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Arakan (Rakhine) State - reports etc.

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: MIMU - RAKHINE emergency page
Description/subject: Tools for humanitarian assistance..."For up-to-date relevant information including maps, contact list, initial assessment form and 3W data...3W maps/reports for 2012 can be found HERE. 268 organizations were contacted to provide inputs for this round of the 3W (Who is doing what, where) exercise. Amongst them, 87 agencies provided updates – (1) Embassy/Donor (3) Red Cross societies, (12) UN Agencies, (25) LNGOs and (46) INGOs. The 3W products reflect implementing agencies' projects in 329 townships, 4,089 village tract and 11,479 villages throughout the country...".....If this site does not have the latest situation reports, go to the Alternate URL - the OCHA myanmar page at http://reliefweb.int/country/mmr
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU)
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://reliefweb.int/country/mmr
Date of entry/update: 04 July 2012


Title: Muslim, Rohingya Profile
Description/subject: "Muslims in Burma, most of whom are Sunni, constitute at least 4 per cent of the country’s entire population (CIA World Factbook, 2006), with the largest concentration in the north of Rakhine State (also known as Arakan), especially around Maungdaw, Buthidaung, Rathedaung, Akyab and Kyauktaw. There are a number of distinct Muslim communities in Burma, not all of which share the same cultural or ethnic background. While the country’s largest Muslim population resides in Rakhine State (also known as Arakan), it is actually made up of two distinct groups: those whose ancestors appear to be long established, going back hundreds and hundreds of years, and others whose ancestors arrived more recently during the British colonial period (from 1824 until 1948). The majority of Muslims in Rakhine State refer to themselves as ‘Rohingya’: their language (Rohingya) is derived from the Bengali language and is similar to the Chittagonian dialect spoken in nearby Chittagong, in Bangladesh. There is some dispute as to whether the Rohingya are indigenous to the region or are more ‘recent’, being in the main the descendants of those who arrived in Rakhine State during the British colonial administration. A second group of Muslims in the Rakhine State does not consider themselves as Rohingya, as they speak Rakhine which is closely related to the Burmese language, claim their ancestors have lived in the state for many centuries, and tend to share similar customs to the Rakhine Buddhists. They identify themselves ‘Arakanese Muslims’, ‘Burmese Muslims’ or simply ‘Muslims’..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Minority Rights Group
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014


Title: Network Myanmar's collection of material on Rohingya/Muslim issues
Description/subject: Extensive and wide-ranging online collection
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 September 2014


Title: ReliefWeb Myanmar page
Description/subject: Timely reports on the humanitarian situation in Myanmar - from UN, Government and media sources.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 31 July 2012


Title: Remember Rohingya
Description/subject: Various articles, photos videos, profiles, campaigns etc. on the Rohingya. Unfortunately, the material is not precisely dated.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Restless Beings
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014


Title: Search results for "Rohingya" in "New Age"
Description/subject: 1600+ results - December 2012; 2500 - August 2013
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Age" (Bangladesh)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 December 2012


Title: UN Country Team in Myanmar
Description/subject: Reports from October 2007
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Country Team in Myanmar
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2013


Individual Documents

Title: Briefing: Myanmar’s “Rohingya” - what’s in a name?
Date of publication: 15 September 2014
Description/subject: "Already widely reduced to statelessness and in many cases forced into camps for displaced people, an 800,000-strong population of Muslims in western Myanmar now faces increasing efforts to eradicate the very word they use to identify themselves as a group. Under pressure from Myanmar’s nominally-civilian government, the international community sometimes appears complicit in the airbrushing of “Rohingya” from official discourse. In this briefing, IRIN breaks down some of the questions about a group of people that has been called one of the most persecuted minorities in the world.
Language: English
Source/publisher: IRIN
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2014


Title: Myanmar: sectarian violence in Rakhine — issues, humanitarian consequences, and regional responses
Date of publication: 24 July 2013
Description/subject: Introduction: "The plight of Myanmar’s Muslim Rohingya people has received renewed international attention over the past year as a result of ongoing sectarian violence and displacement in the country’s western state of Rakhine. A report published in The Economist in November 2012 provides a compelling summary of the Rohingya’s plight: The political transformation in Myanmar this past year or more has so far seemed one of history’s more remarkable revolutions. It has seemed, indeed, to be a revolution without losers. The army, which brutalised the country for half a century, remains influential and unpunished. Political prisoners have been freed by the hundreds. The opposition and its heroine, Aung San Suu Kyi, have successfully entered mainstream politics. ... One group, however, has lost, and lost terribly. Around 1m members of the mostly Muslim Rohingya minority remain in Myanmar’s impoverished western state of Rakhine. They are survivors of relentless rounds of persecution that have created a diaspora around the world that is perhaps twice as big ... Rakhine politicians say frankly that the only alternative to mass deportation is a Burmese form of apartheid, in which more Rohingyas are corralled into squalid, semi - permanent internal - refugee camps. This Research Paper surveys the issues and regional responses, including that of Australia, surrounding the current conflict and humanitarian situation in Rakhine state. It argues that while the ongoing humanitarian emergency presents the most pressing concern for Myanmar, its neighbours and its international partners , the conflict also highlights a n intensification of a dangerous uncertainty surrounding the future place of the Rohingya, and possibly Muslims more generally, within a multi - ethnic and plural Myanmar . This uncertainty threatens Myanmar ’ s current reform process and, through the large - scale displacement of communities, undermines wider regional security".
Author/creator: Dr. Cameron Hill
Language: English
Source/publisher: Australian Parliament
Format/size: pdf (762K-reduced version; 1.36MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/library/prspub/2613925/upload_binary/2613925.pdf;fileT...
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2013


Title: Final Report of Inquiry Commission on Sectarian Violence in Rakhine State
Date of publication: 08 July 2013
Description/subject: Executive Summary: 1. Introduction "On August 17th, 2012, President U Thein Sein established the Rakhine Commission of Inquiry through a Presidential Executive Order. This Commission composed of prominent historians, social scientists, legal experts, and civil society leaders, from a broad range of sectors was asked to examine the following 8 areas: (1) investigate the root causes that led to the disturbance of peace and security; (2) verify the extent of loss of life, property and other collateral damage; (3) examine the effort to restore peace and promote law and order; (4) outline means to provide relief and implement resettlement programs; (5) develop short- and long-term strategies to reconcile differences; (6) establish mutual understanding and promote peaceful co-existence between various religious and ethnic groups; (7) advise on the promotion of the rule of law; (8) advise on the promotion of social and economic development. The Commission drafted its report after an extensive survey and archival research on Rakhine state. The Commission received support from various government agencies, civil society organisations, political parties, and the general public. In gathering and analyzing the data it received the Commission aimed to maintain its impartiality. The overarching goal of the Commission’s final report was to promote peace and development in the region rather than place the blame on a specific group or community. The implementation of its recommendations will require close cooperation between the various government agencies, the general public and all sectors of society, as well as from all citizens to create and sustain the desired environment of peace and communal stability. This stand-alone précis was drafted on the basis of the translation of the original report from Myanmar into English, which after editing is still over 60 pages long. The Commission would like to make a shorter version available to the international community to give it access to the essential information with some more details than the original Executive Summary. It does not change the essence of the original report, but in the interest of conciseness has regrouped some of the issues and recommendations, and therefore does not follow the structure of the original report exactly. Two caveats have to be made to understand the original report or this summary: on one hand, the Commission faced several constraints in its work: (a) the nature of the Commission’s mandate was not easily understood and its neutrality was often rejected by Rakhine; (b) outside actors, in particular some Bengali leaders in Yangon, exercised undue influence by trying to impose interviewees on the Commission, and by controlling the answers interviewees gave to the Commission; (c) access to people in more remote areas was hampered by the fact that not all Bengalis speak Myanmar language. In order to counter these constraints the Commission trained local young people on how to collect data, and used purposive and quota sampling instead of probability or random sampling. The Commission also enlisted the help of moderate Muslim and Bengali leaders in Yangon. On the other hand, the use of certain terms needs to be made clear: the report uses the term “Bengalis” when referring to people of Bengali origin. The term “Rohingya” is not recognized in Myanmar and its use has become increasingly politicized; as to the term of “Kala”, it was traditionally used for all foreigners from west of the country. The Brits were referred to as Kala Hpyu (white kala). Today it is used colloquially for people originating from the Indian subcontinent. Opinions differ as to what it is derogatory or not..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Republic of the Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2013


Title: Limited health options for Myanmar’s Rohingya IDPs
Date of publication: 31 May 2013
Description/subject: "SITTWE, 31 May 2013 (IRIN) - Aid workers are calling for better health access for an estimated 140,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Myanmar’s western Rakhine State, most of them Rohingya Muslims. Although a number of NGOs and government mobile clinics are providing basic health services inside the roughly 80 camps and settlements, they are limited, and emergency health referrals remain a serious concern, they say. According to Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), conditions inside the camps, combined with the segregation of ethnic Buddhist Rakhine and Muslim Rohingya and ongoing movement restrictions, are having a severe impact on health care. Movement restrictions were slapped on Rohingyas around Sittwe, the Rakhine State capital, after bouts of sectarian violence in June and October 2012. Another concern is the negative attitude of many ethnic Rakhine to assistance provided to Muslim IDPs. “With threats and intimidation both to health provider and patient, this becomes an irreconcilable dilemma,” Carol Jacobsen of the medical NGO Merlin told IRIN, adding that “hostile access”, limited transportation and poor security were obstacles to health care for the Muslim population..."
Language: English, Arabic
Source/publisher: IRIN
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://arabic.irinnews.org/Report/3737/
Date of entry/update: 06 June 2013


Title: MYANMAR: Official report on Rakhine State conflict gravely flawed
Date of publication: 23 May 2013
Description/subject: A written statement submitted to the Human Rights Council, 23rd session by the Asian Legal Resource Centre (ALRC), a non-governmental organisation with general consultative status... 1. Following the communal violence that wracked the western parts of Myanmar near the border of Bangladesh in 2012, the country's president established a commission of inquiry comprising of retired public servants, religious figures, politicians, academics and members of civil society. The commission handed down its findings on 22 April 2013. Despite high expectations, the 119-page report is gravely flawed. Although it contains a few useful recommendations and observations, to which the Special Rapporteur on human rights in Myanmar alluded in a press release of 1 May 2013, the commission's positive contributions are outweighed by a range of omissions and misrepresentations and by an us-versus-them mentality that pervades the document..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Legal Resource Centre (ALRC)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 May 2013


Title: Will Ethnic Tensions Undermine US Myanmar Relations?
Date of publication: 21 May 2013
Description/subject: "Key Conclusions: Three interconnected and difficult issues need attention for the country to move forward—citizenship for the Rohingya; building capacity in the police to prevent violence against Muslims; and re-envisioning the country as one that is multi-ethnic, multilingual, and multi-religious. The transition from authoritarian rule to democracy could take decades. Key waypoints are the 2015 elections, implementing constitutional reforms, and the achievement of true civilian leadership. The US should engage on a broad range of issues and stop using sanctions as a diplomatic tool. An enduring partnership would involve sustained support for the transition across the spectrum of political interests, and transitional development assistance would expand to include programs for education, health, and the media..."
Author/creator: Jim Della-Giacoma
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG)
Format/size: html (35K)
Date of entry/update: 02 June 2013


Title: UN OCHA Flash Update 4, Cyclone Mahasen, Bangladesh and Myanmar
Date of publication: 14 May 2013
Description/subject: "A red Storm Alert remains in effect for Tropical Cyclone Mahasen which is currently moving across the Indian Ocean towards Bangladesh and Myanmar. The cyclone does appear to have weakened and it is has been downgraded to a category-1 cyclone. It is expected to reach land now early on Friday morning (17 May). In its current path the cyclone is expected to hit north of Chittagong, Bangladesh but could, depending on its final trajectory, bring life threatening conditions for 8.2 million people in northeast India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. The highest impact, tidal surge and rainfall predictions are for the Chittagong and Cox's Bazaar areas of Bangladesh...n Myanmar, relocation and evacuation efforts according to the Government's plan are underway. As part of stage-1, the plan is to move 38,000 IDPs yesterday and today (14 May). It is unclear how many people have been relocated. Teams from humanitarian agencies have been monitoring the relocation efforts. Some IDPs are reluctant to relocate and some communities have refused to use military vehicles or to shelter in military barracks. Discussions between Government and communities in Sittwe are ongoing to negotiate alternative sites. The Government agrees that relocations are to be done in consultation with the IDPs. Muslim leaders have issued a statement encouraging people to cooperate with authorities. Humanitarian agencies are keen to understand what the triggers are for starting stage-2 of the evacuation plan which involves moving 100,000 IDPs..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 May 2013


Title: Myanmar / Rakhine Commission: “Positive starting point but Government must address impunity” – UN expert
Date of publication: 01 May 2013
Description/subject: GENEVA (1 May 2013) – "The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in Myanmar, Tomás Ojea Quintana, today welcomed some forward thinking recommendations from the Rakhine Investigation Commission report. However, he expressed concerns over the lack of recommendations to address impunity and ensure investigations into credible allegations of widespread and systematic human rights violations targeting the Muslim community in Rakhine State..."
Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Information Centre, Yangon
Format/size: pdf (69K)
Alternate URLs: http://unic.un.org/imucms/Dish.aspx?loc=80&pg=110
Date of entry/update: 02 May 2013


