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Burma's economic relations with the USA

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Foreign Trade Statistics (USA)
Description/subject: Search for Burma OR Myanmar. Otherwise, browse the Index (not for the faint-hearted)
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Census Bureau
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: National Labor Committee
Description/subject: "In support of human and worker rights". Documents on Burma-US trade, particularly US garment companies sourcing in Burma.
Language: English
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.nlcnet.org/campaigns?id=0010
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


Title: US-ASEAN Business Council (Myanmar page)
Description/subject: Many useful links but there are no events to display for this time period.
Language: English
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


Individual Documents

Title: Can we fine-tune the sanctions against Burma?
Date of publication: 20 July 2012
Description/subject: " Last week, the Obama Administration suspended some of the most important financial sanctions against Burma. U.S. companies are now allowed to invest in Burmese industries (including oil and gas) and to sell services. Yet on Wednesday of this week, the U.S. Senate Finance Committee took a decision that pointed in exactly the opposite direction. It voted to renew trade sanctions passed nine years ago in response to the military junta's attempted assassination of Aung San Suu Kyi. (She survived, but the attack resulted in scores of other deaths.) The renewal of the legislation -- if it passes a vote of the full Senate and the House, which still have to confirm the decision -- will technically ban all imports from Burma for another three years. Since the ban was first imposed in 2003, imports from Burma to the U.S. have fallen to almost zero, a sweeping prohibition that has done a lot of damage to Burma's nascent manufacturing industry. For that reason, Aung San Suu Kyi actually asked U.S. Senator Mitch McConnell to remove the remaining sanctions early last week. But her plea didn't seem to help..."
Author/creator: Min Zin
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Foreign Policy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 August 2012


Title: Sanktionen zur Förderung von Frieden und Menschenrechten? Fallstudien zu Myanmar, Sudan und Südafrika
Date of publication: 2006
Description/subject: Eine kontroverse Diskussion zur Wirksamkeit internationaler Sanktionen (UNO; USA; EU; ILO) in Burma/Myanmar nach den Aufständen von 1988; der Einfluss Aung San Suu Kyis; die Rolle westlicher NGOs; Fallstudien zu Burma/Myanmar, Sudan, Südafrika A study on the efficacity of intnernational sanctions after the protests of 1988; the influence of Aung San Suu Kyi; the role of western NGOs; case studies of Burma/Myanmar, Sudan, South Africa
Author/creator: Sina Schüssler
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Zentrum der Konfliktforschung der Philipps-Universität Marburg
Format/size: PDF (890k)
Date of entry/update: 21 September 2007


Title: Reconciling Burma/Myanmar: Essays on U.S. Relations with Burma
Date of publication: 03 March 2004
Description/subject: Free access not available anymore! The document needs to be purchased. Foreword: "An intellectual “tectonic shift” is underway, making a precarious policy even harder to justify. This rather unusual issue of the NBR Analysis does not stem from an NBR-sponsored project or study. Instead, it emerged as an initiative from an extraordinary assemblage of Burma scholars, all of whom regard last year’s announcement of a “road map” for constitutional change, the ongoing progress toward cease-fires with ethnic insurgents, and the worsening impact of sanctions on the general populace, as an opportunity to re-examine U.S. relations with Burma. Recognizing that the current situation may be conducive to taking a fresh perspective, and noting the significance of so many top Burma specialists reaching similar conclusions and working together, we decided to publish their essays. The scholars in this volume represent a range of perspectives. What is especially notable is that they collaborated in this enterprise and concur that the U.S. policy of sanctions is not achieving its worthy objective—progress toward constitutional change and democratization in Burma. Moreover, as some of these authors argue, viewing U.S.-Burma relations solely through this lens, important as it is, may be harming other U.S. strategic interests in Southeast Asia, both in terms of the ongoing war against terrorism and long-term objectives regarding the United States’ role as a regional security guarantor. The desperate humanitarian situation in the country, as detailed in many of these essays, and concerns about possible WMD-related activities only underscore the importance of looking at this issue again. U.S. policymakers in particular ought to consider whether it is now appropriate to take a more realistic, engaged approach, while easing restrictions on humanitarian assistance, programs to build civil society, and the forces of globalization that are needed for the Burmese peoples’ socio-economic progress and solid transition to civilian government and democracy..." Richard J. Ellings, President, The National Bureau of Asian Research... "Strategic Interests in Myanmar" - John H. Badgley; "Myanmar’s Political Future: Is Waiting for the Perfect the Enemy of Doing the Possible?" - Robert H. Taylor; "Burma/Myanmar: A Guide for the Perplexed?" - David I. Steinberg; "King Solomon’s Judgment" - Helen James; "The Role of Minorities in the Transitional Process" - Seng Raw; "Will Western Sanctions Bring Down the House?" - Kyaw Yin Hlaing; "The Crisis in Burma/Myanmar: Foreign Aid as a Tool for Democratization" - Morten B. Pedersen;
Author/creator: John H. Badgley (Ed.); Robert H. Taylor, David I. Steinberg, Helen James, Seng Raw, Kyaw Yin Hlaing, Morten B. Pedersen
Language: English
Source/publisher: "NBR Analysis" Vol.15, No. 1, March 2004 (The National Bureau of Asia Research)
Format/size: pdf (261K)
Date of entry/update: 29 February 2004


