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BurmaNet News: June 29, 2001
- Subject: BurmaNet News: June 29, 2001
- From: strider@xxxxxxxxxxx
- Date: Fri, 29 Jun 2001 07:00:00
______________ THE BURMANET NEWS ______________
An on-line newspaper covering Burma
June 29, 2001 Issue # 1834
______________ www.burmanet.org _______________
INSIDE BURMA _______
*AP: Suu Kyi's party opens another branch office outside Yangon
*BBC: Burma frees more political prisoners
*Translation of open letter of Bohmu Aung to Senior General Than Shwe
*New Light of Myanmar (SPDC): Customs Staff Warned Against Corruption,
Bribery and Abuse of Authority
*Xinhua: 53 Fires Occur in Myanmar in May
*Far Eastern Economic Review: Wa Branch into Pirate Discs
*Reuters: Myanmar leader sees 11.3 pct GDP growth 2001/2002
*AFP: China to help fund dredging of Mekong River in Laos and Myanmar
*Far Eastern Economic Review: Taliban Success Opens Door to Burma
*Voice of America: Anti-Narcotics Museum Opens in Burma
*AP: Suitcase outside Myanmar Embassy causes bomb scare
*AP: 50 Myanmar migrants arrested on vegetable truck in Thailand
*Financial Times: A tussle for Asia
*Xinhua: Myanmar-Chinese Support Beijing's Olympic Bid
*The New light of Myanmar (SPDC): Vitalization of national spirit: a
requirement for entire people
__________________ INSIDE BURMA ____________________
AP: Suu Kyi's party opens another branch office outside Yangon
June 29, 2001
YANGON, Myanmar (AP) _ Aung San Suu Kyi's opposition National League for
Democracy reopened its second branch office in as many days Friday amid
signs the military regime was easing some of its tight restrictions on
the party, a party leader said.
More than 40 NLD members attended the reopening in Hmawbi, 25
kilometers (15 miles) north of Yangon, said Soe Myint, the NLD's Yangon
organizing committee chairman who put up the party's distinctive red
Another NLD branch office is due to reopen on Wednesday in Shwepyitha,
a satellite town in northwestern Yangon, said Soe Myint.
Authorities have given the NLD permission to reopen 18 branch offices
around the capital Yangon, the result of secret talks between Suu Kyi
and the generals that began last October, their first direct contact in
On Thursday, a party office was opened at Taikkyi, about 60 kilometers
(40 miles) north of Yangon, the first since the military junta closed
many of the 40 branches in and around the capital in a 1998 crackdown.
The government also freed nine more party members Thursday in its
latest concession to the pro-democracy opposition, that swept 1990
general election but was not allowed to take power. Dozens of detainees
from the NLD have been freed since the start of the year.
However, Suu Kyi remains under house detention, enforced since Sept. 22
when she tried to travel to a party office outside Yangon in defiance of
restrictions by the military on her movements.
BBC: Burma frees more political prisoners
Thursday, 28 June, 2001, 15:13 GMT 16:13 UK
By Jonathan Head in Bangkok
Burma's government has released another nine opposition prisoners from
detention, bringing the total freed this year to more than 120.
The nine were members of parliament for the National League for
Democracy (NLD) party, led by the Nobel prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi.
No reason has been given for the releases. But they are believed to be
the result of the secret dialogue, begun in August last year, between
Aung San Suu Kyi and Burma's military leaders.
Getting her party members released has been one of the key demands of
Aung San Suu Kyi. The military now seems prepared to meet that demand.
Twenty three people have been freed this month from detention in
government 'guest houses'.
It is believed that only around a dozen NLD members, detained during the
military crackdown over the past three years, now remain in custody.
The authorities have also allowed the party to reopen some of its local
branches, closed down in 1998.
The next significant step for the military to take would be to ease the
restrictions on Aung San Suu Kyi, who is confined to her home in
But beyond these gestures of goodwill, it is not clear whether the
dialogue is making progress on substantive issues, in particular over
any form of power sharing between the generals and the opposition.
Neither side will say anything about the talks, except to describe them
as very delicate.
It is believed that a significant number of the military commanders who
now rule Burma oppose making any concessions to the NLD.
They fear popular retribution if they relax their hold on power.