Title: Plan of Action from the Rakhine State Conflicts Investigation Commission - summary of recommendations to the Government (English and Burmese)
Date of publication: 01 May 2013
Description/subject: The recommendations are in the form of a 7-page table listing Task, Implementation Department and Responsible Committees for the following issues: Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) Situation... Temporary Shelters before the Monsoon Season... Resettlement... Reopening of Schools... Food Security and Malnutrition... Livelihoods... Permanent Settlement... Social Kaman Ethnic Group Issue... Population Growth...Social Integration... Formation of Truth-Finding Committee...Citizenship...Economy... Health... Education...Religion...INGO and LNGO Interaction...Security and Administration...Rule of Law...Peaceful Coexistence...Media
Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Rakhine State Conflicts Investigation Commission via "The New Light of Myanmar"
Format/size: pdf (158K-English; 445K-Burmesse)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Rakhine_Commission_chart-bu.pdf
http://www.burmapartnership.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/RecommendationEnglish-Version.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2013


Title: Myanmar must look beyond 'flawed' report to stop cycle of Buddhist-Muslim violence
Date of publication: 30 April 2013
Description/subject: "Recommendations in a government-backed report investigating last year's devastating violence in Myanmar fail to effectively tackle discrimination against Rohingya Muslims and could trigger more human rights abuses, Amnesty International said. The government-appointed Rakhine Commission this week issued a briefing on its investigation into violence between Buddhist and Muslim communities in Rakhine state, western Myanmar, which first erupted in June 2012. The clashes have resulted in a considerable loss of life and left thousands displaced. The Commission, which did not include any Rohingya on its panel, called on the government to “double” the presence of security forces in Rakhine state, including the Border Security Force (NaSaKa)..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2013


Title: Report of the Rakhine State Conflicts Investigation Commission (Executive Summary - English)
Date of publication: 30 April 2013
Description/subject: "British bring in large numbers of Bengali from neighbouring country" - Nay Pyi Taw, 29 April—The Rakhine State Conflicts Investigation Commission released its report. The executive summary of the report is as follows:-
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar" 30 April 2013
Format/size: pdf (539K)
Date of entry/update: 29 April 2013


Title: Arakan Report Angers Rohingya Leaders
Date of publication: 29 April 2013
Description/subject: "RANGOON — Rohingya leaders have reacted angrily to the findings of the official investigation into a wave of brutal violence that hit Arakan State in 2012, slamming the report findings as selective and slanted. Speaking after members of a commission formed last year to investigate the violence presented a summary of their report today in Rangoon, Myo Thant, a Rohingya representative of the Democracy and Human Rights Party, told The Irrawaddy that the report did not present a completely accurate picture of the Arakan situation. “This report has some good suggestions, but in ways it is biased and incomplete,” he said. Commission members, including former political prisoners Ko Ko Gyi and Maung Thura, better known as Zarganar, launched the summary of the commission’s findings today at the Myanmar Peace Center..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 May 2013


Title: Report of the Rakhine State Conflicts Investigation Commission (full text, Burmese)
Date of publication: 29 April 2013
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Rakhine State Conflicts Investigation Commission
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2013


Title: "All You Can Do is Pray" - Crimes Against Humanity and Ethnic Cleansing of Rohingya Muslims in Burma’s Arakan State
Date of publication: 22 April 2013
Description/subject: "This 153-page report describes the role of the Burmese government and local authorities in the forcible displacement of more than 125,000 Rohingya and other Muslims and the ongoing humanitarian crisis. Burmese officials, community leaders, and Buddhist monks organized and encouraged ethnic Arakanese backed by state security forces to conduct coordinated attacks on Muslim neighborhoods and villages in October 2012 to terrorize and forcibly relocate the population. The tens of thousands of displaced have been denied access to humanitarian aid and been unable to return home..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
Format/size: pdf (5MB-OBL version; 15.08-original; Summary and recommendations, 6.73MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/reports/2013/04/22/all-you-can-do-pray-0
http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/burma0413_FullForWeb.pdf
http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/burma0413_brochure_web.pdf (summary and recommendations: Photo feature)
http://www.hrw.org/features/burma-ethnic-cleansing-arakan-state (slide show)
http://www.hrw.org/fr/node/115009 (video)
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2013


Title: Sectarian tensions in Myanmar limit aid worker access
Date of publication: 16 April 2013
Description/subject: "Ongoing tensions between Buddhist and Muslim communities in Myanmar's western Rakhine State have created a threatening environment for aid workers, hindering assistance to more than 127,000 displaced persons. 'Access to IDPs [internally displaced persons] is being seriously hampered by ongoing intimidation [of aid workers] by some members of the local community,' noted the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) in Yangon. Humanitarian organizations, including medical NGO Médecins Sans Frontières, report aid staff have faced accusations by the local Rakhine community - who are mostly Buddhist - that their assistance favours the Muslim Rohingya minority. The majority of the displaced are Rohingya, but there are also hundreds of Buddhists among them, according to government estimates..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: IRIN
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.irinnews.org/AdvancedSearchResults.aspx?KW=myanmar (Search results on IRIN for Myanmar)
Date of entry/update: 16 April 2013


Title: Burma’s Treatment of the Rohingya and International Law
Date of publication: 08 April 2013
Description/subject: "This briefing paper finds that Burma’s treatment of the Rohingya violates at least eight international laws, treaty obligations and international human rights guidelines. Burma’s 1982 Citizenship Law violates the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and international norms prohibiting discrimination of racial and religious minorities, such as the UN General Assembly Resolution on the International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination. Burma’s treatment of the Rohingya violates UN definitions of the rule of law. The investigation committee set up by the government of Burma violates international human rights guidelines. Burma and the international community are failing in their duty of Responsibility to Protect"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Campaign UK
Format/size: pdf (288K)
Date of entry/update: 08 April 2013


Title: Humanitarian Bulletin, Rakhine State, Myanmar - Special Issue, April 2013
Date of publication: April 2013
Description/subject: HIGHLIGHTS: • Preparedness Plan for the rainy season focuses on m eeting the immediate shelter needs of 69,000 people deemed the most vulnerable. • HC/RC highlight s priority actions needed by Government for a swift implementation of the Plan . • The Central Committee for Peace and Development in Rakhine chaired by the Vice President formed last month. • CERF contributes $5 million in response to immediate needs in Rakhine
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: html, pdf (400K)
Alternate URLs: http://reliefweb.int/report/myanmar/myanmar-rakhine-state-humanitarian-bulletin-special-issue-april...
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2013


Title: Inter-Agency Preparedness/Contingency Plan - Rakhine State, Myanmar
Date of publication: 31 March 2013
Description/subject: "This document has been elaborated by humanitarian partners to address existing humanitarian concerns in view of protracted displacement and the likelihood of the worsening of the humanitarian situation in Rakhine State anticipating the upcoming rains and the possibility for further violence across the State and possibly beyond. It is composed of three sections: a) Introduction, b) Preparedness Plan for the rains (to be implemented between March and June 2013) and c) Contingency Planning for natural and human-made disasters. Chapter a) and b) are included in this document, while chapter c) is under elaboration. Inter-communal conflict in Rakhine State started in early June 2012 and resurged in October 2012. This has resulted in the displacement of people, loss of lives and livelihoods and restricted movement for many. Conditions in most camps are still far below international emergency standards eight months after the crisis started: shelter, water and sanitation, health and other services are insufficient. Access to livelihood and basic services has been further complicated by prolonged displacement of people or their living in isolated villages. Rakhine State is prone to impacts of cyclones and s uffered of severe floods and the situation of IDPs camps is going to further worsen during the rainy season which will start in May unless immediate action is taken. Meeting the immediate shelter needs of 69,000 people before the rainy season is a top priority as they are located in flood-prone camps and/or living in tents and makeshift shelters which will not withstand the rains. The situation is particularly concerning in 13 camps in Sittwe (40,000 people), Pauktaw (20,000 people), Myebon (3,900) people which will be inundated as they are in former paddy fields or close to the shore and at risk of storm surge. Another 5,000 IDPs are not in appropriate shelters to withstand the rains. Flooding will result in a rapid deterioration of shelter, water a nd sanitation and health conditions. Overflowing of latrines and lack of drainage will increase risks of water-borne diseases, morbidity and mortality. The following actions, which can only be taken by the Government are needed..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Country Team in Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.87MB)
Alternate URLs: http://reliefweb.int/report/myanmar/inter-agency-preparednesscontingency-plan-rakhine-state-myanmar...
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2013


Title: BURMA: Islamic community leader unfairly tried and imprisoned over communal violence
Date of publication: 01 February 2013
Description/subject: "The Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) has received detailed information concerning the case of a prominent retired medical doctor and Islamic community leader in the west of Burma imprisoned for allegedly sending news abroad about the first wave of violence in his town during mid-2012. Border security personnel detained Dr Tun Aung in June and accused him not only of sending news but failing to notify them of events that would lead to violence, even though he had reportedly put his own life at risk to stop the violence from occurring. A court in November sentenced Dr Tun Aung to 11 years in jail in a patently unfair trial. He is currently imprisoned and suffering from serious health conditions that require specialist treatment but have so far gone unattended..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 05 February 2013


Title: WASH woes for Myanmar’s Rakhine IDPs
Date of publication: 18 January 2013
Description/subject: "YANGON, 18 January 2013 (IRIN) - Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) will be a key issue for thousands of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Myanmar’s western Rakhine State as the weather gets warmer, say aid workers. “As the hot season approaches, intervention measures are needed to solve the problem of drinking water shortages and reduce the risks of water-borne disease,” said Tun Thaung, project supervisor of Myanmar Health Assistant Association (MHAA), speaking from Sittwe, the capital of Rakhine State. According to the UN, some 115,000 people are still displaced in Rakhine following inter-communal violence in June and October 2012, in which thousands of homes and buildings were burned or destroyed and dozens of people killed. About 85 percent of the IDPs are in and around Sittwe..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: IRIN
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 January 2013


Title: Racism to Rohingya in Burma
Date of publication: 27 December 2012
Description/subject: The present document is a critique of a 2005 paper by Dr Aye Chan, "The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar)" - see Alternate URL
Author/creator: Dr. Abid Bahar
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Arakan" - Arakan Rohingya Organisation (ARNO)
Format/size: pdf (313K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.soas.ac.uk/sbbr/editions/file64388.pdf (Dr. Aye Chan's paper)
Date of entry/update: 03 January 2013


Title: US President Barack Hussein Obama's historic visit to Burma
Date of publication: 12 December 2012
Description/subject: Special news pictorial
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Arakan" - Arakan Rohingya Organisation (ARNO)
Format/size: pdf (3.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 03 January 2013


Title: Al Jazeera Investigates - The Hidden Genocide (video)
Date of publication: 09 December 2012
Description/subject: "Earlier this year a Buddhist woman was raped and murdered in western Myanmar. The authorities charged three Muslim men. A week later, 10 Muslims were murdered in a revenge attack. What happened next was hidden from the outside world. Bloodshed pitted Buddhists against minority Rohingya Muslims. Many Rohingya fled their homes, which were burned down in what they said was a deliberate attempt by the predominantly Buddhist government to drive them out of the country. "They were shooting and we were also fighting. The fields were filled with bodies and soaked with blood," says Mohammed Islam, who fled with his family to Bangladesh. There are 400,000 Rohingya languishing in Bangladesh. For more than three decades, waves of refugees have fled Myanmar. But the government of Bangladesh considers the Rohingya to be illegal immigrants, as does the government of Myanmar. They have no legal rights and nowhere to go. This is a story of a people fleeing the land where they were born, of a people deprived of citizenship in their homeland. It is the story of the Rohingya of western Myanmar, whose very existence as a people is denied. Professor William Schabas, the former president of the International Association of Genocide Scholars, says: "When you see measures preventing births, trying to deny the identity of the people, hoping to see that they really are eventually, that they no longer exist; denying their history, denying the legitimacy of their right to live where they live, these are all warning signs that mean it's not frivolous to envisage the use of the term genocide."
Author/creator: Paul Rees
Language: Voice-over and sub-titles, English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera via Youtube
Format/size: Adobe Flash (50 minutes)
Alternate URLs: http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/aljazeerainvestigates/2012/12/2012125122215836351.html
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=54RzqiXLvnw&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Date of entry/update: 10 December 2012


Title: Cyclone Giri: Two Years On - Voices from the Arakan State of Western Burma (Myanmar)
Date of publication: December 2012
Description/subject: "...This independent assessment and report has been written to raise awareness of the on-going impact cyclone Giri has had on Arakan state and its citizens. Victims and witnesses have had the opportunity to speak out and reach a wider audience and we wish to spread their voices and the situation to the international community, but also to the rest of Burma who seem to have forgotten about their people in the west who are still dealing with the impact of cyclone Giri two years on. The damage and the role of the local population in the relief and recovery effort has been recorded so that these stories are not forgotten. More details are needed, and this report should be the beginning of internal and external enquiries into the on-going state of the situation there..."
Language: English; Burmese press release
Source/publisher: Arakan Human Rights and Development Organisation (AHRDO)
Format/size: pdf (893K; -main text; Burmese press release, 121K; English summary, 247K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Report%20Summary%20of%20CYCLONE_GIRI-TWO_YEARS_ON-summary-en.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Cyclone_Giri-2_Years_On-PR-bu.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2012


