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Home > Main Library > Health > Threats to Health > Diseases > Communicable (infectious) diseases > HIV/AIDS - Burma/Myanmar

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HIV/AIDS - Burma/Myanmar
Also contains general material in Burmese or other languages of Burma

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: "BurmaNet News" Health/HIV archive
Language: English
Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


Title: AIDSdatahub - Myanmar profile
Description/subject: Well-organised page, links to many important documents
Language: English
Source/publisher: AIDSdatahub
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://aidsdatahub.org
Date of entry/update: 26 May 2012


Title: Asian Harm Reduction Network
Description/subject: Lots of useful material on HIV/AIDS in Burma/Myanmar and the region, but you need to register (free)...On the AHRN site, search for "Myanmar" in "library" (45 results, mainly substantial reports and articles) or "site" (610 results)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Harm Reduction Network
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 February 2009


Title: Country and regional responses to AIDS -- Myanmar
Description/subject: HIV AND AIDS ESTIMATES... Number of people living with HIV: 240 000 [160 000 - 370 000]... Adults aged 15 to 49 prevalence rate: 0.7% [0.4% - 1.1%] Adults aged 15 and up living with HIV: 240 000 [150 000 - 360 000]... Women aged 15 and up living with HIV: 100 000 [63 000 - 150 000]... Children aged 0 to 14 living with HIV: N/A... Deaths due to AIDS: 24 000 [18 000 - 32 000]... Orphans due to AIDS aged 0 to 17: N/A... * Summary Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV and AIDS... * Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV and AIDS... * Country Profile on Tuberculosis... * Myanmar - Country Situation 41k (Dec 2008)... * Myanmar - Progress towards Universal Access 36k (Sep 2008)... * Myanmar - National Composite Policy Index (NCPI) report 2008 38k (Aug 2008) ... Links to 17 full-text documents on AIDS and Myanmar
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNAIDS
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 February 2009


Title: HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia-Pacific -- Myanmar page
Description/subject: Tables, maps, statistics, links
Language: English
Source/publisher: HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia-PACIFIC
Format/size: html, pdf etc.
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


Title: HIV Information for Myanmar (him)
Description/subject: "HIV Information for Myanmar [him] is published in memory of Hla Htut Lwin - activist, coworker, and friend. There is a free email list service for anyone with email access and an interest in the response to HIV in Myanmar. Send an email to himhimhim at csloxinfo dot com if you want to become a new subscriber. You will receive one to three postings a day."
Language: English
Source/publisher: him
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


Title: HIV Policy.org: Online Database of HIV/AIDS Policies for the Asia-pacific region -- Myanmar page
Description/subject: Very useful page, with links to:- Agencies: * Myanmar Business Coalition on AIDS (2002 - )... Organisations: * Asian Development Bank (1966 - ) * Association of South-East Asian Nations (1967 - ) * Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (1965 - )... Related Government Agencies: * National AIDS Committee, Myanmar (1989 - )... Related Inter-Governmental Organisations: * Regional Office for South-East Asia, World Health Organization (1948 - )... Related Regions: * Asia-Pacific * Greater Mekong Subregion * South-East Asia..... as well as links to 50 or so online documents (full text) -- reports, agreements, plans, articles etc. from academics, institutes, governments, inter-governmental and non-governmental organisations...Most links work, but, as always, where a link is dead, copy the title and paste it into a Google search.
Language: English
Source/publisher: HIV Policy.org
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 February 2009


Title: Search results for "Myanmar" on the UNAIDS site.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNAIDS
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


Title: UNAIDS Myanmar page
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNAIDS
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://www.unaids.org/en/CountryResponses/Countries/myanmar.asp
Date of entry/update: 19 June 2006


Individual Documents

Title: Cash-strapped Myanmar clinics turn HIV patients away
Date of publication: 30 May 2012
Description/subject: "...Some 215,000 people were living with HIV/AIDS in Myanmar in 2011, of whom around 120,000 need lifesaving antiretroviral treatment (ART), which can also prevent the spread of HIV, according to the U.N. agency UNAIDS. But only 40,000 are receiving ART. The World Health Organization (WHO) says anyone with a CD4 count lower than 350 should get ART. Yet a severe lack of resources means MSF only treats those with a CD4 count below 150 in Myanmar. The aid group has close to 20 clinics around the country, and provides the lion’s share of ART in the southeast Asian nation. Nafis Sadik, the U.N. special envoy on HIV/AIDS for Asia Pacific, underlined the fact that only a third of people who need ART in Myanmar are getting it at a time when there is a new global push to treat all HIV-positive patients regardless of their CD4 count. “The evidence is that the earlier you start, the more protected they are, the less infectious they are,” Dr Sadik told AlertNet during her recent visit to Myanmar. “And like other diseases, if you give treatment early, the survival rates are much higher.” “There are still 18,000 people who die every year of AIDS-related diseases in Myanmar,” she added..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Reuters AlertNet
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 May 2012


Title: HIV/AIDS - Myanmar Country Review, December 2011
Date of publication: December 2011
Description/subject: Key charts and summaries
Language: English
Source/publisher: HIV & AIDS Data Hub for Asia and the Pacific
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 26 May 2012


Title: National Strategic Plan for HIV & AIDS in Myanmar -- Progress Report 2009
Date of publication: November 2010
Description/subject: OVERVIEW OF STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS: Table 1: Priority setting of the National Strategic Plan on AIDS – Myanmar 2006‐2010 - Priority Strategic Directions - Highest priority: 1. Reducing HIV‐related risk, vulnerability and impact among sex workers and their clients; 2. Reducing HIV‐related risk, vulnerability and impact among men who have sex with men; 3. Reducing HIV‐related risk, vulnerability and impact among drug users; 4. Reducing HIV‐related risk, vulnerability and impact among partners and families of people living with HIV... High priority: 5. Reducing HIV‐related risk, vulnerability and impact among institutionalized populations; 6. Reducing HIV‐related risk, vulnerability and impact among mobile populations; 7. Reducing HIV‐related risk, vulnerability and impact among uniformed services personnel; 8. Reducing HIV‐related risk, vulnerability and impact among young people...Priority: 9. Enhancing prevention, care, treatment and support in the workplace... 10. Enhancing HIV prevention among men and women of reproductive age...Fundamental overarching issues: 11. Meeting the needs of people living with HIV for comprehensive care, support and treatment 12. Enhancing the capacity of health systems, coordination and capacity of local NGOs & community based organizations 13. Monitoring and Evaluating
Language: English
Source/publisher: National AIDS Programme
Format/size: pdf (2.8MB- full; 1MB - pt 1; 353MB - pt 2; 1.3MB - pt3)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/HIV-NSP2009-1-red.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/HIV-NSP2009-2-red.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/HIV-NSP2009-3-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 13 November 2010


Title: HIV Estimates and Projections, Myanmar 2008-2015
Date of publication: September 2010
Description/subject: "... * Modelling of HIV data show that HIV prevalence in Myanmar peaked in 2001-2002 and has been slowly declining since then. The HIV incidence peaked a few years earlier and is also showing a slow decline. * Like in other Asian countries, there are three distinct waves of the epidemic. The first group to be affected was the injecting drug users. Next, the sex workers and their male clients were most affected. Finally, transmission from male clients to their wives/other female partners resulted in lower-risk female population being increasingly infected. Although a large number of low-risk female have become infected, IDUs, MSM and sex workers continue to have the highest incidence rate of HIV infection. * In 2009, an estimated 238,000 people are living with HIV/AIDS. The adult HIV prevalence is 0.61%. * Currently, there are approximately 17,000 new HIV infections each year. Nearly 60% of all new infections are among sex workers and their clients, MSMs and IDUs. * The number of AIDS deaths is showing a downward trend since 2005. Currently, there are approximately 17,500 AIDS deaths per year. * Roughly 74,000 (including old and new persons needing treatment) people in Myanmar are currently in need of antiretroviral care and this number will continue to increase over the next years as more people are put under ART. * Roughly 4,300 HIV-positive women will give birth annually. As PMCT programme expand, fewer number of children will be born with HIV. Approximately 1,900 children are in need of ART in 2009..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: National AIDS Programme, Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (667K)
Date of entry/update: 24 September 2010


Title: MYANMAR: Producing drugs for the region, fuelling addiction at home
Date of publication: 25 June 2010
Description/subject: "...In the 1990s, Min Thura regularly shared needles with other drug users in Mandalay. "About 50 drug users were queuing up and giving their arms to inject heroin with only one needle. Many of my friends with whom I shared needles to inject drugs have already died," said Min Thura, who has been clean for four years. Now, he said, there is more awareness about HIV and clean needles..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs - Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.irinnews.org/PrintReport.aspx?ReportId=89622
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2010


Title: Risk behaviours among HIV positive injecting drug users in Myanmar: a case control study
Date of publication: 02 June 2010
Description/subject: Abstract (provisional): Background: The severity of HIV/AIDS pandemic linked to injecting drug use is one of the most worrying medical and social problems throughout the world in recent years. Myanmar has one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV among the IDUs in the region. Aim The objective of the study was to determine the risk behaviours among HIV positive injecting drug users in Myanmar... Methods: A non matched case control study was conducted among 217 respondents registered with a non governmental organization's harm reduction center. 78 HIV positive IDUs were used as cases and 139 non HIV positive IDUs as controls. The study was conducted between April-May 2009. Data was analysed using SPSS version 15 and the study was ethically conducted... Results: Factors like age, marital status, age first used drugs, drug use expenditure, reason for drug use, age first used injection were found to be significant. Other risk factors found significantly associated with HIV among IDU were education (OR 2.3), location of respondent (OR 2.4) type of syringe first used (OR 5.1), sharing syringe at the first injection (OR 4.5) and failure of drug detoxification programme (OR 4.9). More HIV positive IDUs were returning used syringes in the centre (OR 3.3)... Conclusions: Prudent measures such as access to sterile syringes and continuous health education programmes among IDUs and their sexual partners are required to reduce high risk behaviours of IDUs in Myanmar.
Author/creator: Lin A Swe, Kay K Nyo, A K Rashid
Language: English
Source/publisher: Harm Reduction Journal 2010, 7:12
Format/size: pdf (122K)
Date of entry/update: 09 June 2010


Title: Results of HIV Sentinel Sero-surveillance 2009 Myanmar
Date of publication: May 2010
Description/subject: Table of contents: 1. Background 2. Methodology 3. HIV Antibody Testing 4. Data analysis 5. Findings 5.1. Sample collection 5.2. HIV prevalence by sentinel population 5.3. HIV prevalence by sex and age 5.4. HIV prevalence by place of residence and marital status 5.5. Results of syphilis screening 6. HIV trends over time 6.1. HIV prevalence among low risk population 1992-2009 6.2. HIV prevalence among young population 7. Decentralization of HIV testing 8. Limitations 9. Recommendations 9.1. Recommendations for programme implementation 9.2. Recommendations for surveillance 9.3. Recommendations for research... Annexes
Language: English
Source/publisher: National AIDS Programme Department of Health Ministry of Health
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 19 May 2012


Title: An analysis of the Myanmar 2010 UNGASS report
Date of publication: 21 April 2010
Description/subject: "...The Union of Myanmar UNGASS 2010 Report has been posted on HIV Information for Myanmar http://him.civiblog.org/blog/_archives/2010/4/6/4498792.html and was posted in [him] 1166. The [him] moderator has not heard that a shadow report will be produced. Who would risk writing one? In the absence of a shadow report the [him] moderator would like to offer these observations on the only official report on HIV that will come from the Government of Myanmar this year. The following comments are not meant to be a criticism of those who did all the hard work in producing the report. But publication of the report offers an opportunity for us all to get closer to truth..."
Author/creator: HIV Information for Myanmar [him] moderator.
Language: English
Source/publisher: HIV Information for Myanmar [him]
Format/size: pdf (59K)
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2010


Title: UNGASS Country Progress Report Myanmar
Date of publication: 31 March 2010
Description/subject: "The HIV epidemic in Myanmar is concentrated, with HIV transmission primarily occurring in high risk sexual contacts between sex workers and their clients, men who have sex with men and the sexual partners of these sub-populations. In addition, there is a high level of HIV transmission among injecting drug users through use of contaminated injecting equipment, with transmission to sexual partners. Latest modelling estimated the HIV prevalence in the adult population (aged 15-49) at 0.61% in 2009. For key populations most-at-risk, surveillance data from 2008 showed HIV prevalence in the sentinel groups at 18.1% in female sex workers, 28.8% in men who have sex with men, and 36.3% in male injecting drug users. It is estimated that around 238,000 people are living with HIV in Myanmar in 2009, of whom 74,000 are in need of antiretroviral therapy. In the same year, an estimated 17,000 people died of AIDS-related illness. Incidence is estimated at well above 10,000 new infections per year, confirming the continuing need for effective prevention efforts, with increased emphasis on reaching long term female sexual partners of male most at risk populations..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: National AIDS Programme
Format/size: pdf (541K)
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2010


Title: Women and HIV in Myanmar
Date of publication: 08 March 2010
Description/subject: Power-point presentation at a Round Table Discussion on the Occasion of International Women’s Day 2010
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNAIDS
Format/size: ppt (493K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2010


Title: For Sex Workers, A Life of Risks
Date of publication: 25 February 2010
Description/subject: RANGOON, Feb 25, 2010 (IPS) - When Aye Aye (not her real name) leaves her youngest son at home each night, she tells him that she has to work selling snacks. But what Aye actually sells is sex so that her 12-year-old son, a Grade 7 student, can finish his education.
Author/creator: Mon Mon Myat
Language: English
Source/publisher: IPS
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010


