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BurmaNet News: July 25, 2001
- Subject: BurmaNet News: July 25, 2001
- From: strider@xxxxxxxxxxx
- Date: Wed, 25 Jul 2001 23:03:00
______________ THE BURMANET NEWS ______________
An on-line newspaper covering Burma
July 25, 2001 Issue # 1851
______________ www.burmanet.org _______________
INSIDE BURMA _______
*AFP: Myanmar still the world's biggest labor camp: ICFTU
*Newsweek (International Edition): Land of the Lost
*DVB : Burmese army takes action against corrupt commander
*SHAN: Talks in Rangoon a sham, says ceasefire group officer
*AP: Thai general denies ''killer teams'' to wipe out drug runners
*BurmaNet: ?Special killings? business as usual
*DVB : Report of forced labour in Burma as new army command set up
*AFP: EU takes hard line on Myanmar despite prisoners' release
*BMA: Group of Journalists Nominated for Canadian Award
*Burma Courier: Ottawa Embassy Employees Kept Busy in Hot Summer Sun
__________________ INSIDE BURMA ____________________
AFP: Myanmar still the world's biggest labor camp: ICFTU
BANGKOK, July 25 (AFP) - Myanmar is still the world's "biggest labour
camp" despite the junta's claims that the practice has been outlawed,
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)
secretary-general Bill Jordan said Wednesday. Jordan also dismissed
ten-month-old talks between the military regime and Aung San Suu Kyi as
a sham, saying they had not produced any substantial results. "Burma
is the biggest labour camp in the world," he said at an international
teachers' conference in the Thai capital, referring to the country by
its former name. Despite the junta's claims that it is working to wipe
out forced labour, the practice "has not diminished in any way at all,"
he said. "Any serious investigation would show that the pronounced
initiatives are comestic measures for international consumption and have
not touched the people of Burma."
The talks between pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi and the generals
in Yangon have made the international community cautiously optimistic
that some sort of political change may be in the offing in Myanmar.
But Jordan, whose organisation has helped spearhead a campaign against
Myanmar in the International Labor Organisation (ILO), said the
much-vaunted contacts had achieved little.
"The military have even used talks to suggest progress but beneath the
talks nothing of substance is happening." The ICFTU, made up of 216
trade unions in 145 countries, said last year that nearly one million
people were being subjected to forced labour in Myanmar. Last
November, the ILO recommended that its members review their relations
with Yangon, an unprecedented step paving the way for possible
sanctions. Myanmar has been under fire from the ILO since 1998, when
an inquiry commission said it had significant direct testimony of the
systematic and general use of forced labour, particularly involving
Newsweek (International Edition): Land of the Lost
Even Burma?s generals are beginning to realize that they can no longer
keep their country isolated from the world By Brook Larmer
July 2001 ? Burma?s military rulers love to bash the evil influence of
the Western world. But there is one legacy of colonialism they can?t
seem to live without: golf. Over the past decade, as the generals have
gained notoriety for running one of the world?s most repressive (and
economically disastrous) regimes, few people have given them credit for
dramatically improving their golf games. But sneak into almost any golf
club in Burma?the old British-era courses or the new ones feverishly
being built by businessmen with military ties?and it?s plain to see: the
names of Army officers are engraved on the championship plaques
THEIR PROWESS is unsurprising, given how thoroughly the game has
pervaded the ranks. Every morning at the City Golf Club in Rangoon,
dozens of military officers in creased khakis and saddle shoes traipse
off the first tee, followed by platoons of young female caddies. (The
girls, who wear bright red lipstick and easy smiles, perform different
jobs for their 35-cent fee: one hauls the clubs, another holds the
parasol, one lines up the putts ?and all applaud politely after each
successful shot.) Not every officer hones his game in such luxury. Along
a mountain road in rural Shan state, two rifle-toting soldiers recently
kept watch over a group of slave laborers chained together at the
ankles. Twenty yards away, under a grove of trees, several military
officers gathered solemnly around their superior?and watched him
practice his putting in the bumpy red dirt.
