VL.png The World-Wide Web Virtual Library
[WWW VL database || WWW VL search]
donations.gif asia-wwwvl.gif

Online Burma/Myanmar Library

Full-Text Search | Database Search | What's New | Alphabetical List of Subjects | Main Library | Reading Room | Burma Press Summary

Home > Main Library > Economy > Industry > Extractive industries > Mining > Minerals and Mining - General

Order links by: Reverse Date Title

Minerals and Mining - General

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Myanmar: Extractives in Ten Minutes : No. 1
Date of publication: September 2012
Description/subject: FIVE FEATURES: China; Sanctions; Extractives mix; Political dynamics; Ethnic overlay...FIVE UNANSWERED QUESTIONS: Is Myanmar ready for EITI? What if the Burmese want more electricity? Could narco-dollars be recycled in a new investment wave? Is there a plan B? How could investment policy reform impact artisanal mining?...FIVE MAJOR PLAYERS: Aung San Suu Kyi; President Thein Sein; Myanmar Armed Forces; Myanmar Oil & Gas Enterprise (MOGE); China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC)...KEY LINKS: .• Arakan Oil Watch • Shwe Gas Movement • The Irrawaddy • Mizzima News • Democratic Voice of Burma • BurmaNet News ....ABOUT OPENOIL.....A snapshot guide to the rapidly developing extractive industries of Myanmar. The attached two-pager is designed as a quick read, covering five major features of the industry, posing five unanswered questions, and profiling the five biggest players in the sector. The "Ten Minutes" guide is the first in a planned series on Myanmar; OpenOil is currently developing similar snapshots of extractive industries in other countries such as Mongolia.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Open Oil
Format/size: pdf (315K)
Date of entry/update: 12 September 2012


Title: Burma mine protest (Google search results)
Description/subject: About 23,400,000 results (15 December 2012)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Various sources via Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 December 2012


Title: Mines and Communities Burma page
Description/subject: 295 results, December 2012; 327 results, December 2014
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mines and Comminities
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 December 2012


Title: Mines and Communities Website
Description/subject: The Mines and Communities Website ("MAC") was initiated by members of the Minewatch Asia-Pacific London support group. Its main aim is to ensure easy access to materials published by the group, as well as partner organisations and individuals. We want to make information on mining impacts, projects, and the corporate sector more widely available. Above all, we hope to empower mining-affected communities, so that they can better fight against damaging proposals and practices. The website is supported by: JATAM (Mining Advocacy Network, Indonesia), Mines, Minerals and People (India), Minewatch Asia Pacific Project (Philippines), Partizans (People against Rio Tinto Zinc and Its Subsidiaries, UK), Philippine Indigenous Peoples Links (UK), the Society of St. Columban (UK) and Third World Network Ghana. These organisations are also represented on the editorial group which will submit and monitor new information and contacts on which this website can build......See the Country page for several dozen articles and reports on mining in Burma. MAC is one of the homes of "Grave Diggers: A Report on Mining in Burma" by Roger Moody.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mines and Communities
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Mines And Communities website - Google search results for "Burma"
Description/subject: 264 results from 2001 for "Burma", December 2012
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mines And Communities
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 May 2012


Title: Ministry of Mines
Description/subject: Situated in South East Asia Peninsula, covering an area of 676578 sq km, Myanmar is endowed with rich mineral resources in which mining of precious minerals date as for back as second century BC. Myanmar Rubies, Sapphires and Jade are admired around the world. Silver Lead and Zinc were extracted since 15 century AD and Myanmar stood as one of the leading exporters of tin and tungsten in the world market during 1930's. "Ministry of Mines is responsible for Formulation of Mining Policy, Exploration and Extraction of Minerals and Gems. Department of Mines is responsible for Mining Policy Formulation, Granting of Mineral Permits and Coordination of Mining Sector. Mining Enterprise No. 3 is responsible for production of Coal. Department of Geological Surveys and Mineral Exploration is responsible for exploration of Coal Deposits."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Ministry of Mines
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2010


Individual Documents

Title: Nyaunglebin Situation Update: Kyauk Kyi Township, July 2012
Date of publication: 05 September 2012
Description/subject: This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in July 2012 by a community member describing events occurring in Nyaunglebin District, during July 2012. It describes the Norwegian government's plans for a development project in Kheh Der village tract, which is to support the villagers with their livelihood needs. In addition, the legislator of Kyauk Kyi Township, U Nyan Shwe, reported that he was going to undertake a stone-mining development project in the township, which led the Burmese government to order a company, U Paing, to go and test the stone in Maw Day village on July 1st, 2012. U Paing had left the area by the 8th of July due to safety concerns after a landmine explosion occurred in the near vicinity. Also described are villagers' fears to do with such projects, particularly in regards to environmental damage that could result from mining.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
Format/size: pdf (263K), html
Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b74.html
Date of entry/update: 05 November 2012