Title: Myanmar Country Advocacy Brief Injecting Drug Use and HIV
Date of publication: 04 February 2010
Description/subject: Myanmar is one of the few countries in East Asia that has reported a decrease in the overall prevalence of HIV in recent years. Estimates indicate that HIV prevalence peaked at about 0.9% (15-49%). By 2007, the estimated prevalence was 0.7% (range: 0.4-1.1%)..... Myanmar remains the second largest opium poppy growing country after Afghanistan, contributing 20% of opium poppy cultivation in major cultivating countries in 2008.3 Heroin use has become widespread and is the primary drug of choice among people who inject drugs. While the use of heroin and opium has been observed to be declining in recent years, the use of methamphetamine has been increasing since 2003. Injecting of amphetamine type stimulants has also been reported to occur, as well as injecting of a mixture of opiates and pharmaceutical drugs.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNAIDS, UNODC
Format/size: pdf (255.94 K)
Date of entry/update: 05 November 2010


Title: A Town of Widows
Date of publication: February 2010
Description/subject: In a country where the government provides minimal general health care, citizens must take up the fight against HIV infection themselves... "A relatively prosperous transport hub for family-run trucking businesses, Kyaukpadaung’s high incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV/AIDS) among its population is a major downside to the township’s heavy dependence on the transportation industry. HIV/AIDS activist Phyu Phyu Thin with patients and volunteers at the National League for Democracy offce in Rangoon on World AIDS Day. (Photo: AFP) With the 1,500-meter peak of Mt Popa nearby bringing cooler breezes and water to an otherwise arid region of eastern Mandalay Division, Kyaukpadang’s location at a major crossroads near the geographical center of Burma favored the town’s development as a trucking center. With larger businesses operating up to 100 trucks, many of the town’s residents are employed in the industry, spending weeks at a time on the road. On Burma’s roads at night, teenage students are known to flag down trucks with flashlights, hitching rides and lifting skirts, passing from truck to truck, leaving sordid memories and sexually transmitted diseases. Even if the drivers are aware of the problem and want to protect themselves, condoms are often unavailable in rural stores dimly lit by oil-lamps, where snacks, tobacco and liquor are sold along with the services of garishly made-up teenagers in a tin hut out back. As a result, when men return to their families in Kyaukpadaung, they often take HIV/AIDS with them..."
Author/creator: Phyu Phyu Thin
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 2
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17693
Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


Title: Myanmar: Delivering Care to Isolated Rohingya
Date of publication: 24 July 2009
Description/subject: Kaci Hickox, a nurse from Texas, worked as the primary health care manager for Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) programs in northern Rakhine state, Myanmar, from May 2007 to March 2009. The majority of MSF patients in this area, on the border of Bangladesh, are part of an ethnic and Muslim group called the Rohingya. They have great difficulty receiving any health care, as travel restrictions or fees for travel permission keep them confined to their own villages. Even if they can reach health care facilities, often members of this group cannot afford to pay and are subjected to discrimination at government- run hospitals or health centers. During the two years she worked in northern Rakhine state, Hickox’s primary responsibility was managing three rural clinics that serve approximately 110,000 Rohingya people.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 05 November 2010


Title: Report of the HIV Sentinel Sero-surveillence Survey 2008, Myanmar
Date of publication: March 2009
Description/subject: Contents: 1. Background... 2. Methodology... 3. Findings: 3.1 HSS(2008) results; 3.1.1 Sample collection; 3.1.2 HIV prevalence by sentinel population; 3.1.3 HIV prevalence by sex and age; 3.1.4 HIV prevalence by place of residence and marital status; 3.2. Results of syphilis screening... 4. Trends over time: 4.1. HIV prevalence among low risk population 1992-2008; 4.2. HIV prevalence among most at risk population 1992-2008; 4.3. HIV prevalence among young population aged 15-24 years... 5. Decentralization of testing... 6. Limitations... 7. Recommendations... Annexes: Annex 1: Total number of blood samples collected during HSS 2008 round... Annex 2: Results of 2008 HIV prevalence (%) per sentinel population and per sites... Annex 3: HIV prevalence by age group... Annex 4: Site specific sero-positive rates(%) and sample size (n) for each sentinel group HSS-2008... Annex 5: Prevalence of syphilis (VDRL+) per sentinel population and per site.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ministry of Health, Union of Myanmar, World Health Organisation
Format/size: pdf (805K)
Date of entry/update: 25 May 2009


Title: Myanmar: Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV and AIDS -- Core data on epidemiology and response
Date of publication: 18 February 2009
Description/subject: Indicators, estimates (disaggregated), demographic and socio-economic data, HIV sentinel surveillance prevalence tables and maps, Health services and care indicators, ARV data, prevention indicators, HIV surveillance prevalence by site (1990-2006)...
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNAIDS
Format/size: pdf (916K)
Date of entry/update: 24 February 2009


Title: Operational Plan, 2008-2010 [Costed] of the Myanmar National Strategic Plan for HIV and AIDS
Date of publication: January 2009
Description/subject: "The Costed Operational Plan for the National Strategic Plan is now available. It is a vital reference document" (HIM)..."The National Strategic Plan on HIV and AIDS 2006-2010 provides the strategic framework of action including priority setting for resource allocation. The associated operational plan specifies the agreed targets and the costs for each of the 13 strategic directions of the National Strategic Plan. The plan intends to guide the implementation of all HIV related activities and services in the country. It addresses all stakeholders from all constituencies. The Operational Plan 2008-2010 is composed of the following elements: 1. detailed strategic directions 1 to 13 including the following elements: a. indicators with targets b. summary of progress, resource needs and future priorities c. costed package of services, costs per year and cost component as well as total costs d. geographical priorities where available 2. a summary budget including expected funding available and gaps in funding 3. the complete monitoring framework, including baseline data, and targets by year. This Operational Plan is in an achievement of the Technical and Strategy Group for HIV and AIDS (TSG) and its associated Working Groups: 1. Care, treatment and support working group 2. Drug users working group 3. Executive working group 4. Mobile populations working group 5. Orphans and vulnerable children working group 6. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission working group 7. Sexual transmission working group (Sex workers and men who have sex with men) 8. Youth working group Furthermore, a peer review of the Operational Plan by the AIDS Strategy and Action Plan (ASAP – hosted by the World Bank on behalf of UNAIDS) provided useful comments for improvement of the structure and content of the plan. The reviewers found the operational plan among the best they had seen. Some of the shortcomings that have been communicated and subsequently addressed are: • the governance structure is explained • the monitoring and evaluation framework and the costing parts have been aligned • the business plan has been reviewed and inconsistencies addressed • the targets have been reviewed and adapted in the context of past achievements, continuing constraints and arising opportunities • costing has been reviewed extensively by the working groups The operational plan does not include specific activities, since it is intended to provide broad guidance to the implementers. Likewise, the national, annual targets express approximately the cumulative national implementation capacity. These fall in many cases short of targets that would be set under an Universal Access scenario. This reflects the particular funding situation of Myanmar where funding constraints are an overwhelming challenge to scale up..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ministry of Health, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/mm%20operational%20plan%202008-2010%20final.pdf
Date of entry/update: 27 January 2009


Title: Prevention of HIV/AIDS among Migrant Workers in Thailand Project (PHAMIT) : The Impact Survey 2008
Date of publication: 2009
Description/subject: "Thailand has experienced some degree of success in preventing uncontrolled spread of HIV, and in providing effective care for persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Nevertheless, HIV transmission is still occurring, especially among those less fortunate who migrate to seek economic opportunity. A prime example of this are the lower-income populations of some of Thailand’s neighbors who come to work on fishing boats or in the fishery industry of Thailand. The vulnerability of these populations comes from their relative lack of knowledge and understanding of HIV prevention and tendency to engage in higher risk sexual behavior than when in their home communities of origin. To address these vulnerabilities, the Prevention of HIV/AIDS among Migrant Workers in Thailand Project (PHAMIT) was conceived and implemented by the Raks Thai Foundation in collaboration with six NGO partners including: Empower Foundation, the Foundation for AIDS Rights (FAR), World Vision Foundation/Thailand, the Stella Maris Seafarers Center, the MAP Foundation, and the Pattanarak Foundation. Funding for the Project was provided by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) with the goal to lower the incidence of HIV among foreign migrant workers in Thailand through communication strategies to reduce risk behaviors and support access from migrants to general health and reproductive health services. The Project was implemented during 2003-2008. In order to independently assess the performance of the PHAMIT Project compared to its targets and objectives, the Raks Thai Foundation contracted with the Institute for Population and Social Research (IPSR) of Mahidol University to conduct a final Project evaluation in 2008. IPSR would like to express its gratitude to Mr. Promboon Panitchapakdi, Executive Director of the Raks Thai Foundation for entrusting this important evaluation to the researchers of IPSR. It is our hope that the findings of this evaluation will be of benefit to the Project implementers, the PHAMIT partners in the field who will continue to deliver the interventions, and to any persons interested in conducting evaluation research of this type."
Author/creator: Aphichat Chamratrithirong Wathinee Boonchalaksi
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University
Format/size: pdf (9.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 17 March 2010


Title: Antenatal Pre-Test Counselling Flipchart -- Testing and Counselling for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (TC for PMTCT) -- Burmese
Date of publication: December 2008
Description/subject: This Material is an adaptation of “The Testing and Counseling for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (TC for PMTCT) Support Tools” initially developed by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS-CDC), Global AIDS Program (GAP), in collaboration with the Department of HIV/AIDS at the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). This material combines “Antenatal Pre-Test Session Flipchart” and “Antenatal Post-Test Session Flipchart” into one single original document, available in Burmese as well as in Karen language. This Flipchart was especially designed and developed to fit the geographical, ethnic and social context of Thai-Burmese border’s refugee camps. This adaptation was made under the supervision of AMI (Aide Médicale Internationale) in Mae Sot, Thailand.
Language: Burmese
Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
Format/size: pdf (7.6 and 9.1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/PMTCT_Flipchart-Burmese-HighDef.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 February 2009


Title: Antenatal Pre-Test Counselling Flipchart -- Testing and Counselling for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (TC for PMTCT) -- Karen
Date of publication: December 2008
Description/subject: This Material is an adaptation of “The Testing and Counseling for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (TC for PMTCT) Support Tools” initially developed by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS-CDC), Global AIDS Program (GAP), in collaboration with the Department of HIV/AIDS at the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). This material combines “Antenatal Pre-Test Session Flipchart” and “Antenatal Post-Test Session Flipchart” into one single original document, available in Burmese as well as in Karen language. This Flipchart was especially designed and developed to fit the geographical, ethnic and social context of Thai-Burmese border’s refugee camps. This adaptation was made under the supervision of AMI (Aide Médicale Internationale) in Mae Sot, Thailand.
Language: Karen
Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
Format/size: pdf (7.2 and 8.7MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/PMTCT_Flipchart-Karen-HighDef.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 February 2009


Title: Drugs and HIV/AIDS Country Programme [Myanmar] (2009-2010)
Date of publication: December 2008
Description/subject: Explanatory notes... Introduction... 1. Overview: 1.1. Background; 1.2. Institutionalized Population; 1.3. Human Trafficking; 1.4. UNODC Strategy; 1.5. United Nations Division of Labour; 1.6. UNODC Drugs and HIV/AIDS Policy; 1.7. HIV/AIDS Situation in Myanmar; 1.8. IDU and DU Situation in the Country; 1.9. Legal Environment; 1.10. Myanmar National Drugs and HIV/AIDS Strategy; 1.11. UNODC Country Office Myanmar Strategy... 2. Drugs and HIV/AIDS Country Programme: 2.1. Scope of the Programme; 2.2. Mission Statement; 2.3. Guiding Principles; 2.4. How We Work; 2.5. What Has to Be Achieved?; 2.6. Objectives and Strategies of the Country Programme; 2.6.1. Coverage; 2.6.2. Strategic Information; 2.6.3. Mainstreaming; 2.7. The Work Plan for 2009-2010; 2.8. Coordination and Partnership; 2.9. Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation; 2.9.1. Planning and Reporting; 2.9.2. Monitoring and Evaluation; 2.9.2.1. Monitoring; 2.9.2.2. Evaluation... Bibliography... Tables: Table 1. Programme Portfolio
Language: English
Source/publisher: Drug Demand Reduction, Drugs and HIV/AIDS Unit , United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Country Office Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.42MB)
Date of entry/update: 28 June 2009


Title: HIV programming in Myanmar
Date of publication: December 2008
Description/subject: Myanmar has one of the most serious HIV epidemics in Asia. Contrary to many perceptions, the response to the epidemic is expanding. Funding for the response has gradually increased over recent years. However, coverage remains unacceptably low, donors seem largely unwilling to inject the resources needed to meet health needs and the government itself significantly under-invests in health. The National Strategic Plan on AIDS 2006–2010 issued by the Ministry of Health provides the reference framework for the response. Despite what might be expected given the environment, the Plan was developed in a participatory fashion, is multi-sectoral and up to date and prioritises service provision for the most at-risk populations. It is supported by a government-led, inclusive technical coordination group. However, significant barriers to service provision exist. These include constraining administrative procedures, controlled access, limited research and a highly politicised context. Nevertheless, the results demonstrate that persistent negotiation can yield agreements resulting in increased services for those in need. Nearly 40 international and national NGOs are implementing successful activities in Myanmar, alongside government efforts and with UN support.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Humanitarian Practice Network (HPT)
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://www.odihpn.org/documents/humanitarianexchange041.pdf
Date of entry/update: 10 November 2010