The military?s obsession with golf reveals the deep chasm
between rich (them) and poor (nearly everybody else) in Burma. Even more
dangerous: it exposes the hypocrisy of a junta that has self-righteously
isolated the country from ?the decadence? of the West while enjoying its
luxuries themselves. During nearly four decades of Burma?s hibernation,
the generals have tried to legitimize their brutally inept rule by
claiming the mantle of the ancient Burmese kings. But they have
succeeded only in turning Burma (which the regime renamed Myanmar in
1990) into the most needlessly miserable country in the world. Now, as
globalization makes isolation seem ever more anachronistic, Burma?s
long-suffering population is craving contact with the outside world. So,
in their own way, are the golfers in the saddle shoes.
Underdevelopment has an undeniable charm. At first glance, the
Burmese countryside is an achingly beautiful reminder of what Southeast
Asia must have been like before the onslaught of the modern world. No
urban sprawl, no belching factories, no McDonald?s or 7-Elevens. Burmese
men still wear traditional, skirtlike longyis. Burmese girls still apply
dashes of sandalwood paste to their faces as an alluring sunblock. And
at dawn young monks in saffron robes still walk barefoot along dirt
roads, alms bowls in hand. The grace and simplicity of life in Burma?and
the visitor?s sense of being the first to encounter it?owe much to the
country?s long isolation.
But behind the beauty lies profound misery. Withdrawing from the
world has not simply locked Burma into a time warp; it has sent the
country hurtling backward. Fifty years ago newly independent Burma had
Asia?s most vibrant economy. Today it is a basket case that ranks among
the poorest economies in the world. The main thing keeping Burma afloat
is an illegal narcotics trade that is reportedly twice the size of the
official economy. Forced labor is widespread, and the paying jobs aren?t
much better. Near the village of Penwe Gone in central Burma, a group of
teenage girls trudge up and down a steep river embankment carrying
buckets of sand on their heads to a road-construction site. One of the
girls, wearing a green headdress and red lipstick, says she walks three
hours to and from the river each day to go to her job. She works eight
hours a day for the equivalent of five cents an hour. She is 13 years
Burma?s health and education systems were once the envy of Asia,
but they have been gutted even as the military has doubled in size, to
more than 400,000 men. The universities, hotbeds of protest in 1988 and
1996, have been closed for much of the past decade. (They reopened last
year on campuses far from the city centers, and students have to sign a
written promise that they will not engage in any antigovernment
activity.) But education doesn?t count for much these days; few jobs pay
a living wage. Why else would a college graduate with a degree in
physics be cleaning toilets at a five-star hotel, or a clerk at an
appliance company be selling her body at night in Rangoon?s Chinatown?
More than half a million people (out of a population of 42
million) are infected with HIV, including 90 percent of all intravenous
drug users and nearly half of all sex workers, according to foreign aid
groups. More Burmese are dying each year from malaria and tuberculosis
epidemics, but AIDS is already killing an estimated 48,000 a year. The
regime, which had outlawed the use of condoms until 1993, has made
matters worse by publicly denying the existence of the epidemic. ?The
government says Burma is the most moral place on earth,? explains one
foreign aid worker, ?so how could it admit to having an AIDS crisis??
Burma?s rulers could do what they have always done: blame their
crises on sinister intrusions from outside. In 1988, when a student
uprising pushed out longtime ruler Ne Win, the military called the
protesters ?stooges of external elements? and restored order by gunning
down more than a thousand demonstrators. Two years later they annulled
an election won by opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi because
Western-style democracy was ?inappropriate? for Burma. To this day they
justify imprisoning her supporters and keeping her under house arrest by
arguing that the democrats are being manipulated by foreign interests.
To justify their own rule, the generals have hearkened back to
Burma?s past. Today the tightly controlled media portray the current
leader, Than Shwe, and his two deputies, Army chief Maung Aye and
intelligence chief Khin Nyunt, as the natural heirs to the Kingdom of
Pagan, the monarchy that reigned between the 11th and 13th centuries in
what is considered Burma?s most glorious era. The military men ride
around Rangoon in a parade of Land Rovers rather than elephants, but
they govern using the same old rituals of royalty. They take endless
tours inspecting the hundreds of dams and bridges being built, in part,
as monuments to their regime. They hold court with groups of engineers
and economists, dispensing wisdom about the glories of the precolonial
past. And all the while they require their subjects to show them respect
with a shikho, the deep Buddhist bow made with hands clasped together in
front of the face.
