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Home > Main Library > History > Historical periods > The Konbaung Dynasty and the Anglo-Burmese Wars [1753-1885]

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The Konbaung Dynasty and the Anglo-Burmese Wars [1753-1885]

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Imperial Burma: Pagan Kingdom, Toungoo Dynasty and Konbaung Dynasty
Description/subject: "Pagan gradually grew to absorb its surrounding states until the 1050s–1060s when Anawrahta founded the Pagan Empire, the first ever unification of the Irrawaddy valley and its periphery. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Pagan Empire and the Khmer Empire were two main powers in mainland Southeast Asia.[50] The Burmese language and culture gradually became dominant in the upper Irrawaddy valley, eclipsing the Pyu, Mon and Pali norms by the late 12th century. Theravada Buddhism slowly began to spread to the village level although Tantric, Mahayana, Brahmanic, and animist practices remained heavily entrenched. Pagan's rulers and wealthy built over 10,000 Buddhist temples in the Pagan capital zone alone. Repeated Mongol invasions (1277–1301) toppled the four-century-old kingdom in 1287."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 July 2014


Title: Wikipedia (Burmese) History (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 December 2013


Individual Documents

Title: Cultural Heritage Buildings in Mandalay City (Myanmar): A Geographic Approach to the Urban Landscape
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: The cultural heritage buildings give a sense of past and of cultural identity. Those buildings encompassed the historical evidence, artifacts and beliefs. As being a last capital of Myanmar Konbaung Dynasty, there were various kinds of building which are still left out in Mandalay City. Since the City was founded in 1857, the King Mindon intended to be very spacious capital by laying down the systematic town planning. The urbanization is taken placed since that time. Moreover, the study area was experienced by the diverse political systems and is ruled by the different governance. Therefore, the buildings were constructed according to the rulers. In this study the buildings are categorized into 4 groups: religious buildings, institutional buildings, and residential buildings, industrial and commercial buildings. Although the buildings regarding religions and institutions are already recorded by the Government Offices and Archaeology Department, there is lack of record on the commercial or industrial or residential buildings. Nowadays, the urbanization system has been taken place very quickly in the city. The range of pressures facing urban heritage include: population gains propelling rapid, uncontrolled growth and socio-­economic transformations generating functional changes in the city. It caused to renovate or reconstruct the new buildings in the places of previous ones, especially for residential, commercial and industrial buildings. It will affect to lose the ancient architectural style of the buildings and their significance. Therefore, the major aim of this research work is put on to define, to record and to locate as the cultural heritage buildings.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Khin Khin Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (2.4MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2015


Title: People Appeared in Thet-­kayit Manuscripts in the Last Dynasty of (1752-­1885)
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "In present day people know the word thet-­kayit as a usage that refers to a date or year, but in the Kon-­baung Period, thet-­kayit was a word of dual meaning; it signified a dated contractual deed as well as the date or year. In Myanmar, the utilisation of the word thet-­kayit began during the Bagan Period (1044–1287) with the introduction of Buddhism to Myanmar society. (Toe Hla, 2014, 3-­5) Most Bagan inscriptions started with this word and it soon became customary to start almost all historical writings and chronicles with the word thet-­kayit. Eventually, the documents themselves became known as thet-­kayits and any sort of contract such as obligatory notes, loans, mortgages, disputes, court judgements, etc. were referred to as thet-­kayits. These documents are valuable sources that tell us about the social and economic life of ordinary people during the Konbaung period. The Konbaung rural people recorded the cases of money lending and other social affairs in these documents. From a deep analysis of these thet-­kayits, many aspects of every day life like social relations, administration, customs and traditions, and people’s economic life at that time can be described." .....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Thu Nandar
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (208K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2015


Title: Socio-economic Life of People in Myin - mu Township (1852-1885)
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This study is based mainly on the money lending and mortgage deeds of the people living in the Myin-mu Township during the late Kon-baung period (1852-1885). It is also concluded some other related documents in this study, like, for example law suits, cour t decision, partitions of property among family members and other cases like breach of trusts. Such deeds and records so far collected for this study number over hundred. Why these documents appeared in the society are presumably because of economic difficulties and some other emergency cases due to political instabilities and maladministration of the local chiefs. As far as we know all money lending and mortgage deeds mere made between poor people and their hereditary chiefs and sometimes between the local chiefs and courtiers including the ministers and some lesser queens. They all can speak the relations between people of the grass-root level and local landowners. Most importantly, they can explain the general situation of the people. Indeed, the money lenders mortgagees were local hereditary chiefs who were accessible to the royal family. The study is to investigate the social changes taking place in accordance with the political and administrative changes. In brief this will highlight the actual situations of the then people.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Palè Aung
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (246)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2015


Title: The Foreign Presence in Mandalay during the Konbaung Period: A Review of the Urban Area
Date of publication: 27 December 2014
Description/subject: "Mandalay has many faces. As the last capital of the Konbaung Dynasty, Mandalay is considered the origin of the traditional Myanmar culture. A wide variety of handicrafts remain in practice today and are a focal point of the Buddhist practice. However, Mandalay cannot be discussed in only the narrow framework of Myanmar culture. Mosques, Hindu temples, and Chinese temples stood in a row along its streets, demonstrating the complex history of this city. However, the study of Mandalay’s diversity remains limited. The urban area of Mandalay lies around a square castle, and the towns are ordered as a grid. Such an extremely orderly city attracts attention from researchers, and arguments concentrate on interpretation of the design, the centricity and the cosmology of the city. In addition, a viewpoint assuming Mandalay as a model of the traditional capital of continental Southeast Asia was dominant for a long time. It is necessary to reconsider Mandalay as a hub in the regional trade network. Henry Yule, who visited the city during the Konbaung period records prosperous local trade activity. According to his account, various merchant groups including Chinese and Muslim possessed commercial quarter. The presence of a variety of religious buildings and communities in contemporary Mandalay is difficult to understand without paying attention to the commercial characteristics of the city. Recently, the study of the commercial importance of Mandalay has gradually developed. For example, Thant Myint-U acknowledges the commercial importance of the urban area. From the viewpoint of economic history, Schendel explains in detail a variety of commercial activities of the merchant group based in Mandalay. However, still too few studies address how these various groups were placed in the spatial structure of Mandalay. This paper collects basic information and creates a rough sketch of the formation of Mandalay. I suggest in advance that foreigners assume a considerable part of the city’s functions occur in the urban area. In the western part of the city, the commercial space stood along the Shwe ta waterway. However, the military was concentrated in the eastern, northern, and southern parts of the moat. In military duty, people of various backgrounds provided services for the needs of the royal authority. However, the openness of the social structure did not divide dwellers by ethnicity or religion in the city in those days, and personal relationships with the sovereign were indispensable. Based on such characteristics, we review Mandalay as an inland port city..."
Author/creator: ISHIKAWA Kazumasa
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies, No. 32, 2014... 上智アジア学 第32 号2014 年 目次 ...Burma Studies in Japan: History, Culture and Religion
Format/size: pdf (666K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264275117303566
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2015


