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BurmaNet News: July 5, 2001
______________ THE BURMANET NEWS ______________
An on-line newspaper covering Burma
July 5, 2001 Issue # 1837
______________ www.burmanet.org _______________
INSIDE BURMA _______
*International Herald Tribune: Some Prisoners Freed as Junta and
*International Herald Tribune: Burma Pledges to Help On Forced Labor
*BurmaNet: ILO Forced Labor Sanctions Put Burma?s Export Sector at Risk
*The Japan Times: Envoy lauds aid plan to Myanmar
*DVB: Burma allows 70 Thai boats to fish in territorial waters
*AFP: Myanmar authorities probing deadly bomb attack
*Mizzima: Phensidyl a problem for youths in Burma
*BMA: Missing Former Foreign Minister
*Shan Herald Agency for News: Ex-Shan leader wasting away with failed
*Xinhua: Myanmar Leader Stresses Need to Preserve Traditional Culture
*Xinhua: Myanmar Makes Efforts in Fight Against HIV/AIDS
*Far Eastern Economic Review: Opinion--No, Don't Visit . . .
__________________ INSIDE BURMA ____________________
International Herald Tribune: Some Prisoners Freed as Junta and
Thursday, July 5, 2001
The first words Kyaw Thaung heard his wife speak after his release from
1,000 days of detention were addressed to the government officials who
drove him home: "Have you brought him back for good?" .
"Yes," the officials replied.
But just about everyone in Rangoon wonders whether the concessions by
Burma's military government that brought his release are genuine.
Burma's military rulers are easing up on the opposition, but no one is
sure why or for how long. .
Kyaw Thaung is one of the many rank-and-file members of the opposition
National League for Democracy who have been detained for political
activities. He asked that his real name not be used in this article
because he fears reprisals from a government which, according to
estimates by Amnesty International, holds more than 1,800 political
prisoners in Burma. .
In the last few weeks more than 20 of those prisoners have been
released, a sign that the military junta might be easing pressure on the
political opposition. .
This new tolerance is attributed to secret talks that began late last
year between the government and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, the Nobel peace
laureate and leader of the National League for Democracy. The talks
represent the first direct contact between the two sides in more than
half a decade, but neither side will elaborate on them beyond
acknowledging their existence.
The military government, which rarely issues visas to foreign
journalists, refused to comment on the issue. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, now
living under house arrest in her lakeside family compound, did not reply
when contacted in writing through an intermediary. .
In addition to the prisoner releases, other signs of the government's
easing its position include permission for the National League for
Democracy to reopen 18 Rangoon branch offices; permission for a visit by
a United Nations human rights official and an invitation to a team from
the International Labor Organization to investigate allegations of
Also, the government-controlled media has stopped printing harsh
political cartoons that depicted Daw Aung San Suu Kyi as a toothless hag
in the pay of foreign neocolonialists. .
Yet, for all these changes, many in Rangoon remain skeptical that a
country run by military dictatorship for nearly 40 years has the desire,
motivation or ability to make substantial concessions. .
"Everyone here wants to know if these signs are cosmetic adjustments or
the start of real change in government," a Rangoon-based ambassador
said. "Speaking professionally, I tell my Foreign Ministry we must keep
optimism alive. Personally, I must tell you I am not hopeful this will
all amount to much." .
Many observers expect Daw Aung San Suu Kyi to make a public statement
once the government follows through on promises to release 400 political
prisoners and allow the National League for Democracy to function as a
political party. .
Waiting to see if the talks will succeed, many of the most critical
foreign governments have tempered their anti-Burma rhetoric. .
The United States has made uncharacteristically few inflammatory
statements about Burma's government in the last nine months and Japan,
long a proponent of active engagement, recently approved the largest aid
package to the country since the crackdown on pro-democracy
demonstrators in 1988. .
But high hopes may be premature, according to many observers in Rangoon.
The talks almost ended two weeks ago when it was found that the
government had arrested new prisoners. .
"The military releases prisoners only to mask their broad strategy of
delay," a Rangoon-based businessman said. "Suu Kyi has a mortal human's
lifespan while the military is an institution that can achieve
immortality by placing future generations in power." .