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma
Date of publication: August 2012
Description/subject: "In 2010, Burma, also known as Myanmar, produced a variety of mineral commodities, including cement, coal, copper, lead, natural gas, petroleum, petroleum products, precious and semiprecious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc. During 2010, Bangladesh, Burma, and India were involved in maritime boundary disputes over their respective sovereignty in the Bay of Bengal. For many years, these countries had attempted to negotiate and delimit their claims in the disputed area. In December 2009, Bangladesh and Burma accepted the jurisdiction of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) for the settlement of the dispute concerning their maritime boundary delimitation. Although accepting ITLOS jurisdiction, the countries had not agreed on a bilateral solution regarding the delimitation principle to be used, and negotiations continued between the countries. ITLOS is an independent judicial body established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) that has jurisdiction to arbitrate disputes arising out of the interpretation and application of the Law of the Sea. UNCLOS establishes a legal framework to regulate ocean space and its resources and uses. In meetings held in January 2010, Bangladesh and Burma agreed to delimit the area by combining the equidistance and equity demarcation principles. In October, Burma and India reached an informal understanding to cooperate with each other on the settlement of their maritime dispute with Bangladesh (Durham University, 2010; International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, 2010; Priyo.com, 2010)..."
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Format/size: pdf (193K)
Date of entry/update: 05 December 2012


Title: Myanmar considers the EITI
Date of publication: 13 July 2012
Description/subject: "U Soe Thane, Minister of Industry...during the Myanmar Forum in Singapore...announced that “in time, we plan to introduce and practice Extractive Industries Transparency Initiatives (EITI)”. As part of its broader reform efforts, the government of Myanmar is now exploring the benefits of EITI implementation. “We are preparing to be a signatory to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative to ensure that there is maximum transparency in these sectors and try to make sure the benefits go to the vast majority of the people and not to a small group”, said President Thein Sein..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://eiti.org/
Date of entry/update: 20 September 2012


Title: Obama Administration declares Burma open to U.S. mining investment
Date of publication: 18 May 2012
Description/subject: U.S. mining and exploration companies can now officially join their Australian, Canadian, Chinese, European, French, Thai and Korean counterparts in the rush to develop Burma's mineral riches. RENO (MINEWEB) -
Author/creator: Dorothy Kosich
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mineweb
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 May 2012


Title: US greenlights investment by energy, mining, banking firms
Date of publication: 17 May 2012
Description/subject: "...Clinton said Washington would issue a general license to permit U.S. investments across Myanmar's economy, and U.S. energy, mining and financial service companies were all now free to look for opportunities in the nation formerly known as Burma..."
Author/creator: Andrew Quinn and Paul Eckert
Language: English
Source/publisher: Reuters
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 May 2012


Title: Japan's Itochu joins the charge of the mining brigade in to Burma
Date of publication: 04 May 2012
Description/subject: "It is reported in the Japanese press today that Itochu Corp has begun a feasibility study in the country to isolate specialty metals including tungsten and molybdenum. This follows approaches by Japanese officials last year trying to get a deal with Burma for access to rare earths, the elements vital to Japanese industry’s high tech and hybrid car programs. South Korea has also been lobbying the Burmese over rare earths. Chinese companies have also been eyeing projects in the country. In 2008, China National Petroleum Corp signed a 30-year gas agreement covering production from three blocks in the Bay of Bengal. But this is only the beginning. The country will be a big target because it has bountiful resources in close proximity to resource-hungry India and China..."
Author/creator: Robin Bromby
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Australian"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


Title: Burma bans mining on four major rivers
Date of publication: 30 March 2012
Description/subject: (Mizzima) – Burma has banned mining of mineral resources along the country's four major river courses or near the river banks in a bid to preserve the natural environment, according to an order of the Ministry of Mines made public Thursday.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mizzima
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 31 March 2012


Title: GEOMYANMAR 2012
Date of publication: March 2012
Description/subject: First International Conference on Regional Geology, Stratigraphy and Tectonics of Myanmar and neighbouring countries and Economic Geology (petroleum and mineral resources) of Myanmar
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Myanmar Geosciences Society (MGS)
Format/size: pdf (1.12MB)
Date of entry/update: 07 October 2012