Title: The Despot and the Diplomat
Date of publication: September 2008
Description/subject: "The experiences of Capt Michael Symes, the first official British emissary to the Burmese court, offer lessons for diplomats dealing with the country’s current rulers... MILITARY-ruled Burma is surely one of the world’s least rewarding assignments for a United Nations diplomat. Visiting envoys are routinely refused contact with the country’s dictator, Snr-Gen Than Shwe, in his remote capital of Naypyidaw, the “Royal Abode.” Months or years may pass with no signs of progress before an envoy finally abandons his mission in frustration—and the regime claims another victory in its war of wills against the outside world. Much has been made of Than Shwe’s monarchical pretensions, and in his approach to diplomacy it is not difficult to see the influence of rulers of an earlier age, when Burmese kings believed they could keep the world at bay by treating foreign emissaries with studied disdain. Indeed, any diplomat who wishes to understand the mindset of Burma’s current rulers should probably go back at least as far as Bodawpaya, the king who perfected a brand of diplomacy still practiced in Burma today..."
Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 9
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 November 2008


Title: Ruling the Rulers
Date of publication: May 2008
Description/subject: Efforts to limit the powers of Burma’s absolute monarchs failed. So did the monarchy... "THROUGHTOUT Asia, the middle of the 19th century was a period of political turmoil, as Western imperial powers pressed in upon countries that were subject to various forms of pre-modern rule. Burma was no exception, as it was forced to come to terms with a nation that was not only militarily superior, but also politically more advanced. Under the country’s last two monarchs, King Mindon (1853-78) and King Thibaw (1878-85), there were attempts to reform Burmese polity in the face of growing external challenges. At the center of these efforts was Yaw Atwinwun U Hpo Hlaing, the author of “Rajadhammasangaha,” a treatise which would have laid the basis for a constitutional monarchy in Burma, and which, in the words of respected scholar Maung Htin, “might have kept King Thibaw in the enjoyment of his throne..."”
Author/creator: Min Lwin
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 5
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2008


Title: Specialists for Ritual, Magic and Devotion: The Court Brahmins (Punna) of the Konbaung Kings (1752-1885)
Date of publication: 2006
Description/subject: Abstract: "Though they formed an essential part of Burmese court life, the Brahmins have hitherto attracted no scholarly interest outside Burma. Based on a study of royal orders and administrative compendia as well as recent Burmese research, this article gives for the first time an overview of the origins, the ritual and ceremonial functions and the organization of the punna. The main section is preceded by an overview of sources and research questions. Special emphasis is given in the last part to the noteworthy role played by punna in King Bodawphaya�s reform policies."
Author/creator: Jacques P. Leider
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 10, 2005/06
Format/size: pdf (804K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol10/index.shtml (JBS Vol. 10)
Date of entry/update: 31 December 2008


Title: Was “Yadza” Really Ro(d)gers?
Date of publication: September 2005
Description/subject: "Under the terms of the Treaty of Yandabo, which ended the first Anglo-Burmese war of 1824-26, the Government of India sent Henry Burney to Burma as Resident Minister to the Court of Ava. Arriving at post in April 1830 he kept a journal in which, a few months later, he recorded the following: August 12 I paid a visit this morning to an extraordinary character, an uncle of the King, named Mekkhra Mon tha or Prince of Mekkhra. He has been taught to read and understand English by the late Mr Rogers, and he evinces a very laudable desire of becoming acquainted with European science and literature. (Tarling, ed.1995:59) Burney goes on to say that he and his associates considered the Prince to be ‘certainly the most extraordinary man we have seen in this country’ in that he possessed an impressive English library, was already well informed in scientific matters, had translated extracts from Rees’s Cyclopaedia and – with the help of an American missionary – had well-nigh completed an English- Burmese dictionary. According to Burney, then, the tutor credited with enabling the Prince to do all this was ‘the late Mr Rogers.’ But how did this intriguing English-born character come to be there, and who exactly was he? I raise the question because, while most of the information we have about Rogers is based on his own accounts of his background, those accounts are not consistent. I shall therefore, working backwards from 1830, collate various pieces of information about him in an attempt to establish the truth about his past. We must first jump back four years..."
Author/creator: Gerry Abbott
Language: English
Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005,
Format/size: pdf (111K)
Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


Title: "Adoniram Judson and the Creation of a Missionary Discourse in Pre-Colonial Burma"
Date of publication: 2002
Description/subject: In the following paper I argue that Adoniram Judson, the first American Baptist Missionary to Burma, was strongly empathetic with his adopted country. His work as interpreter-translator during the negotiations leading to the Treaty of Yandabo in 1826 and his visits to Ava both immediately before and after the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824-1826), although coached in the language of Christian mission, exhibited characteristics markedly different from the perspective of Ann Judson's memoir and from those of certain missionary narratives subsequent to his own. I propose to examine aspects of three texts: Ann Judson's An Account of the American Baptist Mission to the Burman Empire; Henry Gouger's Personal Narrative of Two Years Imprisonment in Burmah; and Adoniram Judson's deposition to John Crawfurd. I shall also refer to J. Snodgrass' Narrative of the Burmese War (1824-1826) and Henry Trant's Two Years in Ava for other perspectives of some events.
Author/creator: Helen James
Language: English
Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 7 (2002)
Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.grad.niu.edu/burma/webpgs/abstractsVol7.html#
Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


