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Education in Burma - general

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Special Supplement on Education (Myanmar Times)
Date of publication: February 2012
Description/subject: Curriculum reform must be teacher centred: experts (Cherry Thein)...New education budget stimulates debate (Sandar Lwin)...New freedom for academic subjects offers improved teaching methods (Aung Si Hein)...‘Language power is earning power’ (Myo Lwin)...Summer schools attract children with alternative teaching (Noe Noe Aung)...Private education society aims to improve standards (Ei Ei Toe Lwin)...Here is a list of our some places to learn the skills you need for career advancement: ...Holocaust awareness lost in translation (Myo Lwin)...Education helps improve awareness of disabilities, say experts (Yamon Phu Thit)...Parents face risks with overseas education agencies (Cing Don Nuam)...Flexible learning opportunities need support (Aye Sapay Phyu and Htoo Aung).....plus lots of ads for private schools
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
Format/size: pdf (1MB)
Date of entry/update: 09 March 2012


Title: Education Myanmar: Investing in the Future
Date of publication: January 2010
Description/subject: "A Myanmar Times special feature - January 2010"...Studying Abroad - How to apply and win a place at a prestigious university...Education sector is flourishing in 2010 - Students enjoy a multitude of study, learning options...Dubious agents entice students short of visa...Students voice concerns about studying in Aus...Garden school sews new hope...Music facilitates learning where it’s most needed...Pre-schools boom in Mandalay...Professionals choose MBAs...Manage your resources...Spanking habits die hard...Where to study and how...Malaysia and Singapore compete for young brains...Monastic education...Harvard imparts its wisdom...Scholars be [prepared?- line missing]...A strong CV can catapult your career...International students share their [experience? - line missing]
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB - OBL version; 2,51MB - original)
Alternate URLs: http://mmtimes.com/2010/feature/507/eduaction.pdf
Date of entry/update: 24 September 2011


Title: "The Myanmar Times" Special Feature on Education
Date of publication: March 2008
Description/subject: Professional: More than knowledge » Monastic schools play important role » HR key to development » Education system set to create learned society » Human capital to be developed, not copied » Changing attitudes towards education » Summer schools first step on path to brighter future » Preschools fundamental to childhood development » School parents opt for ready-made uniforms » Vocational education leads to employment » Kindness as important as knowledge: Doctors » Students share experiences of studying in foreign country » Myanmar students choosing Australian and Singapore unis » English: Language of the world » Scholarships making dreams come true
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Consolidated Media Co. Ltd
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 April 2008


Title: "BurmaNet News" Education archive
Language: English
Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


Title: Burma Education Partnership
Description/subject: The Burma Education Partnership [BEP] developed from the Karen Education Partnership was which was set up in 2002 and worked with the displaced Karen people of Burma. The Karen people were staunch allies of the British during World War Two. They are now suffering from the effects of many years of oppression and brutality.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Education Project
Date of entry/update: 21 October 2010


Title: Burma-Education
Description/subject: Welcome to the Burma University Campaign list! This service is intended to facilitate the exchange of information and articles about the educational situation in Burma. It is also a place to share ideas about the worldwide campaign for educational reform in Burma and the full reopening of Burma's universities- "Open Our School, Enlighten Our Future". The campaign is carried out jointly by the Burmese "Campaign Committee for Open Schools" and the Norwegian human rights organization Worldview Rights. Please submit articles, reports, photos, links etc. regarding the state of Burma's educational system, suggestions for campaign topics, events that should be covered etc. The list is moderated and maintained by Worldview Rights. Check out previous messages, suggested links, stored documents, calendar of activities and events etc. Welcome! Ronny Hansen. Worldview Rights Moderator ronny@worldview.no INACTIVE, BUT WITH USEFUL ARCHIVE.
Language: English
Subscribe: burma-education-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
Format/size: Archive from February 2000
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Education in Burma (Wikipedia)
Description/subject: Contents: 1 History 2 Uniform 3 Preschool and kindergarten 4 Primary education 5 Secondary education 6 Tertiary education 7 References 8 External links
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 November 2011


Title: Network Myanmar's Education page
Description/subject: Current focus (November 2011) on private schools in Burma
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 November 2011


Title: UNESCO Myanmar education page
Description/subject: Links to documents from the Myanmar Ministry of Education and other sources.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNESCO
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 April 2008


Individual Documents

Title: Myanmar’s academic ambitions
Date of publication: 26 November 2013
Description/subject: "In the 1980s Pyone Myat Thu’s family of academics left Burma for a better life. Now in the face of massive reform, the ANU postdoctoral fellow argues that education is the key to unlocking the country’s vast potential. And she also has some ideas on how the Burmese diaspora, spread across the four corners of the globe, can use their own education to help drive change in the county. Writing for the ANU College of Asia and the Pacific, Pyone notes that in the wake of the nation-wide student uprisings in August 1988, schools, technical colleges and tertiary institutions were closed leaving the education sector neglected “for as long as anyone cares to remember."..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 July 2014


