VL.png The World-Wide Web Virtual Library
[WWW VL database || WWW VL search]
donations.gif asia-wwwvl.gif

Online Burma/Myanmar Library

Full-Text Search | Database Search | What's New | Alphabetical List of Subjects | Main Library | Reading Room | Burma Press Summary

Home > Main Library > Trafficking > Trafficking: other relevant standards and mechanisms

Order links by: Reverse Date Title

Trafficking: other relevant standards and mechanisms

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Description/subject: " The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) is the body of independent experts that monitors implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights by its States parties. The Committee was established under ECOSOC Resolution 1985/17 of 28 May 1985 to carry out the monitoring functions assigned to the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in Part IV of the Covenant. All States parties are obliged to submit regular reports to the Committee on how the rights are being implemented. States must report initially within two years of accepting the Covenant and thereafter every five years. The Committee examines each report and addresses its concerns and recommendations to the State party in the form of “concluding observations”. The Committee cannot consider individual complaints, although a draft Optional Protocol to the Covenant is under consideration which could give the Committee competence in this regard. The Commission on Human Rights has established a working group to this end. However, it may be possible for another committee with competence to consider individual communications to consider issues related to economic, social and cultural rights in the context of its treaty. [Image: Young women in an adult literacy class in Makthar, Tunisia. (UN Photo #157607)] The Committee meets in Geneva and normally holds two sessions per year, consisting of a three-week plenary and a one-week pre-sessional working group. The Committee also publishes its interpretation of the provisions of the Covenant, known as general comments..."
Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


Title: Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
Description/subject: "The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) is the body of independent experts that monitors implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination by its State parties. All States parties are obliged to submit regular reports to the Committee on how the rights are being implemented. States must report initially one year after acceding to the Convention and then every two years. The Committee examines each report and addresses its concerns and recommendations to the State party in the form of “concluding observations”. In addition to the reporting procedure, the Convention establishes three other mechanisms through which the Committee performs its monitoring functions: the early-warning procedure, the examination of inter-state complaints and the examination of individual complaints. [Image: A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. (UN Photo# 151906C)]The Committee meets in Geneva and normally holds two sessions per year consisting of three weeks each. The Committee also publishes its interpretation of the content of human rights provisions, known as general recommendations (or general comments), on thematic issues and organizes thematic discussions..."
Language: English (also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish)
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


Title: Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
Description/subject: Monitors the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Receives and examines State Party reports. Search in OBL for CRC to access the various reports, statements and concluding observations when the CRC examined Myanmar's initial report.
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Human Rights Committee
Description/subject: This page provides information on the procedures of the Human Rights Committee, the treaty body which administers the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. It also has a link to the text of the Covenant.
Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2004


Title: Special Rapporteur of the Human Rights Council on the human rights of migrants
Description/subject: "The mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants was created in 1999 by the Commission on Human Rights, pursuant to resolution 1999/44 . The mandate was extended for a further three years by the Commission on Human Rights in 2002, at its 58th session (Res. 2002/62 ). The Commission requested the Special Rapporteur to “examine ways and means to overcome the obstacles existing to the full and effective protection of the human rights of migrants, including obstacles and difficulties for the return of migrants who are undocumented or in an irregular situation”. The main functions of the Special Rapporteur are: (a) To request and receive information from all relevant sources, including migrants themselves, on violations of the human rights of migrants and their families; (b) To formulate appropriate recommendations to prevent and remedy violations of the human rights of migrants, wherever they may occur; (c) To promote the effective application of relevant international norms and standards on the issue; (d) To recommend actions and measures applicable at the national, regional and international levels to eliminate violations of the human rights of migrants; (e) To take into account a gender perspective when requesting and analyzing information, as well as to give special attention to the occurrence of multiple discrimination and violence against migrant women; In the discharge of these functions: (a) The Special Rapporteur acts on information submitted to her regarding alleged violations of the human rights of migrants by sending urgent appeals and communications to concerned Governments to clarify and/or bring to their attention these cases. See Individual Complaints. (b) The Special Rapporteur conducts country visits (also called fact-finding missions) upon the invitation of the Government, in order to examine the state of protection of the human rights of migrants in the given country. The Special Rapporteur submits a report of the visit to the Commission on Human Rights, presenting her findings, conclusions and recommendations. See Country Visits. (c) The Special Rapporteur participates in conferences, seminars and panels on issues relating to the human rights of migrants. (d) Annually, the Special Rapporteur, reports to the Commission on Human Rights about the global state of protection of migrants’ human rights, her main concerns and the good practices she has observed. In her report the Special Rapporteur informs the Commission of all the communications she has sent and the replies received from Governments. Furthermore, the Special Rapporteur formulates specific recommendations with a view to enhancing the protection of the human rights of migrants. Upon request of the Commission on Human Rights the Special Rapporteur may also present reports to the General Assembly."
Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 May 2005