Title: The Fall of Ayutthaya: A Reassessment
Date of publication: 2000
Description/subject: Conventional views of the 1760-1767 Burmese attacks on Ayutthaya contend that the Burmese were taking advantage of an opportunity to attack a politically and economically weak kingdom. This article adduces evidence from the Burmese chronicles, from accounts by contemporary foreign observers, and from economic history to argue that Burma's campaigns against Ayutthaya were part of an epic struggle between the two polities that began in the 1500s and continued until the Anglo-Burmese War of 1824-1826. Control of trade was one of the central factors motivating this centuries-long conflict. It was the very strength and wealth of the Siamese kingdom, not its alleged weakness, that motivated the Burmese invaders, who hoped to strike a blow that would knock Ayutthaya out of contention as the trading hub of mainland Southeast Asia.
Author/creator: Helen James
Language: English
Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 5 (2000)
Format/size: pdf (2.19MB)
Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


Title: The vicious cycle of the cannon
Date of publication: May 1994
Description/subject: In 1766 King Sinphyushin fought Thailand (Ayuthaya) and captured their capital. One of the cannon brought back from Thailand was recently excavated from Innwa (Ava) city and displayed in the Military Museum at 49th Myanmar Military Day Exhibition. It was an unusual display because after the Third Anglo - Burmese War, General Prendergast sent most cannon and captured guns to England, as presents to Queen Victoria and her court. For this reason many Myanmar cannon remain in the United Kingdom.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar Army - Cannons... 2. Myanmar - History.....Keywords: 1. Cannons, 2. Ordnances, 3. Military Weapons.
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ; (Metadata English, Burmese)
Source/publisher: Kanaung Sethmu Sipwa Journal, Vol. 1, No. 5 via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (80K-reduced version; 438K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0003.pdf
Date of entry/update: 22 October 2014


Title: Myanmar's Long Distance Cannon (2)
Date of publication: April 1994
Description/subject: Continuation of article on the Myanmar cannon on Calton Hill in Edinburgh which was brought from Danhawady (Rakhine) in 1784, It was built during king Bodawpaya's reign (1782 - 1819). After the Third Anglo - Burmese War, many Burmese cannon and other captured guns were shipped to England as gifts to Queen Victoria and her court and presented by General Prendergast.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar army - cannon, 2. Myanmar - History.
Author/creator: KYAN , Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ; (Metadata English, Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Kanaung Sethmu Sipwa Journal", Vol. 1, No. 4, via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (153K-reduced version; 568K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0017.pdf
Date of entry/update: 22 October 2014


Title: Yadanabon Factories
Date of publication: January 1988
Description/subject: This paper was read at the first Union of Burma Research Conference on 25th March 1966. Myanmar's attempt at modernizing the country is described through construction of nearly fifty factories long before the British invasion of Upper Burma. Crown Prince Nyangyan sent state scholars to India, Europe and England, then used them to develop modern industry. Foreign workers were also employed. The Prince saw the need to forestall another attack by the British. Hence the Gun factory, Iron Foundry and Ship building had priority. How the machinery was procured and the factories developed is described in detail. The British were not pleased, yet even with the assassination of the Crown Prince in 1866 the work continued. But the British ended the effort after annexation and the factories were sold for scrap...... Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - Factories, 2. Myanmar - Industries.....Key Words: 1. Yadanabon Factories, 2. Gun Factory (Yadanabon Period), 3. Weaving Factory (Yadanabon Period), 4. Ship Building Factory (Yadanabon Period), 5. Saw Mill (Yadanabon Period), 6. Iron Foundry (Yadanabon Period), 7. Sugar Mile (Yadanabon Period), 8. The Mint (Yadanabon Period), 9. Indigo Factory (Yadanabon Period), 10. Sagaing Iron Factory (Yadanabon Period).
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ; (Metadata: English, Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Union of Burma Literary and Social Science Journal", Vol. 1 , No. 1 via University of Washington
Subscribe: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs20/Kyan-1988-Yanadabon_Factories-bu-comb.pdf
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-combined)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0011a.pdf (3.87MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0011b.pdf (3.66MB)
Date of entry/update: 22 October 2014


Title: Division and District
Date of publication: August 1984
Description/subject: Taing and Khayaing were administrative units during the Nyaunggyan period (1600-1752). Myanmar was divided into 8 Divisions and Khayaing was the smaller unit, but definition of the terms changed from time to time. Under King Thibaw (1878-1885) Upper Burma was divided into 10 Khayaings and a Khayaing Wun governed each. This Khayaing corresponded to Division in Lower Burma. Throughout the colonial period Burma was divided into 8 Divisions called Khayaing. The Divisional Commissioner was called Khayaing Wun Shin Taw Min Gyi, while the District was called Siyinsu which was governed by a Deputy Commissioner known as A-Ye-Baing. During the Japanese period Division become Taing and the Divisional Commissioner was called Taing Min Gyi. The District was called Khayaing and the A-Ye-Baing became Khayaing Wun. Since 1972 Myanmar has had 7 States and 7 Divisions.".....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - Politics and government.....Key Words: 1. Divisions, 2. Districts
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Sit-pran" (No. 71) via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (106K-reduced version; 629K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0004.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 November 2014


Title: Life at the Burmese Court under the Konbaung Kings
Date of publication: 1982
Description/subject: About ceremonies of Myanmar court in Konbaung period (AD 1752 - 1885) Contents include: (1) Burmese Court (2) The feeding of the first betel (This ceremony was carried out 75 days after the birth of a prince or princess) (3) Naming Ceremony (This ceremony was carried out one hundred days after birth) (4) Earboring, Hairdressing, Headdress - wearing, Shawl wearing and Marriage Ceremonies (5) The Installation of the Crown Prince (The investiture of the Crown Prince) (6) Coronation - Abhiseka Rajabhisik (7) The Assumption of the Royal Residence The ceremonies at the Burmese court were a composition of native beliefs with a strong mixture of Indian ideas as well as Chinese and Thai influences.....Subject Terms: 1. Royal court ceremonies... 2. Courts - Myanmar... 3. Indian and Chinese influences..... Key Words: 1. Myanmar Court... 2. Betel feeding ceremony, first... 3. Naming Ceremony... 4. Earboring... 5. Hairdressing... 6. Headdress... 7. Marriage Ceremonies... 8. Crown Prince, Installation... 9. Coronation - Abhiseka Rajabhisik Ceremony... 10. Royal Palace
Author/creator: Yi Yi, Dr.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Burma Historical Research Department Silver Jublice publication", pp100-147, 1982, Historical Research Department via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (2MB-combined)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/YI0012a.pdf (1.95MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/YI0012b.pdf (732K)
Date of entry/update: 30 November 2014