Title: Special Supplement on Education(Burmese)/ ပညာေရး-ျမန္မာတိုင္းမ္ အထူး အခ်ပ္ပို
Date of publication: February 2012
Description/subject: လူသားအရင္းအျမစ္ဖြံ႕ ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ရန္ ပညာေရး ဘတ္ဂ်က္ တိုး သင့္... ျပည္ တြင္း၊ ျပည္ပ၊ ေဒသတြင္း အဂၤလိပ္ ဘာသာ စကား အေရးပါလာၿပီ... ပညာေရး က႑ ပိုတုိးတက္မွ ဆင္းရဲႏြမ္းပါးမႈ ေလ်ာ့က်မွာ... က႑ တစ္ခု လံုး ျပန္လည္ သံုးသပ္ ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲေတာ့မည္... ကေန႔ပညာေရးစနစ္ အလုပ္ အကိုင္ေစ်း ကြက္ နဲ႔ အံဝင္ခြင္က်ျဖစ္ဖုိ႔ လုိေနေသး... ပထမဥိီးဆံုး ပုဂၢလိကဆရာမ်ား အသင္းခ်ဳပ္ ေပၚေပါက္ လာရန္ ဝိုင္းဝန္းႀကိဳးပမ္းေန... ကန္ ပညာေရးအသံုးစရိတ္ ေဒၚလာ ၇ဝ ဘီလ်ံ လ်ာထား... ေႏြရာသီ ပုဂၢလိကေက်ာင္း မ်ား စိတ္ဝင္စားသူ ပိုမ်ားလာ... အျပည့္အဝ နားလည္ဖို႔ လိုေနတဲ့ ဘာသာစကား...
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Myanmar Consolidated Media Co.Ltd.
Format/size: pdf (1.63MB)
Date of entry/update: 18 March 2012


Title: Public Education a Drain on Family Incomes
Date of publication: 21 June 2010
Description/subject: Once again, parents in military-ruled Burma are counting the cost of a primary education for their children in public schools. It is an annual ritual that comes with the beginning of a new school year, which coincides with the onset of the monsoon rains in June. Although the South-east Asian nation has laws affirming that primary school education is free and compulsory, the economic headaches parents have to cope with at this time of the year suggest otherwise, according to a parent from Rangoon, the former capital, who spoke on condition of anonymity.
Author/creator: Marwaan Macan-Markar
Language: English
Source/publisher: IPS
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://ipsnews.net/print.asp?idnews=51889
Date of entry/update: 21 October 2010


Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2007: Right to Education
Date of publication: 09 September 2008
Description/subject: "...The Burmese education sector is plagued by a severe lack of resources, stemming from an extremely small allocation of the national budget, which according to the United Nations Development Program’s (UNDP) Human Development Report, amounts to only 1.3 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). [1] Meanwhile, the SPDC maintains that 8.9 percent of the national budget is earmarked for education, although this figure is little more that a gross misrepresentation of reality. [2] However, such a small budget allocation is hardly surprising given the regime’s stated belief that the sole purpose of education is to “nurture children to develop their mind, vision and living styles in accord with the wishes of the State”. [3] In other words, the aim of education is to indoctrinate the nation’s children to develop a sense of obedience to the SPDC while crushing all views which may be deemed to run contrary to those of the State. The education sector is also beset by widespread and rampant corruption from military officers, civil officials and even the teachers. Compounding such an insufficient allocation of public funds to the sector are the misguided and egregious economic policies which have impoverished much of the population to the point where many must struggle just to acquire enough food, let alone pay for the rising costs of education..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 December 2008


Title: Burma’s Brawn and Brain Drain
Date of publication: May 2008
Description/subject: With little hope of higher education or well paying jobs, Burma’s young look abroad... "A teacher is giving English instruction in a small classroom packed with young students on the seventh floor of a building in Rangoon’s Sanchaung Township. The students all hope to pass entrance examinations that would admit them to foreign universities and colleges. The Sanchaung school is just one of many where the students’ main ambition is to acquire the qualifications that would enable them to continue their studies overseas..."
Author/creator: Myo Chit Thu
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 5
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2008


Title: Evolving Education in Myanmar: the interplay of state, business and the community
Date of publication: January 2008
Description/subject: Conclusion: The deterioration of Myanmar’s education system underlies the low economic growth of the country. The economic side of Myanmar’s education story is not one that is hard to tell. As Lorch has stated, civil society has jumped in where possible, but without managing to replace the State in any significant way. One particular section of civil society, the private sector, has used this business opportunity to turn education into a private and profitable good. The interesting fact is that the increased private schooling is fuelling the gap in Myanmar’s authoritarian logic. The regime has let institutions decay and has not provided the resources needed to build a strong state education system. This is a short-sighted tactic, as it in effect loosens the regime’s control over society. The private sector’s education aims are profit, but they achieve this by encouraging an education system meant largely to help children leave Myanmar and study abroad. Currently, education in English is the most desirable education parents can acquire for their children. As this trend continues, the regime is allowing a condition that increases the absence of its legitimacy, because it equates good education with foreign education. This problem goes beyond civil society simply patching up an inadequate or insufficient social structure.
Author/creator: Marie Lall
Language: English
Source/publisher: 2007 Myanmar/Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
Format/size: pdf (152K)
Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf_instructions.html
http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf/whole_book.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


Title: Islamic education in Myanmar: a case study
Date of publication: January 2008
Description/subject: "...Madrasahs (Islamic religious schools) remain the only alternative for educating Myanmar Muslims in Islamic education, since the national school system does not cater for any particular faith or belief with the exception of Buddhism, the faith that more than 70 per cent of people profess. Throughout Myanmar, hundreds of madrasahs are operating, financed by domestic and foreign donations. It is a recent phenomenon that Bamar Muslims have endeavoured to be in touch with their wealthy counterparts in the Arab world to balance the influence of the Indian subcontinent’s Islamic ideology...The Myanmar administration has never made any serious attempt either to reform madrasahs or to incorporate them into the mainstream of the national education system, as has been the case in Thailand and Malaysia. The absence 179 Islamic education in Myanmar: a case study of an authoritative body governing Islamic schools within Myanmar encourages the mushrooming of madrasahs based on certain thoughts and ideas that seem to be Islamic. At times, differences of opinion about certain ideas on Islamic thought become so prevalent among Muslims that sometimes the State has to intervene to defuse tension among various Muslim communities. In one case, the authorities closed one Myanmar-speaking madrasah boarding school outside Yangon when its Muslim supporters were unable to resolve their own internal conflict..."
Author/creator: Mohammed Mohiyuddin Mohammed Sulaiman
Language: English
Source/publisher: 2007 Myanmar/Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
Format/size: pdf (156K)
Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf_instructions.html
http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf/whole_book.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


