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                            SECTION 5
             D.  Social security and child care (art. 26)
 95.     Legal context:
    (a) Employees who have entitlements in accordance with the
existing Myanmar Social Security Act enjoy benefits at the
time of illness,childbirth, injury or accident at the work
place, and death. There is no separate social security law for
    (b)  Section 50 of the Factories, Mills and Work
Establishments Law provides that in a workplace where more
than 50 women are assigned, a suitable room or a special room
must be provided for children under five of the women
employees. It also states that the room must be well equipped
and clean and it must be put under the supervision of
qualified women who can take care of the children;
    (c)  Section 57 of the Child Law states that the Director-
General of the Department of Social Welfare may establish
local residential nurseries for the nursing and care of
children who have not attained the age of five years;
    (d)  There are many-primary schools and day-care centres
established by the Government and by the community on a
self-help system. Under section 58 of the Child Law,
the Director-General of the Department of Social Welfare
exercises his power to supervise, inspect, give guidance,
render expertise and give support as may be necessary.
 96.     Implementation:  To take care of children of school
age, health organizations are taking necessary measures in
school health inspection, the provision of nutritious food to
children, and the dissemination of health knowledge and
education.  In order to look after or to take care of children
with nutrition deficiency, children with moderate malnutrition
are taken care of at public nutrition development centres
while those with severe malnutrition are taken care of at the
nutrition centres in the hospitals with the help of the
Myanmar Maternal and Child Welfare Association.
 97.     Constraints:  The Government is allocating more and
more funds year after year for health matters.  But the budget
is not adequate to cover the health needs of the growing
population.  Even though there is community participation
in carrying out people's health matters, increased
participation is further needed on the part of the community. 
In the same way, the cooperation of different ministries and
departments is also needed in order to carry out people's
health matters successfully and extensively.  In addition
adequate and reliable facts, information and data relating to
health matters are greatly needed.
      A.  Education, Vocational Education and Guidance 
 98.     Legal context:  
    (a)  The State Law and Order Restoration Council enacted
the Child Law (Law No. 9/93) on 14 July 1993.  Section 20 (a)
of the Child Law states that every child shall:  (a) have
opportunities of acquiring education; (b) have the right to
acquire free basic education (primary level) at schools opened
by the State.  Section 20 (b) of the Child Law states that the
Ministry of Education shall:  (a) have an objective of
implementing the system of free and compulsory primary
education; (b) lay down and carry out measures as may be
necessary for regular attendance at schools and the reduction
of untimely drop-out rates; (c) make arrangements for literacy
of children who are unable for various reasons to attend
schools opened by the State; 
    (b)  According to the 1973 Union of Myanmar Basic
Education Law, one of the main objectives of basic education
is to enable every citizen of the Union of Myanmar to become a
physical and mental worker well equipped with basic 
education, good health and moral character; 
    (c)  In the national plan of the Union of Myanmar for the
survival and protection of children, it is mentioned that
universal access to basic education will be ensured by
increasing the net primary school enrolment ratio from 62 per
cent to 100 per cent, and the completion rate for basic
education  will be increased from the present 25 per cent to
80 per cent by the year 2000;
    (d)  According to 1974 Union of Myanmar Technical,
Agricultural and Vocational Education Law, with reference to
the functions and duties of the Technical, Agricultural and
Vocational Education Council, a provision is made for those
who cannot continue basic education because of various reasons
to receive vocational education by recommending them to the
Ministry of Education.
 99.     Implementation:
    (a)  To ensure universal access to basic education for all
children of school age, more and more schools are opened all
over the country.  On average, there is one school for every
two villages.  The number of schools  opened varies from place
to place depending on the density of population and location
of villages.  In Yangon Division and Mon State, where
population is more dense, every village has one school each. 
In Shan State, where population is thin and villages are
scattered, on average, one school is opened for every four
villages.  In remote, rural and border areas more and more
schools are opened.  Especially in those border areas where
the need of opening more schools is acute, schools are opened
for the development of border areas and national races;
    (b)  To provide education accessible to all and for
all-round development of children who are living in border and
remote areas, the University of National Races, which is in
Ywathitgyi, Sagain Division, has been training teachers since
1964.  Teachers who are working in special border and remote
areas such as Kachin North, Kokant, Wa, Kyaington (East) and
Mawpha are enjoying twice the amount of their normal salary. 