Title: The reply letter from Prendergast
Date of publication: December 1980
Description/subject: During the Third Anglo-Burmese War the British Army easily occupied Upper Myanmar in November 1885. The Myanmar Royal army put up little defence in this war, because King Thibaw and his Ministers believed the reply sent by General Prendargast to the King's request for negotiations. This letter asked that the Myanmar army lay down its arms in exchange for a peaceful settlement. King Thibaw and Ministers believed the British government would not occupy the country. The author sees this letter as important for the historical record, and should be known by future generations.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - History - The Third Anglo - Burmese War, 1885...Key Words: Prendergast, General
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Sit-pran" 1980-12, pp60-62, via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (112K-reduced version; 807K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0023.pdf
Date of entry/update: 22 October 2014


Title: Blocking the Ayeyawady River
Date of publication: December 1979
Description/subject: The main line of attack in the Third Anglo Burmese War was up the Ayeyawady River. This route was anticipated by Myanma strategists, so in addition to the forts, blockades were created at various points. The strongest site was near Yin Ye' Rocks between Innwa and Sagaing. To block passage, an Irrawaddy Flotilla Steamer and large cargo boats were filled with rocks and sandbags and sunk. The water level above these obstructions was only about 2 to 3 feet. Taung Kwin Myosa Wungyi was in command and it would have been a major obstacle for the expeditionary forces to surmount.But providence was on the enemy's side. The current changed because the water suddenly rose and a new channel opened. Then, before new barriers could be constructed, the Hluttaw ordered a surrender. .....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - History - Third Anglo - Burmese War, 1885..... Key Words: 1. Anglo - Burmese War, 3rd 1885... 2. Fortresses
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Sit-pran" or "Sitpyan" No. 15, pp129 - 132, via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (273K-reduced version; 984K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0012.pdf
Date of entry/update: 22 November 2014


Title: Thibawmin and Shwebo Affair
Date of publication: July 1979
Description/subject: On 28 November 1885, under the leadership General Prendergast, the British army occupied the Mandalay Palace. Some Myanmar ministers advised King Thibaw to leave the capital but he refused to run away. Nonetheless consideration was given by King Thibaw and some ministers to retreat from the capital to Shwebo or a some other safer place.....Subject Terms: 1.Myanmar- History- King Thibaw, 1878- 1885... 2. Myanmar- History- Later Konbaung Period, 1837- 1885.... Key Words: 1. Thibaw King, 1878- 1885... 2. Shwebo
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Ngwe-tar-yi", No. 229, pp50-53, 1979-07, via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (270K-reduced version; 831K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0015.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 December 2014


Title: Three letters connected with the Third Anglo-Burmese War
Date of publication: June 1979
Description/subject: The Third Anglo Burmese War ended within a fortnight. Three important letters were found among the Sladen papers (i.e. Col. Sladen's collection now in the British Library). The letters are: 1. From Kin Wun Mingyi to the Chief Commissioner of British Burma. 2. From Ministers of the Hluttaw to the Myanmar Ambassador at Paris 3. From Hlay thin Atwin Wun to his men at Gwe Chaung. All were dated 11 November 1885. At that time General Prendergast had already crossed the frontier. The letters did not reach the addressees and they were of no avail. But at least they show Myanmar's last resort in trying to defend their sovereignty......Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - History - Later Konbaung Period, 1837 - 1885, 2. Myanmar - History - The Third Anglo - Burmese War , 1885.....Key Words: 1. Sladen Papers, 2. Anglo - Burmese War, 3rd 1885.
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Pyin-nya Pade-tha News Letter", Vol. 9, Part 2, June 1979, pp103-108 via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (193K-reduced version; 959K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0007.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 October 2014


Title: 100 years of Myanmar
Date of publication: 1979
Description/subject: About political conditions of Myanmar in 1875 under the rule of King Mindon. The author selected and translated historical documents on Myanmar from the India Consultations, Foreign and Political, 1875. These documents are the correspondence between British Deputy Commissioner of India the British Resident at Mandalay, and a political agent of Mandalay. They demonstrate in detail how the British Government carried out intrigue in Myanmar's political affairs.....Subject Terms: Myanmar - History - Later Konbaung period 1937-1885.....Key Words: 1. British Burma, 2. India Consultations, Foreign and Political 1875, 3. British Resident at Mandalay, 4. Political Agent, Mandalay, 5. Yunan, 6. Bhamo Diary, 7. Mandalay Diary.
Author/creator: Yi Yi, Dr
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: Burma Historical Research Dept., "Research in Burmese History", No. 4, pp1-124, via Washington University
Format/size: pdf 2MB-combined)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/YI0011a.pdf (3.61MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/YI0011b.pdf (2.43MB)
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2014


Title: Additional Burmese Historical Sources 1752-76
Date of publication: 1979
Description/subject: This paper is a supplement to the author's two papers " Burmese Historial Sources 1752 - 1885" and "A Bibliogrphical Essay of Burmese Sources of the History of the Konbaung period 1752-1885". The author studied primary historical sources from unpublished Burmese materials: 1752 - 76 and presented her findings in three periods (1) 1752 - 60-- the reign of King Alaungmintaragyi (a) a palm leaf manuscript containing more than seventy orders and letters (b) a miscellany of orders and petitions pertaining to the reigns of Alaungmintaragyi and his eldest son Naungdawgyi (Dabayin Min). There is little original material for the period 1760 - 63; however sources from 1763 - 1776 are abundant, principably the "Yaza" account of the embassy from Sandapuri. These historical sources describe political history, administration, and Burma's foreign relations during the first half of the Konbaung monarchy.....Subject Terms: 1. Burma-history-early Konbaung Period, 1752-1837... 2. Burma-history-King Alaungpaya, 1752-1760... 3. Burma-history-King Naungdawgyi, (Dabayin Min) 1760-63... 4. Burma-history-King Sinbyu shin, (Myedu Min) 1763-76..... Key Words: 1. Bago (Pegu)... 2. Martaban... 3. Tavoy... 4. Sandapuri... 5. Thailand... 6. Sittans
Author/creator: Yi Yi, Dr.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Research in Burmese History", No. 3, pp103-106, 1979, Burma Historical Research Dept. via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (553K-reduced version; 3MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/YI0014.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 November 2014