Title: Myanmar education: challenges, prospects and options
Date of publication: January 2008
Description/subject: Conclusion: Much remains to be done to restore Myanmar education to its former high standards. In order to achieve this, a holistic approach to education must be taken. The focus should be not only on formal education, but on informal education. Informal education via the mass media and popular literature is often forgotten when discussing education issues. It is highly effective in educating the general populace about social problems such as drug addiction, sexually transmitted diseases and the existence and spread of HIV/AIDS. In such a holistic 123 Myanmar education: challenges, prospects and options approach, the needs and inputs of the major education stakeholders must be considered within the contexts of home and community and school and community. Religion and the policy environment will also influence the outcome of the education process. Finally, Myanmar education will improve only when the education and training of its young improves. Their education should be carefully planned and mapped out. This chapter has identified the various stages in the education of a child and the development of its behaviour at which interventions could be made to establish habits of thoughtfulness, emotional discipline, self-management and conflict resolution. Only with such interventions will an evolutionary process begin in the mind-set of the population, making it possible for change to occur. Underpinning all this is a need for generational change, which will transform the psyche of the whole nation and enable its society to move away from a dominator type towards a more liberal and freer one.
Author/creator: Han Tin
Language: English
Source/publisher: 2007 Myanmar/Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf_instructions.html
http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf/whole_book.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


Title: The (re)-emergence of civil society in areas of state weakness: the case of education in Burma/Myanmar
Date of publication: January 2008
Description/subject: Conclusion: "The picture of civil-society initiatives in the Burmese/Myanmar education sector is diverse and multifaceted. Nevertheless, it is possible to identify some general trends: first, there are quite a lot of community-based initiatives in the education sector in the broadest sense. Most of these community-based groups, however, cannot engage in education directly. Instead, they are confined to education support activities such as the construction of school buildings or the collection of donations to pay for village teachers’ salaries. Second, there is a number—but definitely a small number—of civil-society groups that can engage in education more directly. Most of these apply informal, community-based approaches to teaching, whereas so far only a few groups have managed to become involved in formal education and been allowed to teach the government curriculum. Among the groups that are able to engage in formal education, monastic schools are undoubtedly the most prominent. Third, most educational initiatives that are aimed at children take place at the primary or even at the pre-primary level. While there are some at the middle-school level, only a handful exists at the high-school level. There are, however, also several educational initiatives for 169 The (re)-emergence of civil society in areas of state weakness: the case of education in Burma/Myanmar (young) adults in the sectors of vocational skills training and capacity building. Fourth, civil-society organisations active in the education sector often serve multiple social functions and, apart from education, many of them provide other welfare services as well. Education is often broadly understood to include (preventive) health education and general capacity building. Fifth, even though the number of civil-society initiatives in the education sector has been increasing during the past few years, the government is still extremely suspicious of all educational activities conducted by non-state actors. As a consequence, private education has not so far been legally provided for, and the majority of the civil-society groups that are active in the education sector cannot register with the MOE. As a makeshift solution, some of them have chosen to register with the MSW or the MRA. This leads us to the last but perhaps the most important point: most civil society-based educational initiatives take place under religious or ethnic umbrellas, such as Buddhist monasteries, Christian churches and ethnic CLCs. This last point has broader implications: in present-day Burma/Myanmar, various secular, religious and ethnic (cultural) education systems—all of which promote different life models—coexist. In some cases, the boundaries between these various education and life models seem to be quite clear-cut. Some Buddhist monastic schools teach only the Dhamma,30 some Christian missionaries preach only the Gospels and some CLCs focus solely on the preservation of their ethnic cultural heritage; and, above all, there is a highly authoritarian state, which is still largely reluctant to accept the existence of an independent civil society and the alternative education systems it provides. There are, however, also cases where the boundaries between religious and ethnic (cultural) education on the one hand, and secular/non-cultural education on the other, are rather blurred. Traditional religious and ethnic cultural groups that predate the modern national education system have re-emerged and increasingly engage in secular, non-cultural and, in some rare cases, even formal education as well. New actors such as NGOs have also entered the scene. The rigidity of the regime’s educational policies certainly does not reflect the reality on the ground. Instead of providing an enabling legal framework for private education, however, the regime still seeks mostly to either suppress or coopt alternative civil society-based education systems. Cooption of formerly independent groups thus constitutes another, negative form of the blurring of the lines between civil society-based and state-run education..."
Author/creator: Jasmin Lorch
Language: English
Source/publisher: 2007 Myanmar/Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
Format/size: pdf (170K)
Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf_instructions.html
http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf/whole_book.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


Title: Myanmar - Von der Kolonie zum Armenhaus
Date of publication: 07 September 2007
Description/subject: Die knapp 60 Jahre mit ständigem Wechsel von bewaffneten Konflikten, BürgerInnenkriegen und "sozialistischer" Militärdiktatur sind der Grund für die heutige Lage eines der ärmsten Länder der Welt. Der Artikel schildert die ethnischen KOnflikte, den Terror des Militärs und die Lage der Menschenrechte in Myanmar; Ethnic minorities; terror; human rights; education; Karen;
Author/creator: Sebastian Nagel
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Grüne Jugend
Format/size: Html (47kb)
Alternate URLs: http://www.gruene-jugend.de/show/382223.html
Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: Rights to Education and Health
Date of publication: June 2007
Description/subject: "...the education system is so poor that illiteracy levels in rural areas are actually rising. These figures are hardly surprising considering that the SPDC spends only US$1 per person per year on health and education combined...While the state of the education system may not threaten Burma's neighbours, it certainly threatens Burma's future. Current estimates from the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) are that almost fifty percent of children are forced to drop out of primary school because of financial difficulties. With enrolment levels estimated at approximately fifty percent to begin with this leaves a population where only a quarter have completed primary education. On paper the SPDC complies with international standards and has enacted legislation stipulating that primary school is both free and compulsory but the situation on the ground is quite another story. Secondary education has become the preserve of the rich and those who do make it to university enter a system which is openly repressive. Ethnic minorities fare especially badly in respect of both health and education. Indigenous languages are prohibited, healthcare is barely minimal and human rights violations are routine..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 06 April 2008


Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2005: Rights to Education and Health
Date of publication: July 2006
Description/subject: "...Rampant corruption, a lack of transparency, and severe economic mismanagement has resulted in a steady decline in education and increasingly poor healthcare in Burma. Due to widespread poverty, coupled with an appallingly low expenditure on public welfare, only an elite few are able to receive basic healthcare services or achieve a moderate level of education. Moreover, junta sponsored corruption in these sectors acts to further devalue the academic competency and the quality of healthcare. Burma remains one of the most isolated countries with one of the lowest standards of living and poorest healthcare records in the developing world. The SPDC continues to fall short of fulfilling its obligations under international human rights law in respect to the rights to health and education. Plans and programs for reform in these sectors have failed to improve conditions. Meanwhile, the junta continues to arbitrarily shut down schools and implement policies that lower rather than raise the standard of living and quality of life throughout the country. Although there have been reports of increased regime cooperation and a willingness to engage with some UN agencies and NGOs, genuine progress in the field of health and education remains marginal. Since 1990, the junta�s expenditure on social sector services has steadily declined. According to the British government�s Department for International Development, Burma has the lowest level of public investment in health and education services vis-Ã -vis military spending than any other ASEAN nation. Between 1992 and 2003, the SPDC allocated 29 percent of the central budget to defense. Meanwhile only eight percent went towards education and healthcare combined. Published budget figures show that per capita spending on the military is nine times higher than that of health services and twice that of education services..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
Format/size: pdf, html
Alternate URLs: http://www.ncgub.net/staticpages/index.php/HYB_2005
Date of entry/update: 19 September 2010


Title: Armut im Land der Goldenen Pagoden. Soziale Sicherheit, Gesundheit und Bildung in Burma; Focus Asien Nr. 26
Date of publication: 29 December 2005
Description/subject: In den letzten Jahren häufen sich die Meldungen über die kritische humanitäre Situation in Burma. Die sozialen Indikatoren Sterblichkeitsraten, Bildungsindikatoren, Verbreitung von typischen Armutskrankheiten wie Malaria und Tuberkulose, die alarmierende Verbreitung von HIV/AIDS - zeichnen ein düsteres Bild über den Zustand des Landes, wobei es große regionale und gesellschaftliche Unterschiede gibt. Die Broschüre gibt Einblicke in die Bereiche Gesundheits- und Bildungswesen in Burma, wobei Erfahrungen aus der praktischen Arbeit von Hilfsorganisationen dargestellt werden. Neben Vorstellungen vom Wohlfahrtsstaat werden darüber hinaus die Situation burmesischer Migrant/innen in Thailand beleuchtet, die Auswirkungen des Opiumbanns auf die Bevölkerung der Wa-Sonderregion untersucht und Chancen und Risiken humanitärer Hilfe diskutiert. Inhalt: Ulrike Bey: Armut im „Land der Goldenen Pagoden“; Marco Bünte: Dimensionen sozialer Probleme in Myanmar – Ein Überblick; Hans-Bernd Zöllner: Der Traum vom budhistischen Wohlfahrtsstaat; Tankred Stöbe: Das Gesundheitssystem in Burma/Myanmar unter Ausschluss der ethnischen Minderheiten?; Brenda Belak: Der Zugang zur medizinischen Versorgung; Johannes Achilles: Das Bildungswesen in Birma/Myanmar – Erfahrungen zum Engagement im Bildungsbereich; Ulrike Bey: Frauen in Bildung und Gesundheit; Michael Tröster: Die Wa in Gefahr. Nach dem Opiumbann droht in der Special Region eine humaitäre Katastrophe; Jackie Pollock: Die Lebensqualität von Migrant/innen in Thailand; Jasmin Lorch: Der Rückzug des UN Global Fund aus Burma; Alle Artikel dieses Bandes sind außerdem noch separat verlinkt. keywords: social security, health, education, humanitarian aid, migration, opium ban
Author/creator: Ulrike Bey (Hrsg.)
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Asienhaus
Format/size: pdf 970k
Date of entry/update: 20 March 2006


Title: Das Bildungswesen in Birma/Myanmar - Erfahrungen zum Engagement im Bildungsbereich. Oder: Birma, "Krieg gegen die Bildung" und "Ideen werden getötet"
Date of publication: 29 December 2005
Description/subject: Zustand des Bildungswesens; Grundschulen, Universitäten; Blindenschule keywords: education, university, humanitarian organisation, school for the blind
Author/creator: Johannes Achilles
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Asienhaus Focus Asien Nr. 26; S. 31-36
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 March 2006


Title: Dimensionen sozialer Probleme in Myanmar - Ein Ãœberblick
Date of publication: 29 December 2005
Description/subject: Armut in Myanmar; Die Situation im Gesundheitswesen; Die AIDS-Problematik; Das Bildungssystem keywords: poverty, health system, HIV/AIDS, education, social problems
Author/creator: Marco Bünte
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Asienhaus Focus Asien Nr. 26; S. 9-14
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 March 2006