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2009
Date of publication: 2010
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line...OUTLOOK: "Burma’s mineral production for 2010 will most likely be dependent on the performance of neighboring economies, as well as on the global mineral commodity markets. The decrease in production in much of the mineral sector during 2009 might be linked to the general slowdown in business brought about by the global economic crisis. The gemstone industry was affected by decreased demand resulting in part from the importation ban imposed by the JADE Act. High operational costs have forced mines to halt operations or face closing the mining facilities altogether. Based on the circumstances surrounding the gemstone sector during 2009, it is likely that the demand for and production of Burmese gemstones will remain unchanged in 2010. A lthough global markets for many mineral commodities reflected a decrease in demand, copper production in Burma for 2010 is expected to increase when the Monywa copper project resumes operations. A similar situation is expected for the nickel industry once the Tagaung Taung Mine is commissioned in 2011. In 2010, oil and gas exploration activities are expected to continue to increase, mainly as a result of the many exploration projects that started in 2008 and 2009. Further exploration for oil and gas in new areas of the Bay of Bengal will be highly dependent on the resolution that Bangladesh, Burma, and India reach regarding the delimitation of their respective maritime boundaries. Meanwhile, business ties between Burma and China are likely to strengthen as a result of the agreements and projects that the two countries have committed to in the oil and gas sector, such as the construction of the oil and gas pipeline that will connect the two countries."
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (170K), xls
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2009/myb3-2009-bm.xls
Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2008
Date of publication: 2009
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line...OUTLOOK: "For the past several years, the production of most mineral commodities has decreased exponentially in Burma owing mainly to the withdrawal of mining companies from the country. Burma’s mineral production in 2009 will likely be further affected by the significant decline in late 2008 of world market prices and world demand for mineral commodities. As a result of the agreement signed by ME-3 and CNMC, Burma’s nickel production is expected to increase after 2011 when the Tagaung Taung Mine is commissioned."
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (276K), xls
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2008/myb3-2008-bm.xls
Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2007
Date of publication: 2008
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line... OUTLOOK: "During 2007, the mineral production of Burma decreased significantly following a similar decrease in 2006. Mineral production is expected to continue to decrease in 2008 as well. Copper production was to remain at a reduced level as a result of Ivanhoe Mine’s assets in the Monywa Copper Project being transferred to an independent third party for sale."
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (265K), xls
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2007/myb3-2007-bm.xls
Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


Title: Turning Treasure Into Tears - Mining, Dams and Deforestation in Shwegyin Township, Pegu Division, Burma
Date of publication: 20 February 2007
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report describes how human rights and environmental abuses continue to be a serious problem in eastern Pegu division, Burma – specifi cally, in Shwegyin township of Nyaunglebin District. The heavy militarization of the region, the indiscriminate granting of mining and logging concessions, and the construction of the Kyauk Naga Dam have led to forced labor, land confi scation, extortion, forced relocation, and the destruction of the natural environment. The human consequences of these practices, many of which violate customary and conventional international law, have been social unrest, increased fi nancial hardship, and great personal suffering for the victims of human rights abuses. By contrast, the SPDC and its business partners have benefi ted greatly from this exploitation. The businessmen, through their contacts, have been able to rapidly expand their operations to exploit the township’s gold and timber resources. The SPDC, for its part, is getting rich off the fees and labor exacted from the villagers. Its dam project will forever change the geography of the area, at great personal cost to the villagers, but it will give the regime more electricity and water to irrigate its agro-business projects. Karen villagers in the area previously panned for gold and sold it to supplement their incomes from their fi elds and plantations. They have also long been involved in small-scale logging of the forests. In 1997, the SPDC and businessmen began to industrialize the exploitation of gold deposits and forests in the area. Businessmen from central Burma eventually arrived and in collusion with the Burmese Army gained mining concessions and began to force people off of their land. Villagers in the area continue to lose their land, and with it their ability to provide for themselves. The Army abuses local villagers, confi scates their land, and continues to extort their money. Commodity prices continue to rise, compounding the diffi culties of daily survival. Large numbers of migrant workers have moved into the area to work the mining concessions and log the forests. This has created a complicated tension between the Karen and these migrants. While the migrant workers are merely trying to earn enough money to feed their families, they are doing so on the Karen’s ancestral land and through the exploitation of local resources. Most of the migrant workers are Burman, which increases ethnic tensions in an area where Burmans often represent the SPDC and the Army and are already seen as sneaky and oppressive by the local Karen. These forms of exploitation increased since the announcement of the construction of the Kyauk Naga Dam in 2000, which is expected to be completed in late 2006. The SPDC has enabled the mining and logging companies to extract as much as they can before the area upstream of the dam is fl ooded. This situation has intensifi ed and increased human rights violations against villagers in the area. The militarization of the region, as elsewhere, has resulted in forced labor, extortion of money, goods, and building materials, and forced relocation by the Army. In addition to these direct human rights violations, the mining and dam construction have also resulted in grave environmental degradation of the area. The mining process has resulted in toxic runoff that has damaged or destroyed fi elds and plantations downstream. The dam, once completed, will submerge fi elds, plantations, villages, and forests. In addition, the dam will be used to irrigate rubber plantations jointly owned by the SPDC and private business interests. The Burmese Army has also made moves to secure the area in the mountains to the east of the Shwegyin River. This has led to relocations and the forced displacement of thousands of Karen villagers living in the mountains. Once the Army has secured the area, the mining and logging companies will surely follow..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI)
Format/size: pdf (632K)
Date of entry/update: 06 March 2007