Translation of open letter of Bohmu Aung to Senior General Than Shwe
[BurmaNet adds....Bohmu Aung is one of the original ?30 comrades? who
led Burma to independence. ]
OPEN LETTER FROM BOHMU ON BEHALF OF THE VETERAN POLITICAL COLLEAGUES TO
SR. GENERAL THAN SHWE.
Senior General Than Shwe,
State Peace and Development Council,
Union of Myamar
20 June 2001
Bogyokehmugyi khinbya (a polite form of address)
For the good of the country, as and when necessary and appropriate
convinced that it is our duty to do so we have appealed, requested and
given suggestions to you without any selfish motivation whatsoever.
Our advice and entreaties are the result of our firm convictions and
desire to safeguard our independence and sovereignty as a nation; to
preserve peace and stability and unity amongst all the different ethnic
groups and for the development and implementation of a flourishing
economy through democracy.
During the last few days some imprisoned and incarcerated political
prisoners have been released. Some NLD township offices have been
permitted to function again. We welcome this news which has been
released by the foreign press and mentioned by the General Secretary of
the United Nations though no official announcement has been made by the
This progress must be accepted as a result of the dialogue process that
we have been constantly urging you to take.
We have repeatedly urged and declared that the right and only way to
achieve the stated goals of the State Peace and Development Council and
to overcome the political problems that the country is experiencing is
We do believe and hope that the present process of dialogue is based on
the same international principles and standards adopted by most
countries. To achieve national reconciliation, national unity and
solidarity, personal animosities and grudges between groups should be
extinguished. We anticipate that the dialogue process will become wider
and be brought to the level as is between equals having mutual trust,
large heartedness and freedom.
Moreover, we will be happy if official announcements are made about the
progress and the points on which agreement has been reached in the
dialogue. The whole country will rejoice with us.
At this good stage where progress is being made we entreat the SPDC to
release unconditionally all imprisoned and incarcerated political
prisoners including U Aung Shwe, U Tin Oo and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi who
have been suffering untold hardship together with their families because
of their firm political convictions.
To advance from this stage of good progress we believe that all legally
constituted political parties should be restored the democratic right to
operate and function freely. This will instill new hope in the people
and convince them about SPDC's stated intentions.
Fully aware and in the discharge of our duty towards the country,
On behalf of the Veteran Political Colleagues.
Xinhua: 53 Fires Occur in Myanmar in May
YANGON, June 28 (Xinhua) -- A total of 53 fires broke out in Myanmar in
May this year, causing a loss of 32.6 million Kyats ( about 93,140 U.S.
dollars) worth of property, according to the country's Fire Department
Thursday. Of the fire cases in the month, 32 were due to negligence,
eight to electrical faults, 11 to arson, one to forest fire and one to
spontaneity. Of the fires, 20 broke out in Yangon division, the sources
said, declining however to disclose the casualties in the fire. In
April, 131 fires occurred in the country, causing a loss of 197.47
million Kyats (about 564,200 dollars) worth of property.
Most of the fire cases in Myanmar were generally due to negligence,
accounting for 60.38 percent. Although the rainy season has set in all
over the country which will last until the beginning of October, the
Myanmar authorities are urging the people to continue to take fire
prevention measures and to have buildings, factories, warehouses and
hospitals well inspected and get fire equipment ready. Myanmar's fire
prevention services are carried out through over 540 fire stations and
by over 71,300 firemen, according to the department.
New Light of Myanmar (SPDC): Customs Staff Warned Against Corruption,
Bribery and Abuse of Authority
June 29, 2001
Secretary-1 of the State Peace and Development Council Lt-Gen Khin Nyunt
with staff of Customs Department at the Ministry of Fiance and Revenue
The Secretary-1 pointed out the fact that the aims of the department, to
taxes on the exports and imports in accord with the law, to ensure that
export and import of goods are being conducted in accord with the
principles, to prevent and expose illegal exports and imports, to
data on exports and imports and to help promote foreign trade. As
department's duties, it has the duty to collect taxes in accord with
existing laws, to make supervision in line with the import and export
and foreign exchange acts, to prevent smuggling of arms, ammunition and
explosive, and drugs, to curb smuggling of wildlife, ancient artifacts
valuables and to search and seize items or printed materials which are
counter to Myanmar culture.