Title: BURMA – COMPLEX EMERGENCY
Date of publication: 30 November 2012
Description/subject: KEY DEVELOPMENTS: "A resurgence of violence between ethnic Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya, as well as non-Rohingya, Muslims that began on October 21 in Rakhine State had resulted in nearly 90 deaths, the displacement of approximately 36,000 people, and the destruction of 5,300 houses or religious buildings, primarily as a result of arson, as of November 15. The violence had diminished by early November, with the Government of Burma (GoB) deploying security forces to affected areas and enforcing curfews, but sporadic clashes continue. In a letter to U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon dated November 16, Burma’s President Thein Sein condemned the violence in Rakhine State and noted that the GoB was prepared to address contentious political issues concerning Rohingya, including resettlement of displaced populations, granting of citizenship, birth registration, work permits, and permits for moving within the country. On November 21, President Sein announced that the GoB would pursue a multifaceted plan aimed at addressing tensions between Muslim and Buddhist communities in Rakhine State, according to international media sources. Components of the plan include reducing prejudices, promoting education, creating jobs, and introducing a birth control program in accordance with international standards. In a speech delivered during a November 19 visit to Burma, President Barack Obama called for the end of sectarian violence in Rakhine State and for national reconciliation. President Obama also announced $170 million in new U.S. Government assistance for Burma to be provided over a two-year period and encompassing a range of programs, including governance, development, humanitarian, and reconciliation interventions. USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA), USAID’s Office of Food for Peace (USAID/FFP), and the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (State/PRM) continue to address the humanitarian needs of Rakhine’s conflict-affected populations, particularly those displaced by violence, through ongoing programs funded in FY 2012 and new programs initiated in FY 2013..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: USAID - FACT SHEET #1, FISCAL YEAR (FY) 2013
Format/size: pdf (250K)
Date of entry/update: 09 December 2012


Title: Resentment Runs Deep in Arakan State
Date of publication: 22 November 2012
Description/subject: "...There is a deep ignorance within both communities regarding the other that the policy of absolute segregation applied by the authorities since June is doing nothing to remedy. Both Muslims and Buddhists consistently told The Irrawaddy that they lived peacefully and amiably before the violence first broke out in June. But now there is no daily interaction between these estranged communities, and both are abuzz with rumors depicting the other people as little more than blood-thirsty monsters. It seems that each day of segregation will only make it more difficult for Buddhists and Muslims to live together ever again."
Author/creator: Carlos Sardiña Galache
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 January 2013


Title: Revised Rakhine Response Plan (Myanmar) July 2012–June 2013 (Revision: 16 November 2012)
Date of publication: 21 November 2012
Description/subject: "The inter-community conflict in Rakhine State, which started in early June 2012 and resurged in October 2012, has resulted in displacement and loss of lives and livelihoods. As of early November, the number of people displaced in Rakhine State has surpassed 115,000, of whom about 75,000 individuals have remained displaced since June and over 36,000 people were displaced following a resurgence of violence in late October 2012. Others continue living in tents close to their places of origin while their houses are being rebuilt, or with host families. Life-saving assistance for this caseload is urgently needed.Notwithstanding these 115,000 people, there are also many others who out of fear are unable to move and have had restricted access to livelihood, food, and medical services, which has in the past attracted them to the IDPs camps with potential for further displacement. Government sources indicate that 167 people were killed (78 in June and 89 in October); 223 injured (87 in June and 136 in October); and 10,100 private, public and religious buildings were burned or destroyed (4,800 in June and 5,300 in October).Curfews have been imposed since June in seven locations and in two additional ones in October. Additional military personnel have been dispatched to the area to control the situation..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) with humanitarian partners
Format/size: pdf (1MB-OBL version; 2.26MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://unic.un.org/imucms/userfiles/yangon/file/Revised%20Rakhine%20Response%20Plan%20%28amended%29...
Date of entry/update: 21 November 2012


Title: Rohingya Leaders Angry About Suu Kyi’s Comments
Date of publication: 21 November 2012
Description/subject: 'Rohingya leaders are condemning recent comments by opposition leader Daw Aung Suu Kyi during her trip to India. “There's a lot of illegal crossing of the border still going on that they have got to put a stop this," Suu Kyi said in interview with the Indian NDTV television network. Nurul Islam, president of Arakan Rohingya National Organization (ARNO), said the comments Suu Kyi made about Rohingyas in Arakan State is unacceptable. “Her silence or so-called neutrality cannot be justified because such standpoint encourages Rakhine extremists and the elements in the governments to carry on their campaigns of systematic racism, racial extermination and campaigns of genocide against the Rohingyas and Kamans.” The ARNO President said Suu Kyi's comments belie the truth, either by choice or ignorance, when she stated that there is still illegal immigration of people from Bangladesh into Arakan State. On the contrary, expulsion of Muslim Rohingyas from Arakan into Bangladesh and other countries is a regular phenomenon. If Suu Kyi needed to be convinced she could have visited thousands of Rohingya refugees from Burma within the vicinity of Delhi. There are also thousands of Rakhines and Mramas from Bangladesh who have entered and settled down in Arakan under a state administered program, said Nurul Islam...'
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Kaladan News" via BNI
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 November 2012


Title: Myanmar Facing Unfolding Crisis ,
Date of publication: 17 November 2012
Description/subject: "... The violence in Rakhine State represents a major test for the government as it seeks to maintain law and order without rekindling memories of the recent authoritarian past. It also represents a challenge for Aung San Suu Kyi and the National League for Democracy to demonstrate a greater commitment, publicly and privately, to the fundamental rights of all those who live in Myanmar. Above all, both government and opposition need to show moral leadership to calm the tensions and work for durable solutions to a problem that could threaten Myanmar’s reform process and the stability of the country."
Author/creator: Louise Arbour
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 23 November 2012


Title: MYANMAR: STORM CLOUDS ON THE HORIZON (English; Burmese Executive Summary)
Date of publication: 12 November 2012
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Myanmar’s leaders continue to demonstrate that they have the political will and the vision to move the country decisively away from its authoritarian past, but the road to democracy is proving hard. President Thein Sein has declared the changes irreversible and worked to build a durable partnership with the opposition. While the process remains incomplete, political prisoners have been released, blacklists trimmed, freedom of assembly laws implemented, and media censorship abolished. But widespread ethnic violence in Rakhine State, targeting principally the Rohingya Muslim minority, has cast a dark cloud over the reform process and any further rupturing of intercommunal relations could threaten national stability. Elsewhere, social tensions are rising as more freedom allows local conflicts to resurface. A ceasefire in Kachin State remains elusive. Political leaders have conflicting views about how power should be shared under the constitution as well as after the 2015 election. Moral leadership is required now to calm tensions and new compromises will be needed if divisive confrontation is to be avoided...The ongoing intercommunal strife in Rakhine State is of grave concern, and there is the potential for similar violence elsewhere, as nationalism and ethno-nationalism rise and old prejudices resurface. The difficulty in reaching a ceasefire in Kachin State underlines the complexity of forging a sustainable peace with ethnic armed groups. There are also rising grassroots tensions over land grabbing and abuses by local authorities, and environmental and social concerns over foreign-backed infrastructure and mining projects...A key factor in determining the success of Myanmar’s transition will be macro-political stability. In 2015, Aung San Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy (NLD) will compete for seats across the country for the first time since the abortive 1990 elections. Assuming these polls are free and fair, they will herald a radical shift in the balance of power away from the old dispensation. But an NLD landslide may not be in the best interests of the party or the country, as it would risk marginalising three important constituencies: the old political elite, the ethnic political parties and the non-NLD democratic forces. If the post-2015 legislatures fail to represent the true political and ethnic diversity of the country, tensions are likely to increase and fuel instability. The main challenge the NLD faces is not to win the election, but to promote inclusiveness and reconciliation. It has a number of options to achieve this. It could support a more proportional election system that would create more representative legislatures, by removing the current “winner- takes-all” distortion. Alternatively, it could form an alliance with other parties, particularly ethnic parties, agreeing not to compete against them in certain constituencies. Finally, it could support an interim “national unity” candidate for the post-2015 presidency. This would reassure the old guard, easing the transition to an NLD-dominated political system..."
Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (exec. Sum)
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Asia Report N°238)
Format/size: pdf (454K-OBL version; 2.73MB-original); Exec Sum in Burmese (166K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/south-east-asia/burma-myanmar/Burmese/238-myanmar-sto... - Executive Summary in Burmese
http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/south-east-asia/burma-myanmar/238-myanmar-storm-cloud...
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2012


Title: Nowhere to go for the Rohingya
Date of publication: 09 November 2012
Description/subject: "...For the Rohingya, straddling post-colonial borders, losing one nationality was a predictable misfortune. Losing two was a matter of calculated, official carelessness - in the most literal sense. The rocky road began back in the 1960's, during General Ne Win's "Burmanisation" campaign. Eager to clear up racial business left over from Burma's British days, when Indian and Chinese traders swanned across the border, Ne Win's Revolutionary Council embarked on a campaign of nationalization. Confiscating their businesses ensured the ethnically-foreign enterprising classes got the message. Approximately 300,000 Indians and 100,000 Chinese fled, hobbling vital rice and timber export industries and ensuring vital goods like medicine and petrol were in short supply. To ensure these "foreigners" didn't return, and to give Burmanisation official meaning, the government passed an Emergency Immigration Act in 1974. This required all citizens to carry identity cards (registration cards), which neatly gave the military government the practical means of saying who was and was not entitled to Burmese nationality. The Rohingya weren't, they got "Foreign Registration Cards". At this stage, citizenship-stripping proved more ominous than critical to Rohingya. They lived in a remote part of a rebellious province, largely outside the realm of official Burma. For two decades after independence, Arakan/Rakhine separatists had fought with the Rangoon government and armed Rohingya Jihadi occasionally lent a hand. But during the late 1970s and early 1980s, Ne Win, his generals and their Burma Socialist Programme Party extended central control over some of Burma's recalcitrant provinces, including Arakan. Non-citizens found their rights to travel and marry curtailed, and then citizenship started to matter very much indeed..."
Author/creator: Phil Radford
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 10 November 2012


Title: Rohingya miss boat on development
Date of publication: 09 November 2012
Description/subject: "The ethnic conflict that ravaged much of Rakhine State in western Myanmar last month was an opportunity for more than settling old and new scores between Muslim Rohingya and Buddhist Rakhines and co-religionist new arrivals from elsewhere in the country. Those involved were also clearing land in a densely populated area that is set to be among the country's prime bits of real estate as energy-related projects start transforming the impoverished state. More than 100 people (some reports indicate many times that number) were killed last month, untold others were wounded, and an estimated 28,000 fled or were driven from their homes in clashes between the stateless Rohingya and Buddhist citizens in a recurrence of violence last June. They are the latest incidents involving evicted ethnic groups around the country weeks before US President Obama visits Myanmar later this month. "The government has taken the opportunity to create more violence allowing a destabilized and vulnerable state which they can then take the natural resources from. This is believed to be the main reason to why so many villages [in Rakhine State] were razed to the ground," the representative of one non-government organization (NGO) told Asia Times Online, citing the source as a Rakhine resident..."
Author/creator: Syed Tashfin Chowdhury and Chris Stewart
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 November 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 12 (6 November 2012)
Date of publication: 06 November 2012
Description/subject: I. HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: • The Government reports that the total estimated number of IDPs in Rakhine reached over 110,000 people, including some 36,400 people displaced in October. • As of 4 November, inter-agency rapid needs assessment was conducted in most IDP locations in Minbya, Mrauk-U, Myebon, Pauktaw, Kyauktaw and Rathedaung townships. At the same time, emergency relief supplies were distributed, including food and plastic sheets to some 27,200 people. • Preliminarily findings of the assessments indicate that urgent needs are food, health, shelter, water sanitation and hygiene (WASH).
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (286K)
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


Title: In Sittwe, relief camps struggle to cope with new influx
Date of publication: 05 November 2012
Description/subject: "The Rakhine State government is unable to accept more Rohingya refugees seeking shelter in Sittwe, an official said last week, as aid workers warned of a deepening humanitarian crisis with critical shortages of food, water and medicine. More than 100,000 people have been displaced since June in two major outbreaks of violence in Rakhine State, where renewed clashes last month between Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims uprooted about 30,000 people. Dozens were killed on both sides and thousands of homes were torched. Rakhine State Attorney-General U Hla Thein said the Sittwe camps could only take care of those displaced during violence in June..."
Author/creator: Soe Than Lynn
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2012