Title: Prizes of War, 1885
Date of publication: 1979
Description/subject: The British seized many prizes from Mandalay after the Third Anglo - Burmese War in 1885 They consisted of jewellery, ordinance, steamers, elephants, horses, land and buildings belonging to the monarchy. A Prize Committee was organized in Mandalay and functioned for two years after Annexation. Many valuable objects were never mentioned in the official record, nor handed over to the Committee. The prizes were disappeared in various ways: some were destroyed or thrown into deep water. Others were presented to Her Majesty Queen Victoria and other members of the British Royal Family, or to officers of administrative departments. Some were auctioned off.....Subject Terms: 1. Anglo- Burmese War, 3rd 1885... 2. Myanmar- History- Later Konbaung Period, 1837- 1885
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Research in Burma History", No. 3, pp127-143, 1979, Historical Research Department, via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (462K-reduced version; 1.9MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0025.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 December 2014


Title: The Peacock Coins
Date of publication: 1979
Description/subject: Peacock coins were cast and became legal tender in Myanmar during King Mindon's reign (1853 - 1878). These coins were made in a mint built within the Mandalay Palace in 1227 (AD 1865). Peacock coins were made of gold, silver, copper, tin and lead. The coinage was issued over the 20 years reign (1865 - 85) and estimated to be worth Rs. 28,755,625...Subject Terms: 1. Coins... 2. Myanmar- Coins... 3. Monetary System..... Key Words: 1. Peacock Coin
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Research in Burma History", No. 3, pp145-153, 1979, via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (350K-reduced version; 1.7MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0026.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 December 2014


Title: Prendergast and Min Hla Gwe Chaung
Date of publication: 1976
Description/subject: The Third Anglo - Burmese War bagan on 15 November 1885 when General Prendergast and his army occupied the Upper Burma border area, Minhla and Gwe Chaung within two days. General Prendergast planned well for the operation as he had detailed intelligence about these area. The author observed that Myanmar's hospitality and generous manner is not necessarily good in a time of trouble.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar- History... 2. Myanmar- History- Third Anglo- Burmese War... 3. Min Hla... 4. Gwe Chaung
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Ngwe-tar-yi", No. 196, pp32-35, 1976-10, via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (307K-reduced version; 834K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0019.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 December 2014


Title: Army
Date of publication: 1974
Description/subject: Describes the Myanmar army and how it was organized during King Thibaw's reign (1878 - 1885).....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar-Army... 2. Myanmar-Armed forces..... Key Words: Standing Army
Author/creator: Zeyya
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Nawarat Ko-thwe", 2nd editon, pp108-123, Sabei Oo Sarpay via Univeristy of Washington
Format/size: pdf (238K-reduced version;
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/CU0005.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 November 2014


Title: Upper Burma Occupation Company Limited
Date of publication: 1974
Description/subject: The last king of the Konbaung period, was king Thibaw. At that time Upper Burma did not have peace. Accordingly, foreign traders urged the British Government to occupy Upper Burma, where upon they organized the Upper Burma Occupation Company Limited. Shareholders were announced in the Calcutta 'The Statesman Newspaper' on 25t February 1885.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar-History-Later Konbaung Period (1752-1885) Key Words: 1. Upper Burma Occupation Company Limited 2. Burma Chamber of Commerce
Author/creator: Zeyya
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Nawarat Ko-thwe", 2nd editon, pp75089, 1974, Sabei Oo Sarpay via Univeristy of Washington
Format/size: pdf (277K-reduced version; 1.2MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/CU0004.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 November 2014


Title: Hlay thin Atwin Wun and viss of gold
Date of publication: September 1973
Description/subject: During the Third Anglo-Burmese War Hlay-thin Atwin Wun and his forces were victorious at the battle of Myingyan. King Thibaw sent ten viss of gold for him, plus 270 gold medals and gold cups for his followers as reward for their valour. But the next day they were routed. The gold was lost in transit. Later, about four viss of gold were recovered and Col. Sladen returned it to Hlay-thin Atwin Wun as the rightful claimant.".....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - History - Later Konbaung Period , 1837 - 1885...2. Zeya Kyaw Htin , Mingyi Thiri Maha ( Hlay thin Atwin Wun)... 3. Myanmar - History - The Third Anglo - Burmese War, 1885..... Key Words: Myingyan Battle
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Myawaddy" Vol. 21 , No. 11, November 1973, pp25-27 via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (163K-reduced version; 695K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/SouthEastAsia/myanmar/pdfs/MK0001.pdf
Date of entry/update: 22 November 2014


Title: Golden Images of Konbaung Kings
Date of publication: October 1968
Description/subject: About the eleven or seventeen golden images of Myanmar kings & queens of the Konbaung Period placed in the Mandalay Palace, Zaytawun building. They all disappeared during the British Annexation......Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar Kings - Images... 2. Myanmar Queens - Images..... Key Words: Golden Images....Article Title: Golden Images of Konbaung Kings.
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Ngwe-tar-yi" No. 100, October 1968, pp27-32 via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (386K-reduced version; 1.2MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0013.pdf
Date of entry/update: 22 November 2014


Title: The Administration of the Early Konbaung period
Date of publication: May 1968
Description/subject: An analysis of the early Konbaung administration, in three section: Section 1 deals with the officer-in-charge of provincial administrative units according to different localities, the hereditary nature of these posts, and matters pertaining to their succession and abdication. Section 2 describes the customary provincial administration - land tenure, forms of taxation, industries and other activities according to localities. Section 3 describes directives issued by the central government regarding appointments, transfers and dismissal of those in charge of districts and administrative units, taxation, maintenance of law and order, bribery and corruption, rehabilitation officers and reconstruction of rural areas, as well as other miscellaneous matters.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar-politics and government... 2. Myanmar- History- Early Konbaung Period... 3. Taxation- Myanmar... Key Words: 1. Administration... 2. Governor of a Town... 3. Revenue... 4. Taxes
Author/creator: Yi Yi, Dr.
Language: English and Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Union of Burma Journal of Literary and Social Sciences", Vol. 1 , No. 2, pp343-395, 1968-05, via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (1.55MB-combined)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/YI0002a.pdf (3.5MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/YI0002b.pdf (3.47MB)
Date of entry/update: 30 November 2014