Title: Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography
Description/subject: "On 20 November 1989, the United Nations General Assembly in New York adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child. This international instrument recognizes "that in all countries in the world, there are children living in exceptionally difficult conditions, and that such children need special consideration". By 2000, over ten years after its adoption, almost every country in the world has signed and agreed to be bound by the provisions of the Convention. By 1990, international awareness of the commercial sexual exploitation and the sale of children had grown to such a level that the United Nations Commission on Human Rights created the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. The mandate-holder is required to investigate the exploitation of children around the world and to submit reports on the findings to the General Assembly and the Commission on Human Rights, making recommendations for the protection of the rights of the children concerned. These recommendations are targeted primarily at Governments, other United Nations bodies and non-governmental organizations. In its resolution 1990/68 entitled "Rights of the child", the Commission on Human Rights decided to appoint for a period of one year a Special Rapporteur to consider matters relating to the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. The appointment has been regularly renewed, most recently in 2001, when the Commission on Human Rights in its resolution 2001/75 on the "Rights of the child" decided to renew the Special Rapporteur's mandate for a further three years..."
Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 December 2010


Title: Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences
Description/subject: "The United Nations Commission on Human Rights in resolution 1994/45, adopted on 4 March 1994 , decided to appoint a Special Rapporteur on violence against women, including its causes and consequences. The mandate was extended by the Commission on Human Rights in 2003, at its 59th session in resolution 2003/45 . In the same resolution the Commission on Human Rights: "Strongly condemning all acts of violence against women and girls and in this regard called, in accordance with the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, for the elimination of all forms of gender-based violence in the family, within the general community and where perpetrated or condoned by the State, and emphasized the duty of Governments to refrain from engaging in violence against women and to exercise due diligence to prevent, investigate and, in accordance with national legislation, punish acts of violence against women and to take appropriate and effective action concerning acts of violence against women, whether those acts are perpetrated by the State, by private persons or by armed groups or warring factions, and to provide access to just and effective remedies and specialized, including medical, assistance to victims; Affirmed, in this light, that violence against women constitutes a violation of the human rights and fundamental freedoms of women and that violence against women impairs or nullifies their enjoyment of those rights and freedoms." According to her mandate the Special Rapporteur is requested to: (a) Seek and receive information on violence against women, its causes and consequences from Governments, treaty bodies, specialized agencies, other special rapporteurs responsible for various human rights questions and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, including women's organizations, and to respond effectively to such information; (b) Recommend measures, ways and means, at the national, regional and international levels, to eliminate violence against women and its causes, and to remedy its consequences; (c) Work closely with other special rapporteurs, special representatives, working groups and independent experts of the Commission on Human Rights and the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities and with the treaty bodies, taking into account the Commission's request that they regularly and systematically include in their reports available information on human rights violations affecting women, and cooperate closely with the Commission on the Status of Women in the discharge of its functions. In the discharge of the mandate the Special Rapporteur: Transmits urgent appeals and communications to States regarding alleged cases of violence against women. See Individual Complaints Undertakes fact-finding country visits. See Country Visits Submits annual thematic reports to the Commission on Human Rights. See Annual Reports."
Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 December 2010