Title: Ethnic violence imperils Myanmar reform
Date of publication: 03 November 2012
Description/subject: "Renewed violence in Myanmar's western Rakhine State threatens to spread across the country as rising sentiment against ethnic Rohingyas becomes more generally anti-Muslim. Surging Buddhist versus Muslim violence underscores the urgent need for reforms related to ethnic minorities and the rule of law, issues that were neglected or exploited for political gain during the era of direct military rule..."
Author/creator: Brian McCartan
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 11 November 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 11 (2 November 2012
Date of publication: 02 November 2012
Description/subject: I. HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: * The total IDPs caseload in Rakhine reached close to 110,000 people. The Rakhine State Government’s estimates of 31 October indicates that over 35,000 people were displaced in the recent wave of violence, and about 75,000 IDPs are in Sittwe and Kyauktaw since June. * The October violence also caused 89 fatalities and 136 injuries. Over 5,300 houses and religious buildings were burned or destroyed. * The Government requested the international community’s assistance for all those affected. * Inter-agency assessment/distribution teams visited Minbya, Mrauk-U and Myebon. IDPs need urgent food, shelter and health care assistance. Some 48.5 MT of food and 240 non-food items have been distributed to about 3,000 people in Minbya and in Mrauk-U townships. Other items are being dispatched but stocks are low. The Government and the private sector are also distributing food, health and non-food items to affected people.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (301K)
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


Title: Humanitarian Bulletin - Myanmar Issue: November 2012
Date of publication: November 2012
Description/subject: Dire humanitarian needs P.1... Access constraints P.2... Funding requirements P.3... Sector needs and responses P.4..... HIGHLIGHTS The Government reports that the total estimated number of IDPs in Rakhine reached 115,000 people, including over 36,000 newly displaced in late October. Up to 75,000 people are estimated to have been displaced by insecurity in Kachin and northern Shan States which started in June 2011. The Government indicates that at least 17 people were killed and 114 injured due to an earthquake in upper Myanmar.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) with humanitarian partners
Format/size: pdf (442K)
Date of entry/update: 05 December 2012


Title: Myanmar urged to end violence and protect vulnerable communities in Rakhine State – UN experts
Date of publication: 31 October 2012
Description/subject: "...“If the country is to be successful in the process of democratic transition, it must be bold in addressing the human rights challenges that exist,” said the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar, Tomás Ojea Quintana. “In the case of Rakhine State, this involves addressing the long-standing endemic discrimination against the Rohingya community that exists within sections of local and national Government as well as society at large.”...“The Government has an obligation to protect all of those affected by recent violence, including the Muslim Rohingya community which is particularly vulnerable, to guarantee their safety and respond urgently to their needs, including shelter, food and medical care,” said the UN Independent Expert on minority issues, Rita Izsák. “It must act rapidly to ensure that this situation does not deteriorate leading to further loss of life and displacement of communities..."...the Special Rapporteur on the human rights of internally displaced persons, Chaloka Beyani, said that “the Government must take urgent steps to halt further displacement and destruction of homes.” “All displaced groups, including the Rohingya community, must be assisted to return and rebuild their homes with assurances of their human rights and security in the short, medium and long-term,” Mr. Beyani said. “All humanitarian agencies must have full access to the affected populations.” The human rights experts underscored that this situation must not become an opportunity to permanently remove an unwelcome community, and expressed their deep concern about the assertion of the Government and others that the Rohingya are illegal immigrants and stateless persons..."
Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: pdf (282K)
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2012


Title: The Rohingya: stateless and unwanted
Date of publication: 31 October 2012
Description/subject: Links to several articles and videos
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
Format/size: html, Adobe Flash
Date of entry/update: 17 November 2012


Title: ROHINGYA IN BANGLADESH: MAINTAINING THE STATUS QUO; SQUANDERING A RARE OPPORTUNITY
Date of publication: 30 October 2012
Description/subject: "For decades, Burmese Rohingya fleeing persecution have sought refuge in Bangladesh. June’s inter-communal violence in Burma’s Rakhine State, as well as subsequent state-sponsored persecution and targeted attacks against Muslim populations, have cast an international spotlight on this neglected population, and offered an opportunity to resolve the status of both stateless Rohingya inside Burma and those Rohingya who are refugees in neighboring countries. This could be an opportunity for Bangladesh to engage fully on this issue and develop its long-awaited refugee policy. Instead, the nation is rallying against the Rohingya by refusing entry to refugees and restricting humanitarian assistance. This response, besides representing a breach of international law, will weaken Bangladesh’s ability to secure international support as discussions of the Rohingya’s plight intensify. The governments of Bangladesh and Burma should be engaging in bilateral – and perhaps multilateral – discussions about how to protect the rights of the Rohingya community..."
Author/creator: Melanie Teff and Sarnata Reynolds
Language: English
Source/publisher: Refugees International
Format/size: pdf (90K), html
Alternate URLs: http://www.refugeesinternational.org/policy/field-report/rohingya-bangladesh-maintaining-status-quo...
http://www.refugeesinternational.org/where-we-work/asia/burma
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2012


Title: ROHINGYA IN BURMA: SPOTLIGHT ON CURRENT CRISIS OFFERS OPPORTUNITY FOR PROGRESS
Date of publication: 30 October 2012
Description/subject: CONCLUSION: "Long one of the most persecuted peoples in the world, the stateless Rohingya community has endured even greater suffering since the June inter-communal violence and subsequent displacement of tens of thousands of people. Violence is already recurring, with further deaths and over 1,000 more houses destroyed by fire in October. This crisis could even de-rail the Burmese government’s overall reform process if the underlying structural discrimination against Rohingya, including their lack of citizenship, is not addressed. In the short-term, there is a humanitarian imperative to urgently improve the conditions in the displacement camps and to allow humanitarian access to all communities in need of assistance. The rule of law in Rakhine State must be restored, the segregation of communities in Sittwe must come to an end, and the Rohingya should be recognized as citizens of Burma. For the long-term, Burma’s government must commit to the robust economic, social, and political development of Rakhine State. But that will not be enough. While a functioning economy, political representation, and land ownership will go a long way toward reconciliation, hostilities will not end until Burma’s government commits to promoting and protecting the human rights of both communities."
Author/creator: Melanie Teff and Sarnata Reynolds, with Chris Lewa of the Arakan Project
Language: English
Source/publisher: Refugees International
Format/size: pdf (242K), html
Alternate URLs: http://www.refugeesinternational.org/policy/field-report/rohingya-burma-spotlight-current-crisis-of...
http://www.refugeesinternational.org/where-we-work/asia/burma
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2012


Title: RAKHINE UNREST SINCE 21 OCTOBER 2012
Date of publication: 29 October 2012
Description/subject: Photos and maps of incidents, estimates of numbers of IDPs...Destruction in Myebon... Anti-Rohingya demonstation in Myebon... IDP location in Myebon... Villages affeted in Mrauk-U and Minbya...People who lost their houses in several villages of Minbya township...IDP locations in Kyaukpyu and Ramree...IDP accommodation in GAD office...Destruction in Ramree...Destruction in Ramree...Destruction in Kyaukpyu...IDP camps - Giri response tents being used...Pauktaw affected areas...Rathedaung affected areas.
Language: English
Source/publisher: OFFICE OF THE RESIDENT AND HUMANITARIAN COORDINATOR IN MYANMAR
Format/size: pdf (2.3MB-OBL version; 4.5MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://themimu.info/docs/Situation_in_Rakhine_MS_briefing_29_October_2012.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 10 (28 October 2012)
Date of publication: 28 October 2012
Description/subject: I. HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: • Although the figures are most likely to increase, as of the evening of 28 October the Government’s partial estimate indicates that over 28,000 people have been displaced and that at least 76 persons have been killed in the recent violence that started on 21 October. More than 4,600 houses and several religious buildings have been destroyed in the unrest. • A high-level delegation led by the Resident/Humanitarian Coordinator and the heads of UNCHR, WFP and OCHA accompanied the Ministers of Border Affairs to affected areas of Rakhine State. • The Government requested the international community assistance for all those affected.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (271K)
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2012


Title: Burma: New Violence in Arakan State - Satellite Imagery Shows Widespread Destruction of Rohingya Homes, Property
Date of publication: 27 October 2012
Description/subject: "The government of Burma should take immediate steps to stop sectarian violence against the Rohingya Muslim population in Arakan State, in western Burma, and ensure protection and aid to both Rohingyas and Arakanese in the state, Human Rights Watch said today. New satellite imagery obtained by Human Rights Watch shows extensive destruction of homes and other property in a predominantly Rohingya Muslim area of the coastal town of Kyauk Pyu – one of several areas of new violence and displacement. Human Rights Watch identified 811 destroyed structures on the eastern coastal edge of Kyauk Pyu following arson attacks reportedly conducted on October 24, 2012, less than 24 hours before the satellite images were captured. The area of destruction measures 35 acres and includes 633 buildings and 178 houseboats and floating barges adjacent on the water, all of which were razed. There are no indications of fire damage to the immediate west and east of this zone of destruction. Media accounts and local officials said that many Rohingya in the town fled by sea toward Sittwe, the capital of Arakan State, 200 kilometers to the north. Violence renewed between Arakan Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims on October 21 and continued all week in at least five townships: Minbya, Mrak-U, Myebon, Rathedaung, and Kyauk Pyu. This was the first time violence had reached Kyauk Pyu and most of these other parts of the state since the sectarian violence and related abuses by state security forces against the Rohingya began in early June. The Rohingya have suffered the brunt of the violence..."
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2012


Title: Statement by Tomás Ojea Quintana SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE SITUATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN MYANMAR
Date of publication: 25 October 2012
Description/subject: "...We should all acknowledge and commend the Government of Myanmar for what has been achieved thus far, which I have previously stated has improved the country’s human rights situation. Yet, recent developments highlight that Myanmar continues to grapple with ongoing human rights concerns that could pose risks to the reform process..."
Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (67th session)
Format/size: pdf (100K)
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2012


Title: UN Expert: Human rights should lie at the heart of Myanmar’s reform process
Date of publication: 25 October 2012
Description/subject: "The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in Myanmar, Tomás Ojea Quintana, today highlighted the importance of keeping human rights on the agenda for Myanmar. This, he stressed, is particularly relevant in light of the ongoing violence in Rakhine State. The Special Rapporteur expressed concern that more lives have been lost in the violence and emphasised that the underlying causes of the tension and conflict between the Buddhist and Muslim communities in Rakhine State must be addressed as a priority...NEW YORK (25 October 2012) – The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in Myanmar, Tomás Ojea Quintana, today highlighted the importance of keeping human rights on the agenda for Myanmar. This, he stressed, is particularly relevant in light of the ongoing violence in Rakhine State. The Special Rapporteur expressed concern that more lives have been lost in the violence and emphasised that the underlying causes of the tension and conflict between the Buddhist and Muslim communities in Rakhine State must be addressed as a priority..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: pdf (169K)
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2012


Title: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE QUESTION OF ROHINGYA’S NATIONALITY - LEGAL NEXUS BETWEEN ROHINGYA AND THE STATE
Date of publication: 23 October 2012
Description/subject: "It is difficult for general Burmese to understand the legal status of Rohingya. Majority does not know the Geo-Political and historical background of Arakan. To general Burmese, a Burmese is a Buddhist. If a pure Burmese happens to be a Muslim he is regarded as a Kalah or a foreigner. Here, Rohingyas are Muslims, their complexions are different from general Burmese, so they are generally seen as foreigners or descendants of foreigners that mean Rohingyas are regarded as non-natives. However, Bokyoke Aung San, father of the nation and the leaders of post-independence period studied the affairs of all minorities in the nation and generously accepted Rohingyas as an indigenous race of Burma at the same par with Kachin, Kayah, Karen, Chin, Mon and Rakhine. He (Bokyoke) sought the cooperation of Rohingyas. He assured them of their genuine nationality in Myanmar during his meeting with Muslim elders at Akyab in May 1946. U Aung Zan Wai and Mr. Sultan Mahmood (Ex-Health Minister) were said to have been assigned to go up to Maungdaw to organize Rohingyas there for AFPFL. In early British census Rohingya, Kaman, Myedu and Chittagonians or Bengalis were all censured under the column of Muslims. Sometimes Arakanese (Rakhine) Muslims were categorized as Sheikhs and sometimes they were put under the column of Indian Muslims. Arakanese Muslims protested not to mix them with foreign Muslims. So in 1921 census only some Rakhine speaking Muslims were shown under separate column as Arakan Mohammedan. Then again in 1931 census Myedu and Kaman only were separately listed, whence some Rohingyas still remained under general Muslim headline. Yet Rohingyas are not foreigners in independent Burma. Grounds for this claim are:..."
Author/creator: U Kyaw Min
Language: English
Source/publisher: " "Arakan" - Arakan Rohingya Organisation (ARNO)
Format/size: pdf (568K)
Date of entry/update: 23 October 2012