Title: A preventable fate: The failure of ART scale-up in Myanmar
Date of publication: November 2008
Description/subject: Executive Summary: The situation for many people living with HIV in Myanmar is critical due to a severe lack of lifesaving antiretroviral treatment (ART). MSF currently provides ART to more than 11,000 people. That is the majority of all available treatment countrywide but only a small fraction of what is urgently needed. For five years MSF has continually developed its HIV/AIDS programme to respond to the extensive needs, whilst the response of both the Government of Myanmar and the international community has remained minimal. MSF should not bear the main responsibility for one of Asia’s most serious HIV/AIDS epidemics. Pushed to its limit by the lack of other services providing ART, MSF has had to make the painful decision to restrict the number of new patients it can treat. With few options to refer new patients for treatment elsewhere, the situation is dire. An estimated 240,000 people are currently infected with HIV in Myanmar. 76,000 of these people are in urgent need of ART, yet less than 20 % of them receive it through the combined efforts of MSF, other international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the Government of Myanmar. For the remaining people the private market offers little assistance as the most commonly used first-line treatment costs the equivalent of a month’s average wage. The lack of accessible treatment resulted in 25,000 AIDS related deaths in 2007 and a similar number of people are expected to suffer the same fate this year, unless HIV/AIDS services - most importantly the provision of ART - are urgently scaled-up. The Government of Myanmar and the International Community need to mobilize quickly in order to address this situation. Currently, the Government spends a mere 0.3% of the gross domestic product on health, the lowest amount worldwide4, a small portion of which goes to HIV/AIDS. Likewise, overseas development aid for Myanmar is the second lowest per capita worldwide and few of the big international donors provide any resources to the country. Yet, 189 member states of the United Nations, including Myanmar, endorsed the Millennium Development Goals, including the aim to “Achieve universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it, by 2010”. As it stands, this remains a far cry from becoming a reality in Myanmar. As an MSF ART patient in Myanmar stated, “All people must have a spirit of humanity in helping HIV patients regardless of nation, organization or government. We are all human beings so we must help each other”. Unable to continue shouldering the primary responsibility for responding to one of Asia’s worst HIV crises, MSF insists that the Government of Myanmar and international organizations urgently and rapidly scale-up ART provision. A vast gulf exists between the needs related to HIV/AIDS and the services provided. Unless ART provision is rapidly scaled-up many more people will needlessly suffer and die.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF)
Format/size: pdf (735K)
Date of entry/update: 27 November 2008


Title: National Strategic Plan for HIV & AIDS in Myanmar - Progress Report 2006
Date of publication: October 2008
Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: INTRODUCTION 11... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 1 : SEX WORKERS AND7 THEIR CLIENTS 13... STRATEGIC DRIECTION 2 : MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN (MSM) 19... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 3 : DRUG USERS 23... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 4 : PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV, THEIR PARTNERS AND FAMILIES 29... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 5 : INSTITUTIONALIZED POPULATIONS 31... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 6 : MOBILE POPULATION 33... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 7 : UNIFORMED SERVICES 35... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 8 : YOUNG PEOPLE 37... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 9 : WORKPLACE 41... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 10 : PREVENTION FOR WOMEN AND MEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE 43... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 11 : COMPREHENSIVE CARE, SUPPORT AND TREATMENT 47... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 12 : ENHANCING THE CAPACITY OF THE HEALTH SYSTEM 55... STRATEGIC DIRECTION 13 : MONITORING AND EVALUATION 57... FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND EXPENDITURES 61... ANNEX – Achievements in states and divisions.....FIGURES: Figure 1 Number of townships covered by 100% Targeted Condom Promotion programme (n=324) 16; Figure 2 Male condom distribution (free and social marketing) 1999-2006 - Myanmar 17; Figure 3 Number of Injecting Drug Users reached by Drop in Centre and outreach program 25; Figure 4 Number of drug users reached in 2006 25; Figure 5 Number of needles and syringes distributed to IDUs in 2006 26; Figure 6 Number of mobile population reported by prevention activities in different states and divisions 34; Figure 7 People received test results and post-test counselling 45; Figure 8 Syphilis prevalence from ANC data – 1997-2006 45; Figure 9 Service Delivery Points run and supported by partners 46; Figure 10 Total number of people receiving ART – 2002-2006 48; Figure 11 Number of people receiving ART by age and gender - 2006 48; Figure 12 PMCT implementing areas in 2006 51; Figure 13 Number of pregnant women accessing VCCT 2003-2006 51; Figure 14 Number of mother-baby pairs receiving Nevirapine 2000-2006 52; Figure 15 Number of people receiving home based care – 2000-2006 53; Figure 16 HIV prevalence trends for injecting drug users, male patients with sexually transmitted infections, female sex workers and tuberculosis patients 57; Figure 17 HIV prevalence trends for pregnant women attending antenatal care, blood donors and military recruits 58; Figure 18 Percentage and number reported AIDS cases – 1993-2006 59; Figure 19 Estimated resource needs and availability – 2004-2008 61..... TABLES: Table 1 Priority ranking of the Strategic Directions of the National Strategic Plan 12; Table 2 Condoms distributed by partners 17; Table 3 Men who have sex with men reached in top 10; townships - 2006 20; Table 4 Number of persons in institutions reached by health education programmes 32; Table 5 Number of mobile population reached by organisation - 2006 34; Table 6 Out of school youth reached by all partners by state and division – 200638 Table 7 Number of people reached through workplace interventions by partner – 2006 42; Table 8 People reached through workplace interventions by state and division – 2006 42; Table 9 Number of PLHIV receiving ARV 49; Table 10 Treatment and prophylaxis of opportunistic infections – 2006 50; Table 11 People receiving home based care 53; Table 12 Orphans and vulnerable children supported by state and division - 2006 54.....MAPS: Map 1 Sex workers reached by township (total n=36,000 reached as reported by NGOs) 15; Map 2 Condoms distributed through 18; Map 3 Condoms for free distributed by 18 Map 4 Men who have sex with men reached by township (n=28,566) - 2006 21; Map 5 Location of Drop-in Centres for drug users - 2006 26; Map 6 Location of ART sites 49; Map 7 Geographical location of PMCT sites - 2006 52...... COVERAGE ON NATIONAL RESPONSE - State and Division: Myanmar 66; Ayeyarwady Division 67; Bago Division 68; Chin State 69; Kachin State 70; Kayar State 71; Kayin State 72; Magway Division 73; Mandalay Division 74; Mon State 75; Rakhine State 76; Sagaing Division 77; Shan State 78; Tanintharyi Diision 79; Yangon Division 80.
Language: English
Source/publisher: National AIDS Control Programme, Myanmar Dept. of Health
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 28 October 2008


Title: “First, What is Harm?” The Political Dilemmas of Humanitarian Aid to Burma (Myanmar)
Date of publication: September 2008
Description/subject: "Reducing HIV/AIDS prevalence in Burma1 (Myanmar) presents a significant challenge for international aid agencies and donors. Ruled by a succession of military regimes since 1962, Myanmar faces a growing humanitarian crisis with the second worst health system in the world (World Health Organization). Weak state capacity exacerbates the country!s health dilemmas. However, the government!s lack of domestic and international legitimacy makes harmonizing projects to improve state capacity politically sensitive and logistically arduous. Burma!s difficult operating environment has even made it the only country from which the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria has withdrawn its programs.2 Yet the extent of the AIDS epidemic in the country underlies the need to structure aid programs to work within the restrictive context and mitigate further disaster. Given the country!s intractable political situation, what lessons can be learned from international HIV/AIDS programs that have not only sustained but also expanded their efforts in Burma? This paper draws from over ten months of ethnographical interviews with aid workers, field visits to project sites in Yangon and its surrounding villages, and a literature review on humanitarian aid to fragile states. The problems of corruption, weak bureaucratic structure, restrictions on aid flows, inability to appropriately monitor programs, and capricious governmental policies have been well documented in Burma. However, there is little mention in the existing literature of how programs have managed to deliver aid in the face of the various constraints. Particularly missing from the standard analysis is how the national staff of aid organizations interact with local governmental authorities to expand the humanitarian space in which to operate. By focusing on the perceptions of field staff and the practical methods of aid delivery, this paper presents an embedded view of HIV/AIDS programs in Burma..."
Author/creator: Ohnmar Khin
Language: English
Source/publisher: AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative - ASCI Research Report No. 14, September 2008
Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 19 January 2010


Title: NOT MUCH BANG FOR THE AID BUCK -- FUND for HIV/AIDS IN MYANMAR (FHAM)
Date of publication: 11 July 2008
Description/subject: The handing over of money to the international NGOs, UN agencies, Burma's government (I use the term loosely) and the Burmese NGOs does not mean that the resources are used effectively and efficiently for the people of Burma. Uncovering the performance of aid - that is its cost effectiveness and its impact on the intended recipients is not necessarily an easy task. It is also a task made more difficult by the poor quality of the information generally provided by the donors and the recipient organisations.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Economic Watch blog
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 November 2008


Title: Three major diseases in Myanmar
Date of publication: June 2008
Description/subject: JAPAN International Cooperation is leading the fight against three major diseases in Myanmar. The Myanmar Times’ Khin Myat met with JICA project leader and tuberculosis specialist, Mr Kosuke Okada, and malaria expert Mr Masatoshi Nakamura to ask about their activities. 1. How much money is JICA spending annually to control these diseases? Our project period is from January 2005 to January 2010. We have been spending around ¥150 million per year on long- and short-term experts, international and domestic training, provision of equipment such as vehicles, lab equipment, microscopes, mosquito nets, lab test kits, local training and consumables.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Times (Volume 22, No. 425)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 November 2010


Title: An assessment of vulnerability to HIV infection of boatmen in Teknaf, Bangladesh
Date of publication: 14 March 2008
Description/subject: Conclusion: "Boatmen in Teknaf are an integral part of a high-risk sexual behaviour network between Myanmar and Bangladesh. They are at risk of obtaining HIV infection due to cross border mobility and unsafe sexual practices. There is an urgent need for designing interventions targeting boatmen in Teknaf to combat an impending epidemic of HIV among this group. They could be included in the serological surveillance as a vulnerable group. Interventions need to address issues on both sides of the border, other vulnerable groups, and refugees. Strong political will and cross border collaboration is mandatory for such interventions."
Author/creator: Rukhsana Gazi, Alec Mercer, Tanyaporn Wansom, Humayun Kabir, Nirod Chandra Saha, Tasnim Azim
Language: English
Source/publisher: Conflict and Health 2008, 2:5
Format/size: pdf (154K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.conflictandhealth.com/content/2/1/5
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2008


Title: Displacement and disease: the Shan exodus and infectious disease implications for Thailand
Date of publication: 14 March 2008
Description/subject: Abstract: "Decades of neglect and abuses by the Burmese government have decimated the health of the peoples of Burma, particularly along her eastern frontiers, overwhelmingly populated by ethnic minorities such as the Shan. Vast areas of traditional Shan homelands have been systematically depopulated by the Burmese military regime as part of its counter-insurgency policy, which also employs widespread abuses of civilians by Burmese soldiers, including rape, torture, and extrajudicial executions. These abuses, coupled with Burmese government economic mismanagement which has further entrenched already pervasive poverty in rural Burma, have spawned a humanitarian catastrophe, forcing hundreds of thousands of ethnic Shan villagers to flee their homes for Thailand. In Thailand, they are denied refugee status and its legal protections, living at constant risk for arrest and deportation. Classified as “economic migrants,” many are forced to work in exploitative conditions, including in the Thai sex industry, and Shan migrants often lack access to basic health services in Thailand. Available health data on Shan migrants in Thailand already indicates that this population bears a disproportionately high burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV, tuberculosis, lymphatic filariasis, and some vaccine-preventable illnesses, undermining progress made by Thailand’s public health system in controlling such entities. The ongoing failure to address the root political causes of migration and poor health in eastern Burma, coupled with the many barriers to accessing health programs in Thailand by undocumented migrants, particularly the Shan, virtually guarantees Thailand’s inability to sustainably control many infectious disease entities, especially along her borders with Burma."
Author/creator: Voravit Suwanvanichkij
Language: English
Source/publisher: Conflict and Health 2008, 2:4
Format/size: pdf (170K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.conflictandhealth.com/content/2/1/4
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2008


Title: Increase coverage of HIV and AIDS services in Myanmar
Date of publication: 14 March 2008
Description/subject: Abstract: "Myanmar is experiencing an HIV epidemic documented since the late 1980s. The National AIDS Programme national surveillance ante-natal clinics had already estimated in 1993 that 1.4% of pregnant women were HIV positive, and UNAIDS estimates that at end 2005 1.3% (range 0.7-2.0%) of the adult population was living with HIV. While a HIV surveillance system has been in place since 1992, the programmatic response to the epidemic has been slower to emerge although short- and medium-terms plans have been formulated since 1990. These early plans focused on the health sector, omitted key population groups at risk of HIV transmission and have not been adequately funded. The public health system more generally is severely under-funded. By the beginning of the new decade, a number of organisations had begun working on HIV and AIDS, though not yet in a formally coordinated manner. The Joint Programme on AIDS in Myanmar 2003- 2005 was an attempt to deliver HIV services through a planned and agreed strategic framework. Donors established the Fund for HIV/AIDS in Myanmar (FHAM), providing a pooled mechanism for funding and 2 significantly increasing the resources available in Myanmar. By 2006 substantial advances had been made in terms of scope and diversity of service delivery, including outreach to most at risk populations to HIV. More organisations provided more services to an increased number of people. Services ranged from the provision of HIV prevention messages via mass media and through peers from high-risk groups, to the provision of care, treatment and support for people living with HIV. However, the data also show that this scaling up has not been sufficient to reach the vast majority of people in need of HIV and AIDS services. The operating environment constrains activities, but does not, in general, prohibit them. The slow rate of service expansion can be attributed to the burdens imposed by administrative measures, broader constraints on research, debate and organizing, and insufficient resources. Nevertheless, evidence of recent years illustrates that increased investment leads to more services provided to people in need, helping them to obtain their right to health care. But service expansion, policy improvement and capacity building cannot occur without more resources."
Author/creator: Brian Williams, Daniel Baker, Markus Bühler, Charles Petrie.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Conflict and Health 2008, 2:3
Format/size: pdf (238K)
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2008


Title: Selling Safer Sex in Conservative Burma
Date of publication: September 2007
Description/subject: HIV/AIDS education efforts face many obstacles... "Gasps rippled through the group of young people gathered for a workshop on HIV/AIDS prevention and education in the former capital Rangoon. The girls covered their eyes, and the boys sent nervous glances anywhere but at the front of the room, where an instructor stood before an upright model penis. Condoms on sale at a market stall in Rangoon [Photo: Pat Brown] “Look at it, please,” the workshop leader urged. “How can you learn to protect yourself against HIV if you are too shy to watch a demonstration about how to use a condom?” This kind of response to condom education is typical in Burma, where an estimated 360,000 people currently live with HIV, according to a UNAIDS report in 2006. Today, condoms can be easily obtained in retail shops in Rangoon and other major cities in Burma. But the country’s predominantly conservative culture can make them a difficult sell. “I don’t sell condoms in my store any more because many of my staff are young girls who find it difficult to sell them,” said a shop owner in Kyeemyindaing..."
Author/creator: Htet Aung
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 9
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


