3.4.2.1 Government; 3.4.2.2 Populations; 3.4.2.3 Relationships; 3.4.2.4 Services; 3.4.2.5 Coercion; 3.5 Lessons Learned from Applying Gostin's Theory of Public Health Law to Malaria Control in Burma... Chapter IV: Current Malaria Governance Initiatives: From the Global to the Local: 4.1 Introduction; 4.2 Initiatives on Global Health Governance for Malaria; 4.2.1 What is �Global Health Governance'? 4.2.2 Global Malaria Initiatives; 4.2.2.1 WHO's Roll Back Malaria; 4.2.2.2 Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) on Malaria Drug and Vaccine Developmen;t 4.2.2.3 The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria; 4.3 Global Malaria Initiatives and National Malaria Governance in Burma; 4.3.1 Burma and the Roll Back Malaria Campaign; 4.3.2 Burma and the Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) on Malaria Drug and Vaccine Development; 4.3.3 Burma and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria; 4.4 Conclusion... Chapter V: The Need for The Right to Health: Burma New Constitution: 5.1 Introduction; 5.2 The Right to Health in International Law; 5.3 The Right to Health in Constitutional Law; 5.3.1 Why the Right to Health in Constitutional Law? 5.3.2 The Right to Health in the South African Constitution; 5.3.2.1 Soobramoney v. Minister of Health, KwaZulu-Natal; 5.3.2.2 Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), et al (Applicants) v. Minister of Health, et al (Respondents); 5.4 Building the Right to Health into the New Burmese Constitution; 5.4.1 Why Analyze the Draft Constitution?; 5.4.2 Analysis of the Lack of Specific Public Health Provisions in the Draft Constitution; 5.4.3 A Potential Right to Health Provision for the New Burmese Constitution; 5.5 Conclusion; Chapter VI: Conclusion...BIBLIOGRAPHY... APPENDICIES: A. Soobramoney v Minister of Health (Kwazulu-Natal) in Constitutional Court of South Africa, CCT32/97 (27 November 1997) http://www.concourt.gov.za/date1997.html; B. Minister of Health v Treatment Action Campaign in Constitutional Court of South Africa, CCT8/02 (5 July 2002) http://www.concourt.gov.za/date2002.html; C. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa: Chapter II, Bill of Rights; D. The Draft Constitution of the (Future) Federal Union of Burma Drafted by National Council of the Union of Burma: Chapter II, Basis Rights; E. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)... CV.
Author/creator: Amaya
Language: English
Source/publisher: Indiana University School of Law Graduate Legal Studies Department
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 February 2004


Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 16 -- Special Issue on Malaria
Date of publication: May 2002
Description/subject: FROM THE FIELD: Participatory Learning and Action for Community-Based Malaria Control (James Hopkins, Kenan Institute Asia)... GENERAL HEALTH: Population Movement and Malaria (Dr. Naw Nhai. M, SMRU); Fake Artesunate in Southeast Asia : A Murderous Trade (Stephane Proux, S.M.R.U)...MATRERNITH & CHILD HEALTH: Malaria in Pregnancy : Important Issues (Dr. Rose McGready, SMRU); Diagnosis of Malaria (Sarika Pattanasin. Lab technician, S.M.R.U.)... CASE STUDY: The Problem of Presumptive Diagnosis and Treatment of Malaria (Lucy Phaipun, SMRU); Important Issues Regarding Treatment of Malaria in Small Children (Lucy Phaiphun, SMRU)...HEALTH EDUCATION: The Importance of Completing Anti-malarial Treatment (Mya Ohn, Medic, SMRU); Daw Shwe Mi's Lessons (Mya Ohn, Medic, SMRU).
Language: English, Burmese
Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 23 January 2005


Title: IN VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM ISOLATES FROM MYANMAR TO ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS
Date of publication: 2001
Description/subject: Abstract. In vitro drug susceptibility profiles were assessed in 75 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from 4 sites in Myanmar. Except at Mawlamyine, the site closest to the Thai border, prevalence and degree of resistance to mefloquine were lower among the Myanmar isolates as compared with those from Thailand. Geometric mean concentration that inhibits 50% (IC50) and 90% (IC90) of Mawlamyine isolates were 51 nM (95% confidence interval [CI], 40–65) and 124 nM (95% CI, 104–149), respectively. At the nearest Thai site, Maesod, known for high-level multidrug resistance, the corresponding values for mefloquine IC50 and IC90 were 92 nM (95% CI, 71–121) and 172 nM (95% CI, 140– 211). Mefloquine susceptibility of P. falciparum in Myanmar, except for Mawlamyine, was consistent with clinicalparasitological efficacy in semi-immune people. High sensitivity to artemisinin compounds was observed in this geographical region. The data suggest that highly mefloquine-resistant P. falciparum is concentrated in a part of the Thai-Myanmar border region.
Author/creator: CHANSUDA WONGSRICHANALAI, KHIN LIN, LORRIN W. PANG, M. A. FAIZ, HARALD NOEDL
Language: English
Source/publisher: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


Title: Treating Thousands of Malaria Patients
Date of publication: 01 November 2000
Description/subject: From the MSF 2000 International Activity Report. MSF has been working in Burma since 1992. International staff: 31, National staff: 192. Treatment of Malaria, AIDS prevention
Language: English
Source/publisher: Medecins Sans Frontieres
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Influence of blister packaging on the efficacy of artesunate + mefloquine over artesunate alone in community-based treatment of nonsevere falciparum malaria in Myanmar
Date of publication: 1998
Description/subject: Three studies were carried out to determine the need, acceptability, and efficacy of adding mefloquine to artemisinin derivatives (AD) for the first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. The first was a retrospective study of 255 basic health workers which showed that their recommendation ofAD to patients depended on their level of training. None of the paramedics/midwives and only 9% of 129 doctors had prescribed AD, and no one had recommended AD in combination with mefloquine; 72% of patients used courses that were too short for parasitological cure. To promote the addition of mefloquine to AD regimens we conducted intervention workshops with health care providers and subsidized the cost of mefloquine to patients. In the second study, we interviewed 200 patients before and after the intervention to evaluate drug compliance with fulidoses ofAD and use of subsidized mefloquine. After the intervention, we found that only 3.6% had used mefloquine and 62% had taken non-curative doses of AD. In the third study, we provided blister packs of medication in daily doses and compared the intake ofAD + placebo (158 patients) with that ofAD + mefloquine (222 patients) for 5 days. The compliance with both regimens was 99%. Blood smears for parasites on day 28 showed one positive in the AD + mefloquine group and 7 positive in the AD group. We conclude that provision of blister packs of daily doses is a very effective way to improve compliance with short courses and drug combinations, but the efficacy of the combination in Myanmar in this particular study was only marginally higher than that of AD alone.
Author/creator: Tin Shwe, Myint Lwin, Soe Aung
Language: English
Source/publisher: Word Health Organizaton
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010