Title: Commander
Date of publication: 1968
Description/subject: In the later Konbaung Period Myanmar kings organized their armed forces systematically. Describes the responsibilities of those holding the Myanmar Commander rank "Twe-thauk-gyi " during the Konbaung Period. Also describes the organization of the armed forces, their duties, and the insignia worn by the commanders......Subject terms" Twe - thauk..... Key Words: 1. Commander 2. Blood-Brother
Author/creator: BA SHIN, Col
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Military, Politics, Social and Historical papers of Col. Ba Shin", Bagan Sar-oke, No. 153, 1968. pp87-95 via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (155K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/BS0007.pdf
Date of entry/update: 26 November 2014


Title: Organizations That Advocated for Occupation of Upper Burma
Date of publication: 16 November 1967
Description/subject: This paper was read on 19 Nov. 1967 at Kanthaseinlai group. The author observes tha the First Anglo - Burmese Wa, which ended in 1826, cost Myanmar Rakhine and Tenessarim states. The Second Anglo - Burmese War, which ended in 1852, enabled the British Government to occupy Lower Burma. Subsequent relations between King Thibaw and the British foreign were not smooth; however, the British Government had not planned to occupy Upper Burma before March 1885. But the Rangoon Chamber of Commerce continually urged the Government to occupy Upper Burma. At that time Mindon-min had a problem in the Mandalay prison and the prisioners rebelled. Nearly 150 prisioners were killed, and after that affair the Rangoon Deputy Commissioner called a mass meeting and pointed out the weakness of the Thibaw's administration. The author contends that the Rangoon Chamber of Commerce advocated and successfully instigated the invasion of Upper Burma and the lost of independence.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar- history- Later Konbaung period,1837- 1885... 2. Burma Chamber of Commerce... 3. Rangoon Chamber of Commerce... Key Words: 1. The Bombay Burmah Trading Corporation Ltd... 2. The Irrawaddy Flotilla Co... 3. Gillanders Arbuthnot and Co.... 4. The Rangoon Gazette Newspaper... 5. Sladen, Col.
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Tetkathoe Pyin-nya Pade-tha Sar-saung", Vol. 3 , Part 2, pp201-224, 1967-11-19, via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-reduced version; 3.2MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0022.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 December 2014


Title: Revenue Reports, Konbaung Period
Date of publication: June 1966
Description/subject: This paper was read on 29 July 1966 before the Burma Research Society. During the Konbaung Period the monarchy maintained excellent revenue records. These documents offer evidence of Myanmar's history, geography, administration, economic conditions, social life and customs. They also reveal how Konbaung kings governed and administered their country.....Subject Terms: 1. Revenue reports... 2. Myanmar - history - Later Konbaung Period, 1837 - 1885... 3. Myanmar - economic conditions - Later Konbaung Period, 1837 - 1885... 4. Myanmar - social life and custom.....Key Words: 1. Sittan (Revenue reports
Author/creator: Yi Yi, Dr.
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Research Society", Vol. 48, Part 1, pp71-127 via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (2.8MB-reduced version: 3.9MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/YI0002J.pdf
Date of entry/update: 22 October 2014


Title: The Mandalay Palace
Date of publication: 1963
Description/subject: Mandalay Palace - Historical Sites; Mandalay - Description and Travel; Mandalay - History; Myanmar - History - Later Konbaung Period; Contents: (1) Foundation of the Palace and City p. 10-15; (2) The City's Defensive Walls p. 16-19; (3) Building outside the palace platform p. 22-24; (4) The Buildings within the palace platform p. 25-35; (5) Appendix - Kings of the Alaungpaya Dynasty p. 37; This book was published with the grant of 1962 Asia; Foundation. Text by Mon C. Durosielle former Superintendent of the Directorate of Archaeological Survey. Supplemented with thirty one plates of photographs, plans and measured drawings of the palace structures and architectural motifs as preserved in the Archaeological Department.
Author/creator: Mon C. Durosielle
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Directorate of Archaeological Survey
Format/size: PDF (3.84MB) 57pages
Date of entry/update: 10 July 2010


Title: King Mindon's Counselors
Date of publication: June 1961
Description/subject: Author read this paper at annual meeting of Burma Research Society on 24 Feburary 1961. King Mindon ( 1852 - 78 ) governed Burma for nearly 26 years. His counselors were esteemed as they gave good advice and served him well in administering the country. The most famous were the Pakhan Wungyi, Kinwun Mingyi and Yaw Atwinwun. Mindon's Legislative Council was also powerful as they had the power to remove royal orders. The author believes that Myanmar counselors functioned well during King Mindon's reign and are a model for today.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar Counselors... 2. Myanmar - Politics and government.....Key Words: 1. Wungyi -Minister of the Hluttaw... 2. Atwinwon - Interior Minister... 3. Wondauk-officer who assisted the Hluttaw
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Research Society", Vol. 44, No. 1, pp61-80, via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB-reduced; 1.8MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0001J.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 October 2014


Title: About Mandalay
Date of publication: 1956
Description/subject: This article was written under the pen-name San Aung. (Mandalay) , the last capital city of the Myanmar kings which was captured by the British in 1885. The author draws upon three letters as crucial in describing important events (1) the letter from General Prendergast, (2) the letter from Kinwun Mingyi to the British Commissioner, and (3), the reply letter from Prendergast. It also offers a brief chronicle of Mandalay history [1853 - 1953].....Subject Terms: 1. Mandalay - History... 2. Myanmar - History... 3. Third Anglo - Burmese war , 1885..... Key Words: Mandalay
Author/creator: Ba Shin, Col.
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Myawaddy", pp20-27, 1956, via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (340K-reduced version; 1.4MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/BS0006.pdf
Date of entry/update: 26 November 2014


Title: Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma
Date of publication: 1923
Description/subject: Burmese chronicle compiled in 1829 by a committee of scholars appointed by King Bagyiday. The name of the chronicle was taken from the Palace of Glass, the chamber of which the compilation was made. The work relates the history of the kings of Burma.who are said to be descendants of the Buddha's own people, the Śākyans.and among other topics, goes on to report on the establishment of Buddhism in the country and the acquisition of sacred relics.
Author/creator: Pe Maung Tin and Gordon H Luce (translators)
Language: English
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 07 January 2015