Title: Myanmar 2007 EPI Fact Sheet
Date of publication: 12 August 2007
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Health Organization, SEARO, IVD
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2010


Title: The Gathering Storm: Infectious Diseases and Human Rights in Burma
Date of publication: July 2007
Description/subject: "Decades of repressive military rule, civil war, corruption, bad governance, isolation, and widespread violations of human rights and international humanitarian law have rendered Burma’s health care system incapable of responding effectively to endemic and emerging infectious diseases. Burma’s major infectious diseases—malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis (TB)—are severe health problems in many areas of the country. Malaria is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease in Burma. Eighty-nine percent of the estimated population of 52 million lived in malarial risk areas in 1994, with about 80 percent of reported infections due to Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous form of the disease. Burma has one of the highest TB rates in the world, with nearly 97,000 new cases detected each year.4 Drug resistance to both TB and malaria is rising, as is the broad availability of counterfeit antimalarial drugs. In June 2007, a TB clinic operated by Médecins Sans Frontières–France in the Thai border town of Mae Sot reported it had confirmed two cases of extensively drugresistant TB in Burmese migrants who had previously received treatment in Burma. Meanwhile, HIV/AIDS, once contained to high-risk groups in Burma, has spread to the general population, which is defined as a prevalence of 1 percent among reproductive-age adults.5 Meanwhile, the Burmese government spends less than 3 percent of national expenditures on health, while the military, with a standing army of over 400,000 troops, consumes 40 percent.6 By comparison, many of Burma’s neighbors spend considerably more on health: Thailand (6.1%7), China (5.6 %8), India (6.1%9), Laos (3.2%10), Bangladesh (3.4%11), and Cambodia (12%12).....The report recommends that: • The Burmese government develop a national health care system in which care is distributed effectively, equitably, and transparently. • The Burmese government increase its spending on health and education to confront the country’s long-standing health problems, especially the rise of drug-resistant malaria and tuberculosis. • The Burmese government rescind guidelines issued last year by the country’s Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development because these guidelines have restricted such organizations as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) from providing relief in Burma. • The Burmese government allow ICRC to resume visits to prisoners without the requirement that ICRC doctors be accompanied by members of the Union Solidarity and Development Association or other organizations. • The Burmese government take immediate steps to halt the internal conflict and violations of international human rights and humanitarian law in eastern Burma that are creating an unprecedented number of internally displaced persons and facilitating the spread of infectious diseases in the region. • Foreign aid organizations and donors monitor and evaluate how aid to combat infectious diseases in Burma is affecting domestic expenditures on health and education. • Relevant national and local government agencies, United Nations agencies, NGOs establish a regional narcotics working group which would assess drug trends in the region and monitor the impact of poppy eradication programs on farming communities. • UN agencies, national and local governments, and international and local NGOs cooperate closely to facilitate greater information-sharing and collaboration among agencies and organizations working to lessen the burden of infectious diseases in Burma and its border regions. These institutions must develop a regional response to the growing problem of counterfeit antimalarial drugs."
Author/creator: Eric Stover, Voravit Suwanvanichkij, Andrew Moss, David Tuller, Thomas J. Lee, Emily Whichard, Rachel Shigekane, Chris Beyrer, David Scott Mathieson
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Center, University of California, Berkeley; Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Format/size: pdf (5.1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.jhsph.edu/humanrights/images/GatheringStorm_BurmaReport_2007.pdf
Date of entry/update: 29 June 2007


Title: From “Public Hot Air” to “Public Strength”
Date of publication: 02 April 2007
Description/subject: A call for reform of UN agencies, including UNAIDS.
Author/creator: Dr. Saw Lwin
Language: Burmese, English
Source/publisher: Alindan Journal
Format/size: pdf (50K)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2007


Title: Drug Demand Reduction and HIV Prevention in Myanmar
Date of publication: April 2007
Description/subject: "Opium poppy has been cultivated in Myanmar for more than a century. Farmers have traditionally relied on its cultivation to offset rice deficits and to purchase basic goods. Opium has also been used as a painkiller and to alleviate the symptoms associated with diarrhoea, cough and other ailments. Additionally, the use of opium as medicine is often exacerbated by the lack of access to health care services. As the production and consumption of drugs are often linked, opiates remain the most widely used illicit drug within the country, with approximately an even split between heroin and opium use. In recent years, however, there appears to be a trend away from the traditional smoking of opium to injecting heroin. Moreover, the use of Amphetamine- Type Stimulants (ATS), especially by young people, is rapidly increasing. Drug use is considered in many countries as a criminal offence, often driving it underground, where users remain hidden and unmonitored. The stigma and marginalisation frequently experienced by drug users often means that they are excluded from access to medical services. The consequences of drug use on society are numerous and include, adverse effects on health; crime, violence and corruption; draining of human, natural and financial resources that might otherwise be used for social and economic development; erosion of individual, family and community ties; and undermining of political, cultural, social and economic structures. The situation is made even more critical by the economic hardships many drug users experience. This is certainly the case in Myanmar. In addition, injecting drug use and the sharing of equipment is an extremely high-risk behaviour in relation to HIV transmission..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) - Myanmar Country Office
Format/size: pdf (676K)
Date of entry/update: 30 June 2010


Title: Article on academic research universities
Date of publication: 12 March 2007
Author/creator: Dr., Saw Lwin
Language: Burmese
Source/publisher: Alindan Journal
Format/size: pdf (1MB)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2007


Title: Myanmar National Strategic Plan on HIV and AIDS 2006-2010
Date of publication: 23 February 2007
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The HIV epidemics in Myanmar remain largely concentrated among people identified with high-risk behaviours, in particular sex workers and their clients, injecting drug users and men having sex with men; and populations identified as highly vulnerable on the basis of their young age, gender, mobility and social or occupational characteristics. This focus of the epidemics calls for the urgent strengthening of prevention, care and treatment programmes addressing primarily the needs of these populations. The responses to the HIV epidemic to date have been diverse and great sources of learning, and demonstrated the capacity to respond to the HIV epidemic successfully in Myanmar, but are not being implemented to a scale sufficiently enough to slow down the epidemic or mitigate its impact. Confronting an unabated HIV epidemic, the Government of Myanmar decided to embark on a comprehensive prevention, care and treatment strategy which would build on the experience and enrol the participation of all actors committed to this goal. Accordingly, this National Strategic Plan was the first in Myanmar developed using participator y processes, with direct involvement of all sectors involved in the national response to the HIV epidemic. Contributions were made by the Ministry of Health, several other government ministries, United Nations entities, local non-government organizations, international non-government organizations, people living with HIV and people from vulnerable groups. The National Strategic Plan 2006 – 2010 was prepared following a series of reviews which looked at the progress and experiences of activities during the first half of the decade. These included a midterm review of the Joint Programme for HIV/ AIDS in 2005 and a review of the National AIDS Programme in 2006, as well as many diverse studies and reviews of particular programmes and projects. The National Strategic Plan identifies what is now required to improve national and local responses, bring partners together to reinforce the effectiveness of all responses, and build more effective management, coordination, monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. It builds on current responses, identifies initiatives which are working and need to be scaled up to have maximum impact, builds on key principles which will underline the national response, outlines broadly the approaches to be used for prevention, treatment, care and support, and delineates strategic directions and activity areas to be further developed in order to mitigate the impact of the epidemic. Ambitious service delivery targets have been set, aiming towards ' to prevention and care services. The National Strategic Plan is composed of two parts: Part One, presenting background information, aim, objectives, key principles, strategic directions, approaches and information on roles of participating entities and coordinating mechanisms; and Part Two, presenting, for each strategic direction activity area, outcomes, outputs, indicators and targets. The subsequent formulation of a Plan of Operations and accompanying budgets will translate key principles and broad directions set out in the strategic plan into a directly actionable and costed plan relevant to all aspects of the national response to HIV and to all partners in this unprecedented effort. Building on previous experiences and lessons learned by all partners about what works best in the specific context of Myanmar, the National Strategic Plan identifies the key principles underpinning both the plan itself and its future implementation. Among these are: the adherence to the "Three Ones" principles – One HIV and AIDS Action Framework; one National Coordinating Authority; and one Monitoring and Evaluation System – the participation of people living with HIV in every aspect and at every stage of the strategy, a primary emphasis on outcomes, defined as targeted behaviour changes and use of services; and a focus on the Township level with selected "Accelerated Townships" receiving support towards accelerated programme implementation. Key principles bring into focus populations at higher risk and vulnerability and with the greatest needs, ensuring that their needs are met to the maximum extent possible and that their participation in activities concerning them is secured. The development and implementation of an enabling environment is central to this approach, recognizing the negative effects that lack of information, inequality, discrimination and non-participation have on the reduction of HIV related risk and vulnerability. The strategy will strive to scale up programme coverage and use of services to the maximum achievable levels of resource availability and implementing capacity. It will build on evidence as strategic information guides decision and action and will achieve value for money as financial and other resources are incrementally mobilized and efficiently used. Working across sectors of government will gradually expand as capacity is built. The strategy will rely on collaboration between government and other public, private and non-government entities while mechanisms for coordination at the central and peripheral levels are enhanced. The National Strategic Plan for Myanmar aims at reducing HIV transmission and HIV related morbidity, mortality, disability and social and economic impact. Its objectives are to: reduce HIV transmission and vulnerability, particularly among people at highest risk; improve the quality and length of life of people living with HIV through treatment, care and support; and mitigate the social, cultural and economic impacts of the epidemic. Strategic directions are primarily defined on the basis of beneficiary populations. They include the reduction of HIV-related risk, vulnerability and impact among sex workers and their clients, men who have sex with men, drug users, partners and families of people living with HIV, institutionalized populations, mobile populations, uniformed services personnel, young people, individuals in the workplace and, more generally, men and women of reproductive age. They strive to meet the needs of people living with HIV for comprehensive care, support and treatment through the scaling up of services and use of a participatory approach. In order to expand the ability of all actors to engage fully in this collaborative effort, strategic directions also include the enhancement of the capacity of health systems and the strengthening of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. This National Strategic Plan is a living document: it lends itself to adjustments and revisions as further experience is gained, resources are mobilized and evidence of success and shortcomings is generated through monitoring, special studies and mid-term and end-of-term evaluations."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ministry of Health, Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.31MB)
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


Title: Article on International NGOs
Date of publication: 05 February 2007
Author/creator: Dr. Saw Lwin
Language: Burmese
Source/publisher: Alindan Journal
Format/size: pdf (717K)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2007


Title: Assessment of Mobility and HIV Vulnerability among Myanmar Migrant Sex Workers and Factory Workers in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand
Date of publication: 2007
Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "...[T]his assessment examines mobility and HIV vulnerability among Myanmar migrants in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Environmental and social factors, service access, knowledge, and behavioural vulnerabilities, along with gender issues, stigma and discrimination, are addressed. Undertaken from December 2005 through April 2006, this assessment aims to assist the Royal Thai Government (RTG) and partners to develop more effective policies and programmes for preventing HIV transmission, and to improve access to HIV and AIDS treatment and care among selected Myanmar migrants. The assessment team employed a collaborative qualitative and quantitative research approach to assess HIV vulnerability among migrant sex workers and migrant factory workers. A total of six focus group discussions were conducted with both direct and indirect sex workers, while six and four focus group discussions were conducted with male and female factory workers respectively. Eight individual interviews with direct and indirect sex workers were completed. Key informants and gatekeepers were consulted and snowball sampling was used to establish the appropriate groups or individuals for interview. The quantitative component of the assessment was designed using probability proportionate to size (PPS) sampling methodology, and a pre-tested questionnaire was consequently administered to 819 migrant factory workers between the ages of 15 and 49 in 12 factories in Mae Sot District. There were 312 male and 507 female respondents, all of Myanmar origin. Through the research, the assessment team learned that migrants arrive in Thailand with little or no knowledge about HIV/AIDS and sexual health, and in some cases basic knowledge of reproductive health. Though training and outreach programmes have reached some of the factory worker and sex worker populations, knowledge remains at a very basic level and is predominantly disseminated by friends and siblings who attended various trainings. The qualitative and quantitative findings show that most of those demonstrating some knowledge of HIV/AIDS were merely reiterating what was disseminated during the outreach. Important knowledge and some behavioural gaps persist. From as far as Sagaing in central Myanmar to just across the bridge in Myawaddy, migrants working at the factories of Mae Sot District are from diverse areas within Myanmar. The largest numbers, however, are from Mawlamyaing and Bago in Kayin State, in the eastern region of Myanmar. The driving forces behind the migration of the predominantly rural Myanmar population to Mae Sot District include financial difficulties back home due to debt, death or sickness, and the hope for a better life in the future. 1 Some of those who arrive in Myawaddy are brought to the Thai side of the border through the employment of “carriers” or brokers (commonly referred to as gae-ri in Bamar or nai nah in Thai), who offer migrants job placement opportunities that would otherwise be almost impossible to achieve without a contact. Under such schemes, female migrants are particularly vulnerable to exploitation. There is evidence to suggest that brokers provide the initial capital for the women to migrate to Thailand and then sell them to a karaoke bar or brothel. The women are then bound to work off the amount of money that was paid by the brothel to the broker. Though factory work is certainly the most sought after type of employment, it is not consistently available. Many migrants are forced to wait several months for positions or find other endeavours as day labourers, farmhands, construction workers or housemaids, or simply return home. The ultimate goal for the majority of migrants working in Thailand is to accumulate enough capital to eventually return home to family and friends and use that capital for commercial pursuits. Should such pursuits fail, the individual often considers returning to Thailand. Sex workers are vulnerable to HIV primarily due to the high risk of their profession. Indirect sex workers (those working out of a karaoke bar, restaurant or freelance) are particularly vulnerable because information and services do not reach them. Conversely, factory workers demonstrated little vulnerability to HIV due to their sparse amount of free time, restriction of movement outside the factory compound, lack of extramarital sex, conservative social values and lack of disposable income. Their lack of knowledge with respect to HIV/AIDS and sexual health, however, creates some vulnerability. These findings could be confirmed by results from studies in other provinces/countries with migrants from other countries such as Lao PDR. Efforts need to be increased to provide culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infection (STI) information to migrants, using strategies that facilitate analysis of personal risk perception. Health-care providers require improved sensitivity to the basic needs of migrants, including respect for confidentiality in the clinical setting. The importance of the public sector in providing STI, HIV and reproductive health services to migrants cannot be overemphasized. Migrants express a clear preference for STI treatment in the public health sector because they can better remain anonymous in the clinical Thai setting. Many direct sex workers (brothel-based sex workers) are already assisted through regular check-ups at Mae Sot General Hospital. Factory workers and sex workers involved in the study trust government health-care providers over nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations. Great impact can be made by strengthening collaboration between government health-care providers and both the private sector and the migrants themselves. Migrant community health workers working under the direction of the health authorities can be an effective mechanism (e.g., the IOM-Ministry of Public Health [MOPH] Migrant Health 2 Programme model). Sensitivity, confidentiality and communication skills of public sector health-care providers should be strengthened for improved impact. Moreover, existing programmes (e.g., the hospital’s STI clinic) could be strengthened to ensure that migrants receive appropriate referral to an array of government and NGO services locally available. During the study it was clear that the agencies working on HIV-related programmes are neither communicating regularly nor cooperating effectively with one another. A strengthened coordination mechanism is warranted wherein government, NGO, and private sector stakeholders can improve transparency, share materials and information, strengthen referral networks and create improved working relationships. Although the study faced several obstacles, particularly regarding issues on access to targeted populations which affected the representativeness of the study sampling, the research team had used the best of their knowledge and skills in minimizing the study bias. It is the hope of the assessment team that the information contained within this study will assist in informing policy makers and implementers in improving STIs/HIV programmes for migrants in Mae Sot District and elsewhere in Thailand.
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Organisation for Migration (IOM), UNAIDS
Format/size: pdf (768K)
Date of entry/update: 22 November 2009