Title: Presidential Executive Order implementing the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003,
Date of publication: 29 July 2003
Description/subject: "...The United States has begun to implement the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003, which immediately prohibits financial transactions with entities of the ruling military junta in Burma and will bar the importation of Burmese products into the United States after 30 days, according to the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). OFAC issued a bulletin July 29 that includes the text of President Bush's July 28 Executive Order regarding the blockage of the Burmese junta's property, the prohibition of financial transactions with entities of the Rangoon regime, and the ban on Burmese imports into the United States. According to President Bush's executive order, such steps are necessary due to the military junta's "continued repression of the democratic opposition in Burma" and the national emergency declared in Executive Order 13047 of May 20, 1997. Following is the text of the OFAC bulletin:..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Office of Foreign Assets Control via US Dept of State
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 August 2003


Title: Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act -- Text and associated links
Date of publication: 28 July 2003
Description/subject: This legislation was signed into law by the US President on 28 July 2003.
Language: English
Source/publisher: U S Government via Trillium Asset Management
Format/size: pdf (42 KB)
Alternate URLs: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=108_cong_bills&docid=f:h2330rh.txt.pdf
http://www.treas.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/legal/statutes/bfda_2003.pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


Title: BURMA COUNTRY COMMERCIAL GUIDE FY2002
Date of publication: 2003
Description/subject: "This Country Commercial Guide (CCG) presents a comprehensive look at Burma's (Myanmar's) commercial environment, using economic, political and market analysis. The CCGs were established by recommendation of the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee (TPCC), a multi-agency task force, to consolidate various reporting documents prepared for the U.S. business community. Country commercial guides are prepared annually at U.S. embassies through the combined efforts of several U.S. Government agencies..." 1. Executive Summary... 2 Economic Trends and Outlook -Government Role in the Economy -Major Trends and Outlook -Major Sectors -Balance of Payments -Infrastructure... 3 Political Environment � -Brief Synopsis of Political System -Nature of Bilateral Relationship with the United States -Major Political Issues -Business Policy -Scope of Sanctions... 4 Marketing US Products and Services � -List of Newspapers and Trade Journals -Advertising Agencies and Services -IPR Protection -Need for a Local Attorney... 5 Leading Sectors for US Exports and Investment... 6 Trade Regulations, Customs and Standards -Barriers to Trade and Investment -Trade Regulations... 7 Investment Climate/US Investment Sanctions -US Investment Subject to Sanctions -Status of Investment -Executive Order -Sanctions Regulations... 8 Trade and Project Financing -Description of Banking System -Foreign Exchange Controls Affecting Trade -Availability of Financing -List of Banks... 9 Business Travel -Travel Advisory -Visas, International Connections -Customs, Foreign Exchange Controls... 10 Economic and Trade Statistics: Appendix A: Country Data; Appendix B: Domestic Economy; Appendix C: External Accounts - Trade and Payments; Appendix D: Investment Statistics; 11 US and Country Contacts... Bibliography.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Commercial Service
Format/size: html, pdf (276K)
Date of entry/update: 18 July 2003


Title: U.S. Trade with Burma (Myanmar) in 2000
Date of publication: 21 February 2001
Description/subject: Import and export figures by month and for the year. The biggest import item, "Miscellaneous Manufactured Articles" is not broken down, which makes it less useful (most is garments (apparel) manufactured in Burma, but the tables do not say so).
Language: English
Source/publisher: Foreign Trade Division, US Census Bureau
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/balance/c5460.html
http://censtats.census.gov/sitc/sitc.shtml
Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