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2006
Date of publication: 2007
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line...OUTLOOK: "During 2006, the mineral industry of Burma underwent a significant setback in production, which would be noticeable in early 2007. The copper industry was to be particularly affected given Ivanhoe’s decision to sell its Monywa Copper Project assets, which were transferred to an independent third party while awaiting the sale. Natural gas exploration activities in Burma are expected to continue to increase during 2007, mainly as a result of the many exploration projects that were started and the discoveries that were made in 2005 and 2006."
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (114K), xls
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2006/myb3-2006-bm.xls
Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2005
Date of publication: 2006
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line...OUTLOOK: "By 2006, trade between Burma and India is expected to increase as a result of the MOU signed in 2004. Production in the mining sector will likely follow the trend of recent years in which the mining sector was dominated by the copper, natural gas, and petroleum industries. Natural gas exploration activities in Burma are expected to continue to increase during 2006 mainly as the result of the many exploration projects and discoveries that were started in 2005. In 2006, the Indo-Korean consortium that holds interests in offshore natural gas Blocks A1 and A3 plans to start appraisal wells in Block A1 and to begin an exploration drilling program in Block A3 (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) Videsh Ltd., 2005§). Expansion and development plans in the S&K Mine is expected to increase annual copper production capacities within the next few years. In the meantime, a decline in copper production is expected during 2006 owing to decreased copper grades encountered in the Sabetaung deposit in 2005."
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (120K), xls
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2005/bmmyb05.xls
Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2004
Date of publication: 2005
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line from 1994. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line... OUTLOOK: "Burma’s economy is expected to grow in 2005 and 2006 at a rate of 6% and 5%, respectively, on the basis of GDP at purchasing power parity. By 2006, trade between Burma and India is expected to increase by 134% following an MOU signed in 2004. Production in the mining sector will likely follow the trend in recent years and continue to be dominated by the copper, natural gas, and petroleum industries. Exploration activity in Burma will have a tendency to continue to increase mainly as the result of the many exploration projects that started in 2004; these included two gold deposits, Modi Taung and Set Ga Done, and the developments that involve natural gas and petroleum, both onshore and offshore. Preliminary exploration that shows high-grade discoveries of nickel and zinc could also open Burma’s doors to new markets within the next few years. Burma could become a leading mineral producer in Asia if ongoing explorations are proven to be feasible and profitable to develop. Expansion and development plans in the S&K Mine and the Lepadaung deposit will increase annual copper production capacities within the next 4 years. The S&K Mine is expected to achieve production of from 50,000 to 80,000 t/yr, and Letpadaung, to reach copper production of from 125,000 to 150,000 t/yr. In addition, the discovery of a potentially significant high-grade copper zone in the Sabetaung area could increase the production of copper even more and transform the Monywa Copper Project into the leading SX-EW copper producer in Asia. The development of interregional gas pipelines, increases in natural gas consumption in Asia and the Pacific region, and the discovery of new gasfields in Burma are circumstances that will place Burma as a key producer in the region. Also, recent gas discoveries in Burma could increase gas exports to Thailand, which is Burma’s main natural gas importer."
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (115K), xls
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2004/bmmyb04.xls
Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


Title: Mining, Gender, and the Environment in Burma
Date of publication: November 2004
Description/subject: "...Women’s groups and environmental groups have much to gain by collaborating with one another on mining in Burma. To this end, this article offers additional background information that will be of interest to groups concerned with either women’s rights or the environment. Each section summarizes areas where these respective issues overlap..." "...I found this report to be particularly useful for the information and insights it provides into artisanal mining in Burma, especially the more recent developments in the Hukanwng valley in Kachin State that Alan Rabinowitz came across in his travels in the area. There are some tantalizing references to the Northern Star Co in Myitkyina which apparently controls all mining operations in the state. Also very useful for the discussion of the various extractive methods used in artisanal mining and in particular the "cooking" process (referred to as "dohtar" in Burmese), used to extract small amounts of copper from mining residue and which the report describes as a a "less technologically sophisticated version of the copper solvent extraction and electrowinning pilot plant built by Ivanhoe in Monywa". This article is very well researched. There are also updates in the same Earthrights report to the proposed pipeline to India from the offshore gas field in near Sittway and to continuing use of forced labour in the Yadana pipeline corridor in northern Tenasserim ..." - Eric Snider... Extractive Industries in Burma: Mining in Comparative Context; Challenges to Studying Mining in Burma; International Women and Mining Conference; Case study: The Gendered Impacts of Gold Mining Operations in Kachin State, Burma; Key Health and Safety Issues for Burmese Women; Recommendations and Areas for Future Research.
Language: English
Source/publisher: EarthRights International
Format/size: pdf (66K), html
Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/burmareports/mining_gender_and_the_environment_in_burma_3.html
Date of entry/update: 05 December 2004