International patience for talks without progress can be expected to
wear thin. The fear in Rangoon is that if the talks fail, campaigners
for democracy overseas may push foreign labor unions to refuse to unload
ships carrying the few exports that now keep Burma's battered economy
But even that threat may not be enough to force change. International
pariah status and economic sanctions have hurt Burma, but the military
remains deeply entrenched and faces little fear of a broad
anti-government uprising. The generals have grown comfortably rich,
while the majority of the population remains mired in poverty.
"Any progress in negotiations means concessions have been made by the
military," a senior foreign diplomat said. "Military men do not like to
Even if the secret talks do make progress, many in Rangoon remain
skeptical the two sides could share power in any substantive way.
"There must be an unprecedented change of position and attitude on both
sides," a Rangoon-based observer said. "She shouts from her house that
right is might, while the generals continue to rule the country, saying
might is right."
Burma's numerous ethnic minorities further complicate any possible
rapprochement. Many minority groups are armed and already govern
themselves with varying autonomy. Up to now, these groups have been
willing to await the outcome of talks between the military government
and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, but they cannot remain sidelined forever.
"Military dictatorship binds Burma together," a Rangoon-based observer
said. "Remove that glue and hatred between the ethnic minorities could
transform the country into Asia's answer to post-Tito Yugoslavia."
As for Kyaw Thaung, he still sees the talks as Burma's best hope for the
"Our main idea now is to keep a low profile so that we do not give the
government any excuse to walk out of the talks," he said.
International Herald Tribune: Burma Pledges to Help On Forced Labor
But Government Maintains No Abuses Exist
By Thomas Crampton
July 4, 2001
RANGOON Seeking to stem a flood of allegations about the widespread
use of forced labor, Burma?s government is vowing to cooperate fully
with international investigators even as it continues to defend its
record on workers? rights.
The government, likening threatened economic sanctions to nuclear
war, said it would offer complete access to a team expected to arrive in
September to investigate the accusations.
Speaking in a rare interview, members of the government delegation to
a June 11 meeting about Burma at the International Labor Organization in
Geneva said that Burma had instituted important changes in labor
U Win Mra, director-general of the international organizations and
economic department in Burma¹s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, cited what
he called a new spirit of dialogue with international organizations.
?The ambiance has changed,? U Win Mra said. ?Up to now, the world has
not been treating us fairly.?
Last November the labor organization, a UN affiliate with 175
member countries, called for sanctions against Burma, saying the
military government frequently forced villagers to do unpaid work.
The impact of any such measures would be limited because Burma is a
member of the World Trade Organization, so many of its key exports, such
as textiles, could not be affected.
Still, the move lent the labor organization¹s credibility to the labor
unions and other groups who have called for bans on Burmese goods.
?The threat of sanctions did not change the situation,? U Win Mra said.
?It is the cooperative approach that has been important.?
Burma won a temporary reprieve in May when an agreement was reached
for a labor delegation to investigate.
U Win Mra refused to consider the possibility that the delegation
would find forced labor in Burma.
?They will come here and find out with objectivity what is
happening,? he said. ?Let us not prejudge the situation.?
U Win Mra said that a recent in-depth
self-assessment by the government did not find forced labor and, in
addition, a new national mechanism would stop any incidents of forced
labor from occurring.
The government?s finding sharply contrasts with investigations by
numerous independent international human rights groups that concluded
there is widespread use of forced labor in Burma.
People who have worked on such assessments in the past said that the
Geneva delegation may have some difficulty getting a clear picture of
the situation during a three-week investigation conducted with heavy
Government officials often assert that foreigners misunderstand the
concept of communal work undertaken by communities here to help with
projects such as rebuilding a pagoda or re-paving a road washed away by
The government also blames anti-government groups who fled the country
following the crackdown on pro-democracy movement in 1988 for the
allegations of forced labor.
?There are always the same allegations raised by illegal insurgent
groups,? U Win Mra said. ?We have verified that these allegations are
BurmaNet: ILO forced labor sanctions put Burma?s export sector at risk
July 5, 2001
The sanctions imposed on Burma by the International Labour Organization
(ILO) for forced labor violations is potentially far more threatening
to Burma?s export sector than many observers, including the regime,
realize. The ILO has long been derided as toothless in the face of
abusive regimes who care little about international opinion because the
organization lacks the power to impose sanctions directly.