Far Eastern Economic Review: Wa Branch into Pirate Discs
Issue cover-dated July 05, 2001
Burma's Wa tribespeople, not content with heroin production and
manufacture of millions of Thailand-bound illicit methamphetamine
tablets, have branched into new lucrative, but less socially disruptive,
business avenues. Thai government officials claim the Wa are now
operating at least three underground CD and VCD factories in the
vicinity of Mong Yawn, their northeast Burma jungle stronghold near the
border with Thailand. It is unclear whether or not the karaoke bar in
Mong Yawn has updated its selection. But Thai officials believe the
bootleg discs have already hit the streets of Bangkok, where pirated CDs
can sell for as little as 50 baht (slightly more than $1). The
technology and equipment the Wa are utilizing are believed to be Chinese
in origin. Until recently, southern China's Yunnan province was
notorious for its many bootleg CD factories. Grooming for World Trade
Organization accession, Beijing appears to be pushing its more blatant
copyright pirates south of the border.
Reuters: Myanmar leader sees 11.3 pct GDP growth 2001/2002
YANGON, June 28 (Reuters) - Myanmar's military leader General Than Shwe
has forecast economic growth of 11.3 percent this financial year, well
above recent trend growth, official newspapers reported on Thursday.
The Myanmar language daily Kyemon quoted Than Shwe as forecasting
Myanmar's gross national product (GDP) for the fiscal year 2001/2002 at
1,001.43 billion kyat, up from 899.52 billion in the previous fiscal
year to end-March 2001.
According to data released by Myanmar's Central Statistical Office, GDP
was 794.60 billion kyat in 1998/99. No data is so far available for
The kyat is officially pegged at six kyat to the dollar but trades at
only about 500 per dollar on the black market.
According to official data, Myanmar saw annual economic growth of 8.4
percent in the five years from 1996/97 to 2000/2001.
Most independent economists put Myanmar's economic growth far lower
than this -- probably in low single figures in recent years.
They say years of mismanagement by the ruling State Peace and
Development Council (SPDC) has left the economy weak and partly
dependent on income from a large, unofficial trade in drugs.
Political isolation of the military government has also contributed to
economic stagnation, they say.
In 1990, Myanmar held democratic elections won by the National League
for Democracy (NLD) of Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi.
The NLD has never been allowed to govern and many of its leaders,
including Suu Kyi, have been detained or harrassed.
The military government, which has run Myanmar for most of the last 40
years, says it is managing the economy well and says economic growth has
been supported by careful central planning.
AFP: China to help fund dredging of Mekong River in Laos and Myanmar
BEIJING, June 28 (AFP) - A 331-kilometre (205-mile) stretch of the
Mekong River running through Laos and Myanmar will be dredged under a
project co-funded by China, Chinese state media reported Thursday.
Xinhua news agency said the dredging operation will eventually enable
100-ton ships to sail on the river.
The stretch of Mekong to be dredged runs from the number 243
demarcation stone between China and Myanmar to Houyxay in north-western
Xinhua said China would invest more than five million dollars in the
The dredging and other operations will boost the the annual navigation
capacity of the Lancang-Mekong River system from four million tons to 10
million tons by 2007, Xinhua said.
Far Eastern Economic Review: Taliban Success Opens Door to Burma
Issue cover-dated July 05, 2001
The ruling Taliban's success in eradicating three-quarters of the
world's crop of opium in one season in Afghanistan has international
buyers turning to Burma to fill the shortfall in opium and heroin
destined for Europe. Western diplomats say international law enforcement
officers expect Burmese production of heroin and opium to increase to
meet the demand from Europe--Afghanistan was the continent's main
supplier--and traditional markets such as China, Southeast Asia,
Australia and North America. Burma's annual opium production more than
tripled in the late 1980s, from 700-800 tonnes to 2,500 tonnes.
Following bad weather in the late 1990s, production fell to 1,000-1,500
tonnes a year, but given the new demand and favourable weather
conditions, more can be expected from Burma this year. Over the past
three years, a major drug-producing group, the Burmese military-backed
United Wa State Army, has reportedly moved tens of thousands of
opium-growing hill tribespeople from the rugged mountains on Burma's
border with China to areas close to Thailand, where the soil and climate
are more suitable for poppy cultivation.