Title: Frauen in Bildung und Gesundheit
Date of publication: 29 December 2005
Description/subject: Armutsreduzierung und die Stärkung der Position von Frauen hängen in vielerlei Hinsicht zusammen. In Burma, so heißt es im Allgemeinen, nehmen die Frauen eine angesehene und respektierte Rolle in der Gesellschaft ein. In der Kombination mit Armut, Gewalt oder kulturellen Werten werden jedoch Diskriminierungen und Ungleichheiten sichtbar. Die meisten Gesundheitsprobleme, denen sich Frauen ausgesetzt sehen, sind auf schlechte Lebensbedingungen zurückzuführen. keywords: women, health, education, prostitution, HIV/AIDS, family planning
Author/creator: Ulrike Bey
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Asienhaus Focus Asien Nr. 26, S. 37-43
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 March 2006


Title: A Dangerous Journey To Get to School
Date of publication: 01 July 2005
Description/subject: "Why are Students Fleeing the Burmese Education System?...In military ruled Burma, parents are struggling every day to afford basic education for their children. This is true in urban areas but the situation is even more acute in rural ethnic regions of Burma. As a consequence, many young ethnic people from southern and eastern Burma face the only option of leaving their homeland to seek education in refugee camps located on the Thai-Burma border. Thelay, 16, an ethnic Karen student living in Tenasserim division, southern Burma told us her family’s story. Thelay’s grandmother has lived all her life in rural Tenasserim where she raised Thelay when her parents died. She is old now and needs to eat healthy, protein rich food, however this is just too expensive. She spends all her money on extortion by Burmese soldiers and above all trying to educate her granddaughter. Thelay pitied her grandma but felt helpless. She wanted to study very much but school fees are just too high for Burma’s rural villagers like them. To overcome this impasse, there is only one option. “If I go to the refugee camp, I will be able to continue my study. If I don’t go, I am sure that I have to quit,” Thelay said.,,"
Author/creator: Saw Ehna and C. Guinard
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Burma Issues"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2005


Title: Schools of Hard Knocks
Date of publication: January 2004
Description/subject: "Ceasefire negotitations between Karen insurgents and Burma’s ruling military junta may or may not make learning in Karen State any easier. But Karen teachers are determined that their pupils will learn..."
Author/creator: Karin Kaasik and Saw Eh Thaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 1
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 March 2004


Title: The Lengths to go for Education
Date of publication: September 2003
Description/subject: "...Burma’s military government spends an estimated 50 percent of the country’s national budget on defense and according to a UNICEF report in 2001 only 7% on Education. Not surprisingly teachers are underpaid. Most teachers earn a basic salary of 4,000 - 5,000 Kyat (US$4-5) per month but with government officers taking their cut of this it is reduced to about 3,000 to 4,000 Kyat (US$3-4).1 Schools are under funded and under resourced, subject to frequent ‘security-related’ closures and there are simply not enough of them to cater for the population. The education system in Burma falls woefully short of meeting students needs. Even this limited education is often beyond the reach of most large families who have to sacrifice one child’s education for another..."
Author/creator: Jum Juree
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Burma Issues"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 28 December 2003


Title: GRANDIR SOUS LA DICTATURE BIRMANE
Date of publication: August 2003
Description/subject: "Ce rapport se concentre sur la situation des enfants birmans en Birmanie et dans leur principal pays d’exil, la Thaïlande. Il fait suite à deux voyages effectués en Thaïlande et en Birmanie pour y rencontrer des dizaines d’intervenants dans le domaine de l’enfance : parents, enfants, enseignants, médecins, syndicats, ONG, etc. Nous avons aussi eu l’occasion, tant en Birmanie qu’en Thaïlande, de visiter plusieurs hôpitaux, écoles et usines où travaillent des enfants. La plupart de nos interlocuteurs ont demandé de ne pas les citer nommément dans ce rapport car ils craignent pour leur sécurité. Nous les remercions tous pour le temps qu’ils ont bien voulu nous accorder, avec une reconnaissance toute particulière pour les personnes qui, en Birmanie même, ont pris des risques pour nous montrer la réalité de leur pays."
Author/creator: Samuel Grumiau
Language: Francais, French
Source/publisher: Confederation International des syndicats libres (CISL)
Format/size: pdf (112K)
Date of entry/update: 20 September 2003


Title: GROWING UP UNDER THE BURMESE DICTATORSHIP
Date of publication: August 2003
Description/subject: The situation facing children after 41 years of military rule in Burma... Some facts and figures on Burma; Historical background: 41 years of dictatorship; Standard of living in Burma; Children in Burma: 1) Education; 2) Child labour; 3) Forced child labour 18; 4) Health 19: Burmese children in Thailand; 1) Burmese people in Thailand; 2) Education of Burmese children in Thailand; 3) Child labour; 4) Health; Burmese children in Bangladesh; Conclusions.
Author/creator: Samuel Grumiau
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)
Format/size: pdf (216K)
Date of entry/update: 23 August 2003


Title: Educating the Elite
Date of publication: July 2003
Description/subject: With conditions in the public school system deteriorating, Burma’s generals opt to send their children elsewhere... In military-ruled Burma, school bells ring only if politics permit. After the May 30 crackdown on Burma’s opposition and the arrest of Aung San Suu Kyi, schools across Burma closed their doors to stop dissent brewing in the schoolyard and spilling out into the streets. This is all too familiar to Hlaing Win, who attends a state-run high school in Rangoon. He knows that if he wants an uninterrupted education, he needs to go to a private school. "If I was a student at a private school it wouldn’t matter what the authorities were doing. They couldn’t close the school," said Hlaing Win, 16. Because of their place outside the state system, private schools are buffered from politically related closures by military authorities. Hlaing Win dreams of going to a private school like the International Language and Business Center (ILBC) in Rangoon. "I’m really interested in that school because I know I would get a normal education that is guaranteed in a foreign country," Hlaing Win said. Many of the top private schools in Rangoon offer internationally recognized school certificates and English language instruction. But their high fees mean that only a tiny portion of Burma’s seven million school-aged students can afford to go. Admission to Rangoon’s top schools does not depend upon a tough entrance exam or good grades. What students need is money, and lots of it. At the ILBC, fees start at around 1.1 million kyat (US $1,160) per year for kindergarten students and rise as students move to higher grades..."
Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