Title: Effective HIV/AIDS support in Myanmar (Burma) and sustained development
Date of publication: 21 December 2006
Description/subject: "Although political sanctions preclude Burma from consistent international financial contributions to HIV/AIDS, the first program to access ARV drugs for the HIV+/AIDS patients in the public sector has been funded by a private company: Yadana (Total and partners) and implemented by an international NGO: the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUTLD) also called "The Union". The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Ministry of Health of Myanmar support this program. It started April 1st, 2005 at the General Hospital (MGH) of Mandalay the second largest city of the country where 7000 HIV+ patients are estimated to be in need of ARVs...."
Author/creator: Odile Picard
Language: English
Source/publisher: Retrovirology. 2006; 3(Suppl 1): P75.
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 January 2008


Title: Myanmar: New Threats to Humanitarian Aid
Date of publication: 08 December 2006
Description/subject: "The delivery of humanitarian assistance in Burma/Myanmar is facing new threats. After a period in which humanitarian space expanded, aid agencies have come under renewed pressure, most seriously from the military government but also from pro-democracy activists overseas who seek to curtail or control assistance programs. Restrictions imposed by the military regime have worsened in parallel with its continued refusal to permit meaningful opposition political activity and its crackdown on the Karen. The decision of the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to withdraw from the country in 2005 was a serious setback, which put thousands of lives in jeopardy, although it has been partly reversed by the new Three Diseases Fund (3D Fund). There is a need to get beyond debates over the country's highly repressive political system; failure to halt the slide towards a humanitarian crisis could shatter social stability and put solutions beyond the reach of whatever government is in power..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group -- Asia Briefing N°58
Format/size: pdf (199K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/south-east-asia/burma-myanmar/b58_myanmar___new_threats_to_humanitarian_aid.ashx
Date of entry/update: 28 December 2006


Title: Myanmar National Strategic Plan on HIV and AIDS Operational Plan April 2006- March 2009
Date of publication: 23 September 2006
Description/subject: "1. Introduction The Operational Plan 2006 -2009 was developed following the development of the National Strategic Plan 2006 – 2010. The Operational Plan, using the National Strategic Plan as a guide for decisions on priorities and scaling up, provides a range of products associated with the planning, monitoring and implementation that require the input and involvement of many different stakeholders. A NSP flow-chart has been developed to clearly identify the steps, timing, and actors responsible for leading and/or being involved in processes (cf annex). A training workshop was conducted in April 2006 on estimation of resources need and provisional rapid costing for resource mobilization. As a result, yearly targets and estimated cost of each component and sub-component of the strategic plan 2006 - 2010 were formulated. A core team of experts for the same to undertake future costing work was also formed. The Operational Plan incorporates all existing resources. The three year Operational Planning Cycle aims to encourage longer term financing. Each year, the immediately forthcoming year will be developed in greater detail to ensure coordination, identify specific actors and geographical areas, assess key enabling environment issues which need to be addressed, and better plan financial flows. The annual review of a three-year rolling plan thus balances the desire for longer-term financing with the need for annual review of progress, changing conditions and more detailed planning. Funding for Year 1 (April 2006 to March 2007) includes existing resources from the Global Fund and the FHAM which are mostly available up to December 2006. Funding to fill the gaps will be sought from a variety of sources, including increased domestic contributions, pooled donor mechanisms such as the 3-Diseases Humanitarian Fund for Myanmar, bilateral development agencies and other sources. The Operational Plan is composed of a set of documents, including: • description of the strategic directions and indicators with targets, including scaling-up and geographical priorities • business plan and budget • Monitoring and Evaluation Framework."
Language: English
Format/size: pdf (192K)
Date of entry/update: 11 February 2007


Title: Myanmar National Strategic Plan on HIV and AIDS 2006-2010 (draft)
Date of publication: 28 June 2006
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The HIV epidemics in Myanmar remain largely concentrated among people identified with high-risk behaviours, in particular sex workers and their clients, injecting drug users and men having sex with men; and populations identified as highly vulnerable on the basis of their young age, gender, mobility and social or occupational characteristics. This focus of the epidemics calls for the urgent strengthening of prevention, care and treatment programmes addressing primarily the needs of these populations. The responses to the HIV epidemic to date have been diverse and great sources of learning, and demonstrated the capacity to respond to the HIV epidemic successfully in Myanmar, but are not being implemented to a scale sufficient to slow down the epidemic or mitigate its impact. Confronting an unabated HIV epidemic, the Government of Myanmar decided to embark on a comprehensive prevention, care and treatment strategy which would build on the experience and enrol the participation of all actors committed to this goal. Accordingly, this National Strategic Plan was the first in Myanmar developed using participatory processes, with direct involvement of all sectors involved in the national response to the HIV epidemic. Contributions were made by the Ministry of Health, several other government ministries, United Nations entities, local non-government organizations, international non-government organizations, people living with HIV and people drawn from vulnerable groups. The National Strategic Plan 2006 – 2010 was prepared following a series of reviews which looked at the progress and experiences of activities during the first half of the decade. These included a mid-term review of the Joint Programme for HIV/AIDS in 2005 and a review of the National AIDS Programme in 2006, as well as many diverse studies and reviews of particular programmes and projects. The National Strategic Plan identifies what is now required to improve national and local responses, bring partners together to reinforce the effectiveness of all responses, and build more effective management, coordination, monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. It builds on current responses, identifies initiatives which are working and need to be scaled up to have maximum impact, builds on key principles which will underlie the national response, outlines broadly the approaches to be used for prevention, treatment, care and support, and delineates strategic directions and activity areas to be further developed in order to mitigate the impact of the epidemic. Ambitious service delivery targets have been set, aiming towards ‘Universal Access’ to prevention and care services. The National Strategic Plan is composed of two parts: Part One, presenting background information, aim, objectives, key principles, strategic directions, approaches and information on roles of participating entities and coordinating mechanisms; and Part Two, presenting, for each strategic direction activity area, outcomes, outputs, indicators and targets. The subsequent formulation of a Plan of Operations and accompanying budgets will translate key principles and broad directions set out in the strategic plan into a directly actionable and costed plan relevant to all aspects of the national response to HIV and to all partners in this unprecedented effort. Building on previous experiences and lessons learned by all partners about what works best in the specific context of Myanmar, the National Strategic Plan identifies the key principles underpinning both the plan itself and its future implementation. Among these are: the adherence to the “Three Ones” principles – One HIV and AIDS Action Framework; one National Coordinating Authority; and one Monitoring and Evaluation System – the participation of people living with HIV in every aspect and at every stage of the strategy, a primary emphasis on outcomes, defined as targeted behaviour changes and use of services; and a focus on the Township level with selected “Accelerated Townships” receiving support towards accelerated programme implementation. Key principles bring into focus populations at higher risk and vulnerability and with the greatest needs, ensuring that their needs are met to the maximum extent possible and that their participation in activities concerning them is secured. The development and implementation of an enabling environment is central to this approach, recognizing the negative effects that lack of information, inequality, discrimination and non-participation have on the reduction of HIV-related risk and vulnerability. The strategy will strive to scale up programme coverage and use of services to the maximum achievable levels of resource availability and implementing capacity. It will build on evidence as strategic information guides decision and action and will achieve value for money as financial and other resources are incrementally mobilized and efficiently used. Working across sectors of government will gradually expand as capacity is built. The strategy will rely on collaboration between government and other public, private and non-government entities while mechanisms for coordination at the central and peripheral levels are enhanced. The National Strategic Plan for Myanmar aims at reducing HIV transmission and HIV-related morbidity, mortality, disability and social and economic impact. Its objectives are to: reduce HIV transmission and vulnerability, particularly among people at highest risk; improve the quality and length of life of people living with HIV through treatment, care and support; and mitigate the social, cultural and economic impacts of the epidemic. Strategic directions are primarily defined on the basis of beneficiary populations. They include the reduction of HIV-related risk, vulnerability and impact among sex workers and their clients, men who have sex with men, drug users, partners and familes of people living with HIV, institutionalized populations, mobile populations, uniformed services personnel, young people, individuals in the workplace and, more generally, men and women of reproductive age. They strive to meet the needs of people living with HIV for comprehensive care, support and treatment through the scaling up of services and use of a participatory approach. In order to expand the ability of all actors to engage fully in this collaborative effort, strategic directions also include the enhancement of the capacity of health systems and the strengthening of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. This National Strategic Plan is a living document: it lends itself to adjustments and revisions as further experience is gained, resources are mobilized and evidence of success and shortcomings is generated through monitoring, special studies and mid-term and end-of-term evaluations."
Language: English
Source/publisher: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/MM_draft_Nat_strat_plan_on_HIV-AIDS.pdf
Format/size: pdf (633K)
Date of entry/update: 11 February 2007


Title: Responding to AIDS, TB, Malaria and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Burma: Dilemmas of Policy and Practice
Date of publication: March 2006
Description/subject: "...This report seeks to synthesize what is known about HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB and other disease threats including Avian influenza (H5N1 virus) in Burma; assess the regional health and security concerns associated with these epidemics; and to suggest policy options for responding to these threats in the context of tightening restrictions imposed by the junta..." ...I. Introduction [p. 9-13] II. SPDC Health Expenditures and Policies [p.14-18] III. Public Health Status [p.19-42] a. HIV/AIDS b. TB c. Malaria d. Other health threats: Avian Flu, Filaria, Cholera IV. SPDC Policies Towards the Three "Priority Diseases" [p. 43-45] and Humanitarian Assistance V. Health Threats and Regional Security Issues [p. 46-51] a. HIV b. TB c. Malaria VI. Policy and Program Options [p. 52-56] VII. References [p. 57-68] Appendix A: Official translation of guidelines Appendix B: Statement by Bureau of Public Affairs Appendix C: Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Avian Flu notification.
Author/creator: Chris Beyrer, MD, MPH; Luke Mullany, PhD; Adam Richards, MD, MPH; Aaron Samuals, MHS; Voravit Suwanvanichkij, MD, MPH; om Lee, MD, MHS; Nicole Franck, MHS
Language: English, Burmese, Chinese
Source/publisher: Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/respondingburmese-ES-bu.pdf (Executive Summary, Burmese, 83K)
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/respondingburmese-ES-ch.pdf (Executive Summary, Chinese, 144K)
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


Title: Children and AIDS fact sheet: Myanmar
Date of publication: 2006
Description/subject: Various statistics, including prevention of mother-child transmission of HIV; Number of HIV+ pregnant women receiving ARVs for PMTCT; Number of children in need receiving ART... UNICEF, WHO and UNAIDS, Children and AIDS: Country fact sheets
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNAIDS
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 February 2009


Title: UNAIDS Epidemiological fact sheet on HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections (2006 Update)
Date of publication: 2006
Description/subject: The national adult prevalence of HIV infection is between 1% to 2%. Myanmar is thus characterized as having a "generalized" epidemic. However, the spread of the HIV infection across the country is heterogenous varying widely by geographical location and by population sub group. HIV was introduced in Myanmar in mid-to-late 1980s and by the end of 2003, a cumulative 7,174 AIDS cases and 3,324 AIDS deaths have been reported. The male-to-female ratio among reported cases is 3.6:1. Among cases with known mode of transmission, 65% acquired infection by heterosexual route, 26% by injecting drug use, and 5% by contaminated blood. ....
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNICEF, WHO, UNAIDS
Format/size: pdf (988.79 K)
Alternate URLs: www.aidsdatahub.org
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2010