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2003
Date of publication: 2004
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. In 2003, Burma’s gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing power parity was estimated to be $73 billion (International Monetary Fund, 2004§). Burma’s economy is based primarily on agriculture, including fisheries, forestry, and livestock, which accounts for nearly 54% of the GDP. The country’s mineral resources include antimony, coal, copper, gemstones, lead, limestone, marble, natural gas, petroleum, precious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc. Burma’s export market totaled about $2.6 billion during 2003 and included natural gas (23.3%), forest products (14.8%), garments (14.4%), beans (about 11.7%), marine products (6.8%), and other products (27%). Imports totaled about $2.4 billion and included machinery and transport equipment (20.2%), refined mineral oil (12.3%), base metals and manufactures (9.4%), fabrics (about 8.8%), plastic (4.6%), and other products (44.7) (U.S. Department of State, 2004). In 2003, Burma hosted the second annual meeting of the Joint Economic Quadrangle Committee in the capital city of Yangon. The meeting, which was attended by representatives of Burma’s Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry and the counterpart organizations from China, Laos and Thailand, supported increased trade and investment in Burma from the neighboring countries of the Mekong region (Cambodia, China, Laos and Thailand). Thailand, which was the third leading investor in Burma, invested $1.29 billion in Burma in 2002, and China, about $64 million. Burma’s 2002 border trade with China was valued at $276 million, which was an increase of 35% compared with that of 2001. Trade with Thailand totaled $170 million in 2002 (Myint, 2003). Major events in early 2003 that disrupted Burma’s economy included a major banking crisis that shut down 20 private banks in the country, followed by a Japanese freeze on new bilateral economic aid. The decline in foreign investment that had taken place since 1999 continued owing to an unfriendly business climate, political pressure from Western consumers and shareholders, and the effect of U.S. economic sanctions on the country’s economy (U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 2004; U.S. Department of State, 2004).
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (148K), xls
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2003/bmmyb03.pdf
http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2003/bmmyb03.xls
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


Title: Capitalizing on Conflict: How Logging and Mining Contribute to Environmental Destruction in Burma.
Date of publication: October 2003
Description/subject: "'Capitalizing on Conflict' presents information illustrating how trade in timber, gems, and gold is financing violent conflict, including widespread and gross human rights abuses, in Burma. Although trade in these “conflict goods” accounts for a small percentage of the total global trade, it severely compromises human security and undermines socio-economic development, not only in Burma, but throughout the region. Ironically, cease-fire agreements signed between the late 1980s and early 1990s have dramatically expanded the area where businesses operate. While many observers have have drawn attention to the political ramifications of these ceasefires, little attention has been focused on the economic ramifications. These ceasefires, used strategically by the military regime to end fighting in some areas and foment intra-ethnic conflict in others and weaken the unity of opposition groups, have had a net effect of increasing violence in some areas. Capitalizing on Conflict focuses on two zones where logging and mining are both widespread and the damage from these activities is severe... Both case studies highlight the dilemmas cease-fire arrangements often pose for the local communities, which frequently find themselves caught between powerful and conflicting military and business interests. The information provides insights into the conditions that compel local communities to participate in the unsustainable exploitation of their own local resources, even though they know they are destroying the very ecosystems they depend upon to maintain their way of life. The other alternative — to stand aside and let outsiders do it and then be left with nothing — is equally unpalatable..." Table of Contents: Map of Burma; Map of Logging and Mining Areas; Executive Summary; Recommendations; Part I: Context; General Background on Cease-fires; Conflict Trade and Burma; Part II: Logging Case Study; Background on the Conflict; Shwe Gin Township (Pegu Division); Papun Districut (Karen State); Reported Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts; Part III: Mining Case Study; Background on the Conflict; Mogok (Mandalay Division); Shwe Gin Township (Pegu Division); Reported Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts; Conclusion.
Author/creator: Ken MacLean
Language: English
Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI), Karen Environnmental & Social Action Network (KESAN)
Format/size: pdf (939K)
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2003


