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International Humanitarian Law (standards and mechanisms)

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: International Humanitarian Law
Description/subject: International Humanitarian Law database; the Conventions and number of other documents and commentaries; The law of war: information for defence and military staff; National Implementation of International Humanitarian law - and other publications.
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: International Humanitarian Law - Treaties & Documents
Description/subject: Treaties & Documents by topic... Treaties & Documents by date... Treaties & Documents by Country... 1949 Conventions & Additional Protocols, & their Commentaries.....The results of research on customary humanitarian law conducted in 2005 are now available in database form. The new database provides rapid access to the rules of customary IHL and enables users to examine practice around the world. Regular updates will include further examples of national practice. The database can be accessed at: ...
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 January 2012


Title: Results of a google search for International Humanitarian Law
Description/subject: Results retrieved January 2012
Language: English
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 January 2012


Title: Wikipedia entry for International Humanitarian Law
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 January 2012


Individual Documents

Title: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN ARMED CONFLICT
Date of publication: 2011
Description/subject: "...This publication provides a thorough legal analysis and guidance to State authorities, human rights and humanitarian actors and others on the application of international human rights law and international humanitarian law for the protection of persons in armed conflict. It addresses, in particular, the complementary application of these two bodies of law. It does not aim to cover all relevant aspects, but seeks instead to provide an overview of their concurrent application. It provides the necessary legal background and analysis of the relevant notions, in order for the reader to better understand the relationship between both bodies of law, as well as the implications of their complementary application in situations of armed conflict..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations - Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
Format/size: pdf (911K) 124 pages
Date of entry/update: 18 January 2012


Title: Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
Date of publication: 16 January 2002
Description/subject: Text of the Rome Statute circulated as document A/CONF.183/9 of 17 July 1998 and corrected by process-verbaux of 10 November 1998, 12 July 1999, 30 November 1999, 8 May 2000, 17 January 2001 and 16 January 2002. The Statute entered into force on 1 July 2002.
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Criminal Court
Format/size: pdf (218K)
Date of entry/update: 06 March 2009


Title: An examination of the usage of systematic sexual violence as a weapon of warfare and tool of repression in non-international armed conflicts
Date of publication: 06 October 2000
Description/subject: "In 1994, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women stated, “[rape] remains, the least condemned war crime; throughout history, the rape of hundreds of thousands of women and children in all regions of the world has been a bitter reality.” Despite the pervasiveness of sexual violence during periods of armed conflict, rape and other forms of sexual violence have traditionally been mischaracterized as private acts, the unfortunate but inevitable behaviour of individual soldiers. The revelations of the existence of ‘rape camps’ in Bosnia-Herzegovina, dramatically altered the awareness of systematic sexual violence against women as a facet of warfare. It has become recognised that sexual violence is not purely an unfortunate ancillary effect of armed conflict but rather a tool by which the civilian population is terrorized, dominated, driven from their homes and destroyed. However, although the rapes in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia have attracted a wealth of academic discussion and analysis, numerous other occurrences of widespread and systematic sexual violence have received comparatively little attention. This paper will focus on the systematic use of sexual violence against women in situations of non-international armed conflict, due to both the prevalence of internal conflicts in recent history, and the relative lack of legal provisions of international humanitarian law which apply to conflicts of this nature. The discussion will focus on the use of sexual violence as both a weapon of warfare, i.e. in order to actively achieve a specific political or military objective, and as a form of heinous repression by which the civilian population is dominated, though in practice the distinction between the two concepts may be somewhat fine. It is of the utmost importance to recognise that sexual violence happens systematically. It is only through acknowledging and responding to the occurrence of organised and strategic sexual violence that senior political and military officials can be held accountable. The term systematic is not used to denote the invention of a new crime, but rather to describe certain forms of sexual violence which have been deliberately planned or officially sanctioned by senior military or government figures for the achievement of a specific objective. Part One of the paper will detail the systematic use of sexual violence, in relation to internal armed conflicts and will outline the various purposes which sexual violence has been intended to achieve. Particular emphasis will be given to the conflicts in Peru, Rwanda and Kosovo, though the conflicts in Kashmir Sierra Leone, Liberia and Chechnya are also particularly pertinent to the discussion. Although the characterisation of the conflict in the former Yugoslavia has been the subject of varying determinations by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and is considered by several academics as having been both an international and a non-international conflict, the details of the mass rape which occurred in Bosnia-Herzegovina have been well documented and will not be discussed in depth. Part One will also examine the factors which fuel systematic rape, with particular regard to the promulgation of gender and ethnicity based stereotypes and propaganda. Sexual violence in situations of armed conflict amounts to a clear breach of international law. Part Two will consider the importance of the fact that sexual violence has occurred systematically for the characterisation of such acts as violations of international humanitarian law and international human rights law. In this respect, the adequacy of international humanitarian law in relation not only to the physical victims but also to the witnesses of sexual violence warrants analysis, as sexual violence of this nature is often intended to cause harm to those other than the physical victims. Part Two will also examine the characterisation of rape as a crime against humanity and will analyse the genocidal rape discourse which has evolved following the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia..."
Author/creator: Bob Last
Language: English
Source/publisher: University of Nottingham School of Law (Dissertation)
Format/size: html (348K)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2004


Title: Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the 1977 Protocols
Date of publication: 12 August 1949
Description/subject: Myanmar ratification: 25 August 1992. See Article 3, commmon to all four Conventions, which covers conflict "not of an international character" i.e. civil war and other forms of internal conflict. Burma is a party to the Conventions but not to the Protocols.
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, 17 July 1998
Language: English
Source/publisher: ICRC
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003