Individual Documents

Title: The rights of non-citizens: Final report - Addendum 1, "United Nations activities"
Date of publication: 26 May 2003
Description/subject: Final report of the Special Rapporteur, Mr. David Weissbrodt, submitted in accordance with Sub-Commission decision 2000/103, Commission resolution 2000/104 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/283 Addendum United Nations activities*..."This addendum (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23/Add.1) to the final report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights of non-citizens (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23) supplements the 2002 addendum (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2002/25/Add.1) to the progress report of the Special Rapporteur (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2002/25) and the 2001 addendum (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2001/20/Add.1) to the preliminary report of the Special Rapporteur (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2001/20) by providing updated jurisprudence and concluding observations with respect to the rights of non-citizens. This addendum also includes a new section on the relevant jurisprudence of the Committee Against Torture. The jurisprudence and concluding observations in this addendum cover treaty-monitoring body sessions from March 2002 through March 2003..."
Author/creator: David Weissbrodt
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23/Add.1)
Format/size: pdf (87K)
Date of entry/update: 24 August 2012


Title: The rights of non-citizens: Final report - Addendum 2 - "Regional activities"
Date of publication: 26 May 2003
Description/subject: Final report of the Special Rapporteur, Mr. David Weissbrodt, submitted in accordance with Sub-Commission decision 2000/103, Commission resolution 2000/104 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/283 Addendum Regional activities..."This addendum (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23/Add.2) to the final report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights of non-citizens (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23) supplements the 2002 addendum (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2002/25/Add.2) to the progress report of the Special Rapporteur (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2002/25) and the 2001 addendum (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2001/20/Add.1) to the preliminary report of the Special Rapporteur (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2001/20) by updating the expanded examination of the rights of non-citizens within regional human rights bodies. The addendum updates the jurisprudence of those regional bodies that have adopted recent decisions related to the rights of non-citizens, including the European Court of Human Rights and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. It also contains a new section on the European Social Committee. Finally, it again discusses the Framework Convention on National Minorities, adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe, and include recent decision based on that instrument..."
Author/creator: David Weissbrodt
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23/Add.2)
Format/size: pdf (88K)
Date of entry/update: 24 August 2012


Title: The rights of non-citizens: Final report - Addendum 3, "Examples of practices in regard to non-citizens"
Date of publication: 26 May 2003
Description/subject: The rights of non-citizens Final report of the Special Rapporteur, Mr. David Weissbrodt, submitted in accordance with Sub-Commission decision 2000/103, Commission resolution 2000/104 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/283 Addendum Examples of practices in regard to non-citizens..."While the main report (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23) summarizes the norms that protect the rights of non-citizens, in many countries non-citizens do not actually enjoy those rights. One of the most common problems human rights treaty bodies have encountered in reviewing States' reports is that some national constitutions guarantee rights to "citizens" whereas international human rights law would – with the exception of the rights of public participation, of movement,4 and of economic rights in developing countries5 – provide rights to all persons.6 Of the countries responding to the questionnaire, however, most countries extended constitutionally protected human rights to every person7 or specifically to non-citizens.8 Other countries protect the rights of non-citizens, including refugees, by statute9 or by incorporating treaties into national law.10 Constitutions in some countries, however, inappropriately distinguish between the rights granted to persons who obtained their citizenship by birth and other citizens.11 Furthermore, the mere statement of the general principle of non-discrimination in a constitution is not a sufficient response to the requirements of human rights law..."
Author/creator: David Weissbrodt,
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23/Add.3)
Format/size: pdf (88K)
Date of entry/update: 24 August 2012