Title: Give Citizenship to the Rohingya Community-
Date of publication: 08 October 2012
Description/subject: "...Global Movement of Moderates Chairman Tan Sri Razali Ismail has called on the Myanmar government to consider giving citizenship to the Rohingya community. Razali, who was formerly the United Nations’ special envoy to Myanmar, talks to the New Straits Times on the role of Malaysia and the international community in forming solutions to the plight of the Rohingya. Q :. You took part in the recent Perdana Global Peace Foundation Conference on the Plight of the Rohingyas, in which they came up with 16 resolutions to be handed to various parties including to the Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Razak), the Myanmar government, and the United Nations. What is the progress on the resolutions?...A FORMER Amnesty International Thailand researcher said violence against the Rohingya in Myanmar was because of systemic discrimination, which was manifested in law, policy and practices of the Myanmar government...DID THE GOVT. INCITE THE RACIAL VIOLENCE TARGETING THE ROHINGYA ?... Reply To The Demands to the Government from the People’s Gathering in Yathetdaung, Arakan (Part-1)[separate link]...The social and economic conditions of refugees should be improved...
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Arakan" - Arakan Rohingya Organisation (ARNO)
Format/size: pdf (452K)
Date of entry/update: 09 October 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 9 (5 October 2012
Date of publication: 05 October 2012
Description/subject: I. HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: • The Government of Myanmar estimates that approximately 75,000 IDPs are accommodated in 40 camps and temporary locations in Sittwe and Kyauktaw Townships as of 2 October. However, most are in nine camps outside of Sittwe. • A two-day workshop on Rakhine organized by the Ministry of Border Affairs and UN agencies concluded with recommendations/ways forward to address ongoing concerns as well as to achieve sustainable development for Rakhine State.
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (129K)
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2012


Title: Plight of the Rohingya - Solution? (Special News Pictorial of "Arakan Magazine") - revised
Date of publication: 30 September 2012
Description/subject: Text of the resolution adopted by the PERDANA GLOBAL PEACE FOUNDATION INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON “PLIGHT OF THE ROHINGYA: SOLUTIONS?” held on 17 September 2012 in Kuala Lumpur. Also,extracts and summaries of some of the presentations and many photos... "The Conference is divided into 3 sessions which will be moderated by Y. Bhg. Tan Sri Razali Ismail, UN Secretary- General’s Special Envoy for Myanmar (2000-2005), Y. Bhg. Tan Sri Dr. Mohd. Rais Karim, acting Secretary-General PERKIM/former Vice Chancellor UPSI) and Y. Bhg. Tan Sri Ahmad Fuzi Abdul Razak (former Secretary-General Ministry of Foreign Affairs Malaysia) for each session respectively. The speakers are experts and renowned personalities including Mr. Nurul Islam (President of ARNO), Dr. Maung Zarni (Civil Society and Human Security Unit, LSE), Mr. Jacob Zenn (International Affairs Analyst, Washington DC), Mr. Benjamin Zawacki (former Researcher of Amnesty International), Mr. Matthew Smith (Human Rights Watch), Mr. Saiful Huq Omi (Research Consultant, Equal Rights Trust, Bangladesh), Dr. Sriprapha Petcharmesree (Human Rights & Peace Studies, Mahidol University Thailand and Dr. Abdullah Ahsan, International Movement for Just World (JUST) Malaysia. The Conference is attended by participants comprising representatives from the diplomatic corps, international organisations, parliamentarians, human rights groups, academia, civil society movements, non-governmental organisations, members of the media, as well as leaders of Rohingya organisations who are based in countries outside Myanmar. “It is indeed a collective and united call to action as part from calling upon the Myanmar authorities to acknowledge and resolve the crisis, UN and international agencies could very well play their part in ensuring their “responsibility to protect”, said Norian Mai, Chairman of Perdana Global Peace Foundation in his closing remarks"
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Arakan" - Arakan Rohingya Organisation (ARNO)
Format/size: pdf (2.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 02 October 2012


Title: Nowhere To Go (video)
Date of publication: 28 September 2012
Description/subject: "Reviled in Myanmar and unwanted in Bangladesh, where does one of the world's most persecuted minorities really belong?... The Rohingya are a stateless people described by the UN as one of the world's most persecuted minorities. They are reviled in Myanmar, the country many Rohingya call home, and unwelcome in neighbouring Bangladesh, where tens of thousands live in refugee camps. And now they could be facing their worst crisis yet. Violent ethnic clashes in Myanmar's Rakhine state have led to calls for their expulsion from the country. Boatloads of Rohingya refugees have been denied entry into Bangladesh. Those already there live on the fringes of society, undocumented and at risk of exploitation. In late May, news broke of the brutal rape and murder of a Buddhist woman in Myanmar's Rakhine state. It was, by all accounts, a horrific crime. What made it worse for some was that the alleged perpetrators were men from the Muslim Rohingya minority. Five days later a crowd attacked a bus and killed nine Muslims in what appeared to be a retaliatory attack. The clashes erupted suddenly, and ferociously. Rakhine state has since become the scene of more violence. Entire villages have been burnt down and people driven from their homes. Both sides accuse each other of atrocities and the Myanmar government has declared a state of emergency in the region. Tens of thousands of Rohingya people now live in refugee camps, with their movements being restricted. In Myanmar they are not recognised as citizens and their access to opportunities are severely curtailed. In the aftermath of the Rakhine riots, human rights observers fear they might become the target of more discrimination. Myanmar does not want them. But neither does neighbouring Bangladesh, the country with the second-largest concentration of the Rohingya. So where do the Rohingya really belong? 101 East looks at who should take responsibility for the community."
Language: English (including subtitles), Arakanese, Rohingya, Burmese
Source/publisher: AL Jazeera (101 East)
Format/size: Adobe Flash (25 minutes)
Date of entry/update: 17 November 2012


Title: Sectarian strife in western Myanmar
Date of publication: 28 September 2012
Description/subject: [Edited version of Dr Farrelly's presentation at the ANU conference "'The Western Gate is Broken': Myanmar's Rohingya Problem" - link to the podcast in the Alternate URL]...."In early June 2012 we were confronted with the lacerations of violence pitting Buddhist Rakhine against Muslim Rohingya. While Myanmar’s old wounds fester – across the gamut of political, economic, social and cultural issues – new incisions have cut to the bone of a brittle body politic, still scarred by generations of hardship and horror. Big questions are raised by the fresh wounds in western Myanmar, where at least 90 people have been killed and around 90,000 displaced in recent spurts of sectarian violence. We want to know how bad the damage has been, whether the prognosis is bleak, and what remedies can be prescribed. Introducing the violence that erupted only 3 months ago requires sensitivity to the competing interpretations of these events. Today, it is my task to briefly summarise the violence; providing a general framework for our discussions. I will, first, very briefly describe the recent violence in western Myanmar; second, highlight the broader social and demographic situation; third, explain the reception in the media and online; and fourth introduce a brief interpretation of the political and geopolitical ramifications..."
Author/creator: Nicholas Farrelly
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://asiapacific.anu.edu.au/__data/assets/mp3_file/0020/7391/20120927-Rohingya.mp3 (MP3 podcast of the conference (32MB)
http://asiapacific.anu.edu.au/newmandala/category/burma/
Date of entry/update: 03 October 2012


Title: "'The Western Gate is Broken': Myanmar's Rohingya Problem" (Conference podcast)
Date of publication: 27 September 2012
Description/subject: Podcast of a conference held on the 27th September 2012 at Australian National University (ANU), Australia.... Introduction to the conference: "In June 2012, inter-communal violence spread through Rakhine (Arakan) State on the western border of Myanmar (Burma). Allegedly sparked by the rape and murder of a young woman on May 27, reprisal attacks between persons described as ethnic Rakhines and Burmese on the one side and Rohingyas and Bengalis on the other escalated rapidly after the killing of ten Muslims on a bus. Thousands of people began fleeing towards Bangladesh-many not for the first time-whose government promptly closed the border. Following the imposition of a state of emergency, the conflict subsided. However, the many social, economic and political factors contributing to the conflict remain unaddressed, and all indications are that problems will persist... Events in Rakhine State have variously been cast as the result of an ethnic or religious feud; a matter of national security, of national identity, or of simple criminality; and, the consequence of deliberate instigation from one party or another, or of population pressures and larger geopolitics. The violence is difficult to describe, analyse and address partly because no basic consensus exists about its essential features, let alone what might be done about it... What is going on in Rakhine State and why? How are we to make sense of the conflict? Join scholars from the School of International, Political and Strategic Studies at the ANU as we sketch the parameters of the latest violence, tease apart some of its history, look at the role of Bangladesh, and also examine the work of international agencies in Myanmar's west..... About the Panelists: Dr Nicholas Farrelly is a research fellow at the School of International, Political and Strategic Studies, ANU, co-founder of the New Mandala website and an expert on conflict in northern Myanmar... Dr Nick Cheesman is a lecturer in the Department of Political and Social Change, ANU, whose PhD thesis examined the politics of law and order in Myanmar... Mr Obaidul Haque is a PhD Candidate at the Department of Political and Social Change, ANU and former lecturer in international relations at the University of Dhaka, Bangladesh who is researching conflict and peace building in the Chittagong Hill Tracts... Mr Trevor Wilson is a visiting fellow at the Department of Political and Social Change, ANU, and a former Australian ambassador to Myanmar (2000-2003)... Moderated by: Associate Professor Andrew Walker, Associate Dean (Education) and Senior Fellow, Department of Political & Social Change, ANU.....See the Alternate URL for a link to "Sectarian strife in Western Myanmar", an edited version of one of the presentations.
Author/creator: Dr Nicholas Farrelly, Dr Nick Cheesman, Mr Obaidul Haque and Mr Trevor Wilson
Language: English
Source/publisher: ANU College of Asia and the Pacific via "New Mandala"
Format/size: Quicktime - MP3 (32MB)
Alternate URLs: http://asiapacific.anu.edu.au/newmandala/2012/09/28/sectarian-strife-in-western-myanmar/
Date of entry/update: 03 October 2012


Title: Text of the resolution adopted by the International Conference on the Plight of the Rohingya: Solution?
Date of publication: 17 September 2012
Description/subject: Text of the resolution adopted by the International Conference on the Plight of the Rohingya: Solution? Kuala Lumpur, 17 September 2012
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Arakan" - Arakan Rohingya Organisation (ARNO)
Format/size: pdf (80K)
Date of entry/update: 02 October 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 8 (4 September 2012
Date of publication: 04 September 2012
Description/subject: I. HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: • The Rakhine State Government estimates that over 70,000 IDPs are accommodated in 50 camps and temporary locations in Sittwe, Kyauktaw and Maungdaw Townships as of 31 August. • Following an inter-agency assessment to villages in Kyauktaw affected by inter-communal violence in early August, assistance in the form of food, NFIs and health care has been provided to over 3,800 people.....This report is produced by OCHA on behalf of the Humanitarian Coordinator. It covers the period from 16 August to 4 September.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (117K)
Date of entry/update: 05 September 2012


Title: Popular ‘Buddhist’ racism and the generals’ militarism
Date of publication: 04 September 2012
Description/subject: "As a Mandalay-born dissident with deep roots in Buddhism, I find it revolting that thousands of Buddhist monks, human rights dissidents and the public in my hometown of Mandalay staged an anti-Rohingya rally this past weekend. They mimicked the regime’s discourse that promotes “national security” and “national sovereignty”, while espousing an anachronistic view of blood-based citizenship as opposed to the notions of multicultural citizenship. Where has the vociferous human rights rhetoric gone when it comes to the persecuted Rohingyas? We listened in vain for the metronomic chants of the saffron-robed monks who defied threats and flooded the streets of Rangoon and other towns proclaiming their “loving kindness” for all sentient beings in 2007. Now the very same monks chant mantras supporting exclusive citizenship. When a mob protests against an ethnic group then, it is no longer a citizens’ protest. It is a Nazi rally..."
Author/creator: Maung Zarni
Language: English
Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


Title: Humanitarian Bulletin - Myanmar, September 2012
Date of publication: September 2012
Description/subject: "Concurrent emergencies in Rakhine and Kachin. Approximately 150,000 persons remain displaced in Kachin and Rakhine States and many more have been affected in the two crises. These emergencies continue to place serious pressure on humanitarian partners to meet the needs of the most vulnerable, in an environment where resources are inadequate and access is challenging. The number of IDPs in Kachin and northern Shan states increased to some 75,000 in September from approximately 70,000 in August, following the intensification of clashes in some areas and the forced return from China of some 5,900 people. Since mid-July international humanitarian partners have not been permitted to reach some 54 percent of the IDPs (over 39,000 people). Between April and mid-July, access was officially granted to all but 14,000 IDPs in hard to reach areas. Humanitarian assistance provision is urgently required, especially for those who have been recently displaced. An additional concern is also the situation of some 8,000to 10,000 IDPs in or around Hpakan being stranded due to ongoing clashes with several civilian casualties being recorded. By mid-October, clashes moved out of urban areas and some of the civilians managed to return home.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (177K)
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2012


Title: Forced labour during the Arakan crisis: An overview of forced labour practices in North Arakan, Burma (June to August 2012)
Date of publication: 31 August 2012
Description/subject: "Additional Submission to the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) for consideration by the ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations (CEACR) – ILO Convention 29 31 August 2012.....The systemic and discriminatory practice of forced labour against the Rohingya, has continued, or even intensified, across large areas of North Arakan/Rakhine State in Burma/Myanmar, since deadly communal violence broke out in June 2012...in areas not directly affected by the June 2012 violence, ie. North Maungdaw and Buthidaung Township, forced labour remains much the same as in previous years and has even intensified in some areas. Large contingents of army troops have been deployed after a state of emergency was declared on 10 June. As a result, there was a substantial increase in demands for porters and guides in North Maungdaw and North Buthidaung to carry additional rations or to accompany soldiers on patrol in border areas. Villagers were forced to remain 4 to 5 days at a time in the hills along with army patrols. Large groups of forced labourers have also been summoned for road clearing and emergency camp repair damaged by monsoon rains and forced cultivation in army camps and paddy fields has been reported in many parts of Buthidaung..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Arakan Project
Format/size: pdf (182K)
Date of entry/update: 13 September 2012