Voice of America: Anti-Narcotics Museum Opens in Burma
26 Jun 2001 20:00 UTC
Burma's military government has unveiled a $1.4 museum to celebrate its
At the museum's opening Tuesday, the military government's number three
official, Lieutenant General Khin Nyunt, said the project represents a
concrete landmark for his country's efforts to combat narcotics. The
museum's exhibits range from photographs to maps of drug trade routes.
A convicted drug trafficker, Lo Hsin Han, attended the opening. He said
he personally donated thousands of dollars toward the museum's
construction. Critics of the Burmese government say it ignores drug
trafficking activities along its border with Thailand. Others allege
that senior members of the military are actively involved in the drug
Some information for this report provided by Reuters and AFP.
AP: Suitcase outside Myanmar Embassy causes bomb scare
June 29, 2001
BANGKOK, Thailand (AP) _ Police rushed to the Myanmar Embassy after an
unclaimed suitcase found outside the compound wall triggered a bomb
Police cordoned off the area before opening the suitcase, which was
found to contain clothes, police Col. Sanan Imchai told The Associated
He said police received a call around 6 p.m. (1100gmt) that a
suspicious object was lying outside the embassy on Sathorn Road. Three
bomb disposal experts rushed to the scene along with other police and
opened the large, wheeled-suitcase, he said.
Police have been on alert in Bangkok since two bombs were discovered at
the Vietnam Embassy on June 19, which were safely detonated by the bomb
squad. Three Vietnamese dissidents have been arrested in connection with
The Myanmar Embassy was seized by five Myanmar dissidents on Oct. 1,
1999. Armed with AK-47 assault rifles and grenades, the five students
held the embassy for 22 hours before releasing more than three dozen
hostages in return for safe passage by helicopter to the Thai-Myanmar
Hundreds of Myanmar dissidents opposed to the country's military junta
live in Thailand.
AP: 50 Myanmar migrants arrested on vegetable truck in Thailand
June 29, 2001
MAE SOT, Thailand (AP) _ Fifty illegal Myanmar migrants found hiding
under a load of vegetables on a truck were arrested Thursday as they
traveled to Bangkok to look for work, Thai police said.
The 18 men and 32 women were concealed in a hollow beneath the cargo of
the truck, which was stopped at a checkpoint near Mae Sot, 370
kilometers (230 miles) northwest of Bangkok, said police Sgt. Sathiang
He said the Thai truck driver faces a maximum one year jail term for
smuggling illegal migrants. The migrants face a three month term and
then deportation to Myanmar, also known as Burma.
This week, more than 3,000 migrants were deported from Mae Sot to
Myanmar under an ongoing campaign to rid Thailand of its estimated 1
million illegal foreign workers.
Financial Times: A tussle for Asia
By James Kynge and Amy Kazim
Published: June 26 2001 18:38GMT | Last Updated: June 26 2001 18:45GMT
It was not the welcome that Admiral Dennis Blair, commander of the US
Pacific fleet, might have hoped for. As his delegation arrived in the
sleepy south-east Asian nation of Laos, it noticed something unusual -
banners hailing the Chinese defence minister.
"It seems they did not have time to take down the banners for the
Chinese guy who had just left," says one member of Admiral Blair's
delegation. "It was a mistake - but we kind of got the impression that
someone else in these parts would not mind being the hegemon."
From one perspective the Laotian mishap was nothing more than a comic
scheduling blunder. But from another, it was a revealing insight into an
intensifying rivalry between the US and China for strategic and
diplomatic influence in Asia.
Just three years after Washington and Beijing celebrated the first
flush of their short-lived "strategic partnership", the world's
superpower and its most populous nation are circling each other in Asia,
vying for influence in regional bodies and seeking to prevent other
countries from slipping into the rival's camp.
"The US seems to want to isolate us in the world and we must combat
this . . . so we need to foster relations with our friends to break the
plan," says Zhang Yebai, a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Social
Sciences, a government think-tank. "Their intention to encircle us is
obvious. It is natural for us to oppose encirclement and containment."
Strategic competition between the two countries is not new. Even when
each side was supposed to be building a partnership, the US was in fact
strengthening its military alliance with Japan - much to the
consternation of China, which increasingly sees Japan as a regional
But the diplomatic struggle now threatens to create distinct spheres of
US and Chinese influence. "It is already very uncomfortable [trying to
balance the US and China]," says one south-east Asian diplomat. "We are
dreading the day when we may have to choose between the two."