Like the kings of old, Burma?s generals have made exaggerated
shows of Buddhist devotion. They have donated money to build or repair
hundreds of shrines, and they even added a ton of gold to the sublime
Shwe Dagon Pagoda in Rangoon. Of course, most Burmese?80 percent of whom
are Buddhist?see through these political ploys. (The generals don?t help
matters by walk-ing into monasteries wearing military uniforms and
sidearms.) ?The regime is seeking solace in illusions of grandeur,? says
one former government official in Rangoon (who, like every other
Burmese, refuses to be quoted by name). ?They?re intent on reviving the
glories of the past instead of coming to grips with the changes in the
But the world is not ignored so easily. Their own economic
situation is not a problem for the generals; most of the military brass
are members of the elite, with mobile phones, computers, golf clubs and
a cut of highly profitable business deals, both on the books and off.
But for the rest of the population, more than half of which is under 25
years old, the feudal economy has proven a disaster. ?It?s a tale of two
nations,? says one diplomat. ?The elite live in the First World of
Rolexes, Land Rovers and gold rings. The rest live in the Third World.?
In Rangoon homeless migrants sleep in bundles on the streets. In
Mandalay people tie plastic bags filled with leftovers to the lampposts
so the poor have something to eat. ?The generals know the economic
situation is irreversible,? says one shopkeeper in Mandalay. ?They can
continue to make millions, but it?s not sustainable as a nation. The
economy will bury them.?
Like North Korea?the only other Asian country to reject
globalization?Burma has taken tentative steps to break out of its
isolation. In the mid-1990s the country opened up to foreign investment
and gained acceptance in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. But
most of the foreign investors who had plans for factories,
infrastructure projects and five-star hotels pulled out a year or two
later. (The amount of foreign investment approved in 1998-99 was $30
million, just 5 percent of the total the year before.) Why? A
combination of the Asian financial crisis, the 1997 U.S. sanctions
against new Ameri- can investment and Burma?s predatory capitalism. (The
local partners of joint ventures had a bad habit of usurping any
business that was profitable.) The International Labor Organization
tightened the noose in November 2000 with a new set of sanctions. ?We
have lived in a shell for 30 years,? said Foreign Minister Win Aung
recently. ?Now we are trying to get out of isolation. I hope the
international community will not force us into a corner.?
It?s unclear how far the regime really wants to emerge, though.
?Isolation is good for them,? says one Burmese businessman in Rangoon.
?If they open the doors, it threatens all they have.? As in Pyongyang,
the generals in Rangoon want to attract investment from the West without
letting in dangerous Western influences. At most the regime is loosening
up some restrictions on Western entertainment as an escape valve for
citizens. In a Rangoon cafe crowds of Burmese can gather to watch men in
tights beat each other silly in World Wrestling Federation matches. At
least 30 new sports journals have opened, mostly to follow English
Premier League football and financed mostly by avid gamblers.
What most people really want, however, is to connect with the
world. At night, residents of Rangoon and Mandalay tune in to the BBC,
Radio Free Asia or a Burmese- exile program from Oslo?all broadcast in
Burmese. ?It?s the only information from the outside world we can get,?
says one Rangoon teacher, noting that e-mail service?which started last
year?is still limited to 2,000 subscribers, who are tightly controlled.
Like many others, a tour guide listens to the BBC with earphones so his
neighbors won?t report him. He should know: he says a friend of his, an
Army captain, manages a network of 6,000 informants.
Listening to the BBC is not the only form of escape. With
schools closed for so long, tens of thousands of young students are
enrolled in private classes for English instruction or computer
training. In the town of Nyaunglebin, about four hours north of Rangoon,
150 men and boys sit in the shade of a video theater watching ?The
Rocketeer? in English. Outside, the Burmese owner speaks in fluent
English, which he learned entirely by watching American movies. He?s
never met an American before, so he wants to try out a phrase he learned
in a movie the day before. ?Get outta my face!? he says in a perfect
That, of course, is what Burma?s rulers continue to say to the
rest of the world?and what most Burmese wish they could say to their
government. But as in other repressive societies, the most insidious
consequence of Burma?s long hibernation is the chilling effect it has
had on individuals. No one dares criticize the regime in a group or on
the phone; people feel safe expressing their feelings only with a
trusted family member or friend. ?Our greatest isolation is the
isolation we feel from one another,? says a woman in Mandalay, shaking
her head wearily. There is one place that businessmen and diplomats go
to make sure there are no bugs or informants listening: the golf course.