Title: The rights of non-citizens: Final report - Addendum 4, "Summary of Comments Received from U.N. Member States to Special Rapporteur's Questionnaire"
Date of publication: 26 May 2003
Description/subject: Final report of the Special Rapporteur, Mr. David Weissbrodt, submitted in accordance with Sub-Commission decision 2000/103, Commission resolution 2000/104 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/283 Addendum Summary of Comments Received from U.N. Member States to Special Rapporteur's Questionnaire..."This Addendum IV summarizes1 the comments received from 22 Member States in response to the questionnaire prepared by the Special Rapporteur and disseminated pursuant to Commission decision 2002/107 of 25 April 2002. For reasons of expense and length it was not possible to reproduce the full text of the responses received from all Member States. Hence, this summary was prepared to express particular appreciation for the quite substantial number of responses received and to give others a sense of the substance contained in the replies. The Special Rapporteur also received responses from 7 intergovernmental organizations and 4 nongovernmental organizations, plus the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the rights of migrants.2 The Special Rapporteur on the human rights of non-citizens took into account all of the responses in preparing the final report and other addenda and is extremely grateful for all the assistance afforded in those responses..." Includes replies from Thailand and India.
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23/Add.4)
Format/size: pdf (101K)
Date of entry/update: 25 May 2005


Title: The rights of non-citizens: Final report
Date of publication: 23 May 2003
Description/subject: Final report of the Special Rapporteur, Mr. David Weissbrodt, submitted in accordance with Sub-Commission decision 2000/103, Commission resolution 2000/104 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/283..."Based on a review of international human rights law, the Special Rapporteur has concluded that all persons should by virtue of their essential humanity enjoy all human rights unless exceptional distinctions, for example, between citizens and non-citizens, serve a legitimate State objective and are proportional to the achievement of that objective. For example, non-citizens should enjoy freedom from arbitrary killing, inhuman treatment slavery, forced labour, child labour, arbitrary arrest, unfair trial, invasions of privacy, refoulement and violations of humanitarian law. They also have the right to marry, protection as minors, peaceful association and assembly, equality, freedom of religion and belief, social, cultural, and economic rights in general, labour rights (for example, as to collective bargaining, workers� compensation, social security, appropriate working conditions and environment, etc.) and consular protection..."
Author/creator: David Weissbrodt
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/23)
Format/size: pdf (83K)
Date of entry/update: 24 August 2012


Title: Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
Date of publication: 20 November 1989
Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989; entry into force 2 September 1990. For the jurisprudence of the Convention, visit the site of CRC Committee. Myanmar accession: 15 July 1991.
Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
Date of publication: 18 December 1979
Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 34/180 of 18 December 1979; entry into force 3 September 1981. For the jurisprudence under the Convention, visit the site of CEDAW Committee. Myanmar accession: 22 July 1997.
Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/text/econvention.htm
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ILO Convention 143: Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975
Date of publication: 24 June 1975
Description/subject: Only 23 ratifications, of which only Sweden, Norway, Italy and Portugal are credible destinations for Burmese migrants.
Language: English (French and Spanish available)
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


Title: International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
Date of publication: 16 December 1966
Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966, entry into force 23 March 1976.
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Date of publication: 16 December 1966
Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966; entry into force 3 January 1976.
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)
Date of publication: 21 December 1965
Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature and ratification by General Assembly resolution 2106 (XX) of 21 December 1965; entry into force 4 January 1969. For the jurisprudence under the Convention, visit the site of CERD Committee at http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cerd/
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cerd/
Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


Title: ILO Convention 105: The Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957
Date of publication: 25 June 1957
Language: English (French and Spanish available)
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


Title: ILO Convention 29 on Forced Labour (1930)
Date of publication: 28 June 1930
Description/subject: Convention concerning Forced or Compulsory Labour. The page also has a link to the list of ratifications. Myanmar ratification, 1955.
Language: English (French and Spanish available)
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convde.pl?C029
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003