Shrill altercations between Washington and Beijing have deepened the
collision between a US spyplane and a Chinese fighter jet in April,
offer of a large arms package to Taiwan - China's arch-rival - and its
granting of a
visa to Chen Shui-bian, the Taiwanese president, have contributed to
This sentiment is already finding concrete strategic expression. China
dropped its long-standing opposition to participation in national
presiding over the formation of a union comprising Russia, China and
Asian republics called the Shanghai Co-operation Organisation (SCO).
The group promptly castigated US missile defence plans, warning of
damage" if the 1972 US-Soviet anti-ballistic missile treaty is violated
as part of
Washington's planned deployment of NMD. The 1972 treaty bans the
missile shields. The SCO's establishment also opens the way for joint
exercises and security co-operation between China and the central Asian
republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.
There are other problems in the India-China relationship. They include
China's support for Pakistan; a lingering border dispute; strategic
rivalry in Burma; and India's provision of refuge for Tibet's exiled
leader, the Dalai Lama.
Burma is a less clear-cut case. Shunned by the west, its military
government has become China's client state. Its cross-border trade with
China reached $2bn (£1.4bn) in 1999 (up from just $15m a year in the
1980s) and Rangoon acquired $1.4bn in weapons from China between 1988
and 1999, according to the Institute of Defence Studies and Analysis.
China is building boat shelters in the Mergui archipelago in the
Andaman Sea which the US suspects could have a military use. However,
any change in government could see the rise of Aung San Suu Kyi, who won
democratic elections in 1990 but remains under house arrest. Her
accession would probably reorient Burma towards the west.
In general, China's approach to the south-east Asian nations along its
borders is multifaceted. It uses its proximity to boost cross-border
commercial ties, sell arms where they are required, extend credits and
dispatch senior officials to engage neighbouring governments. In Laos,
it is financing the modernisation of the Laotian army, spearheading
multilateral talks on building a key road from China and offering to
clear the Mekong to make it navigable for large ships.
Such hands-on engagement is difficult for the US to match. But
Washington has trump cards of its own. Aside from its status as a
superpower, its very remoteness boosts its allure as the region's
security guarantor. Asian nations know that any troop deployments are
unlikely to be permanent. In contrast, China's history of expansionism,
combined with its current territorial claims, makes it the object of
considerable suspicion. Vietnam may look like a natural ally, since it
is ruled by a Communist party, and has an economic reform programme that
mirrors China's. But history suggests a warm relationship is unlikely.
China fought a war with Vietnam in 1979 and the two clashed again in the
1980s over their mutual claim to islands in the South
China Sea. China's claim over the entire South China Sea also brings it
into dispute with the Philippines, Brunei, Malaysia and Taiwan. The
suspicion that Asian nations reserve for China tends to act as a
moderating influence on Beijing's belligerence.
As the atmosphere of open competition between the US and China
continues, the smaller countries in Asia may be obliged to perform
increasingly delicate balancing acts. For now, this seems merely an
inconvenience. But there is a danger of the rivalry diverting both
attention and resources from economic development.
Xinhua: Myanmar-Chinese Support Beijing's Olympic Bid
YANGON, June 28 (Xinhua) -- Representatives of Myanmar-Chinese and
overseas Chinese social organizations in Myanmar signed a letter on
Thursday in support of Beijing's bid to the right of hosting the 2008
Olympic Games. A total of 184 Myanmar-Chinese representatives signed the
letter including those from the Myanmar-Chinese Chamber of Commerce and
Industry, Overseas Chinese Charity Association, Myanmar-Fujian Natives'
Association, Yunnan Natives' Association, Guangdong Natives'
Association, Nanzhong and Huazhong Old Students ' Associations and
Overseas Chinese Women's Association. The move was initiated by the
Myanmar-Chinese Sports Federation (MCSF).
MCSF Chairman Jiang Qingliang told Xinhua that although Myanmar- Chinese
and overseas Chinese residing in Myanmar are separated from China by
thousands of mountains and rivers, they are concerned with Beijing's bid
for hosting the 2008 Games. The application move does not only link all
the people living in China but also connect Chinese generations abroad.