But even there they have to watch out for those guys in the saddle
DVB : Burmese army takes action against corrupt commander
A military tribunal has taken action against Lt-Col Aye Ye Tun,
commanding officer of LIB [Light Infantry Battalion] 322 in Laukkai,
Shan State, on 2 July for dealing in drugs. A column led by Lt Moe Min
Myint, Lt Myo Thant, and Lt Tun Tun Win from LIB 322 captured two drug
traffickers with 10 packets of opium in Mongkoe region in northern Shan
State. They ordered them to sell the drugs, took the money and later
released them. Lt-Col Aye Ye Tun, the commanding officer, received 2m
kyat while other officers received 1m each, sergeants received 200,000
kyat each, and the soldiers 50,000 kyat each. But Sergeant Tun Aung,
who was not satisfied with the money that he received, sent a written
complaint to Laukkai Regional Commander Brig-Gen Zaw Win and the case
came to light. This report filed by DVB correspondent Myo Win Thant.
Source: Democratic Voice of Burma, Oslo, in Burmese 1430 gmt 23 Jul 01
SHAN: Talks in Rangoon a sham, says ceasefire group officer
July 25, 2001
A top official from a Shan ceasefire group, interviewed by S.H.A.N. by
telephone, dismissed reports of talks between Aung San Suu Kyi and the
generals as a ruse to woo foreign assistance.
"Nobody really knows what the talks are all about," he said.
"Considering everything else the junta is doing to the people, it is
hard to believe it is going to give up power."
Asked by S.H.A.N. whether reports about Rangoon's invitation to
surrender its arms and set up a political party in preparation for
general elections, the officer, who requested anonymity, replied in the
negative. "We've heard them from the Burmese officers often enough," he
acknowledged. "But there hasn't been any formal proposition from
anybody so far."
He also confirmed the killings of 17 Shan militiamen by junta troops 7
July in Panglong, southern Shan State. "The Burmese were afraid they
might join Yawdserk's Shan State Army South," he said.
The Shan State Army "North" and Shan State National Army a.k.a. Shan
State Army "Central", both of which enjoy ceasefire agreements with
Rangoon, are united under the banner of Shan State Peace Council. Both
have also formed an alliance with the Shan Nationalities League for
Democracy, the party that won the most seats in Shan State in 1990.
Shan Herald Agency for News.
AP: Thai general denies ''killer teams'' to wipe out drug runners
July 25, 2001
BANGKOK, Thailand (AP) _ A police general denied Wednesday that special
death squads were planning to kill 1,000 drug traffickers this year, and
had already sent ''350 to hell.'' Lt. Gen. Pichai Sunthornsajjabul
said he merely supported the idea of ``killer teams'' to wipe out drug
dealers as proposed by a group in the army which he did not name. The
English-language The Nation quoted Pichai as saying police-backed death
squads in northeastern Thailand were targeting drug runners for
execution and had already killed 350 in an operation dubbed ``Shortcut
Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra said Wednesday that ``a lot of ideas
have come up'' to cope with the deluge of narcotics but denied that
extra-judicial executions would be used. ``We have to consider human
rights and rights under the constitution,'' he said. Pichai, who heads
the northeast region No. 4, told the Associated Press the 1,000 figure
was the number of suspected drug traffickers in his area of command.
``Hundreds of these people were arrested but managed to use the dirty
money they gained from the narcotics business to buy their way out from
jail,'' he said. ``So the only way to stop the drugs plague is to get
rid of them. ``I support the idea of setting up killer teams to
terminate these people, provided that there is a law to support such
actions of such teams,'' Pichai said in a telephone interview.
``Hunting in my sense is to search and arrest and send them to court.
The police use guns only when suspects open fire on them,'' he said. The
general said more than 300 such suspects had been killed in drug related
cases in the past four years in his region. He said his area of
responsibility covers 11 provinces with a total population of more than
11 million people. Trafficking and abuse of narcotics and
metamphetamines is regarded a one of Thailand's major problems and
Thaksin recently declared an all-out war on drugs. Most of the drugs are
smuggled in from neighboring Myanmar, also known as Burma.