Title: Discrimination: A Buddhist perspective
Date of publication: 17 August 2012
Description/subject: "...The Pali Canon has a very strong and unequivocal teaching that mental attachment is extremely detrimental – a biased view which asserts that people achieve freedom from suffering in any way other than their conduct is a distorted and perverted view. It is a mental attitude that leads to a very detrimental rebirth, and to pain and unhappiness in this life. It can be stated then with some certainty that in the Pali Canon there is a very strong teaching that any form of discourse that proposes a racist opinion is a wrong view, it will lead to suffering and, indeed, is dukkha itself. Those holding such opinions will not only suffer in the future but are themselves an expression of mental turmoil while holding such views. They are immersed in dukkha not metta."
Author/creator: Dr. Paul Fuller
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mizzima
Format/size: pdf (94K)
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2012


Title: Myanmar conflict threatens regional stability
Date of publication: 16 August 2012
Description/subject: "AGARTALA and IMPHAL - As a rising number of Rohingya Muslims flee sectarian conflict in Myanmar and take sanctuary in India's northeastern states, the flow of refugees is putting a new strain on bilateral relations. New Delhi has called on Naypyidaw to stem the rising human tide, a diplomatic request that Indian officials say has so far gone unheeded. Ongoing sporadic violence between Rohingya Muslims and Buddhist Rakhines in western Myanmar has left more than 80 dead and displaced tens of thousands. The Myanmar government's inability or unwillingness to stop the persecution of Rohingyas has provoked strong international reaction, raising calls for retribution in radical corners of the Islamic world, including a threat from the Pakistani Taliban to attack Myanmar's diplomatic missions abroad. Fears are now rising that Myanmar-borne instability is spreading to India's northeastern frontier regions, threatening to spiral into a wider regional security dilemma. At the same time that Muslim Rohingyas and Buddhist Rakhines clashed in Myanmar, fighting erupted between Muslims and Hindus in India's northeastern Assam State. As in Myanmar, where the Rohingyas are considered illegal Bangladeshi settlers, the Muslims targeted in Assam are accused of being ethnic Bengalis who have migrated illegally from Bangladesh..."
Author/creator: Subir Bhaumik
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 September 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 7 (15 August 2012)
Date of publication: 15 August 2012
Description/subject: HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: * The Rakhine State Government estimates that over 68,500 IDPs are accommodated in 63 camps in Sittwe, Kyauktaw and Maungdaw Townships... * A response plan prepared by the UN and NGO partners estimates that US$32.5 million are required to provide assistance to some 80,000 vulnerable people until December 2012...."Of the over 100,000 people affected at the beginning of the crisis, many have already returned home as the overall security situation is improving across the state. As of 11 August, the Rakhine State Government estimates that over 68,500 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) are accommodated in 63 camps in Sittwe, Kyauktaw and Maungdaw Townships, of which nine camps in Sittwe are sheltering close to 60,000 IDPs..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf, html
Alternate URLs: http://reliefweb.int/report/myanmar/displacement-rakhine-state-situation-report-no-7
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2012


Title: THE ROHINGYA PROBLEM: WHY AND HOW TO MOVE FORWARD
Date of publication: 15 August 2012
Description/subject: [Author’s Note: Keynote speech delivered at the International Conference on “Contemplating Burma’s Rohingya People’s Future in Reconciliation and (Democratic) Reform,” held on August 15, 2012 at the Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand].....A legal and historical analysis
Author/creator: Dr. Habib Siddiqui
Language: English
Source/publisher: " "Arakan" - Arakan Rohingya Organisation (ARNO)
Format/size: pdf (829K)
Date of entry/update: 03 January 2013


Title: The Rohingya: A humanitarian crisis (video and articles)
Date of publication: 15 August 2012
Description/subject: "Does a solution to the persecution and discrimination of one of Myanmar's ethnic minorities lie within its own borders?...The UN calls Myanmar's Rohingya community one of the world's most persecuted minorities. It has made an appeal for more than $30m to get aid to displaced Rohingya in Myanmar's western Rakhine state.More than a million Rohingya are currently caught in a cycle of violence and poverty. They are without a country to call their own after being denied citizenship in Myanmar under a law that was passed 30 years ago. Tens of thousands of them, mostly Muslims, are now living in makeshift camps in Myanmar after clashes with Buddhist locals. Hundreds of thousands more are being denied access to aid in neighbouring Bangladesh, where an estimated 30,000 registered Rohingya refugees are living in UN camps..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: AL Jazeera (Inside Story)
Format/size: Adobe Flash (25 mnutes), html
Date of entry/update: 19 November 2012


Title: 'Mass graves' for Myanmar's Rohingya
Date of publication: 09 August 2012
Description/subject: "Exclusive report from Rakhine state exposes an entire region divided by religious and racial discrimination...A recent journey to western Myanmar has revealed a provincial capital divided by hatred and thousands of its Muslim residents terrorised by what they say is a state-sponsored campaign to segregate the population along ethno-sectarian lines. Decades-old tension between ethnic Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims in coastal Rakhine state exploded with new ferocity in June, leaving at least 78 people dead and tens of thousands homeless. Exclusive reporting conducted last week in the highly restricted region suggests that the long-term fallout from recent violence could be even more damaging than the bloodshed. The United Nations has estimated that 80,000 people are still displaced around the cities of Sittwe and Maungdaw, and international rights groups continue to denounce Myanmar for its role in the conflict. As it stands, any thought of reconciliation between local Buddhists and Muslims appears a distant dream. Many Rohingya have fled the polarised region, fearing revenge attacks and increasing discrimination. Their status has sparked international concern and disagreement. Rights groups have condemned the violence. The Myanmar government has denied any wrongdoing, while neighbouring Bangladesh has rejected an influx of refugees and slashed access to aid. For those Rohingya caught up in the dispute, the day-to-day situation is rapidly slipping from desperate to dire..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (Features)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 November 2012


Title: “The Government Could Have Stopped This” - Sectarian Violence and Ensuing Abuses in Burma’s Arakan State
Date of publication: 01 August 2012
Description/subject: Summary: "In June 2012, deadly sectarian violence erupted in western Burma’s Arakan State between ethnic Arakan Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims (as well as non-Rohingya Muslims). The violence broke out after reports circulated that on May 28 an Arakan woman was raped and killed in the town of Ramri allegedly by three Muslim men. Details of the crime were circulated locally in an incendiary pamphlet, and on June 3, a large group of Arakan villagers in Toungop stopped a bus and brutally killed 10 Muslims on board. Human Rights Watch confirmed that local police and soldiers stood by and watched the killings without intervening. On June 8, thousands of Rohingya rioted in Maungdaw town after Friday prayers, destroying Arakan property and killing an unknown number of Arakan residents. Sectarian violence then quickly swept through the Arakan State capital, Sittwe, and surrounding areas. Mobs from both communities soon stormed unsuspecting villages and neighborhoods, killing residents and destroying homes, shops, and houses of worship. With little to no government security present to stop the violence, people armed themselves with swords, spears, sticks, iron rods, knives, and other basic weapons, taking the law into their own hands. Vast stretches of property from both communities were razed. The government claimed that 78 people were killed—an undoubtedly conservative figure—while more than 100,000 people were displaced from their homes. The hostilities were fanned by inflammatory anti-Muslim media accounts and local propaganda. During the period after the rape and killing was reported and before the violence broke out, tensions had risen dramatically in Arakan State. However, local residents from each community told Human Rights Watch that the Burmese authorities provided no protection and did not appear to have taken any special measures to preempt the violence. On June 10, fearing the unrest would spread beyond the borders of Arakan State, Burmese President Thein Sein announced a state of emergency, transferring civilian power to the Burmese army in affected areas of the state. At this point, a wave of concerted violence by various state security forces against Rohingya communities began. For example, Rohingya in Narzi quarter—the largest Muslim area in Sittwe, home to 10,000 Muslims—described “THE GOVERNMENT COULD HAVE STOPPED THIS” 2 how Arakan mobs burned down their homes on June 12 while the police and paramilitary Lon Thein forces opened fire on them with live ammunition. In northern Arakan State, the Nasaka border guard force, the army, police, and Lon Thein committed killings, mass arrests, and looting against Rohingya. In the aftermath, local Arakan leaders and members of the Arakan community in Sittwe have called for the forced displacement of the Muslim community from the city, while local Buddhist monks have initiated a campaign of exclusion, calling on the local Buddhist population to neither befriend nor do business with Muslims..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch (HRW)
Format/size: pdf (630K-original; 575K-OBL version)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/The_Government_Could_Have_Stopped_this-HRW-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 August 2012


Title: The Plight of the Rohingya (video, text and images)
Date of publication: 01 August 2012
Description/subject: "Amid Myanmar’s reforms, violence against minorities continues...In Myanmar's northwest, ethnic and religious tensions continue to fuel violence against Muslim Rohingyas, a minority group denied citizenship and legal rights by the government. A new report from Human Rights Watch says Burmese security forces are also complicit. Since the recent unrest began in June, about 80,000 have been displaced, and neighbouring Bangladesh is refusing the entry of Rohingya refugees fleeing the violence. Earlier this month Myanmar’s President Thein Sein, who has been lauded for leading recent political reforms, even suggested that the Muslim minority should be moved out of the country. In this episode of The Stream, we speak to Wakar Uddin, Chairman of the Burmese Rohingya Association of North America and John Sifton (@johnsifton), Asia advocacy director for Human Rights Watch..."
Author/creator: Guests: Wakar Uddin (Burmese Rohingya Association of North America)' John Sifton (Human Rights Watch)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera "The Stream"
Format/size: Adobe Flash (23 minutes on this topic), html
Date of entry/update: 19 November 2012


Title: Rakhine Response Plan
Date of publication: 31 July 2012
Description/subject: "Inter-community conflict in Rakhine State, which started in early June 2012, has resulted in displacement, loss of lives and livelihood. Of the over 100,000 people affected at the beginning of the crisis, many have already returned home, and as of 29 July, official Government statistics indicate that some 64,000 people remain displaced and are accommodated in 61 camps in Sittwe and Maungdaw townships. Population movement continues, and figures are being revised on a weekly basis. The Ministry of Information also indicated that 78 people were killed and 87 injured as a result of the violence and that over 4,800 buildings were destroyed. Since the beginning of the unrest, the Government has been providing assistance such as food, shelter, non-food-items (NFIs) and medical supplies to Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). In order to support the Government response, UN and NGO staff have been mobilized and relief supplies are being distributed. An inter-agency multi-sectoral rapid needs assessment was conducted between 20 June and 10 July in 121 locations in four townships (109 in Sittwe, four in Rathedaung, seven in Maungdaw, one in Pauktaw), covering 107,886 IDPs (18,697 households). The assessment identified as major needs in food, shelter, NFI, WASH and health sectors, together with access to sanitation facilities and drinking water. In an effort to enhance assistance and coordination, humanitarian partners undertook an analysis of the present situation and identified scenarios for the coming six months, against which sectoral plans and priorities were identified, taking into consideration the results of the inter-agency rapid assessment as well as the response priorities indicated by the Government and affected communities. The plan concentrates on the immediate relief requirements until December 2012, and will be revised in September 2012. Priorities of sectoral interventions include:..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Humanitarian agencies in Rakhine State via MIMU
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB-OBL version; 2.1MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://themimu.info/docs/Rakhine%20Plan_final.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 6 (26 July 2012)
Date of publication: 26 July 2012
Description/subject: I. HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES • Some IDPs returned home and the Government indicates that, as of 24 July, some 61,000 people are displaced in 58 locations in Maungdaw and Sittwe...II. Situation Overview: "The general security situation across Rakhine State remains stable even though the level of tension is reportedly high in some areas. The curfew is still in force in six townships. The level of economic and livelihood activities has increased in Sittwe with shops, markets and banks in operation, although there are concerns as parts of the population is yet to resume their economic activities. The Government has taken some measures to address concerns related to anti UN and NGO sentiments by some members of the public. While hostile slogans on posters, t-shirts and stickers still circulating in Sittwe, assistance is now welcome in some camps previously inaccessible. The IDPs are slowly returning to their place of origin or sources of livelihood. As of 24 July, the Rakhine State Government estimated that there are over 61,000 IDPs accommodated in 58 camps in Maungdaw and Sittwe townships..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (65K)
Date of entry/update: 31 July 2012