They wish Beijing's move a success. Jiang added that the signed letter
will be forwarded to the Beijing Committee for Application to Host the
2008 Olympic through the Consulate of the Chinese Embassy in Myanmar.
The New light of Myanmar (SPDC): Vitalization of national spirit: a
requirement for entire people
Friday, 29 June, 2001
The people are often tricked by the rumours. For many times they have
been the victims of rumours knowingly. Not long ago, rumours spread at
the markets, schools and offices that there would be some news on the
Myanmar New Year Day. The rumour mongers were floating fabrications in
a random way, saying that monthly salaries of the government staff
would be increased; that they would be paid in FECs; that their
allowances would be hiked; that millions of kyats would be disbursed as
loans to government employees; and that K 10,000 notes would be in
It has become food for thought. The government cannot hike the salaries
of its staff based on capricious ideas. The salaries are hiked in
accord with the financial situation of the State. But the greedy
businessmen were giving the increase in the staff salaries as an excuse
at every opportunity in floating rumours with wicked intention in order
to hike commodity prices and to lower the value of kyat. They are doing
such perpetrations with the aim of destroying the national economy.
It is quite clear. At present, the nation is enjoying round about seven
per cent annual economic growth and the commodity prices are in a
stable position. There are entrepreneurs and merchants who are
conducting regular business and trade in a sincere, just and peaceful
way; but there are also greedy businessmen who see things in a
one-sided manner for their self-interest without having any
consideration for others, who are waiting for an opportunity to get
rich and who are willing to ruin the national situation just for their
When the government had to reduce the fuel quotas for a certain period
due to various reasons, these greedy persons began to hoard fuel oil in
order to hike the commodity prices. Then, they floated rumours, saying
that the consumer prices had to increase due to the hike in transport
charges as fuel oil was available only at higher prices in the black
market. They then stockpiled foodstuffs and commodities. In this case,
their wickedness is so obvious.
There are more. It had been for several months since the greedy
businessmen floated rumours with an outdated idea, which was that
increase in the salaries of government employees would lead to
skyrocketing commodity prices, saying that monthly salaries of the
government employees would be increased; that the allowances would be
hiked; and that millions of kyats would be disbursed as loans to
government staff. The aim of floating rumours which said that the
government employees would be paid in FECs, was to lower the exchange
value of not only the kyat, but also of the FEC and to cause a rise in
the value of the US dollar. In this case, the rumour mongers were the
greedy businessmen and the illegal money changers.
The market area of the illegal money changers is so big. Some persons
enrol their children at pre-primary schools, courses, vocational
schools or other schools which charge school fees in dollars or FECs.
Some persons attend foreign language courses which are being conducted
at foreign missions which also charge fees in dollars. Libraries which
are being opened at some of the foreign embassies also charge dollars
for membership fees. And some persons who are making preparations to go
abroad have to pay in dollars or FECs for visa fees.
And there are more. Some, may be so rich people, go shopping abroad.
Despite the availability of almost all kinds and brands of goods at the
shopping malls, city markets and stores in Myanmar, some artistes go
shopping abroad and enjoy a spending spree there for they may think
that shopping abroad may enhance their popularity and artistic skills.
Such a practice of making a spending spree abroad will contribute no
benefit to the nation. So, I am trying to find an answer to the
question Ñ where do they get all the money to make spending sprees
Moreover, some of the television commercials are being shot abroad
because may be the natural scenic beauties and the edifices of Myanmar
are not fit to shoot TV commercials for some locally-made products? Or
they (the natural scenic beauties and the edifices) may not meet the
standard in artistic terms? I am asking these questions in a sincere
way as I lack the artistic outlook. As the TV commercials for some
locally-made products are being shot abroad, these products have become
inclusive in the foreign-made goods. Thus, I think that the TV Myanmar
and the Myawady TV should charge the advertisement fees for these
products in dollars. It will be fair if these TV commercials are being
charged in dollars. But it will become food for thought, if the
companies concerned have to pay in kyats for such TV commercials.
I have nothing to say if all the enrolment of children at
dollar-charging schools or courses, practices of shopping abroad or
shooting of TV commercials abroad are the essential requirements for
the persons who earn dollars.
Author : Pauk Sa
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