BurmaNet: ?Special killings? business as usual
July 25, 2001
Leaving aside the issue of whether the ?Shortcut to hell? campaign
described by the Bangkok Post is true, evidence of summary executions by
Thai police is commonplace and regularly printed in the Thai language
press. Targets of summary executions are usually criminals with drug
dealers being high on the list. There is some--albeit
limited--evidenced that persons believed by Thai authorities to be
Burmese spies are also summarily executed. At present, Lahu and Karen
drug runners operating in Thailand seem to be particular targets.
Articles in the Thai language press regularly refer to ?wissamol
khatakom? which translates roughly as ?special killing.? For example,
a table of statistics for wanted criminals in a police area will
tabulate the numbers arrested, still at large, killed by other
criminals, killed in shootouts with the police and notably, will also
list a category of cases resolved by ?special killings.? The English
language press will almost invariably lump special killings together
with those killed in shootouts with the police there is a distinction.
The nine members of God?s Army and the Vigorous Burmese Student Warriors
killed at Rachburi after seizing the hospital there are examples of
special killings. While frowned on by international human rights
groups, the killings seem to be done under authorization from higher
authorities and as long as the shooters do not attempt to mislead their
superiors to the circumstances, they are not subjected to punishment.
DVB : Report of forced labour in Burma as new army command set up
DVB has learned that the SPDC has expanded and formed a new tactical
operations headquarters - the No 20 Tactical Operations Headquarters in
Kawthaung District since March. Furthermore, the local people have been
forcibly recruited to give volunteer labour to build the battalion
bases and funds have also been solicited. DVB correspondent Myint Maung
Maung filed the report about the situation of the battalions under this
newly formed tactical operations headquarters and the plight of the
[Myint Maung Maung] The newly formed No 20 Tactical Operations
Headquarters consists of 10 battalions - three battalions each from the
three Tactical Commands and one base battalion. Although the strength
of each battalion should be 878 men, the manpower of the battalions is
between 200 and 300 men at present. The Tactical Operations Commander
holds the rank of a colonel while the No 1 Tactical Commander is Lt-Col
Tin Maung Nyunt, the No 2 Tactical Commander is Lt-Col Aung Shein, and
the No 3 Tactical Commander is Lt-Col Win Naing. All the battalion
commanders are majors. Furthermore, all the battalions under the No 20
Tactical Operations Headquarters are situated along Kawthaung-Bokpyin
Road near Maliwin, Khamaukgyi, Panthida, Htaingthadaing, and Karakothi
Villages. Due to the construction of the battalions, Kawthaung-Bokpyin
road has been temporary closed. As the new battalions have been under
construction, lots of bamboo and wood are needed for its completion.
Authorities have requested wood and bamboo from oil palm plantation
companies along Kawthaung-Bokpyin road while the local people - one
from each household - have been forced to contribute their volunteer
labour to cut bamboo and to work in the construction project.
Source: Democratic Voice of Burma, Oslo, in Burmese 1430 gmt 22 Jul 01
AFP: EU takes hard line on Myanmar despite prisoners' release
HANOI, July 25 (AFP) - Myanmar's military regime must go much further
towards restoring democracy than steps taken so far including the
release of dozens of political prisoners, the European Union said
Wednesday. Belgian Foreign Minister Louis Michel, the current holders
of the EU presidency, said the junta should respect the 1990 election
victory by opposition leader Aung Sun Suu Kyi if it was serious about
democracy. "We have to show that there is more to democracy than just
releasing several political prisoners," Michel said on the sidelines of
a regional security meeting in Hanoi, as the EU prepares to review
sanctions against Myanmar in the autumn. "There must be respect to the
result of the election, for example," said the foreign minister.
"Now we must stress that the democratic process must go further. We must
go deeper into political dialogue. There must be respect to minorities
and there must be steps that must be taken to change the system to a
true democracy. "Democracy is a wholesome process, and we just cannot
simply divide it." Myanmar Foreign Minister Win Aung told AFP Tuesday
that the military regime's release of the political prisoners this month
showed that watershed talks with Aung San Suu Kyi remained on track.