Title: In Burma, a Setback on AIDS
Date of publication: 30 December 2005
Description/subject: RANGOON, Burma -- Dada would have killed herself but she couldn't afford a proper burial. An orphan with a broad, sweet face and downcast eyes, she recalled the horror of learning two years ago that she had HIV. She had been a prostitute since she was 15 and hadn't saved enough for even a simple funeral, which according to her belief as a Buddhist was vital to reincarnation into a better life. So Dada kept on living. Now, at age 23, it is what is left of this life that frightens her. Friends and other prostitutes have begun wasting away from AIDS, unable to pay the staggering cost of antiretroviral drugs, and Dada admits with an awkward giggle that she expects the same fate. "I have no husband. I have no family," she whispered. "I have to stand on my own feet all by myself." The secretive Burmese government had long denied that this country had a major AIDS problem, but international health experts now say it is among the worst in Asia. With antiretroviral drugs for AIDS costing about 10 times a teacher's monthly salary, few Burmese can pay for them. Fewer than 5 percent of those who need the drugs can get them free from the government and international agencies, according to U.N. estimates. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, a Geneva-based foundation, had planned to expand funding to triple the number of HIV-positive people receiving subsidized medication. But in August, it canceled a program to fight the three diseases in Burma and ended $87 million in funding, because of new restrictions imposed by the military government on travel and the import of medical supplies.
Author/creator: Alan Sipress and Ellen Nakashima
Language: English
Source/publisher: Citing New Restrictions, Fund Cancels Treatment Program
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2010


Title: Der Rückzug des UN Global Fund aus Burma. Chancen und Risiken humanitärer Hilfe im autoritären System
Date of publication: 29 December 2005
Description/subject: Der Abzug der Gelder des UN Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria stellt einen schweren Einschnitt in die Gesundheitsversorgung Burmas dar. Laut öffentlicher Aussage des Global Fund sind die Rahmenbedingungen für eine effektive Implementierung der Programme aufgrund zunehmender Restriktionen des Regimes nicht mehr gegeben. Gleichzeitig soll der Global Fund jedoch von den USA und dortigen Menschenrechtsorganisationen unter massivem politischem Druch zum Rückzug aus Burma bewegt wroden sein. Unter internationalen Akteuren im humanitären Bereich besteht noch immer keine Einigkeit darüber, ob in Burma humanitäre Hilfe geleistet werden soll und - wenn ja - in welcher Form. keywords: UN Global Fund, humanitarian aid, AIDS, NGOs
Author/creator: Jasmin Lorch
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Asienhaus Focus Asien Nr. 26; S. 65-71
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 06 December 2010


Title: Joint Programme for HIV/AIDS in Myanmar, Progress Report 2003 - 2004 and Fund for HIV/AIDS in Myanmar (FHAM) Annual Progress Report April 2004 - March 2005
Date of publication: 19 October 2005
Description/subject: Foreword: I Introduction... II Context: Overview of the epidemic in Myanmar... III Programme Achievements: Highlights in achievements - 1 Access to services to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV improved; 2 Access to services to prevent IDU transmission of HIV improved; 3 Knowledge and attitudes improved; 4 Access to services for HIV care and support improved; 5 Enabling environment and capacity building... IV Coordination, Harmonisation and Monitoring & Evaluation: Governance and Coordination; Monitoring and Evaluation... V FHAM Resources and Operational Issues: Financial resources; Operational issues... Conclusion... Annexe 1: FHAM budget overview... Annexe 2: FHAM Summary of technical progress... Annexe 3: Achievements by FHAM implementing partners... Annexe 4: Round II of the FHAM (FY 2004-05): Budget, expenditure and utilisation by implementing partners."...This report covers progress under both the Joint Programme and the Fund for HIV/AIDS in Myanmar because the two are so closely linked. It covers the calendar years 2003 and 2004 for the Joint Programme, and the second financial year for the FHAM, 2004 (1st April 2004 � 31st March 2005). As all of the activities are ongoing, in some cases key events or achievements which have occurred later in 2005 � strictly speaking outside the reporting period � have been mentioned. In April and May 2005, the Country Coordinating Mechanism in Myanmar prepared a proposal for the 5th Round of the Global Fund. This proposal mobilised more actors and resulted in probably the best Global Fund proposal to date. Much of the information that went into the proposal has been used and borrowed and is presented here, to ensure that the work that went into the analysis for the Global Fund receives a broader hearing. Also in May, 2005, the Joint Programme underwent a three week, independent, external review. In preparation for this process, each of the five thematic Component Groups prepared pre-Review briefing papers which highlighted progress and identified key issues. These pre- Review papers have also informed this report, and the time and efforts of individuals who worked on them are hereby acknowledged. The Mid Term Review itself is contributing to a process of reflection and reorganisation, which will result in a Joint Programme document for 2006 and beyond, along with a resource mobilisation drive for the FHAM. And finally some words on the mobilisation of new resources for AIDS in Myanmar. The concerning news of course is that the Global Fund grants for tuberculosis, malaria and AIDS have been terminated, leaving a gap in resources which the FHAM and other sources will be required to fill. The good news is that the Government of the Netherlands in July 2005 indicated it will contribute �4m to the FHAM, �1m for each of the years 2005-08. This brings to four the number of donors contributing to the FHAM - in addition to the United Kingdom�s Department for International Development (DFID), Sweden�s Agency for International Development Cooperation (SIDA), and the Norwegian Government - and provides the first concrete funding commitment for the next cycle of programming. This report demonstrates that it is possible to deliver humanitarian assistance in Myanmar, and will, I hope, encourage donors to consider making such necessary investments in the fight against AIDS for the people of Myanmar."...Of the 2 versions the smaller one, the pre-publication version, has no photos but, as far as I can see from a brief comparison, the text is more or less the same.
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations Expanded Theme Group on HIV/AIDS
Format/size: pdf (615K, 4.1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://data.unaids.org/Publications/IRC-pub06/FHAMannualprogressreport_Myanmar_19Oct05_en.pdf?preview=true
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


Title: Joint Programme for HIV/AIDS: Myanmar 2003-2005 - Mid-term Review
Date of publication: 03 October 2005
Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: Acknowledgements; Executive Summary; Summary of mid-term review findings and recommendations; Background; HIV/AIDS situation and response in Myanmar; Challenges to mobilising a response; Review methodology; Progress against Joint Programme outputs;; Output 1; Output 2; Output 3; Output 4; Output 5; Responses to additional questions in the TORs; Table 1: HIV sentinel surveillance results among IDUs, 1992-2003 10; Table 2: Numbers of clients, by age and sex, receiving results and 13; post-test counselling in 2004; Figure 1: Trends in drug use reflected through new registered cases 10; in Yangon, Mandalay, Kachin, Shan, Sagaing and Bago; Figure 2: Number of PLWHA receiving home-based care, 2000-2005; Figure 3: Actual versus needed ART, 2004 and 2005; Diagram 1: Illustrative re-structuring of Joint Programme management and co-ordination structures... Annex A: Mid-term review itinerary; Annex B: Joint Programme partner implementing organisations; Annex C: Pre-review assessment paper topics; Annex D: Mid-Term review terms of reference; Annex E: Additional comments received on the first draft mid-term review report..."Myanmar is presently faced with the challenge of controlling a dual epidemic of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and injection drug use. Injection Drug Users (IDUs) have a very high risk of infection, which can occur soon after an individual begins injecting. Sexual transmission is another major mode of HIV transmission. Commercial sex, which is driven by patronage of sex workers by men, is the largest contributor to this. Transmission is occurring heterosexually outside of the commercial sex industry and HIV is now in the general population. A substantial amount of sexual transmission of HIV is also taking place amongst men who have sex with men (MSM). It is thought that a significant proportion of male youth are at risk because of having early sex with sex workers. Some migrant populations are at increased risk as well. The trend of HIV infection amongst women attending antenatal clinics is upward and it is presumed that HIV is thus being passed on to babies at expected rates. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) death rates have not been examined, but rising numbers of orphaned children are being seen and very few programmes to assist them exist..."
Author/creator: Dr Anne Scott (Team Leader); Dr Carol Jenkins; Dr Dilip Mathai; Dr Samiran Panda
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNAIDS
Format/size: pdf (731K)
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2006


Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 29 -- special issue on HIV/AIDS
Date of publication: September 2005
Description/subject: INTRODUCTION: Clinical stages of HIV/AIDS for adults; UNHCR point of view on HIV/AIDS; The right to access to care... DIAGNOSIS: Voluntary Counselling and Testing: Are we doing it correctly or p with words?... MANAGEMENT: Antiretroviral therapy (ART); Nutrient requirements for people living with HIV/AIDS; Mycobacterium Tuberculosis infection in HIV/AIDS... SOCIAL: Responding to bad news including HIV/AIDS result; Stigmatization and discrimination; Home based care: A day as a home visitor and interview; Testimonial of people living with HIV/AIDS... PREVENTION: PMCT activities in Maela refugee camp; How to increase condom use? Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and Glossary.
Language: Burmese, English
Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
Format/size: pdf (4MB, 9.7MB, 49MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HM29-HIV-2005-09-mr.pdf (medium resolution)
http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HM29-HIV-2005-09-hr.pdf (high resolution
Date of entry/update: 07 October 2007


Title: Turbulence Ahead
Date of publication: September 2005
Description/subject: Burma’s mushrooming HIV/AIDS problem is already of international concern, but now efforts to keep the lethal disease—and TB and malaria—in check will be further hampered by a Global Fund decision to cut off aid... "Another storm cloud appears to be heading towards an already battered Burma. But unlike others before it, this is not about such lofty issues as democracy and human rights, or even more down-to-earth issues as forced labor and political prisoners. It involves simply life and death, particularly after the tumultuous decision by the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to cancel its US $98 million program over the next five years. It is not just a case of saving more people from the clutches of TB and malaria, which already cut a huge swathe of death and misery through the wretched country. Programs to combat these are also now at risk, but it is the potentially more deadly spread of HIV/AIDS which is darkening Burma’s already gloomy horizons..."
Author/creator: Bruce Kent
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 9
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


Title: Fund for HIV/AIDS in Myanmar (FHAM): Six Monthly Progress Report 1 April 2004-30 September 2004
Date of publication: 30 March 2005
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNAIDS
Format/size: pdf-html
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


Title: Behavioural Surveillance Survey 2003: General Population and Youth
Date of publication: February 2005
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "A multi-site survey was conducted during September through November 2003 to assess the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to transmission and prevention of HIV and AIDS among general population and youths residing in seven survey sites in Myanmar. A total of 9678 individuals (4631 males and 5047 females) were interviewed. Of these, 35% were youth aged 15-24 years. Although 91% of the population had heard about HIV and AIDS, only 35% knew about methods of HIV prevention and barely 27% were able to correctly reject the common misconceptions about HIV transmission. Youth, women and respondents with lowest level of education had the lowest knowledge about HIV prevention. Less than a quarter of the respondents were willing to buy food from an HIV-infected vendor and just half of them expressed willingness to care for an HIV-infected relative. Only a quarter of the population sought treatment for sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms; a large proportion of these consulted a private practitioner or took self treatment and only 15% visited a government hospital for STD treatment. About 7% of men had sex with a non-regular partner; nearly twothirds of them had unprotected sex (only 54% of male respondents reported using condom consistently with a commercial sex worker and 18% with a casual acquaintance). While 68% respondents expressed the intent for voluntary confidential counseling and testing (VCCT) but a mere 5% actually got tested and received the result. The findings of the survey indicate the following programmatic gaps: * Knowledge about HIV prevention is deficient * High level of misconceptions about HIV transmission prevail * Negative attitudes towards PLWHA are common * Utilization of STD services is suboptimal * High-risk sexual behaviours exist and unprotected sex is common * VCCT needs remain unmet..."
Author/creator: Dr. Min Thwe, Dr. Aye Myat Soe, Dr Tin Aung
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar MInistry of Health (National Aids Control Programme)
Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 19 June 2006


Title: Myanmar An Incubator of New HIV Strains
Date of publication: 2005
Description/subject: Myanmar's HIV/AIDS epidemic -- estimated at 1.2 percent of the population -- is considered one of the most serious in Asia. But HIV/AIDS is just the latest problem to afflict this chaotic and corrupt country, which produces much of the world's opium and has long suffered from social problems connected to its massive drug smuggling industry, including disease, addiction and organized crime. In 1988, the Burmese government was overthrown by a corrupt military junta that changed the country's name to Myanmar. Reports of torture and mass murder followed. Western nations withdrew aid and imposed trade sanctions, which have crippled the nation's economy. * Note: Figures reflect most recent statistics from UNAIDS and the World Health Organization.
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Age of AIDS
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2010


Title: Questions and Answers on HIV and AIDS -- Burmese
Date of publication: 2005
Description/subject: This 63 page book collectively answers many of the questions young people want to ask about HIV/AIDS. [in Myanmar language] It explains AIDS origin in Africa and spread globally, its current prevalence in Myanmar, its modes of infection, and means for control. Yangon, 2005... For further information please contact: Jason Rush, Communication Officer, UNICEF in Myanmar Phone: (95 1) 212 086; Fax: (95 1) 212 063 ; Email: jrush@unicef.org
Language: Burmese
Source/publisher: UNICEF
Format/size: pdf (1.64MB)
Date of entry/update: 23 December 2005


Title: Myanmar: Update on HIV/AIDS Policy
Date of publication: 16 December 2004
Description/subject: Asia Briefing N°34; 16 December 2004... OVERVIEW: "Myanmar's military government has acknowledged its serious HIV/AIDS problem in the two years since Crisis Group published a briefing paper.[1] This has permitted health professionals, international organisations and donors to begin a coordinated response. The international community has boosted funding and shown more willingness to find ways to help victims and counter the pandemic. Some government obstacles have been removed although the regime's closed nature is unaltered. The opposition National League for Democracy (NLD), which has generally opposed aid involving contact with the junta, has supported many HIV/AIDS steps because of the humanitarian imperative. The urgent need now is to boost the local staff capabilities and make more effective use of the money flowing into the country. In the process civil society and small NGOs and other local organisations can be fostered that can eventually help prepare a democratic transition. Significant problems remain. About 1.3 per cent of Myanmar's[2] adults are believed to be infected with the virus, one of the highest rates in Asia. Government spending on health and education is perilously low, and the economy has been grossly mismanaged by the military. HIV continues to present serious risks to the population, to security and to Myanmar's neighbours.[3] Critics of assistance to Myanmar have said the government would misappropriate any funds. This has not been the case so far. Increased international contact with the government on this issue has pushed it towards more pragmatic positions and opened up program possibilities that were not available in 2002. HIV prevention and treatment suffered then from a lack of resources and knowledge. Now the main constraint is the implementation capacity of groups involved in HIV prevention and AIDS care. The critical steps that need to be taken include: * expansion of assistance through all available channels to border areas where the HIV problem is particularly intense; * expansion of national capacity to deal with HIV, including more technical aid and training; * expansion of support for local and community-based organisations to strengthen their capacity and enable them to be larger providers of grassroots education, counselling and treatment; * more effective outreach to minority and ethnic communities with HIV/AIDS prevention education as well as counselling and treatment; * streamlining of disbursement, evaluation and monitoring procedures for funding; and * expansion of harm reduction programs. The political situation in Myanmar is extremely uncertain. Former Prime Minister Khin Nyunt is now under arrest on suspicion of corruption. He had chaired a key government committee on health issues and had supported greater involvement of international NGOs in fighting HIV. It is now very unclear whether further steps forward will be possible."... You might have to register (free) to access the document.
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group
Format/size: pdf (137K)
Date of entry/update: 22 January 2005