Title: U.S. Trade with Burma (Myanmar) in 1999
Date of publication: 18 February 2000
Description/subject: Import and export figures by month and for the year.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Foreign Trade Division, US Census Bureau
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://censtats.census.gov/sitc/sitc.shtml
Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


Title: FOREIGN ECONOMIC TRENDS REPORT: BURMA, 1997
Date of publication: September 1997
Description/subject: "This report is a public document, prepared in June 1997 and released in September 1997 by American Embassy Rangoon. All statistics in this report are unofficial Embassy estimates, not official U.S. Government statistics. That is, they are compiled and reviewed only by Embassy officials, not by U.S. Government officials in Washington, even though they largely originate from the Government of Burma, from the governments of Burma's trading partners, or from such international financial institutions as the IMF and World Bank, as indicated by source notations in the appended statistical tables, and by the section on sources and data. Similar reports are prepared and distributed to the public annually, separately or as part of an annual Country Commercial Guide, by most American embassies throughout the world, in compliance with standing instructions from, and following a standard format specified by, the U.S. Departments of State and Commerce. This report is intended chiefly for economists and financiers; except for its first section, "Major trends and outlook," it is highly technical and sometimes redundant, intended to serve largely as a reference work...I. Economic trends and outlook:- -- Major trends and outlook: -- Major trends; -- 1996/97 economic performance; -- Economic outlook... -- Principal growth sectors: --Tourism; -- Defense; -- Agriculture: -- Paddy (unmilled rice) cultivation; -- State procurement of paddy; ; -- Rice exports; -- Beans and pulses... -- Remaining structural issues in the agricultural sector; -- Living conditions in the agricultural sector; -- The government's role in the economy: -- Historical background; -- The extent and limits of economic liberalization since 1988; -- Fiscal developments; --Non-financial expenditures; -- Non-financial receipts; -- Fiscal balances; -- External financing; -- Domestic financing; -- Errors and omissions; -- Monetary developments; -- The exchange rate regime; -- Exchange rate movements; -- Recorded money supply growth; -- Recorded money supply composition; -- Recorded domestic credit and domestic reserves; -- Recorded net foreign assets (foreign reserves); -- Aggregate price inflation; -- Balance of payments; -- Merchandise trade data and balances; -- Recorded merchandise exports; -- Recorded merchandise imports; ; -- Non-factor services trade; -- The overall trade balance; -- Unrequited private transfers (workers' remittances); -- Foreign direct investment; -- Other recorded cash financial inflows: grants, loans and other; -- External debt, debt service, arrears and debt relief; -- Aggregate external accounts: the flow of funds; -- Errors and omissions: unrecorded external flows; -- Narcotics exports and other foreign exchange rents and their real exchange rate effects; -- Infrastructure situation; -- Human infrastructure: education and health; -- Physical infrastructure; -- Use of uncompensated labor in infrastructure projects; -- Major infrastructural projects; II. Political environment; -- Nature of the bilateral relationship with the United States; -- American concerns: human rights violations, narcotics exports; -- U.S. Government activities and policies; -- Private investment, trade and travel; -- U.S. direct investment in Burma; -- U.S. exports to Burma ; -- U.S. imports from Burma; -- Travel and migration; -- Major political issues affecting the business climate ; -- Brief synopsis of the political system, schedule for elections, and orientation of major political parties; Note on sources, data and method; -- Recent improvements in publicly available economic data; -- Remaining flaws in the publicly available economic data; -- The statistical basis and methodology of this report; List of commonly used abbreviations... Appendix: Statistical Tables; --Table A: Socio-economic profile; -- Tables B.l.a - B.3.c: National income accounts (GDP and GNP); -- Table C: Aggregate price indicators; --Tables D l.a-D.6: Balance of payments accounts; -- Tables E.l.a - E.2: Monetary accounts; -- Tables F.I - F.2.b: Flow of funds accounts; -- Tables G.1.a-G.6: Public sector finance accounts.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, Rangoon
Format/size: pdf (979K) 152 pages
Date of entry/update: 30 May 2005


Title: Trade in Goods (Imports, Exports and Trade Balance) with Burma (Myanmar)
Description/subject: Import and export and Trade Balance available by year. "Last updated on August 11, 2010."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Census Bureau (Foreign Trade Division)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


Title: U.S. Trade with Burma (Myanmar) in 1998
Description/subject: Import and export figures by month and for the year.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Foreign Trade Division, US Census Bureau
Format/size: Undated, but most likely published in February 1999
Alternate URLs: http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/balance/c5460.html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003