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2002
Date of publication: 2003
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. In 2002, the gross domestic product (GDP) for Burma grew by 5.5%, which was about one-half the growth achieved in 2001 (10.5% revised) (International Monetary Fund, 2003§). Flooding during 2002 and agricultural shortages of, for example, fertilizers and pesticides affected the agricultural output, which accounted for more than 40% of the country’s GDP, thus causing a significant decrease in GDP when compared with that of 2001 (Asian Development Bank, 2003§). In 2002, the mining sector represented only 0.8% of the GDP; in 2001, it had represented 2%. The decrease was principally a consequence of a decline in foreign investment for exploration and mining projects (Than Htay, 2002). Price inflation dropped to below 4% in 2001 after an economic slowdown during fiscal year 2000, but it increased rapidly, and by the end of December 2002, inflation had risen to 56.8%. The main reason for the high rate of inflation was the increase in salaries of public sector employees, which was financed by the Central Bank (Asian Development Bank, 2003). According to the Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration (DGSME), which reports to the Ministry of Mines of Burma, only four foreign exploration companies remained in Burma and invested $217,0003 during fiscal years 2001 and 2002. In general, mineral production in 2002 was lower than that of 2001.
Author/creator: Yolanda Fong-Sam
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (149K), xls
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2002/bmmyb02.pdf
http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2002/bmmyb02.xls
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2001
Date of publication: 2002
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. According to the Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration (DGSME) under the Ministry of Mines, the output share of the mining sector by the state-owned mining enterprises decreased to 5.5% in 2001 from 11.6% in 1998, and the output share by the privately owned companies increased to 93.4% in 2001 from 85.8% in 1998. In 2001, only one gold mine (the Kyaukpahtoe), three nonferrous metals mines (the Bawdwin, the Bawsaing, and the Yadanatheingi), and two coal mines (the Kalewa and the Namma) were still operated by the state-owned mining enterprises; and only one foreign mining company had committed to invest $6.12 million in 2001 compared with $18.5 million committed by three foreign mining companies in 2000. Of the four active foreign exploration companies in 2000, only two were active in 2001. As a result of decreased exploration and development, export earnings from the mining sector dropped in 2001.
Author/creator: John C. Wu
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pf (147K)
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2001/bmmyb01.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 2000
Date of publication: 2001
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. According to the Government’s provisional statistics, the output of the mining sector contributed 1.7% to Myanmar’s gross domestic product (GDP), which was estimated to be $14.2 billion in fiscal year 1999-2000. The country’s GDP was estimated to have grown by 10.9%, and the mining sector, 29.5% in fiscal year 1999-2000. In July, the Deputy Minister of the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, however, revealed that the official data for economic growth had been grossly and deliberately exaggerated. A report that was published by the Asian Development Bank in May also pointed out that Myanmar’s economic growth had slowed down for the third consecutive year since 1996. In fiscal year 1999-2000, Myanmar's total exports were estimated to be $1,132 million, of which export earnings from base metals adn ores were $20.7 million. Myanmar's total exports were estimated to be $2,539 million, of which base metals and babricated products were $275 millions. In the same fiscal year, the state-owned companies produced only 5.6% o the total output of the mining sector; the privately owned companies, 92.8% and the cooperatives, 1.6%. According to the latest available data, the mining industry's work force was about 121,000 in fiscal year 1997-98, which accounted for 0.66% of Myanmar's total employment.
Author/creator: John C. Wu
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (132K)
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2000/9306000.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