Title: "Health Messenger" No. 25 -- special issue on HIV/AIDS
Date of publication: September 2004
Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: What is AIDS? A Short Introduction (Health Messenger Team); Clinical Aspects of HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger Team)... PREVENTION: Transmission of HIV (Health Messenger Team); Empowering Community Change - HIV/AIDS Prevention (Mary Yetter, OXFAM UK)... FROM THE FIELD: The HIV/AIDS Situation in Burma (Zaw Winn, Chiang Mai); Women Empowerment and HIV/AIDS (Dr Padma, AMI Myanmar); Community Care for People with HIV/AIDS World Vision HIV/AIDS Programme in Ranong (Dr Win Maung, World Vision Ranong)... TREATMENT: Treatments for people with HIV/AIDS (Nicolas Durier, MSF France)... HEALTH EDUCATION: Counselling for HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger Team); Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger Team in collaboration with Maw Maw Zaw); Thai Youth Action Programs (Owen Elias, Thai Youth Action Programmes); Non-transmission routes of HIV... SOCIAL: Alcohol Abuse and HIV/AIDS (Pam Rogers, CARE Project); Social Impact and Underlying Causes of HIV/AIDS Epidemics (Julia Matthews, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children); CASE STUDY: IDUs and HIV: A Case study (Greg Manning)... INTERVIEW: An Interview with Honeymoon from KEWG (Health Messenger Team).
Language: English, Burmese
Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 23 January 2005


Title: Joint Programme for HIV/AIDS: Myanmar 2003-2005
Date of publication: 15 July 2004
Description/subject: "The purpose of the Joint Programme for HIV/AIDS: Myanmar, 2003-2005, is to strengthen the enabling environment and supporting capacity for prevention and care of HIV/AIDS in Myanmar. This will be done in support of the National Strategic Plan for the expansion and upgrading of HIV/AIDS activities in Myanmar 2001-2005, of the National Health Plan and of the operational plans of implementing partners for this period. The success of this programme will build towards the establishment of an effective multisectoral response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic and in the longer term the mitigation of the health and socioeconomic impact on the people of Myanmar..." CHAPTER 1 Programme Background and Rationale: 1.1 HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Myanmar; 1.2 Programme Approach; 1.3 Implementing Partners... CHAPTER 2 Joint Programme Objectives (The Logical Framework)... CHAPTER 3 Component Strategies of the Joint Programme: 3.1 Sexual Transmission of HIV; 3.2 Injecting Drug Use; 3.3 Knowledge and Attitudes; 3.4 Care, Treatment and Support for People Living with HIV/AIDS; 3.5 Enabling Environment... CHAPTER 4 Implementation Arrangements: 4.1 Management and Coordination Arrangements; 4.2 Establishing the Monitoring and Evaluation Framework; CHAPTER 5 Financing the Joint Programme... ANNEXES: Annex 1 United Nations Expanded Theme Group on HIV/AIDS: Purpose and Terms of Reference; Annex 2 Technical Working Group on HIV/AIDS: Purpose and Terms of Reference; Annex 3 UNAIDS Secretariat: Purpose and Scope of Work in Relation to the Joint Programme... Annex 4 Proposed Joint Programme Monitoring and Evaluation Framework (Core Indicator Set)... Annex 5 Monitoring Schedule for the Joint Programme... Annex 6 Fund for HIV/AIDS in Myanmar (FHAM)... Annex 7 References.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNAIDS
Format/size: pdf (339K)
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


Title: NO STATUS: MIGRATION, TRAFFICKING & EXPLOITATION OF WOMEN IN THAILAND
Date of publication: 14 July 2004
Description/subject: I. Executive Summary; II. Introduction; III. Thailand: Background. IV. Burma: Background. V. Project Methodology; VI. Findings: Hill Tribe Women and Girls in Thailand; Burmese Migrant Women and Girls in Thailand; VII. Law and Policy – Thailand; VIII. Applicable International Human Rights Law; IX. Law and Policy – United States X. Conclusion and Expanded Recommendations..."This study was designed to provide critical insight and remedial recommendations on the manner in which human rights violations committed against Burmese migrant and hill tribe women and girls in Thailand render them vulnerable to trafficking,2 unsafe migration, exploitative labor, and sexual exploitation and, consequently, through these additional violations, to HIV/AIDS. This report describes the policy failures of the government of Thailand, despite a program widely hailed as a model of HIV prevention for the region. Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) findings show that the Thai government's abdication of responsibility for uncorrupted and nondiscriminatory law enforcement and human rights protection has permitted ongoing violations of human rights, including those by authorities themselves, which have caused great harm to Burmese and hill tribe women and girls..."
Author/creator: Karen Leiter, Ingrid Tamm, Chris Beyrer, Moh Wit, Vincent Iacopino,. Holly Burkhalter, Chen Reis.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Physicians for Human Rights
Format/size: pdf (853K)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2004


Title: AIDS Takes the Backseat in Burma - An Interview with Chris Beyrer
Date of publication: July 2004
Description/subject: "Chris Beyrer has worked on HIV/AIDS issues along the Thai-Burma border since the early 1990s and is now associate research professor and director of the Johns Hopkins University Fogarty AIDS International Training and Research Program. He spoke with Irrawaddy reporter Naw Seng about efforts in Burma to control the epidemic..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 7, July 2004
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 11 November 2004


Title: UNAIDS Epidemiological fact sheet on HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections (2004 Update)
Date of publication: 2004
Description/subject: Assessment of the epidemiological situation 2004 The national adult prevalence of HIV infection is between 1% to 2%. Myanmar is thus characterized as having a "generalized" epidemic. However, the spread of the HIV infection across the country is heterogenous varying widely by geographical location and by population sub group. HIV was introduced in Myanmar in mid-to-late 1980s and by the end of 2003, a cumulative 7,174 AIDS cases and 3,324 AIDS deaths have been reported. The male-to-female ratio among reported cases is 3.6:1. Among cases with known mode of transmission, 65% acquired infection by heterosexual route, 26% by injecting drug use, and 5% by contaminated blood.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS), WHO, UNICEF
Format/size: pdf (250K)
Alternate URLs: http://data.unaids.org/Publications/Fact-Sheets01
Date of entry/update: 28 April 2005


Title: ASIA--THE NEXT FRONTIER FOR HIV/AIDS: Myanmar
Date of publication: 19 September 2003
Description/subject: "HLAING THAYAR, MYANMAR (BURMA)--Myanmar has one of the worst HIV problems in Asia, fueled by a potent mix of injecting drug use and commercial sex work. Yet poverty and the country's military dictatorship pose formidable obstacles to doing battle against AIDS here. This story is part of a series on HIV/AIDS in Asia; the stories in this initial installment focus on Myanmar, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand..."
Author/creator: Jon Cohen
Language: English
Source/publisher: AIDScience -- American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Format/size: pdf (535K), html
Alternate URLs: http://www.aidscience.org/Science/Cohen301(5640)1650.htm
Date of entry/update: 14 July 2007


Title: Edging Towards Disaster
Date of publication: May 2003
Description/subject: "Burma has taken the first step to tackling its deepening AIDS epidemic: admitting the problem exists. But it has a long way to go to bring the problem under control... As Burma's HIV/AIDS epidemic mounts, researchers at Johns Hopkins University say an adequate response is going to entail not just pumped up resources, but also "political will" on the part of the government. The AIDS specialist notes that one recent development gives cause for hope. "There is a good Minister of Health [Dr Kyaw Myint] now," he says. "He seems to have a heart and he's interested in health�.that's a change..."
Author/creator: Tony Broadmoor
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 4
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 July 2003


Title: Facing the Challenge
Date of publication: May 2003
Description/subject: "The Irrawaddy spoke to Dr Myat Htoo Razak about the severity of the HIV/AIDS situation in Burma. He is a medical doctor and PhD from Burma who specializes in Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases with an emphasis on HIV/AIDS and Health Policy and Planning. He currently works in HIV/AIDS research, prevention, care, and support programs in Asia through various international agencies and institutions... Question: How serious is the HIV/AIDS situation in Burma?Answer: As a health worker and a person from Burma, I would say the HIV/AIDS situation is one of the country's most serious health and social challenges since the late 1980s. The focus has mainly been on how many are infected, as estimated numbers of people with HIV/AIDS in Burma vary. The UNAIDS 2002 report estimated from 180,000 to 420,000 cases, while another group of researchers estimated 687,000 cases. It doesn't matter whether the number is one hundred or one million if little is being done to prevent more infections and to provide care and support to those who are already infected. We need to have good estimates for better planning but Burma needs to move forward with action now. I deeply hope that people in Burma will soon be able to respond effectively to this serious health, social and development challenge..."
Author/creator: An Interview with Dr Myat Htoo Razak
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11. No. 4
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 July 2003


Title: The British Solution
Date of publication: May 2003
Description/subject: The HIV/AIDS crisis, UK assistance and the general political situation. "The Irrawaddy interviewed Vicky Bowman, the British Ambassador to Burma. She previously worked in the British Embassy in Rangoon from 1990 to 1993 before returning in Dec 2002. The UK recently announced that it would contribute 10 million pounds (US $15.7 million) over the next three years to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS in Burma... Question: Why did the British government decide to take action now? Answer: We've been providing some support to NGOs to combat HIV for several years, for example for subsidized condoms. But we believe that the time has now come to increase our support, both because the scale of the problem is such that it needs a significant response, and because the climate for working on HIV/AIDS in Burma is gradually improving. Q: Do you think the Burmese military has realized the seriousness of the AIDS epidemic?..."
Author/creator: An Interview with Vicky Bowman
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 11, No. 4
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 July 2003


Title: Myanmar: The HIV/AIDS Crisis
Date of publication: 02 April 2002
Description/subject: "HIV prevalence is rising rapidly in Burma/Myanmar, fuelled by population mobility, poverty and frustration that breeds risky sexual activity and drug-taking. Already, one in 50 adults are estimated to be infected, and infection rates in sub-populations with especially risky behaviour (such as drug users and sex workers) are among the highest in Asia. Because of the long lag time between HIV infection and death, the true impact of the epidemic is just beginning to be felt. Households are losing breadwinners, children are losing parents, and some of the hardest-hit communities, particularly some fishing villages with very high losses from HIV/AIDS, are losing hope. Worse is to come, but how much worse depends on the decisions that Myanmar and the international community take in the coming months and years... Myanmar stands perilously close to an unstoppable epidemic. However large scale action targeted at helping those most at risk protect themselves could still make a real difference. Action on the scale necessary will inevitably involve working through government institutions, possibly in partnership with NGOs. The international community, and bilateral donors in particular, should look for ways to channel resources to Myanmar in ways that encourage political commitment and capitalise on the emerging willingness to confront the HIV epidemic..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group
Format/size: pdf (125K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Revisiting ‘The Hidden Epidemic’ – a situation assessment of drug use in Asia in the context of HIV/AIDS (section on Burma/Myanmar)
Date of publication: January 2002
Description/subject: Myanmar is considered to have one of the most severe HIV epidemics in Asia due to the high prevalence of injecting drug use and HIV among drug users. Reports suggest there are approximately 150,000 to 250,000 IDUs in Myanmar. In 1997 HIV prevalence among IDUs was 54%, in 2000 this had risen to 63% and in some states was among the highest rate in the world, at up to 96%. National surveillance data shows that IDUs in Myanmar often become infected with HIV early in their injecting careers which is rarely seen elsewhere in the world. Date of release 8 February 2002 Author: Publisher: (Extract on Myanmar, pp 140-150
Author/creator: Gary Reid and Genvieve Costigan
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Centre for Harm Reduction, The Burnet Institute, Australia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Revisiting "The Hidden Epidemic
Date of publication: January 2002
Description/subject: "A Situation Assessment of Drug Use in Asia in thecontext of HIV/AIDS". Includes a section on Burma/Myanmar (see extract)
Author/creator: Gary Reid, Genevieve Costigan
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Centre for Harm Reduction, The Burnet Institute, Australia
Format/size: PDF (912K)
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