Title: Burma's Human Rights Blind Spot: A Compendium on Violence Against Rohingyas in June/July 2012
Date of publication: 25 July 2012
Description/subject: Compendium of 30 or so reports... Introduction: "By virtue of its geography (great river valleys, plains, plateaus and mountain chains) and history (migration and settlement along the rivers and in the uplands) Burma is a multicultural crossroads of Southeast and South Asia. Peoples, ways of life and religions from the Indian subcontinent, Himalayas, Indo-China and beyond, have intermingled in a land which became a nation under British colonization and has struggled with ethnic identities ever since. Although the vast majority of inhabitants are Buddhists, with the overwhelmingly Buddhist Burmans the largest ethnic group, nearly all other religions are represented in the population. Tolerance and cosmopolitanism were among Burma's strengths in times of peace. Unfortunately, military rule and the promulgation of ethnic-majority nationalism have been in effect since General Ne Win's takeover in 1962, and even in the post-British democracy of U Nu, establishment of Buddhism as a state religion appeared to sideline Burma's people of other faiths. Ne Win's dictatorship favored the assimilation of Buddhist groups like the Rakhines, Mons and Shans into a Burman nationalism, discouraging those peoples' knowledge of their own languages, civilized history and cultures. Targeting Christians and Muslims, Ne Win's armed forces often burned churches and mosques, torturing and killing pastors and imams. In western Burma's Arakan State (aka Rakhine State), military rule brought decreased rights for the Buddhist Rakhine people and absolute denial of citizenship for the Muslim Rohingya people. The mass exodus of Rohingyas fleeing repression to neighboring Bangladesh took place in 1978 and 1991, resulting in tens of thousands of refugees cordoned off in squalid camps in Bangladesh or permanently stranded overseas (Gulf States, Pakistan, Malaysia, India, Thailand.) As Rohingyas left the northern Arakan region, particularly Buthidaung and Maungdaw, out of fear of extreme repression, Burma's post-1988 junta settled Buddhist Rakhine and Burman villagers in the area -- a scenario guaranteed to make both groups resent each other. Rohingyas who remained were often preyed upon by border security forces and other military personnel, and were severely restricted in rights such as marriage and travel. Military rape and other violent victimization of Rohingyas was well-documented by respected international human rights organizations..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Project Maje
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 July 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 5 (19 July 2012)
Date of publication: 19 July 2012
Description/subject: I. HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: • The Government indicates that over 70,000 people are currently displaced. • An inter-agency multi-sectoral rapid needs assessment was conducted in 114 locations in four townships (102 in Sittwe, 4 in Rathedaung, 7 in Maungdaw, 1 in Pauktaw), covering 104,719 IDPs. Major needs are identified in food, shelter, NFI, WASH and health.....II. SITUATION OVERVIEW: Although tensions continue to be high, the number of security incidents across Rakhine State is reportedly decreasing. Additional military and Myanmar Police Force personnel have been deployed in affected locations. The state of emergency and curfew from 6 pm to 6 am continue in six townships of the state. In the capital of the state, Sittwe, Government offices, banks, markets, several basic education schools and technical university reopened since early July. Some organizations continue to issue statements against communities and against UN/NGOs, fueling tensions and hampering assessments and delivery of relief support to the victim of the violence in the State. In Maungdaw and Sittwe, T-shirts and stickers against UN/INGOs have appeared in several locations. The Government is taking steps to resolve the situation. On 11 July, UN High Commissioner for Refugees António Guterres, visited Myanmar and met with the President and other senior Government officials. Mr. Guterres expressed the willingness of UNHCR and the humanitarian community in general to work with the Government to provide humanitarian assistance ‘to the victims of the incident, namely to those that were displaced by the incident, of both communities, the Rakhine community and the Moslem community without any discrimination and in the spirit of attending to the needs of the people, whoever they are, and wherever they are’. He stressed his hope that ‘our efforts might also give a humble contribution to hopefully what will be a true reconciliation between communities’ and ‘after these events, it will be slowly possible, to establish in (…) Rakhine State a situation where the rule of law will prevail in a human-rights minded way and the communities will be able to respect each other and look positively into the future’. On 8 July, Pyithu Hluttaw Speaker U Thura Shwe Mann visited Rakhine to provide relief aid to IDPs in Maungdaw, Rathedaung and Sittwe townships. On 11 July, the Myanmar Human Rights Commission issued a statement, highlighting the need for strengthening of rule of law, effective legal action against the perpetrators of the violence and building mutual trust among communities to restore normalcy to the situation. From 16 to 18 July, a high level Government delegation led by the Minister for Border Affairs with the participation of representatives from UN and NGOs visited Rakhine to assess the situation and discuss the way forward. The Minister indicated that a longer-term solution to the problem needs to be found, in respect of the rule of law. This includes a comprehensive town planning exercise that will take into consideration the situation of all those that have land property certificates, and that have been displaced, as well as the requirements for those who are in need of other forms of aid and support.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (92K)
Date of entry/update: 29 July 2012


Title: U.N. rejects Burma’s offer to resettle Rohingya
Date of publication: 13 July 2012
Description/subject: The U.N. has rejected an offer by the Burmese government to resettle Royingya Muslims, a stateless people who live in western Burma and who have been denied citizenship in the country. The Burmese president told the U.N. refugee representative on Thursday that non-citizen Rohingya Muslims in far western Burma should be placed in refugee camps or deported, following sectarian violence in the country in June which claimed up to 79 lives of both Muslims and Buddhists. The U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees Antonio Guterres on Thursday rejected the suggestion by Burmese President Thein Sein, saying it was not the U.N.’s job to resettle the Rohingya, who the U.N. calls one of the most persecuted people in the world. “The resettlement programs organized by UNHCR are for refugees who are fleeing a country to another, in very specific circumstances. Obviously, it's not related to this situation,” Guterres told the media after a meeting with the president..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mizzima
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 July 2012


Title: Myanmar’s Rohingya Dilemma
Date of publication: 09 July 2012
Description/subject: "In the past, the people who called themselves “Rohingya” had to contend with successive military governments’ indifference to recognizing — or regularizing - their status as persons living on the territory of Myanmar. The latest incidence of anger against the Rohingyas, however, did not have immigration woes at its source. An unfortunate crime of rape and murder — committed by Muslim men against a Buddhist woman in a strongly nationalistic state — escalated into communal violence fraught with racial and religious undertones. The views, many of them inflammatory, on social media platforms indicate deep-seated prejudices that threaten the unconsolidated stability in Myanmar under President Thein Sein’s reform-minded administration. President Thein Sein made a statement on 10 June to calm seething sentiments on the present conflict. Myanmar also received the visit of United Nations (UN) Special Envoy Vijay Nambiar to the conflict areas. The measures have resulted in lessening tensions somewhat, and won praise from the European Union and the United States2. Responding to questions by media, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi highlighted the importance of handling the situation with “delicacy and sensitivity” while also underscoring the need for the rule of law as “essential [..] to put an end to all conflicts in the country”. However, the Rohingya issue is still far from reaching a lasting solution...".....THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT AND EVOLUTION OF THE CONFLICT...THE ROHINGYA AND THE CITIZENSHIP LAWS...CHALLENGES AHEAD
Author/creator: Tin Maung Maung Than and Moe Thuzar
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies ("Perspective")
Format/size: pdf (510K)
Date of entry/update: 12 July 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 4 (5 July 2012)
Date of publication: 05 July 2012
Description/subject: "This report is produced by OCHA on behalf of the Humanitarian Coordinator. It covers the period from 28 June to 5 July. The next report will be issued on 12 July... I. HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: • The Government indicates that some 55,000 people are currently displaced. Humanitarian partners estimate that some 100,000 persons have been affected. • A high-level delegation, led by the Union Ministers of Defense, of Border Affairs, and of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement, with the participation of representatives from UN agencies, NGOs and donors visited Rakhine state between 27 and 30 June. • The Government highlighted that urgent needs include shelter, food, WASH and NFIs, with priority areas being Sittwe, Rathedaung and Maungdaw. Support in all other sectors is also required. The Inter-Agency assessment is ongoing. Results will provide a clearer indication of the needs. Preliminary observations confirm Government prioritization..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (64K)
Date of entry/update: 29 July 2012


Title: Burning Homes, Sinking Lives - A situation report on violence against stateless Rohingya in Myanmar and their refoulement from Bangladesh
Date of publication: 02 July 2012
Description/subject: "...this report documents the severity of the human rights abuses suffered by Rohingya within Myanmar – including mass violence, killings and attacks, the burning and destruction of property, arbitrary arrests, detention and disappearances, the deprivation of emergency healthcare and humanitarian aid. Such human rights abuses are being carried out with impunity by civilians and agents of the state alike. The organised and widespread nature of this state sponsored violence raises serious questions of crimes against humanity being committed by Myanmar. This report also documents the refoulement of Rohingya refugees from Bangladesh and related human rights violations, including the push-back of boats carrying Rohingya into dangerous waters and the failure to provide refuge, shelter and humanitarian aid to those fleeing persecution. Historically, the Rohingya have faced acute discrimination and human rights abuse in Myanmar, and Rohingya refugees fleeing persecution to Bangladesh have faced severe hardships including the lack of humanitarian aid, shelter and security. This present crisis is a tragic reminder of the vulnerabilities of stateless people when their countries of habitual residence and the international community fail to protect them. Urgent action is required to end the violence, protect the victims and bring those responsible to justice. Of equal importance is the need for a long-term process of reinstating Myanmar nationality to Rohingya who were arbitrarily deprived of a nationality in 1982, resolving ethnic conflicts and protecting the human rights and freedoms of Rohingya within Myanmar and in other countries. The Equal Rights Trust makes the following urgent and long-term recommendations to the governments of Myanmar and Bangladesh and to the UNHCR and international community..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Equal Rights Trust
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-OBL version; 2.26MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.equalrightstrust.org/ertdocumentbank/The%20Equal%20Rights%20Trust%20-%20Burning%20Homes%...
Date of entry/update: 03 July 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 3 (28 June 2012)
Date of publication: 28 June 2012
Description/subject: HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: "• The overall security situation is reported to be stable. Emergency rule and curfew remain in place in six Townships across Rakhine State. • According to official figures, 78 people are dead, 87 injured and 3,000 residential buildings are damaged as of 24 June. Over 52,200 people remained newly displaced across Rakhine State. Humanitarian partners estimate that around 90,000 people are affected, including the newly displaced people. • As of 25 June, WFP has provided 725 metric tons of food commodities (rice, pulses, oil and salt) to over 92,000 affected people in five townships, Sittwe, Pauktaw, Maungdaw, Rahtedaung and Buthidaung. • A total of 14 representatives from six UN agencies, six INGOs and two donor agencies left for Sittwe on 27 June to take part in a mission organized by the Government to observe the situation in Rakhine State and to strengthen coordination with the State Government as a primary focal point for the response. • The traffic on the road between Buthidaung and Maungdaw is interrupted due to a landslide..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (103K)
Date of entry/update: 03 July 2012


Title: UNREST IN BURMA’S ARAKAN STATE: A CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS (UPDATED)
Date of publication: 26 June 2012
Description/subject: • The rape and murder of a 27-year-old Buddhist Rakhine woman and the murder of 10 Muslim pilgrims trigger deadly sectarian clashes between Buddhists and Muslims in Arakan State starting on 8 June. • According to the regime, as of 21 June, 62 people had died and over 2,000 buildings, including seven mosques and nine Buddhist monasteries, had been destroyed as a result of the unrest. However, various organizations say that the death toll might be much higher as a result of escalating attacks and reprisals affecting Muslim Rohingya and Buddhist Rakhine. • Regime imposes a curfew and a ban on public gatherings of more than five people in six of 17 townships in Arakan State. President Thein Sein declares an indefinite state of emergency which allows the military to take over administrative control of Arakan State. • World Food Program estimates that 90,000 people have been displaced due to the unrest. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees warns of a risk of a severe humanitarian crisis due to ongoing violence and poor conditions in IDP camps. • Bangladeshi authorities push back more than 2,000 Rohingya fleeing violence in Arakan State. Bangladeshi FM Dipu Moni says Bangladesh is already “overburdened” with Rohingya refugees and cannot take any more “under any circumstances.” • Regime warns journalists that they could be charged under existing laws, including the Emergency Provisions Act, if they publish inflammatory reports on the ongoing violence in Arakan State. • Daw Aung San Suu Kyi expresses concern over the handling of the situation by local Rakhine authorities, in particular their failure to dampen anti-Muslim sentiment. Daw Suu also calls on Buddhists to “have sympathy for minorities.” • International reactions: UN warns that discrimination against ethnic and religious minorities poses a threat to Burma’s democratic transition; US, UK are “deeply concerned” over the ongoing violence; EU welcomes the regime’s “measured response” to the crisis; OIC “condemns systematic acts of violence and intimidation against the peaceful Rohingya population.” • The authorities’ decades-long discriminatory policies and practices targeting Rohingya have reinforced the racial and religious animosity between the two communities in Arakan State. Rohingya have suffered restrictions on marriage, freedom of movement, and religious practice. In addition, the regime has routinely subjected Rohingya to forced labor, extortion, land confiscation, and other human rights abuses.
Language: English
Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
Format/size: pdf (103K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.altsean.org/Docs/PDF%20Format/Thematic%20Briefers/Unrest%20in%20Burmas%20Arakan%20State%... (13 June)
Date of entry/update: 26 June 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 2 (20 June 2012)
Date of publication: 20 June 2012
Description/subject: HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES" "• According to official Government statistics dated 18 June, over 52,200 people have been displaced and are accommodated in 66 camps/villages. Unofficial estimates indicated that 80,000 to 90,000 people have been affected. • The Government has requested the RC/HC and humanitarian partners to support its response efforts. Humanitarian assistance delivery is ongoing. It includes food, medical, water and sanitation interventions. Food distribution that reached some 82,000 people as of 19 June. • The situation in Rakhine State has somewhat eased, although sporadic incidents continue to be reported..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (255K)
Date of entry/update: 03 July 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 1 (15 June 2012)
Date of publication: 15 June 2012
Description/subject: HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: "• Instability in Rakhine State that started since 28 May has resulted in displacement of over 36,000 people who are now located in 43 camps/locations, loss of lives and damages to houses and communal buildings. This is an initial estimate which will need to be revised as more information becomes available and assessment are carried out. • The violence prompted the Government to impose curfew in six locations and declare the state of emergency on 10 June across the State. • At the invitation of the Minister for Border Affairs, a UN delegation led by Special Advisor of the UN Secretary-General and the UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator for Myanmar visited IDPs locations in Maungdaw. • The Government called for humanitarian partners to support the Government’s efforts to respond to the crisis. The UN and its humanitarian partners confirmed their readiness to provide humanitarian assistance all the affected people across Rakhine."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (179K)
Date of entry/update: 03 July 2012