Title: Grave Diggers: A report on Mining in Burma
Date of publication: 14 February 2000
Description/subject: A report on mining in Burma. The problems mining is bringing to the Burmese people, and the multinational companies involved in it. Includes an analysis of the SLORC 1994 Mining Law.... 'Grave Diggers, authored by world renowned mining environmental activist Roger Moody, was the first major review of mining in Burma since the country's military regime opened the door to foreign mining investment in 1994. Singled out for special attention in this report is the stake taken up by Canadian mining promoter Robert Friedland, whose Ivanhoe Mines has redeveloped a major copper mine in the Monywa area in joint venture enterprise with Burma's military regime. There are several useful appendices with first hand reports from mining sites throughout the country. A series of maps shows the location of the exploration concessions taken up almost exclusively by foreign companies in the rounds of bidding that took place in the nineties.
Author/creator: Roger Moody
Language: English
Source/publisher: Various groups
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB) html
Alternate URLs: http://www.miningwatch.ca/en/grave-diggers-report-mining-burma
http://www.miningwatch.ca/sites/miningwatch.ca/files/Grave_Diggers.pdf
Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1999
Date of publication: 2000
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. According to Government statistics, the output of the mining sector contributed about 1.6% to Myanmar’s gross domestic product, which was estimated to be $14.2 billion in fiscal year 1998/99. In fiscal year 1998/99, the state-owned companies produced only 10.8% of the total output of the mining sector; the privately owned companies, 88.2%; and the cooperatives, 1%. As a result of substantial private domestic and foreign investment, the output of the mining sector registered an overall growth rate of 17% despite a significant decline in mine output of the state-owned enterprises owing to the lack of spare parts caused by the foreign exchange shortage and other factors. In fiscal year 1998/99, Myanmar’s total exports were estimated to be $1,134 million, of which export earnings from base metals and ores were only $2.5 million. Myanmar’s exports of gemstones were estimated to be $20 million. Exports of major mineral commodities included ores and concentrates of chromium, manganese, tin, tungsten, and zinc; refined metal of copper, lead, silver and tin; and crude and polished precious and semiprecious stones. Myanmar’s total imports were estimated to be $2,480 million, of which 11.6% was base metals and fabricated products; 2.3%, cement; 0.9%, fertilizer materials; and 0.7%, chemical elements and compounds. Additionally, Myanmar imported about 5 million barrels (Mbbl) of crude petroleum and 3.6 Mbbl of refined petroleum products, such as diesel fuel, with a total cost of more than $162 million. Most of Myanmar’s mineral trade was with Asian and European countries. The total number of employees in the mining industry declined from 132,00 in 1998 to 121,00 in 1999, which accounted for about 0.66% of Myanmar's total employment.
Author/creator: John C. Wu
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (118K)
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1999/9306099.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1998
Date of publication: 1999
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. In 1998, most mineral production remained at low level owing to the lack of spare parts, outdated technology, and declining ore grades. Myanmar became a producer of refined copper in 1998 with the help of foreign capital and technology. According to Government statistics, the output of the mining sector contributed about 1.3% to Myanmar’s gross domestic product. Of the total output of the mining sector, 52% was produced by the state-owned companies; 47%, by privately owned companies; and 1%, by cooperatives (Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, 1997). Mineral commodities exports accounted for about 6% of the total export earnings and mineral commodities imports accounted for about 22% of total imports. Exports of major mineral commodities included ores and concentrates of chromium, copper, manganese, tin, tungsten, and zinc; refined metal of copper, lead, and silver; and crude and polished precious and semiprecious stones. Imports of mineral commodities included cement, refined petroleum products, base metals, and steel mill products. Most of Myanmar’s mineral trade was with Asian and European countries. Mineral trade with the United States was small and limited to imports of various chemical compounds and exports of gemstones to the United States. Myanmar’s exports of gemstones earned about $23 million in 1998.
Author/creator: John C. Wu
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (35K)
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1998/9306098.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1997
Date of publication: 1998
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. In 1997, the output of the mining sector contributed about 1.7% to Myanmar's gross domestic product. Exports of mineral commodities accounted for about 5% of the total export earnings and imports of mineral commodities accounted for about 20% of total imports. In 1997, imports of refined petroleum products, cement,and steel mill product were higher than those of 1996 because of a stonger demand for these mineral commodities. The total number of employees in the mining industry was about 120,000, accounting for about 0.8% of Myanmar's total employment.
Author/creator: John C. Wu
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (32 kb)
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1997/9306097.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1996
Date of publication: 1997
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. Exports of mineral commodities accounted for about 5.4% of the total export earnings, which are estimated at $867 million in 1996. Imports of mineral commodities for about 18% of total imports, which were estimated at $1.5 billion in 1996. The copper ore production averaged about 8,000 metric tons (t) per day and the mill produced about 24,000t of copper concentrate in 1996. State-owned companies, 40% by the privately owned companies, and 1% by the so-called cooperatives in 1996. The total number of employees in the mining industry was about 116,000, accounting for about 0.7% of Burma's total employment in 1996.
Author/creator: John C. Wu
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (38K)
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1996/9306096.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1995
Date of publication: 1996
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. According to the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Developement, the total work force in the mining sector was about 105,000, accounting for 0.61% of Burma's labor force in 1995. The total output of the mining sector, in 1986 constant producers prices, was estimated at $141 million, or about 1.3% of Burma's gross domestic product, which was estimated at $10.8 billion in 1995.
Author/creator: John C. Wu
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey (USGS)
Format/size: pdf (36K)
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1995/9306095.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1994
Date of publication: June 1995
Description/subject: For over 40 years the U.S. Bureau of Mines has issued an annual summary of mining activity in Burma which is now available on-line. These useful reports include information about surveying, mapping, exploration, concession grants, mineral exports and imports and the operations of major mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. The reports cover a wide range of mine products including base metals, precious metals, non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Cement and steel products are also covered. The focus of these reports is on large-scale mining operations and they tend to leave out of consideration the activities of smaller national companies and the mining 'rushes' that occur from time to time, attracting the participation of thousands from around the country. There is little emphasis on the environmental concerns associated with mining activities in Burma. Burmese government reports provide the major sources for the information provided in these reports, but, particularly in recent years, they have also included information from the section on Burma (Myanmar) in the Mining Annual Review produced by the Journal of Mining. The reports are usually a year out-of-date by the time are made available on-line. This important document features how Burma expanded its mining industry for both trading and domestic use. The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC),which is now known as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), enacted the Myanmar Mining Law replacing all the existing regulations - The Upper Myanmar Ruby Regulation of 1887, the Mines acts of 1923, and the Union of Myanmar Mines and Mineral Acts of 1961. According to an estimate by the Ministry of Mines, the total work force in the mining sector was about 83,000 of which about 21, 000 were in metallic mining. The total output of the mining sector, in million capacity was rated at 40,000 metric tons per year (mt/a), compared with the designed capacity of 65,000 mt/a. Copper ore was mined from an open pit mine at Sabetaung deposit in the western bank of Chindwin River, about 11 km west of Monywa in Salingyi Township, Sagaing Division. According to the No.1 Mining Enterprise, the metal content of copper and gold in copper concentrate was about 19.2% and 1.5 grams per metric ton (g/mt), respectively. Most exports of copper concentrate went to Japan in 1994. According to Japanese trade statistics, Japan imported from Burma 24,768 metric tons (mt) of copper concentrate, valued at $6.2 million in 1994.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Geological Survey
Format/size: pdf (35K)
Alternate URLs: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1998/9306098.pdf
Date of entry/update: 09 September 2010