Title: The AIDS Embargo
Date of publication: January 2002
Description/subject: "Burma�s censors have imposed an effective ban on reporting about HIV/AIDS. But they are not alone: The exiled opposition is also maintaining an unhealthy silence on the issue..."
Author/creator: Aung Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 1
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Life: Between Hell and the Stone of Heaven
Date of publication: 11 November 2001
Description/subject: "More than a million miners desperately excavate the bedrock of a remote valley hidden in the shadows of the Himalayas. They are in search of just one thing - jadeite, the most valuable gemstone in the world. But with wages paid in pure heroin and HIV rampant, the miners are paying an even higher price. Adrian Levy and Cathy Scott-Clark travel to the death camps of Burma...Hpakant is Burma's black heart, drawing hundreds of thousands of people in with false hopes and pumping them out again, infected and broken. Thousands never leave the mines, but those who make it back to their communities take with them their addiction and a disease provincial doctors are not equipped to diagnose or treat. The UN and WHO have now declared the pits a disaster zone, but the military regime still refuses to let any international aid in..." jade
Author/creator: Adrian Levy & Cathy Scott-Clark
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Observer (London)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: MAP Report 2001: The Status and Trends of HIV/AIDS/STI epidemics in Asia and the Pacific
Date of publication: 04 October 2001
Description/subject: "HIV has been well established in Asia for many years. However, many countries have recorded relatively low rates of infection even in sub-populations with high-risk behaviour. At the time of the last MAP report on Asia from Kuala Lumpur in 1999, only Thailand, Myanmar, and Cambodia were reporting substantial nation wide epidemics, with a number of states in India and provinces in China also heavily affected. In the last two years, the picture has changed dramatically. Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Nepal and Vietnam, for example, have all registered marked increases in HIV infection in recent years, while in China, home to a fifth of the world's people, the infection seems to be moving into new groups of the population..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: MAP (Monitoring the Aids Pandemic)
Format/size: Download MS Word doc (688K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.thebody.com/content/art621.html
http://www.unaids.org/en/KnowledgeCentre/HIVData/default.asp
Date of entry/update: 04 January 2011


Title: From Prison Cell to Cemetery
Date of publication: September 2001
Description/subject: "Release from prison is no guarantee of freedom in Burma, where the ruling junta’s control over the lives of political prisoners often extends as far as their graves. On June 12 and July 12 this year, two people passed away from AIDS-related diseases in Burma. Exactly one month after Bo Ni Aung died on June 12, 2001, Si Thu, also known as Ye Naing, succumbed to that incurable syndrome. These days, in fact, it seems to be nothing unusual or surprising when we hear about more victims of HIV/AIDS. Yet the true story shows that these two were not so much victims of AIDS, but of Burma’s ruling junta, which calls itself the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). Both of them died as a result of the junta’s inhumane treatment of prisoners. Bo Ni Aung, 42, had been a political prisoner who was set free in the middle of 1999, having spent more than eight years in two disreputable prisons, Insein and Thayet. Si Thu died while being detained under Article 10(a) of the State Protection Act in Tharawaddy prison. Aged 35, he was a former student activist who had been incarcerated for 11 years in Insein and Tharawaddy, not far from the Burmese capital..."
Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 7
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Burma and AIDS: the Silent Crisis
Date of publication: 25 June 2001
Description/subject: HIV/AIDS infection has reached epidemic proportions in Burma today and reports by UN agencies as well as independent health professionals unanimously confirm this fact. Estimates suggest at least five percent of the population is infected. The alarming situation has become a national emergency that affects all groups, including non-Burman ethnic nationalities and the military. . . .
Author/creator: Dr. Thaung Htun, Director, Burma UN Service Office, New York
Language: English, Japanese
Source/publisher: NCGUB
Format/size: pdf, html
Alternate URLs: http://www.google.co.th/url?sa=t&source=web&ct=res&cd=12&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.burmainfo.org%2FNCGUB%2FUNGA-SS-2001_jp.html&ei=AtsaSseKAcWLkAXg5lE&usg=AFQjCNGxrRo4XxXID-oUYjJVG3SAtesh_w&sig2=D2XbD8UzDdfmzqGTjoaeng
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: "Health Messenger" Issue 9 -- Special Issue on STDs and HIV
Date of publication: June 2000
Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: STD and HIV/AIDS in Thailand and Myanmar (Dr. Ying-Ru Lo, WHO, Mrs. Laksami Suebsaeng, WHO); Syndromic Management Appoach : An Effective Way to STD Case Management (Health Messenger); Neonatal Conjunctivitis (Dr. Jerry Vincent, IRC); An introduction to HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger); HIV/AIDS Transmission and Non-Transmission Routes (Andrea Menefee, IRC); AIDS NEWS (Health Messenger)... SOCIAL: The link between STDs and HIV/AIDS: the medical and social causes (Health Messenger); Health and Human Rights (Christine Harmston, BRC)... DIAGNOSIS: Syndromic approach to identifying common STDs (Dr. Rose McGready, SMRU)... HEALTH EDUCATION: Counseling, Information and Partner notification for STD patients (Dr. Rose McGready, SMRU); SawPaing and Nan Wai (Gordon Sharmar, WEAVE)... MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH: Children and HIV/AIDS (Health Messenger)... FROM THE FIELD: The Karen Education Working Group (Ms. Honey Moon, KEWG)... PREVENTION: Prevention (Dr. Rose McGready, SMRU).
Language: Burmese, English
Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 24 January 2005


Title: MOBILITY AND HIV/AIDS IN THE GREATER MEKONG SUBREGION
Date of publication: 2000
Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: A. Introduction: 1. Greater Mekong Subregion Overview 2. Population Mobility in the GMS 3. HIV/AIDS in the GMS Countries 3.1 A Region with Two HIV/AIDS Epidemics 3.2 Causes of the Epidemics 3.3 Regional Responses 4. Objectives and Methodology of the Study 4.1 Literature Review 4.2 National and Regional Consultations 4.3 Analysis and Draft Report 4.4 Terms and definitions ….. B. Country Report: Cambodia: 1. Country Profile 2. Population Migration and Mobility 2.1 Internal and International Migration and Mobility 2.2 Cross-Border Population Mobility 2.3 Trafficking of Women and Children 2.4 Specific Migrant and Mobile Population Groups 3. Typology of Migrant and Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS Situations 4.1 Characteristics of the HIV Epidemic 4.2 Geographical Distribution of HIV/AIDS 4.3 HIV Risk Situations in Relation to Migration and Mobility 4.4 Hot Spots for Mobile Population and HIV/AIDS 5. Discussion and Conclusion ….. C. Country Report: Lao People’s Democratic Republic: 1. Country Profile 2. Migration and Mobility 2.1 The Thai-Lao Border Provinces 2.2 Farming in the Lowland Border Provinces 2.3 Emigrant Workers 2.4 Trafficking 2.5 Corridors of Development 2.6 Specific Mobile Population Groups ….. 3. Typology of Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS in the Lao PDR 4.1 HIV/AIDS Country Profile 4.2 HIV/AIDS Risk situation 4.3 Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS 5. Conclusion ….. D. Country Report: Myanmar 1. Country Profile 2. Migration and Mobility 2.1 Internal Migration and Mobility 2.2 Cross Border Migration and Mobility 2.3 Trafficking of Women and Children 2.4 Specific Migrant and Mobile Population Groups 3. Typology of Migrant and Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS Situations 4.1 The Two Epidemics – Intravenous Drug Use and Sexual Transmission 4.2 Current Trend of HIV Epidemic 4.3 Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS 5. Conclusion ….. E. Country Report: Vietnam 1. Country Profile 2. Migration and Mobility 2.1 Internal Migration and Mobility 2.2 Cross-Border Migration and Mobility 2.3 Trafficking of Women and Children 2.4 Specific Migrant and Mobile Population Groups … 3. Typology of Migrant and Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS Situations 4.1 The ‘Two Epidemics’ – IDUs and Sex Workers 4.2 Drug Use and HIV Vulnerability 4.3 Current Trend of HIV Epidemic 4.4 HIV Risk Situations in Relation to Population Mobility 4.6 Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS 5. Discussion and Conclusions ….. F. Country Report: Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China: 1. Province and Country Profile 2. Migration and Mobility 2.1 Intra-Provincial Mobility 2.2 Inter-Provincial Mobility 2.3 International Cross-Border Mobility 2.4 Trafficking and Human Smuggling 2.5 Specific Mobile Population Groups 3. Typology of Mobile Populations 4. HIV/AIDS in Yunnan and PRC 4.1 HIV/AIDS Profile 4.2 HIV/AIDS Risk Situation 4.3 Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS 5. Conclusion ….. G. Conclusion and Discussion: 1. Migration and Mobility 2. Gender and Vulnerability 3. Poverty and Development as Driving Forces for Development 4. The Dynamics of HIV Spread and Implications for Mobility 5. The Responses ….. Annex: Map 1: Major Population Mobility Trends & Transmission of HIV/AIDS in the Greater Mekong Subregion Map 2: Major Border Crossings in the Greater Mekong Subregion Map 3: Progression of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Greater Mekong Subregion Map 4: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIIDS in the Greater Mekong Subregion Map 5: Spread of HIV Over Time in ASIA 1984 to 1999 ….. Bibliography ….. Persons and Organisations Consulted ….. List of Tables, Figures and Maps A. Introduction Table 1: HIV/AIDS Situation in the GMS Countries B. Cambodia Table 2: Country Profile – Cambodia Table 3: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their HIV Risk Situations in Cambodia Table 4: HIV Seroprevalence Among Sentinel Groups in 1999 Table 5: HIV Prevalence in Selected Sentinel Groups Table 6: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Cambodia C. Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) Table 7: Country Profile – Lao PDR Table 8: Establishments that Provide Sexual Services, and their Customers Table 9: Trucks Departing and Entering Lao PDR Table 10: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their Risk Situation in Lao PDR Table 11: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Lao PDR D. Myanmar Table 12: Country Profile – Myanmar Table 13: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their HIV Risk Situations in Myanmar Figure 1: HIV Prevalence Among Military Recruits Figure 2: HIV Prevalence Among Pregnant Women Table 14: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Myanmar E. Vietnam Table 15: Country Profile – Vietnam Table 16: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their HIV Risk Situations in Vietnam Table 17: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Vietnam F. Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China (PRC) Table 18: Country Profile – Yunnan Province and People’s Republic of China (PRC) Table 19: Typology of Migrant and Mobile Population Groups and Assessment of Their HIV Risk Situations in Yunnan Table 20: HIV Prevalence Rates for Injecting Drug Users 1992-1999 Table 21: Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS Risk Situations in Yunnan … Maps 1. Major Population Mobility Trend and Transmission of HIV/AIDS in the Greater Mekong Subregion 2. Major Border Crossings in the Greater Mekong Subregion 3. Progression of HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Greater Mekong Subregion 4. Hot Spots of Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS in the Greater Mekong Subregion 5. Spread of HIV Over Time in Asia 1984-1999
Author/creator: Supang Chantavanich, Allan Beesey and Shakti Paul
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Research Center for Migration Institute of Asian Studies Chulalongkorn University
Format/size: pdf (716.10 K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/HIV-AIDSMekongregion-Myanmar.pdf
http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/HIV_AIDS/Mobility/mobility.pdf
http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/HIV_AIDS/Mobility/default.asp#contents
http://www.adb.org/documents/books/hiv_aids/mobility/prelim.pdf
Date of entry/update: 09 November 2010


Title: Addressing Humanitarian Needs in Burma
Date of publication: September 1999
Description/subject: Several articles. Includes discussion on UN activities in Burma, food scarcity, HIV/AIDS and other health issues.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Burma Debate" Vol. VI No. 3
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: AIDS Denial
Date of publication: July 1999
Description/subject: "The SPDC has finally acknowledged the AIDS epidemic in Burma. But even now, the junta spends more of the country’s dwindling resources on attacking democrats than it does on tackling the disease, Aung Zaw writes..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Burma
Date of publication: July 1999
Description/subject: Fighting "Fire" vs. Preventing "Fire". Preventing HIV/AIDS and fighting it are both very challenging. It will take courage, expertise, commitment and support to destroy the deadly virus, writes Dr Saw Lwin.
Author/creator: Dr Saw Lwin
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Martyrs of Burma - Past, Present and Future
Date of publication: July 1999
Description/subject: How can victims of AIDS die with dignity in a county whose leaders only grudgingly acknowledge the sacrifices of its fallen of independences?
Author/creator: Editorial
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Heroin and HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Burma
Date of publication: December 1998
Description/subject: Review of "Out of Control 2"..."...A new report, titled “Out Of Control 2”, issued by the Southeast Asian Information Network [SAIN] shows the involvement of Burmese regime officials in narcotics trafficking and the correlation of increased drug trade and rising HIV/AIDS rates in Burma and beyond its borders..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6, No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Burma's AIDS Epidemic
Date of publication: February 1998
Description/subject: Dancing alone o­n the floor of a popular Rangoon nightclub in front of a huge video screen playing music videos, the young Burmese woman repeatedly glances at the very few western men in the disco. She approaches them and makes it clear her charms come at a price. Does she use condoms?
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6. No. 1
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Out of Control 2: The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Burma
Date of publication: 1998
Description/subject: A new report, titled “Out Of Control 2”, issued by the Southeast Asian Information Network [SAIN] shows the involvement of Burmese regime officials in narcotics trafficking and the correlation of increased drug trade and rising HIV/AIDS rates in Burma and beyond its borders. The report states that the last several years have produced a mounting body of evidence indicating high-level involvement of some junta members in the illicit narcotics industry. Routes and methods of transportation and export of Burmese narcotics are described in this report.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Southeast Asia Information Network (SAIN)
Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=1521
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2010


Title: Burma's Secret Plague
Date of publication: August 1997
Description/subject: As if life in Burma was not grim enough, with its poverty and its brutal government, it now turns out to have an AIDS epidemic. Thousands of young adults have died without ever having heard of the disease that killed them, let alone of ways to prevent it. In parts of Burma, funerals of people in their 20s or 30s are an everyday occurrence.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 4-5
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Insein Prison: HIV Headquarters?
Date of publication: August 1997
Description/subject: A former political prisoner recalls the tale of HIV horror inside the notorious Insein prison. Slorc used to threaten political prisoners with the cancellation of visiting rights, beating, transferal to another prison or an unfamiliar cell-block, solitary confinement and extension of prison-terms. But it was not successful. Now, they use more effective weapons to threaten prisoners.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 4-5
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: HIV/AIDS problem of migrants from Burma in Thailand
Description/subject: Abstract Over 50 years ago, the Constitution of WHO projected a vision of health as a state of physical, mental and social well-being - a definition that has important conceptual and practical implications. Recently, health professionals begin to recognize the importance of the protection and promotion of human rights as necessary precondition for individual and community health. It is now clear that regardless of the effectiveness of technologies, the underlying civil, cultural, economic, political and social conditions have to be addressed as well in the health care paradigm.
Author/creator: Alice Khin M.B.,B.S., M.Med (Int Med)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Watch
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 29 October 2010