Win Aung refused to give a timeframe for multi-party elections or define
the type of government that might emerge from a breakthrough in the
talks with the Nobel laureate opposition leader. He said the release
of the prisoners including prominent journalist San San Nwe was "not a
public relations stunt or to please anybody," denying the move was
designed to prod the EU into lifting sanctions imposed on Myanmar for
human rights abuses. The EU renewed its sanctions, including a visa
ban on junta officials, for six more months in April. Win Aung
described the sanctions as "discriminatory actions against us and which
should not be there for normal relations with countries." He added
that remaining political prisoners would be freed on a "case by case"
BMA: Group of Journalists Nominated for Canadian Award
By Tin Maung Htoo (Canada)
Burma Media Association
July 23, 2001
A group of 24 Burmese journalists who had been detained for practicing
their right of freedom of expression has been nominated for Canada's
International Press Freedom Award with the sponsor of a group of exiled
Burmese journalists and the endorsement of a number of rights advocate
and political organizations.
The General-Secretary of Burma Media Association (BMA) Ko Khin Maung Soe
said the nomination has been prepared for several months with the
initial advice of a radio journalist Ko Kyaw Moe and later reinforced
with the idea of a former imprisoned journalist U Htay Aung (Zin Lin)
for group nomination. This is the first time of its kind and attempt in
nominating all detained journalists for Canadians-version international
He also added that a number of organizations supporting for this
submission are growing, resonating to the nomination letter signed by
the president of BMA. Norway-based scholar Ko Maung Maung Myint writes
this fact in the letter sent to the Canadian Journalists for Free
"We were assured that a number of Burmese and International
organizations such as Free Burma Coalition (FBC), Assistance Association
for Political Prisoners (AAPP, Burma), National Coalition Government of
the Union of Burma (NCGUB), Committee for Restoration of Democracy in
Burma (CRDB), All Burma Students? League (ABSL) and League for Democracy
in Burma (LDB) will support our nomination."
In addition, it is also learned that this nomination will get support
from Canada-based Burmese Students' Democratic organization (BSDO) and
Canadian Friends of Burma (CFOB).
CJFE gave the 1998 International Press Award to a Burmese female
journalist Daw San San Nwe while she was in prison, and U Win Pe, a
journalist, movie director, and musician, received the award on her
behalf in the awarding ceremony in Toronto.
When she was released from prison last week with the other 10 political
prisoners, CJFE and other international media organizations such as
World Association of Newspaper (WAN), Reporters without Border, and
Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), hailed by issuing statements.
CJFE also pressed the ruling military government to release another
prominent journalist U Win Tin, sending a letter on April, but he is
still remained in prison although some famous and contemporary
journalists Maung Wun Tha, Daw San San Nwe and Dr. Aung Khin Sint were
released in recent.
CJFE's award is especially intended for journalists whose efforts and
commitments are still in lack of international attention and not yet
recognized with international press awards.
Thus the president of BMA said in the letter that this nomination is
more accordant with their targeted criterion, saying, "their case was
not yet known to the international community. Except from one (referring
to U Win Tin), none of them has ever won any kind of press freedom award
that would draw world attention towards the plight of the Burmese
journalists and journalism in Burma."
Most of those nominees were a group of intellectual prisoners tried to
exchange information inside the prison and with the outside world. They
successfully sent out a report about prison conditions to UN human
rights commission, and as a result of this and other practices of
freedom of expression in prison they were sentenced additional 5 to 12
years jail terms in 1996. Among convicted, prominent magazine editor,
Myo Myint Nyeint, and newspaper editor Win Tin are included, along with
Nyunt Zaw who is already deceased in prison.
Burma Courier: Ottawa Embassy Employees Kept Busy in Hot Summer Sun
OTTAWA, Jul 13 (CNS) - Myanmar Embassy employees had their work cut out
for them in the hot summer days, as Ottawa posties delivered five boxes
of mail addressed to Myanmar's Head of State, Senior General Than Shwe.
The boxes, forwarded by the Canadian Friends of Burma in Ottawa,
contained more than 11,000 postcards from Canadians asking Than Shwe to
intervene in order to secure the long overdue release from prison of
student leader Min Ko Naing. Attempts by concerned citizens to
personally deliver more than 6,000 of the cards in March this year were
sloughed off by an embassy receptionist. Since then, 5,000 additional
cards have been received. This time, members of the Postal Workers'
Union guaranteed that the delivery would be completed - and it was.
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