At best, the ILO can ask the security council to impose sanctions for
forced labor but unlike the World Trade Organization (WTO), it cannot
directly punish those who violate international law on labor rights.
The WTO itself acts as a shield for abusive regimes like Burma?s because
it attempts to prohibit unilateral sanctions for ?non-trade? related
reasons. The use of slave or forced labor is, according to the WTO, a
non-trade related issue and presumably, any country trying to restrict
imports from Burma because of forced labor would find itself subject to
The imposition of sanctions by the ILO amount to little more than an
invitation to states to impose their own sanctions to enforce the ILO?s
prohibition on forced labor. The real significance of the ILO sanctions
is that they potentially give nation states legal cover should Burma
file a case at the WTO. A bill introduced in the United States Congress
by Senator Tom Harkin is tailored to test this theory. If the bill is
passed and signed by President Bush, it would all but eliminate Burmese
garment exports to the United States and shutter most of Burma?s garment
Burma would be able to bring a challenge at the World Trade Organization
but the ILO is a co-equal source of international law and at this point,
there would be a conflict of laws; the WTO saying nations cannot
sanction Burma for force labor and the ILO saying they can. There is a
mechanism for adjudicating this kind of conflict and presumably, the
case would eventually find itself at the International Court of Justice.
Because the issues are novel, trying to anticipate how the
International Court of Justice would decide would be rank speculation.
However, in practical terms, the Court?s decision would be irrelevant
because even the most favorable legal conclusion for the regime would
come months or years after the imposition of a garment ban. By then,
Burma?s export sector would be crushed.
The Japan Times: Envoy lauds aid plan to Myanmar
July 6, 2001
Tan Sri Razali, the visiting U.N. special envoy for Myanmar, praised
Japan's planned aid for renovation of a hydroelectric power plant in
Myanmar, saying it would help improve the country's economy.
In talks with Foreign Minister Makiko Tanaka, Razali said the Japanese
project is gaining more international understanding, against some
criticism of Japan's aid for the military regime, which is accused of
human rights violations.
Tanaka replied that the aid is humanitarian in nature, a Foreign
Ministry official said.
Japan is planning to offer some 3 billion yen to repair the Baluchaung
power plant, which was built by Japan in east Myanmar in 1960.
It is feared that leaving it unrepaired could lead to a serious
accident, according to the ministry.
Tokyo's stance is that it offers economic assistance to engage the
military regime in dialogue and improve the human rights situation.
Razali also said the recent release of political prisoners is a positive
move and an important step for enhancing dialogue between the military
regime and democratic leader Aung San Suu Kyi, the official said.
DVB: Burma allows 70 Thai boats to fish in territorial waters
DVB [Democratic Voice of Burma] has learned that Burmese authorities
have permitted Thai fishing boats to fish in Burmese territorial waters.
The fishing concessions granted to the Thai fishing companies were
revoked since the Vigorous Burmese Students Warriors seized the Bangkok
SPDC [State Peace and Development Council] embassy in October 1999. DVB
correspondent Myint Maung Maung filed the following report allowing 70
Thai fishing boats to fish in Burmese territorial waters.
[Myint Maung Maung] DVB contacted a Burmese seaman in Ranong about the
Thai fishing boats allowed to fish again in Burmese waters.
[Unidentified seaman] Well, in Ranong, all the fishing boats are being
repainted, maintenance carried out, and new equipment fitted. They are
also recruiting seamen and deck hands. The news has made the Burmese
workers here very happy because now they will have employment. Most
people believe and expect the industry to grow.
[Myint Maung Maung] According to fishing entrepreneurs in Ranong, the
fishing boats approved for fishing will have to go for inspection to
Mergui first before being able to come to Ranong. Presently, the Burmese
authorities are asking for more dollar rates than before.
Source: Democratic Voice of Burma, Oslo, in Burmese 1430 gmt 2 Jul 01
AFP: Myanmar authorities probing deadly bomb attack
YANGON, July 2 (AFP) - Myanmar's military government said Monday it was
investigating a bomb attack in the southern town of Tavoy that left one
The bomb exploded in the coastal town last Thursday, a government
"One civilian was killed around midnight on June 28. The case is under
investigation and I do not have much information on the incident at this
stage," he said in a statement.