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1993
Date of publication: 1994
Description/subject: This edition of the Minerals Yearbook records the performance of the worldwide minerals industry including Burma’s mineral industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume III, Area Reports contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. The reports also incorporate location maps, industry structure tables, and an outlook section. According to the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, the estimated employment in the mining sector was 83,000 in fiscal year 1993 or about 0.5 % of Burma's estimated total employment of 16.5 million. The total output of the mining sector, in 1986 constant producers' prices, was estimated at $120 millio&3 or 1.2% of Burma's gross domestic product (GDP) (the total value of net output and services), which was estimated at $10 billion for fiscal year 1993. Of the total output of the mining sector, about 73 % was produced by the State-owned enterprises, 26 % by the private enterprises, and 1 % by cooperatives. 14 Minerals production in Burma had been declining since the 1960's. In 1989, the Government adopted an open-door policy and a liberal foreign investment law to encourage participation of foreign mining companies in exploration and development of Burma's mineral resources. According to the Burmese Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration, since 1988 no substantial foreign capital had been invested in the Burmese mining industry, especially in the non-fuel minerals sector. According to a local press report, 75 direct foreign investments were made in Burma with a total value of $956.3 million since the Government began implementing the new investment law in 1988. Of this total, only nine investments were in the mining sector. Burma's mining industry suffered a steady decline because no new mines were developed while many of the old mines were left to deteriorate without the much needed renovation in the past years. However, because of increased contribution by the private sector, production of gemstones, gold, jade, tin, and tungsten reportedly showed some improvements in fiscal year 1993. Burma's mineral trade involved mainly exporting jade, gems, and some amounts of copper concentrate, chromates, manganese ores, tin and tungsten concentrates, and importing some amounts of ferrous and nonferrous metals and an increasing amount of crude petroleum.
Author/creator: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Mineral Yearbook, Mineral Industries of Asia and the Pacific, VIII (1993)
Format/size: pdf (185K)
Alternate URLs: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1992
Date of publication: 1993
Description/subject: This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry including Burma’s Mineral industry during 1992 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume III, Minerals Yearbook International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. Since the 1989 International Review, this volume has been presented as six reports: Mineral Industries of the Middle East, Mineral Industries of Africa, Mineral Industries of Asia and the Pacific, Mineral Industries of Latin America and Canada, Mineral Industries of Europe and Central Eurasia, and Minerals in the World Economy. The total work force of the mining sector was estimated at 83,000 or about 0.5% of Burma's labor force in 1992. According to the Burmese Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, the total output of the mining sector, in 1986 constant producers' prices, was valued at $76 million' or 0.89 % of Burma's gross domestic product (the total value of net output and services), which was valued at $8.5 billion for fiscal year 1992. Of the total output of the mining sector, about 73% was produced by the State-owned enterprises, 26% by the private enterprises, and 1% by cooperatives. In fiscal year 1992, export earnings from jade and gems alone amounted to about $23.5 million and accounted for more than 60% of Burma's minerals exports. Additionally, a considerable amount of high-quality jade and gems reportedly are smuggled annually to China and Thailand. Exports of copper concentrate in 1992 were estimated at $3.5 million and accounted for 10% of total minerals exports.
Author/creator: John C. Wu
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Mineral Yearbook, Mineral Industries of Asia and the Pacific, V III (1992)
Format/size: pdf (203K)
Alternate URLs: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/
Date of entry/update: 09 September 2005


Title: The Mineral Industry of Burma (Myanmar) 1991
Date of publication: 1992
Description/subject: This report on the performance of the mining industry of Burma forms part of the worldwide minerals review in the 1991 edition of Minerals Yearbook of the U.S. Bureau of Mines. This useful report includes information about surveying, mapping, exploration, mineral exports and imports and the operations of mining companies, as well as a valuable five year tonnage table for all major mineral products. Most of Burma's foreign trade is conducted on a barter basis and valued on an inflated currency exchange rate. In September 1991, the black-market exchange rate was Kyat 100 to US$ 1. This compares with an official average rate of Kyat 6.25 to US$1 in 1991. Based on this rate, total exports were valued at $421 million and imports at $649 million, a net trade deficit of $228 million in 1991. Burma is an agrarian-based economy, and naturally its principal exports are agricultural products. The value of base metals and ores exported totaled only $4.2 million in 1991. The most valuable mineral shipment is gemstones, which either are exported officially or are smuggled out of the country. Value data for these exports are not available. Imports are comprised of consumer and capital goods that are not manufactured locally.
Author/creator: Pui-Kwan Tse
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Mineral Yearbook, Mineral Industries of Asian and the Pacific, VIII (1991), p 60-68
Format/size: pdf (313K)
Alternate URLs: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/EcoNatRes/
Date of entry/update: 10 September 2005