Title: Hard Lessons
Date of publication: July 2003
Description/subject: "Falling standards and the culture of fear have crippled Burma’s education system and the country’s future...Schools and universities in Burma require sweeping reform to promote a more equitable, multi-ethnic and multicultural society... Clearly, the regime ... can continue to promote a culture of fear and watch the complete disintegration of the country’s education system, or it can recognize that future national development will stand a better chance with genuine investments in the education of Burma’s youth today."
Author/creator: Min Zin
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 11, No 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


Title: Learning in a Democracy
Date of publication: July 2003
Description/subject: "Burma’s long-term prospects for a successful transition to democracy will depend more on educational change than "regime change... With the dialogue between the ruling regime and the democratic opposition once again deadlocked, many people are thinking that Burma is due for an Iraq-style "regime change." Regardless of the manner in which political change comes to the country, however, the initial period of reconstruction following the establishment of democracy will be especially challenging for educators. The success of Burma’s efforts to reestablish itself as a democratic nation will depend largely on its capacity to introduce sweeping educational reforms—from the classroom to the state level..."
Author/creator: Dr Thein Lwin
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 11, No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


Title: Child rights and Mon Education Committee
Date of publication: 31 May 2003
Description/subject: Mon National Education Policy: "... the committee has very limited authority and resources to tackle the rights for children education in Mon territory under current circumstances because the ruling military government still refused to acknowledge the role of the committee in urban areas after cease-fire agreement..." Cases described.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Plight of Women and Children in Burma" (Issue No. 2/2003) - pp 8-10
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 April 2004


Title: Education Report 2002
Date of publication: May 2003
Description/subject: 1. Introduction; 2. Free education in Primary Level: 2.1. Main cause of students' dropout rate in Primary Level Education; 2.2. Government Obligation; 2.3. Evaluation on the works of International Organizations and governments in Primary level Education; 2.4. Child Solider and Child Labor; 2.5. Summary... 3. Rights of Education: 3.1. Right of Education under present socio economic systems; 3.2. Gender Inequality in the System; 3.3. Systematic suppression of students in fear of student unrests; 3.4. Rights of Minority people in Education; 3.5. Student Political Prisoners; 3.6. Alternative Education; 3.7. Summary... 4. Curriculum: 4.1. Influence of government political goals and policies; 4.2. Participation of Teachers and Education Professionals in the Curriculum Drafting; Process; 4.3. Summary... 5. Student Perception on Education and Ethical Concerns: 5.1. Perceptions of Students on Present Education System; 5.2. Relying on private tuitions; 5.3. Corruption in the System; 5.4. Summary... 6. Teaching and Learning System: 6.1. Lacks of Student Participation in Classroom Lectures; 6.2. Creating Thinking for Students; 6.3. Quality of Teachers; 6.4. Insufficient Learning Materials and Resources; 6.5. Continuous Assessment and Progress System (CAPS); 6.6. Summary... 7. Student Rights: 7.1. Freedom of Expression; 7.2. Freedom of Association; 7.3. Other Student Rights; 7.4. Summary... 8. Widening Gap between Civilian and Military Education: 9. Academic Freedom; 9.1. Censorship of Academic Publication; 9.2. Political Interference in Academia; 9.3. Freedom of Speech; 9.4. Institutional Academic Freedom; 9.5. Summary... 10. Information Technology: 10.1. Introduction; 10.2. General Criterion; 10.3. E-education; 10.4. Opportunities to use IT; 10.5. IT Related Vocational Training; 10.6. Internet Access; 10.7. Summary... 11. Conclusion... Appendix: list of institutes of higher education in Burma... Bibliography.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Foreign Affairs Committee, All Burma Federation of Student Unions (ABFSU)
Format/size: pdf (248K) 81 pages
Date of entry/update: 09 July 2003


Title: School, State and Sangha in Burma
Date of publication: 01 January 2003
Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "This article explores by means of an historical descriptive analysis of schooling in Burma the merits of historical descriptive analysis in comparative education. It demonstrates how control over schooling is likely to relate to state legitimacy. Prior to the nineteenth century, the supervision of teaching in Burma was undertaken not by the state but rather by the monasteries of the Theravada Buddhist order, the Sangha. The monastic schools were widespread and they served as an important legitimising device for both the Sangha and the Buddhist state, which were engaged in a competitive partnership. During the nineteenth century, the British colonial administration demolished the pre-existing socio-political structures that assured the Sangha its authority, and permitted alternative forms of public instruction. The teaching role of the Sangha was diminished, however not destroyed, and it continuously resisted the British intrusion. Following independence, rather than re-invest authority over schooling in the Sangha, the new state instead expanded its mandate over public instruction as a means to inculcate the ‘national idea’. In the present day, schooling is subject to the dictates of an autocratic military regime, and the Sangha has been forced into a subordinate role in support of nationalist objectives, in contrast to its earlier powerful part in structural opposition to the state."
Author/creator: Nick Cheesman
Language: English
Source/publisher: Comparative Education Volume 39 No. 1 2003
Format/size: pdf (117K)
Alternate URLs: https://anu-au.academia.edu/NickCheesman
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2014