The opposition Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB) said several other people
were injured in the explosion, which local military intelligence
officials had blamed on insurgents.
DVB said a motorcycle taxi driver had been arrested in relation with the
incident. It added that a similar bomb attack occured last month outside
a nearby government petrol station.
Mizzima: Phensidyl a problem for youths in Burma
July 5, 2001; Mizzima News Group (www.mizzima.com)
While consignments of Burma's heroin are making their way from the
border areas of the country into the north-eastern states of India,
Phensidyl a legal cough syrup in India has been smuggled through the
same routes into Burma. Phensidyl has become a problem for Burma since
many youngsters in the country consume it as drug. The youngsters
particularly in the cities imbibe Phensidyl to escape their sense of
disillusionment and frustration over the country's situation. Under the
military junta, which tightly controls the country and does not allow
any political organizational activities, many university students and
youth spend their time at tea shops or isolated places to consume
Phensidyl or other psychotropic substances.
While a bottle of Phensidyl (which has 10% of Codeine) is sold at 39
Indian rupee in the chemist's in Delhi, it is traded at around 5,000
kyat when it reaches to the cities in Burma. That is about 15 times of
the price in Delhi. In fact, many government servants from Tamu of Burma
come to opposite Moreh town in Manipur just to imbibe phensidyl,
according to local people.
Phensidyl is being smuggled across the Indo-Burma border areas like
Moreh in Manipur and Aizawl in Mizoram state. Moreover, India's
Phensidyl crosses to Bangladesh and then through the Bangladesh-Burma
border, it is smuggled into Burma's cities.
It is clear that several Burmese military officers, police and custom
personnel stationed along the borders are involved in these smuggling
rackets. One will have to pass through several check-points of various
security forces while traveling from the country's border areas to the
cities inside Burma. The smugglers give "bribe" or "Line Kyay" (haftha
money) to the security personnel so that their contrabands are not
There are some cases when the Burmese security forces seized Phensidyls
and other drugs. But, most of them are small-scale smugglers and the
"big" smugglers are not caught. Even if they are caught (very rarely),
they come back clean after paying heavy bribe to concerned security
persons. And most of these big smugglers are in tow of military officers
in high places.
Nowadays, the youngsters in Burma are turning their eyes to other
Psychotropic substances such as diazepam, amphetamines, nitrazepam and
even the preparation Spasmo Proxyvon (which contains dextropropoxyphene,
a synthetic opioid used as an analgesic). As Phensidyl is becoming
expensive whereas other drug-like tablets are easily available with
cheaper price, many youngsters in Burma start using the "tablets".
Phensidyl is the problem not only for Burma but also for Nepal,
Bangladesh and even north eastern states of India since increasing
number of students and youth in these countries are consuming it as
drug. The International Narcotics Control Board in its latest report has
pointed out that the abuse of psychotropic substances has drastically
increased in Asia in the past few years. "In Bangladesh, the abuse of
the codeine-based cough syrup Phensidyl has continued and there has been
an alarming increase in the smuggling of Phensidyl from India". "Illicit
methamphetamine laboratories continue to operate in the border areas
between Myanmar (Burma) and Thailand and between Myanmar and China",
said its report 2000.
BMA: Missing Former Foreign Minister
By Tin Maung Htoo (Canada)
Burma Media Association
July 4, 2001
The whereabouts of the ousted junta?s foreign minister U Ohn Gyaw is not
only a puzzle for Burma observers, but for Burmese diplomats who are
posted to missions abroad. Earlier account that carried on Burma Net
News indicated that he went on hiding in Australia, seeking asylum
there, but other sources closed to BMA suggested that he could also be
in Canada, taking medical treatment in Montreal City. Burmese diplomatic
sources could not confirm about this news.
The arrival of U Ohn Gyaw in Canada was rumored since the end of last
year, and it is not clear whether his family is with him. But diplomatic
sources sat his son is in Japan and his daughter is working at ASEAN?s
Head Office is in Indonesia.
His desertion reportedly shocked the whole Burmese Foreign Ministry and
subsequently cost a high-ranking official the Ministry, Colonel Ba Hein
his position. Ba Hein provided a passport for the sacked minister and
was dismissed after the fake pilgrimage trip to India was unfolded.