Title: Mandalay in 1878-1879: The Letters of James Alfred Colbeck, Originally Selected and Edited by George H. Colbeck in 1892
Date of publication: 1892
Description/subject: Editor’s note: Present in 1878 and early 1879 and then returning again to Mandalay in 1885 with British forces, James Alfred Colbeck, mission priest for the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel and latterly military chaplain, provides a unique look at the beginning and end of Thibaw’s reign (1878-1885). The letters included were originally selected and edited by George H. Colbeck, mission priest at Mandalay and were published under the title of Letters from Mandalay, A Series of Letters For the Most Part Written From the Royal City of Mandalay During the Troublous Years of 1878-79; Together with Letters Written During the Last Burmese Campaign of 1885-88 (Knavesborough: Alfred W. Lowe, 1892). The natural division and balance of the letters included warrants their division into two separate groupings, with the 1878-1879 letters included here and the 1885-1888 letters included in the forthcoming issue of SBBR. According to George H. Colbeck, the senior Colbeck died four days after his correspondence of 27th February 1888, the last letter in the published collection. Unfortunately, the original editor included few details on the circumstances of the correspondence, with some exceptions, beyond date and general point of origin (in most cases Mandalay). We are not told, for example, to whom the letters were written. Aside from these limitations, however, these letters offer valuable information not available in other source materials on Mandalay during the Kon-baung dynasty’s last, and arguably most troubled reign.
Author/creator: James Alfred Colbeck
Language: English
Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003,
Format/size: pdf (139K)
Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070609092430/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/vol__i,_no__2.htm
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2004


Title: Mandalay in 1885-1888: The Letters of James Alfred Colbeck, Originally Selected and Edited by George H. Colbeck in 1892, Continued
Date of publication: 1892
Description/subject: Editor’s note: This is the second increment in the two-part series on the letters of James Alfred Colbeck. While the first part covered the years 1878-1879, the present letters include the years 1885-1888, when Colbeck returned to Upper Burma with British forces and served as both mission priest and as acting chaplain for British forces. M.W.C.
Author/creator: James Alfred Colbeck
Language: English
Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring 2004
Format/size: pdf (101K)
Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


Title: Mandalay in 1878-1879: The Letters of James Alfred Colbeck, Originally Selected and Edited by George H. Colbeck in 1892
Date of publication: 16 July 1878
Description/subject: Editor’s note: Present in 1878 and early 1879 and then returning again to Mandalay in 1885 with British forces, James Alfred Colbeck, mission priest for the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel and latterly military chaplain, provides a unique look at the beginning and end of Thibaw’s reign (1878-1885). The letters included were originally selected and edited by George H. Colbeck, mission priest at Mandalay and were published under the title of Letters from Mandalay, A Series of Letters For the Most Part Written From the Royal City of Mandalay During the Troublous Years of 1878-79; Together with Letters Written During the Last Burmese Campaign of 1885-88 (Knavesborough: Alfred W. Lowe, 1892). The natural division and balance of the letters included warrants their division into two separate groupings, with the 1878-1879 letters included here and the 1885-1888 letters included in the forthcoming issue of SBBR. According to George H. Colbeck, the senior Colbeck died four days after his correspondence of 27th February 1888, the last letter in the published collection. Unfortunately, the original editor included few details on the circumstances of the correspondence, with some exceptions, beyond date and general point of origin (in most cases Mandalay). We are not told, for example, to whom the letters were written. Aside from these limitations, however, these letters offer valuable information not available in other source materials on Mandalay during the Kon-baung dynasty’s last, and arguably most troubled reign.
Author/creator: JAMES ALFRED COLBECK
Language: English
Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003
Format/size: pdf (240.04 K)
Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


Title: Some Documents of Tharrawaddy’s Reign: 1837-1846, Part I
Date of publication: October 1841
Description/subject: Editor's note: "The following documents drawn from the reign of King Tharrawaddy are intended as one contribution of many forthcoming to the project of organizing and publishing the source accounts for one of the Kon-baung dynasty’s most obscure, yet critical reigns. Thus, documents included have not been selected on the basis of their high rate of interest relative to other documents of the period, but rather more with the view of making the documentary record complete."...“Letter of Mr. Simons, Dated Rangoon, June 20, 1838: Relations Between Burmah and British India—The “heir apparent” and others put to death” By Mr. Simons American Baptist Missionary Magazine 29.2 (February 1839)...[Letter of Mr. Simons, 23 June 1838] By Mr. Simons American Baptist Missionary Magazine 29.2 (February 1839)...[Events at Amarapura, December 1837] Maulmain Chronicle, 9 December 1837...[Letter from Maulmain, 6 April 1839] By Eugenio Kincaid American Baptist Missionary Magazine 20.1. (January 1840)...[Letter from Maulmain, 9 April 1839] By Eugenio Kincaid American Baptist Missionary Magazine 20.1. (January 1840)...“Amarapura, 23rd March 1839” American Baptist Missionary Magazine 20.1 (January 1840)...[Letter from Maulmain, 3 July 1839] By Eugenio Kincaid American Baptist Missionary Magazine 20.3 (March 1840)...[Letter From Maulmain, 20 January 1840] By Eugenio Kincaid American Baptist Missionary Magazine 20.11 (November, 1840)...[Letter From Maulmain, 20 January 1840] By Eugenio Kincaid American Baptist Missionary Magazine 20.11 (November, 1840)...[Report on the Kayens] Maulmain Chronicle, September 22, 1841...[Tharrawaddy’s March to Rangoon] Maulmain Chronicle, September 22, 1841...[Preparations for Tharrawaddy’s Arrival at Rangoon] Maulmain Chronicle, September 29, 1841...[Suggestions for a Show of Force Against Tharrawaddy, 2 October 1841] by “Prevantative” Letter to the Editor Maulmain Chronicle, October 13 1841...
Language: English
Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003
Format/size: pdf (63K)
Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070609092430/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/vol__i,_no__2.htm
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2004