Title: Universities Opened and Closed Since 1988
Date of publication: January 2003
Description/subject: Dates Burmese universities opened and closed. Updated January 2003
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Research Pages
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 September 2010


Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2001-2002: Rights to Education and Health
Date of publication: September 2002
Description/subject: "...Burma has one of the poorest health records and lowest standards of living in the developing world. Health and education are given incredibly low priorities in the national budget, and lip-service to these issues often take the place of substantial reforms or programs. Because of political considerations the root causes of problems in these arenas, such as the affects of landmines and forced labor on health and the effect of school closings and censorship on education, are not dealt with in meaningful ways. Low salaries and lack of transparent and effective supervision has made it easy for corruption to flourish among medical personnel and educators. Patients more often than not have to pay a bribe to be seen by a doctor, get a bed in a hospital, or receive essential medicine. Primary school students can pay to receive better grades or get private tutoring from their teachers. Higher education in Burma is particularly substandard with students, during those times that the universities are actually open, being given rush degrees in order to prevent any political opposition to the military regime to spring up on college campuses..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: EDUCATION FOR WOMEN & GIRLS (Chapter from "Gathering Strength")
Date of publication: January 2002
Description/subject: OVERVIEW; WOMEN & ILLITERACY; CURRENT SCHOOL ATTENDANCE & DROP OUT; BARRIERS TO EDUCATION; DISCRIMINATION IN GIRLS' SCHOOLING; INCENTIVES & OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGHER EDUCATION; VOCATIONAL TRAINING; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS.
Author/creator: Brenda Belak
Language: English
Source/publisher: Images Asia
Format/size: PDF (507K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Myanmar: The Community Learning Center Experience
Date of publication: 2002
Description/subject: "This report has been produced by UNESCO as part of the project MYA/99/004: Improving Access of Children, Women and Men of Poorest Communities to Primary Education for All to record the establishment and development of Community Learning Centres (CLCs) in Myanmar under the project, to describe the process that allowed the set up of these centres and to describe the outcomes as well as their impact on individuals and communities in terms of people's quality of life improvement.... Contents: * Executive Summary; * Introduction; * Defining Community Learning Centres in Myanmar; * Establishment of Community Learning Centres in Myanmar; * Networking, Sustainability and Expansion; * References; * Appendices; o Appendix 1 CLC Memorandum of Partnership; o Appendix 2 CLC Micro-Projects Approval Form; o Appendix 3 Workshop Profiles for CLC/MC Capacity Building; o Appendix 4 Workshop Profiles for Training of Trainers; o Appendix 5 Workshop Profiles for Capacity Building in Income Generating Activities.
Author/creator: JØrn Middleborg, edited by Boudouin Duvieusart
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education, 2002,
Format/size: pdf (732K)
Alternate URLs: http://www2.unescobkk.org/elib/publications/myanmar2/index.htm
Date of entry/update: 01 September 2003


Title: Myanmar: The Management Process for Constructing Primary Schools and Providing School Furniture
Date of publication: 2002
Description/subject: "This management case study has been prepared on the basis of experiences gained in the UNDP-funded and UNESCO-implemented project Improving Access of Children, Women and Men of the Poorest Communities to Primary Education for All. The infrastructure component of the education project has been impressive both in terms of the quantity of school buildings repairs, extended or replaced and in the efficiency of its implementation. These impressive achievements are due in large part to the lessons learned in the two previous projects. The resulting building and furniture designs are relevant for study by other persons and organizations working on educational infrastructure throughout Mynamar. More widely applicable, however, is the management process that has been developed. This will be useful not only in Myanmar but also to other countries involved in rural school construction programmes that rely on community participation... Contents: * Acronyms; * Introduction; * Construction: The Management Process; * Furniture Provision: The Management Process; * Toward Future Improvements; * Bibliography; * Annexes... A. Memorandum of Partnership for School Construction; B. Bill of Quantities; C. Monthly School Site Progress Report; D. Database: Monitoring Indicators; E. Work Plan; F. Funiture Process Checklist.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education
Format/size: pdf (1.28MB), 49pages
Alternate URLs: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001235/123502e.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 September 2003


Title: When Universities Close
Date of publication: December 2001
Description/subject: The repeated closure of universities in Burma has left the country without much-needed medical expertise. How much can NGOs do to make up for lost time?..." "Now that Burma had had no doctors graduating for two years (except possibly military doctors from their own school) the government encouraged training of lay village health workers. Because we had done similar teaching in rural Thailand for another group, the organization had invited my wife and me to join the team. We came once in 1996 when they began their project, and again in 1998 to see how well the students could remember and use such teaching. By that time there were 500 who had taken the three-week training course; some of them were quite competent as far as their training went, each working with about thirty families in her home village. Others were woefully inadequate at making decisions, even though they could remember facts." ... "In Burma, elementary school itself is free, but many can't afford all the fees the teachers must charge. Children have to buy textbooks, uniforms, paper and pencils; they must often pay athletic fees, examination fees, buy cleaning supplies for the classroom - the expenses can go on and on. The government has invested very little in the education system. Most children drop out before middle school." He shrugged. "If you want an education, join the army."
Author/creator: Keith Dahlberg
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 9, No. 9
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 September 2010


Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000: Rights of Education and Health
Date of publication: October 2001
Description/subject: "...Burma has one of the poorest health records and lowest standards of living in the developing world. The desire of the military government to hold on to power at any cost has meant that human rights, including the rights to health and education, are given scant attention in comparison to political and security issues. Health and education are given incredibly low priorities in the national budget, and lip-service to these issues often take the place of substantial reforms or programs. Because of political considerations the root causes of problems in these arenas, such as the affects of landmines and forced labor on health and the effect of school closings and censorship on education, are not dealt with in meaningful ways..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: Main page of the Yearbook: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/yearbooks/Main.htm
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Children's Opportunity to Learn in the Ethnic Nationality Areas in Burma
Date of publication: April 2001
Description/subject: "This paper is based on the findings of the local education workshops, which were conducted by the national health and education committee. The workshops were held at (1) Mon area, (2) Karen area, (3) Karenni and Shan areas, (4) Central area where ABSDF is based, (5) Kachin area and (6) western part of Burma. The following topics were discussed: (1) children?s opportunity to learn, (2) Curriculum, (3) the teaching of mother tongue at school, (4) teaching methodology and (5) teacher education. The data in this paper does not include information from Arakan area and Shan area. Shan teachers could not attend the workshops and the NHEC (west branch) could not access to Arakan area due to various constraints..."
Author/creator: Thein Lwin, Barnabas and Nan Lung
Language: English
Format/size: HTML (170K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Educational Cost of Army Rule in Burma
Date of publication: 27 September 2000
Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper deals with the educational cost of army rule in Burma in at least four respects. First, there is a lack of access to education due to years of neglect regarding compulsory basic education. Second, the school curriculum fails to promote skills, which are needed for the world of work as well as social life. Third, there is no provision for teaching in languages other than Burmese for children whose mother tongue is not Burmese. The three problems mentioned above are worsened by the fact that the teaching profession is undermined by the regime."
Author/creator: Thein Lwin
Language: English
Format/size: HTML (103K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Current Education System in Burma
Date of publication: June 2000
Description/subject: Substantial report which demonstrates how the military education system in Burma has been built up and developed to the detriment of civilan education. "...The military regime in Burma, currently known as the SPDC, has perpetually neglected civilian education in the country, especially since the national uprisings of 1988, and the resulting political deadlock. The education system, along with other socially vital institutions, and the country as a whole, is incessantly declining. It is clear that the military junta's priorities are to keep the army strong, despite the fact that the country has no external enemies. Over 40% of the national budget is spent on the military force, while only a mere 7.7% of the allotted education budget is used to promote education. The country's economy is rapidly collapsing, and common people across the nation are struggling to survive, yet teacher salaries remain low and the cost of education is high and rising. Beginning from the lowest level of primary school through to the institutions of higher learning, only those with enough money are able to receive their education. 9.5 million of Burma's children are unable to even begin their basic education, and of those that do start primary school, only 37% are able to go on to the middle school level..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: ABFSU
Format/size: html (421K) pdf (164K), 37 pages
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/ABFSU-edu_report.pdf (original)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Myanmar: National aspects of curriculum decision-making
Date of publication: 1998
Description/subject: "The Union of Myanmar is currently in the process of transforming its political, social, economic and administrative systems. In this context, the education system is being transformed in order to meet changing societal needs. EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES: In order to implement an education system that is compatible with the cultural, traditional, and social values of the country, and in keeping with an economic system that will facilitate national development and nation-building, the Government of Myanmar has identified the following main objectives: l To enable every individual to acquire basic education; l To base education on raising moral standards; l To develop knowledge, including the scientific and technical know-how needed for nation-building; l To produce technicians, skilled workers and proficient intellectuals with practical knowledge, who are loyal to the State and will contribute to nation-building endeavours; l To train citizens so that they will achieve all-around development; l To allow those with the requisite intellectual ability, calibre and industriousness to acquire a university education; l To offer undergraduate and post-graduate courses for those who are working and thereby enable them to study during employment..."
Author/creator: U Myint Aye and Daw Tin Kyi
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNESCO
Format/size: pdf (211K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Counting the full cost : parental and community financing of education in East Asia
Date of publication: 30 November 1996
Description/subject: Publication. "This study highlights the need for much more detailed attention to the cost of schooling incurred by parents and communities. In some societies these costs are greater than even the costs to governments. Quite apart from overt forms of privatization, the growth of household resourcing of public education has been a hidden form of privatization of enormous influence. This study presents empirical findings, and primarily focuses on nine East Asian countries -Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao People ' s Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam -although clear parallels can be drawn with experiences in some other parts of the world. While patterns are far from uniform, one striking feature from this study is that costs to households have increased in long-standing capitalist countries as well as in former socialist countries. The scale of the increase varies widely, but it is significant that in these countries there is an increase at all. The study concludes that governments seeking to achieve universal primary education and expanded enrollments in secondary education must consider the costs and benefits at the household level. Their resulting policies must focus not only on supply but also on demand for education. Included in demand will be complex considerations of the quality and the price of education. When assessing the cost side of the equation, policy analysts must count the full cost -not only to governments, but also to parents and communities- and not only the monetary costs of donated labor, materials, and land." Keywords: Educational financing; Human capital; Cost of education; Resources mobilization; Resources utilization; Parent-child relationships; School-community relationships; Public education; Denationalization; Human rights; Private schools; Private education; Household budgets; Enrolment ratio
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: Page, Text (223K), PDF (5289K)
Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1996/11/01/000009265_3970311115031/Rendered/INDEX/multi_page.txt
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1996/11/01/000009265_3970311115031/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: "Our Heads are Bloody But Unbowed": Suppression of Educational Freedoms in Burma
Date of publication: 10 December 1992
Description/subject: In June 1990 another important student leader, Min Zeya, chairman of the smaller All Burma Students Democratic Association, was reportedly sentenced to eight years in jail. With the colleges now shut, the SLORC sent university and regional college teachers away on boot camp "re-education" courses at Phaunggyi, organized by the Military Intelligence Service. A standardized system of education was also introduced under the 1966 Basic Education Law and the 1973 Union of Burma Education Law.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Article 19 (Censorship News No. 18)
Format/size: pdf (131K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Results of a Google search for Education Burma OR Myanmar
Description/subject: 217,000 hits (June 2014)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 June 2014