It is not unusual in Burmese diplomatic circles and similar dramas have
occurred since the rule of former dictator General Ne Win. U Thi Han
who served as the foreign minister from 1962 to 1970 was also forced to
quit after former Prime Minister U Nu went to India for the same
pilgrimage trip in order to escape from the country in 1970.
In the past decades, a number of politicians and high-ranking government
officials escaped using the channel of pilgrimage trip as the most
likely way to manage to escape. But for those who are already abroad,
defection is relatively easy.
Take a recent example of U Ko Ko, deputy representative of Burmese
Mission to UN, before his defection, he just sent a notice to the
embassy through fax machine, stating "I won't come back."
It is a dismay of him as his 40 yearlong foreign affair career was
forcibly terminated in 1998 with the humiliation although he became the
only civilian deputy foreign minister for the military government in
October 1988 and full minister in 1991. He was not even given for an
inferior position in the administration. Some of his parallel ministers
who were also discharged from their relevant positions were still
honored with some sort of less powerful positions in the governing body
if they were not messed up with corruption act or other form of scandal.
During his long career he also served as head of the ministry's South
and Southeast Asia division and ambassador to a number of countries
including Yugoslavia, the United Sates, Singapore, Australia and the
former Soviet Union. The 1998 reshuffle was a painful turning point for
his career and life; he was replaced with U Win Aung, a former military
colonel and ambassador to England.
Shan Herald Agency for News: Ex-Shan leader wasting away with failed
4 July 2001
One of the former Shan leaders has been bed-ridden for two years through
Sao Hsai Kaew, 66, a native of Ho-kard, Kengtung, is suffering from
inflammation of lungs, according to his daughter-in-law, Kham Kaew. His
once stout physique has all gone and is all but unrecognizable. He also
has difficulty moving his left arms and legs, the result of a car
accident seven years ago.
He keeps asking for his orange juice but after a sip or two, he
invariably ends up choking.He welcomes S.H.A.N. cordially sitting on
his bed but his speech is almost unintelligible.
Hsai Kaew, the fifth child of Boon and Tip, was born on 10 October 1935.
He attended Cushing School in Rangoon and from 1957-61 served as a
police officer. He joined Sao Nga Kham's famed Shan National Army in
1961 and served as an intelligence officer until 1964, when the latter
was assassinated. In 1971, together with Khemawong Mangrai, a scion of
the Kengtung princely family, he set up the Shan State Army East, where
he worked until his retirement in 1980.
One of his best known efforts was the co-signing of the 1975 opium
proposal in which the Shans guaranteed the abolishment of opium in
exchange for an elected Shan State government. The offer was however
turned down by Washington.
Hsai Kaew is married to Nang Keng-kham (1978) and has a son, Boonyuen,
Xinhua: Myanmar Leader Stresses Need to Preserve Traditional Culture
YANGON, July 5 (Xinhuanet) -- Myanmar leader Lieutenant-General Khin
Nyunt has stressed the need for his country to preserve the traditions
and culture with firm conviction in face of attempts by some big nations
to dominate Myanmar politically, economically and culturally.
Khin Nyunt, who is First Secretary of the Myanmar State Peace and
Development Council, made the remarks at a coordination meeting here on
Wednesday of holding country's 9th Annual Traditional Performing Arts
Competitions, official newspaper The New Light of Myanmar reported
Khin Nyunt, who is also patron of the Leading Organizing Committee of
the Competitions, charged that in the process of globalization, some
big nations, which are enjoying economic and technological advantage,
are trying to dominate the small nations politically, economically and
culturally to shape them as they wish.
"Especially, they are using their advantage in the media to culturally
dominate the developing countries," said Khin Nyunt.
He warned that in the nations where vitalization of national spirit is
weak, the traditions and culture are vanishing among the youths, saying
that the situation is becoming uncontrollable as some big nations are
exporting their ideology and social system to them.
He believed that the competitions will help Myanmar youths to love,
cherish and preserve the genuine Myanmar culture and vitalize their
spirit to safeguard the national interests.
In Myanmar's traditional performing arts competitions held annually
since 1993, more than 2,000 contestants took parts.