Title: NARRATIVE OF THE BURMESE WAR, DETAILING THE OPERATIONS OF MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL'S ARMY, FROM ITS LANDING AT RANGOON IN MAY 1824, TO THE.CONCLUSION OF A TREATY OF PEACE AT YANDABOO, IN FEBRUARY 1826.
Date of publication: 1827
Description/subject: CONTENTS: . CHAPTER I. Junction of the combined forces from Bengal and Madras, at Port Cornwallis—Capture of Rangoon, and release of the British and Americans, who were made prisoners by the enemy….. CHAPTER II. Description of Rangoon, and the situation of the Army after landing there ….. CHAPTER III. State and position of the Burmese forces at the period of our landing in Pegu, and exertions of the court of Ava in calling out the military resources of the country—First encounter with the Burmese troops….. CHAPTER IV. Arrival at Rangoon of two Deputies from the Burmese camp—Continuation of the military operations, and situation of the army up to the first of July….. CHAPTER V. Feeble attack of the enemy on the British lines—Attack and capture of his fortified camp at Kummeroot — Expedition sent against Mergui and Tavoy on the Coast of Tenasserim….. CHAPTER VI. The King's two brothers, the Princes of Tonghoo and Sarrawaddy, with Astrologers, and a corps of Invulnerables, join the army—Operations of the British Force up to the end of August….. CHAPTER VII. Recal of Maha Bandoola and the Burmese army from Arracan—Continuation of hostilities at Rangoon— Their effect upon the court of Ava….. CHAPTER VIII. Friendly assurances of the Siamese—Their preparations for war, and probable line of policy—Capture of Martaban and Yeh….. CHAPTER IX. State of the force at the conclusion of the rains— Reinforcements and equipment for taking the field sent from India—Approach of the grand army under Maha Bandoola….. CHAPTER X. Actions in front of Rangoon, from the first to the seventh of December….. CHAPTER XI. Attack on the enemy's fortified camp at Kokeen.on the 15th December, and his final retreat to Donoobew….. CHAPTER XII. Plan of operations—Force equipped for field service….. CHAPTER XIII. Journal of the march from Rangoon to Donoohew….. CHAPTER XIV. Operations before Donoohew—Its evacuation by the enemy—Journal of the march to Prome….. CHAPTER XV. March of a detachment towards Tonghoo, and close of the Campaign….. CHAPTER XVL Winter-quarters at Prome—State of the country— Conduct of the inhabitants; with some remarks on their character and government….. CHAPTER XVII. Renewed exertions of the Burmese, government, in preparations for the prosecution of the war—Meeting of the British and Burmese Commissioners at Neoun-ben zeik, and their ineffectual efforts to conclude a peace….. CHAPTER XVIII. Strength and position of the British and Burmese armies—Defeat of the enemy in front of Prome ….. CHAPTER XIX. Preparations for an advance'upon Ava—Plan of the campaign….. CHAPTER XX. Journal of the march from Prome to Melloone ….. CHAPTER XXI. Conclusion of a treaty of peace—Is not ratified by the king—And the Burmese army, in consequence, is again defeated, and driven from Melloone ….. CHAPTER XXII. Continuation of the march upon Ava—Renewal of negotiations—Battle of Fagahm-mew—Conclusion of a definitive treaty of peace.... CHAPTER XXIII. Concluding Remarks.... APPENDIX......N.B. THE GOOGLE NOTE, PAGES AND COVERS PRECEEDING THE TITLE PAGE HAVE BEEN MOVED TO THE END OF THE TEXT. FOR THE ORIGINAL ORDER, SEE THE ALTERNATE URL.
Author/creator: MAJOR JOHN JAMES SNODGRASS,
Language: English
Source/publisher: JOHN MURRAY via Google Books
Format/size: pdf (5.2MB)
Alternate URLs: http://books.google.com/books?id=NYs2AAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Burmese&as_brr=1#PPR3,M1 (pdf 10MB)
Date of entry/update: 05 April 2008


Title: Gleanings on Burma, December 1826
Date of publication: December 1826
Description/subject: "The following two entries appeared in The Gentleman’s Magazine in December 1826. They offer some useful information both on Burma’s looted textual heritage and on the confusion among the population after the war." M.W.C.
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Gentleman’s Magazine via SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
Format/size: pdf (13K)
Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm
Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


Title: DIARY OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF AN EMBASSY TO BURMA IN 1760
Date of publication: 1808
Description/subject: "The following account is derived from Alexander Dalrymple, Oriental Repertory, 1808: I.351-393. Dalrymple has left us the following succinct introduction to the account below (M. W. C)...Capt. Alves was sent back to Burma in 1760; and on his return to Bengal, transmitted to Governor Pigot, at Madrass, the following Diary of his Proceedings.
Author/creator: Captain Walter Alves
Language: English
Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
Format/size: pdf (111K)
Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm
Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


Title: Treaty Between Alaung-hpaya and the British East India Company in 1757
Date of publication: 1808
Description/subject: TREATY of FRIENDSHIP and ALLIANCE, between The Honourable The United Company of Merchants of England, trading to the East Indies, Subjects of His most Sacred Majesty, George the Second, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Inland, King &c. &c. &c. of the One Part, and the Great King of Ava and Pegu, The greatest King upon Earth, Allaum Praw &c. &c. &c. of the Other Part.
Language: English
Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
Format/size: pdf (18K)
Alternate URLs: http://web.soas.ac.uk/burma/pdf/Treaty1.pdf
Date of entry/update: 14 November 2004


Title: A CONCISE ACCOUNT OF THE KINGDOM OF PEGU
Date of publication: 1785
Description/subject: "The following account, written by the surgeon, William Hunter, relates his experiences in Pegu in 1782-1783. The observations were made on a voyage that had been ordered by the British East India Company. The account was originally printed at Calcutta in 1785 by John Hay under the title of A Concise Account of the Kingdom of Pegu; Its Climate, Produce, Trade, and Government; The Manners and Customs of its Inhabitants. Interspersed with remarks Moral and Political. The additional appendices, one on “An Enquiry into the cause of the variety observable in the fleeces of sheep, in different climates,” and “A Description of the Caves at Elephanta, Ambola, and Canara” are unrelated to Burma and are thus not included in the text below." M. W. C.
Author/creator: William Hunter
Language: English
Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
Format/size: pdf (103K)
Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm


Title: PROCEEDINGS OF AN EMBASSY TO THE KING OF AVA, PEGU, &C. IN 1757
Date of publication: August 1757
Description/subject: "Ensign’s Robert Lester’s account of his embassy to Ava in 1757 was originally published in Alexander Dalrymple’s Oriental Repertory. It provides one of the few first-hand accounts of Alaung-hpaya and thus remains a valuable source on the reign and the beginnings of the Kon-baung Dynasty. Dalrymple’s italicization has been removed and dates have been expanded to include the month and year in order to avoid confusion. M. W. C.... [Begins with an opening letter from Thomas Newton to Robert Lester dated 24 June 1757]
Author/creator: Ensign Robert Lester
Language: English
Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
Format/size: pdf (59K)
Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm
Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010