Title: An Open Letter from the Asian Human Rights Commission to the President of Myanmar (Burma) and the Prime Minister of Bangladesh
Date of publication: 14 June 2012
Description/subject: "...the AHRC strongly urges you to communicate with one another so as to open the border immediately to allow for the movement of people seeking shelter from the violence, and to make appropriate arrangements for the temporary settlement of persons fleeing the parts of Myanmar affected by violence. Furthermore, in order to enable the provision of adequate food and health services to the affected populations, both of your governments are requested to cooperate with one another so as to provide complete, unimpeded, secure access to international agencies at the earliest possible opportunity, in order that these agencies can assess the situation and make arrangements for the necessary provision of emergency relief supplies..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC)
Format/size: pdf (80K)
Date of entry/update: 14 June 2012


Title: What is behind Myanmar's ethnic unrest? (video)
Date of publication: 13 June 2012
Description/subject: As sectarian tensions run high in the country's west, we ask how it will impact the government's fragile reform plan. Myanmar is on a very uneven and fragile road towards democracy but around 25 people have been killed and 41 others wounded in five days of riots in the country's western region. The coastal state of Rakhine saw Buddhists once again fighting Muslims, including Rohingya migrants - most of whom are stateless. They are described by the United Nations as one of the world's most persecuted minorities. The violence seems to have started after a Buddhist woman was raped and murdered last month. The Rohingya were blamed and since then, more people have been killed on both sides of the religious divide. In response, the government has imposed a state of emergency in the area and the UN is relocating its staff. But for a country that has been under military control for five decades, the latest clashes could threaten some of the democratic reforms that President Thein Sein has been introducing since taking office last year. In April, opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi of the NLD party was elected to parliament in a landmark by-election. And the EU has agreed to suspend most sanctions against the country, as have the US and Australia. But how the government handles the latest crisis will be a test of its fragile reform programme. So what does the fighting mean for the future of Myanmar and what is behind this ethnic tension? Is it religious - Buddhist against Muslim? Or is it a case of the minority being persecuted for being stateless? Could attempts at reform be halted because of this unrest? Inside Story, with presenter Stephen Cole, discusses with guests: Nurul Islam, the president of the Arakan Rohingya National Organisation; Nyo Myint, a spokesman and head of foreign affairs at the National League for Democracy; and Wakar Uddin, a Rohingya from Myanmar and director general of the Arakan Rohingya Union (ARU) - a group supported by the Organisation of Islamic Conference. "What is currently happening in the Rakhine state is about putting grievances, hatred, and desire for revenge at the forefront based on racial and religious grounds and that's why anarchic actions are becoming widespread." Thein Sein, Myanmar's president..."...FACTS ABOUT ETHNIC TENSION IN MYANMAR The government has declared an emergency in Rakhine state after seven people were killed during riots The alleged rape and murder of a Buddhist woman last month led to the initial attacks The latest unrest is reaction to the killing of 10 Muslims by Buddhists Government troops were deployed to Rakhine to help the police keep order Many Muslims in Myanmar are ethnic Rohingya from Bangladesh The minority Rohingya Muslims are denied citizenship in Myanmar Many in Myanmar consider the Rohingya to be illegal immigrants The Rohingya are not recognised by either Myanmar or Bangladesh 800,000 Rohingya live in Rakhine, with another 200,000 in Bangladesh There are concerns that the unrest could derail Myanmar's recent democratic reforms Myanmar's new civilian government was elected in 2010
Language: English
Source/publisher: AL Jazeera (Inside Story)
Format/size: html, Adobe Flash (25 minutes)
Date of entry/update: 17 November 2012


Title: Myanmar Conflict Alert: Preventing communal bloodshed and building better relations
Date of publication: 12 June 2012
Description/subject: "The communal bloodshed in Myanmar’s Rakhine State represents both a consequence of, and threat to, Myanmar’s current political transition. While communal tensions and discrimination against Myanmar’s Muslim minority long predate the country’s recent opening up, the loosening of authoritarian constraints may well have enabled this current crisis to take on a virulent intensity. Equally, failure to both halt the crisis and address its underlying causes risks halting or even eroding Myanmar’s current reform initiatives. Unless the government takes steps not just to end the violence but also lay the groundwork for protection of minority communities there is a risk of the violence spreading. How the government handles this case will be a major test of the police and courts in a country that has just begun to emerge from an authoritarian past. It will also test the government’s will and capacity to reverse a longstanding policy of discrimination toward the Muslim Rohingya..."
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 June 2012


Title: Myanmar conflict alert: preventing communal bloodshed and building better relations (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ )
Date of publication: 12 June 2012
Description/subject: "The communal bloodshed in Myanmar’s Rakhine State represents both a consequence of, and threat to, Myanmar’s current political transition. While communal tensions and discrimination against Myanmar’s Muslim minority long predate the country’s recent opening up, the loosening of authoritarian constraints may well have enabled this current crisis to take on a virulent intensity. Equally, failure to both halt the crisis and address its underlying causes risks halting or even eroding Myanmar’s current reform initiatives. Unless the government takes steps not just to end the violence but also lay the groundwork for protection of minority communities there is a risk of the violence spreading. How the government handles this case will be a major test of the police and courts in a country that has just begun to emerge from an authoritarian past. It will also test the government’s will and capacity to reverse a longstanding policy of discrimination toward the Muslim Rohingya..."
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG)
Format/size: pdf (59K)
Date of entry/update: 29 July 2012


Title: THE ROHINGYAS Bengali Muslims or Arakan Rohingyas?
Date of publication: 26 March 2009
Description/subject: "In recent months, the Rohingyas have been making headlines again. Who are they? It was reported1 recently that Myanmar Foreign Minister U Nyan Win had told his ASEAN2 counterparts in Hua Hin, Thailand, prior to the ASEAN Summit, that the SPDC is "willing to accept the return of refugees from Myanmar if they are listed as Bengali Muslim minorities but not if they are Rohingyas, because Rohingyas are not Myanmar citizens". What does this signify? To the uninitiated, what difference does it make if they are Bengalis or Rohingyas? Are they not from Burma? In Burmese politics, however, it makes a world of difference..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Euro-Burma Office (EBO Briefing Paper No. 2
Format/size: pdf (48K)
Date of entry/update: 02 April 2009


Title: Myanmar's forgotten people
Date of publication: 22 April 2008
Description/subject: The Rohingyas have a history which dates back to the beginning of the 7th century when Arab Muslim traders settled in Arakan (Rakhine). They were recognised as an indigenous ethnic group by the U Nu government during the parliamentary era in the 1950s but lost their political and constitutional identity when the military government of General Ne Win promulgated the Citizenship Act of Burma in 1983. This effectively denied the Rohingyas recognition of their status as an ethnic minority group. Harsh discrimination against them soon followed.
Author/creator: Nyi Nyi Kyaw
Language: English, Burmese
Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
Format/size: pdf (English, 224K; Burmese, 123K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/41.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


Title: The Rohingya Issue: A Thorny Obstacle between Burma (Myanmar) and Bangladesh
Date of publication: 2005
Description/subject: "...Whether the exact beginnings of Muslim settlement in Arakan is still to be determined, it is reasonable to understand that they have been residing there since the period of the Arakan Kingdom (Mrauk-U dynasty). They were the origin of the Muslims in Arakan. Also it has been questioned whether those Muslims are equivalent to the present Rohingyas, Yegar's discussion is convincing: that those Muslims who had resided since the days of Mrauk-U dynasty and the Muslims from Chittagong who immigrated into Arakan in 19th and 20th century were integrated to some extent and comprised the present Rohingyas. The naming of Rohingya by themselves is a relatively recent invention, but there is no reason to deny there existence as an ethnic group whether their naming was old or new. Taking these understandings into consideration, the Rohingya have a right to be recognized as a national group in present Burma and to be treated equal to other ethnic nationals. Even if a strong image of the ex-immigrants from Chittagong sticks on them, it is meaningless to avoid those people as foreigners. There is no rational reason to put the year of 1823 as a criterion for dividing the people in Burma between indigenous and non-indigenous. In order to change the situation in the border of Burma and Bangladesh from an explosive area of another possible exodus to a stable area where the border trade can be increased and be prospered, the first step to be taken is to "qualify" those Rohingyas as a Burmese national ethnic group. Without taking this measure, nothing will be improved and a thorny obstacle may remain for another uncountable decades. Not only the Government of Bangladesh but also the international community in all are expected to make efforts to persuade the military government of Burma to accept the Rohingyas into their national community." (from the Conclusion)
Author/creator: Kei NEMOTO
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute for Developing Economies (IDE) in "Elusive Borders: Changing Sub-Regional Relations in Eastern South Asia"
Format/size: pdf (263K)
Date of entry/update: 04 January 2013


Title: Between Integration and Secession (The Muslims of Arakan)
Date of publication: 2002
Description/subject: "The first Muslims to come to Burma arrived in the ninth century. They were seafarers, probably from Bengal, and traded in the areas of Arakan and the coast of Lower Burma. Though Burma was not on the main route between the Middle East, India, and China, it enjoyed a lively maritime traffic. In the ninth and tenth centuries, Muslim travelers, Persians as well as Arabs, mentioned southern Burma in their writing, describing an extensive commercial traffic that was being carried out along the coasts of India, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, and Ceylon. Muslims who sailed in eastern waters were acquainted with the coastal areas of Arakan, the delta of the Irrawaddi River, and the cities of Pegu and Tenasserim. Indeed, the first Muslim settlements in Burma were established by such traders, some of whom came involuntarily because their ships had run aground and they were forced to seek refuge on land; occasionally, they settled permanently. There were Muslim settlers in the interior of Burma as well, but for the most part these were Muslims from India who had been captured in war and forcibly settled in the kingdom. Settlements in which Muslims reached the interior as mercenaries in the service of Burmese kings or local satraps are documented as early as the end of the eleventh century...".....Part One: The Muslims of Arakan: 1. Beginnings of the Muslim Community in Burma... 2. Muslim Settlement in Arakan... 3. From the British Occupation through World War II... 4. World War II and Its Aftermath... 5. The Mujahideen Rebellion... 6. The Mayu Frontier Administration (MFA)... 7. The Military Coup and Its Aftermath
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (236K)
Date of entry/update: 26 September 2014


Title: "Our Journey" - Voices from Arakan, Western Burma
Date of publication: May 1991
Description/subject: Introduction, map and 32 interviews with Arakanese (Rakhine) and Rohingya refugees and activists.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Project Maje
Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Muslims of Burma - A Study of a Minority Group
Date of publication: 1972
Description/subject: CONTENTS: I. Muslims in Burma in the Days of the Kings... The Beginnings of Muslim Settlement in the Irrawaddy Valley... Muslim Settlement in Arakan... Why Burma Did Not Become Muslim ...... II. Muslims in Burma During British Rule: Immigration from India... Organizations of Muslim Immigrants from India.. Organizations of Burmese Muslims.... The Burma Moslem Society... The General Council of Burma Moslem Associations... The Renaissance Movement... The Japanese Occupation...... III. Muslims in Burma Since Independence: Structural Changes in the Muslim Community... The General Council of Burman Moslem Associations... The Burma Muslim Congress... The Burma Muslim Organization... The Indian Muslims after World War II... Religious Activities... The Arakanese Muslims...... IV. Conclusion: Major Aspects of Muslim Community Life...... Appendices: A. How Many Muslims Are There in Burma?... B. Legislation on Islamic Subjects ... C. Various Documents of the General Council of Burman Moslem Associations ... D. Muslim Press ... E. Persons Interviewed ... F. Burma Newspapers Consulted... Bibliography... Indices... Personal Names... Geographical Names... Institutions... Groups.
Author/creator: Moshe Yegar
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (4.66MB)
Date of entry/update: 26 September 2014