Xinhua: Myanmar Makes Efforts in Fight Against HIV/AIDS
YANGON, July 5 (Xinhuanet) -- HIV/AIDS, a national concern in Myanmar,
is recognized by the Myanmar Ministry of Health as one of the three
priority communicable diseases -- malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis
(TB). The UNAIDS has identified Myanmar along with Thailand and
Cambodia as the priority country in Southeast Asia where taking of
urgent action is called for to prevent the spread of the epidemic.
In face of the threat posed by HIV/AIDS, the Myanmar government is
taking various measures to prevent and halt the rapid spread of the
epidemic, using all its available resources.
In 1989, Myanmar formed a high-level and multi-sectoral National AIDS
Committee, chaired by the Minister of Health to oversee the National
AIDS Program in the country.
It also established in the year the National Health Committee ( NHC)
with ministers from various government ministries as members and
chaired by First Secretary of the Myanmar State Peace and Development
Council Lieutenant-General Khin Nyunt.
The NHC, which is the highest policy-making body in Myanmar with
respect to health, provides policy guidelines to enhance HIV/ AIDS
prevention and control activities in the country.
Myanmar began conducting active surveillance for HIV and AIDS in 1985
and bi-annual HIV sentinel surveillance in 1992 in nine sites, which
was expanded to 27 to cover all states and divisions in 2000.
Moreover, behavioral surveillance was introduced in the country in 1997
with these sites covering all urban areas and some border areas
considered to be high risk.
Meanwhile, under limited international assistance, Myanmar has
implemented a comprehensive national HIV/AIDS prevention and control
program with health education as priority, which was geared towards
behavioral change, care and compassion for persons with the disease.
Besides, prevention of mother to child transmission (PMCT) was
implemented in 1998.
A school basic healthy living and AIDS prevention education, which is a
co-curriculum for school children from 4th to 9th grade, has also been
introduced, covering 1.5 million students and over 7, 000 school
teachers in 50 townships.
Moreover, a pilot 100-percent condom use among targeted population
program has been launched in the focus townships. In late 2000,
Myanmar's 8th National AIDS Committee meeting established the
multi-sectoral Special Strategic Committee to enhance and upgrade
countrywide HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities.
In early 2001, Myanmar's National AIDS Program and the UNAIDS drafted a
joint action plan for prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in Myanmar,
reflecting the cultural characteristics and the priorities of the
The plan contains technically sound strategies and is comprehensive in
nature, covering preventive, curative and rehabilitative aspects. A
report said that sentinel surveillance figures indicated prevalence
rate among sex workers in Mandalay, the second largest city of the
country, rose from 4 percent in 1992 to 57 percent in 1999, while that
in male conscripts in Yangon and Mandalay went up from 0.4 percent in
1993 to nearly 2 percent in 1999.
The report said that 30 percent of officially reported HIV cases in the
country are attributed to intravenous drug use and 68 percent to
Estimation, jointly made by the UNAIDS and the World Health
Organization in 1999, shows as high as 530,000 HIV positive cases in
With regard to financial resources in Myanmar's HIV/AIDS prevention and
control efforts, the U.N. system in the country is the only principal
source of external funding in the absence of other significant
Until 2001, the combined budget of the Myanmar government, U.N. system,
local and international NGOs was estimated to amount to about 3 million
U.S. dollars annually.
Currently, the Myanmar-UNAIDS joint plan of action to prevent and
control HIV/AIDS in Myanmar is reportedly being implemented on a small
scale as only 28 percent of the funding is so far available. It is said
that there requires a total of 16 million dollars over a two-year
period to undertake all the activities contained in the plan.
The country has expressed its most willingness to collaborate and
cooperate nationally, regionally and internationally with partners to
find the best ways of halting the spread of the epidemic and reversing
Far Eastern Economic Review: Opinion--No, Don't Visit . . .
Issue cover-dated July 12, 2001
I write in response to Sandra Rosic's letter, Do Visit [Jun. 21]. I live
in a country from where come many of the Western tourists to Burma. The
Burmese are wrong to place their hopes in tourists. Tourists come to
relax, not to probe Burmese politics. I have yet to meet a German
tourist returning from Burma who tells me anything other than that
everything was okay, that they saw no military and that there were
hundreds of nice pagodas.
There is a huge difference between theory and reality. The reality is
that tourism doesn't support local people in the long term. However, it
does strengthen military rule. And this cannot be the long-term wish of
the Burmese people.
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