For the development of border areas and national races, in
cooperation with the Social Welfare Department, the Home
Industries Department and the Cooperative Department in some
places and in cooperation with the defence services
organizations in some places, short-term vocational training
is given in such fields as sewing, cooking, knitting,
carpentry, hairdressing and masonry.  In addition to that,
a mobile teaching unit is conducting vocational education
training courses in Yangon, Bago and Tanintharyi Divisions,
and Kachin, Mon and Shan States;
    (c)  To train physically, mentally and all-round developed
children for the State, extracurricular activities are carried
out in primary and middle schools. Training in arts and
physical fitness is given to children. Pre-vocational subjects
have been introduced in 120 basic schools. The vocational
education channel is open in technical, agricultural and
vocational schools for those who cannot continue basic
education for various reasons. For those who complete middle
school, an opportunity is given to receive vocational
education in technical high schools, agricultural high schools
and in other vocational training schools such as schools of
domestic science, handicrafts, machinery repair and
maintenance, commercial subjects and fishery. In addition,
short training courses in sewing, cooking, knitting and 
embroidery are arranged for women and carpentry, masonry and
hairdressing are conducted for men;
    (d)  Talks on the dangers of narcotic drugs are conducted
in schools to protect children from the danger of narcotic
drugs. Competitions on the creation of educative posters and
cartoons are held and winners are honoured. Talks on
preventive measures relating to the use of narcotic drugs and
AIDS are also arranged. Physical fitness and sports
competitions are held for schoolchildren while physical
instructor training courses are given for teachers;
    (e)  There is an increase in the rate of school attendance
of primary school children from five to nine years of age,
from 62 per cent in 1990 to 75 per cent in 1992/93.  The total
number of students attending basic schools is nearly 7.4
million of whom nearly 6 million (80 per cent) are in the
primary section. Out of 7.4 million student population, 3.6
million are female; the Government provides equal basic
educational opportunity for boys and girls;
    (f)  From 1982/83 to 1992/93, more than 40 per cent of
basic education schools were opened which directly increased
the student population to 26 per cent. In order to make the
student-teacher ratio equitable, 75% more  teachers were
appointed during that period.  To increase access to
education, the Government is increasing its momentum in the
opening of new schools and appointment of more teachers. 
Since the State Law and Order Restoration Council took over
the duties of the tate, 232 State high schools, 360 State
middle schools and 5,000 State primary schools were opened and
teacher training courses were extended to train teachers who
were not yet qualified; 
    (g)  In 1992/93 the budget allocation for basic education
reached 13.5 per cent of the total budget for the whole
country.  The total budget for education is 18.8 per cent of
the total budget for the whole country. Seventy-five per cent
of the budget for education is allocated for basic education. 
The budget allocation for education in 1983/84 was K 799
million and has increased to K 3456 million in 1992/93;
    (h)  Schools have been opened, more teachers appointed and
free education and free tuition systems introduced all over
the country. Textbooks and stationery are distributed by the
State at reasonably low price to lessen the burden of
eucational expense of the parents and children;
    (i)  The curriculum is the same for all basic schools. 
There is no separate curriculum for a specific locality or a
specific national race group. All children get the opportunity
to learn from the same curriculum. But national race groups
are enjoying the opportunity to teach their children in their
own languages;
    (j)  Educational development activities are carried out in
collaboration with United Nations agencies.  The Ministry of
Education, UNDP and UNESCO have been engaged from August 1990
to April 1993 in a joint effort to evaluate the current state
of education in the country and to formulate sectoral
development strategies and action programmes.  The Ministry of
Education, UNDP and UNESCO are also engaged in the joint
effort in strengthening and upgrading of teacher training
colleges (TTCs) and teacher training schools (TTSs). Under
this joint effort US$ 247,614 were used for the provision of
teaching aids in TTCs and TTSs, for sending the teacher
trainers abroad to upgrade  their qualifications, for
conducting workshops and for developing the education sector
for national races in border areas; 
    (k)  Following the signing of the Declaration of the World
Conference on Education for All held in Jomtien, Thailand, by
the Union of Myanmar, the formulation of strategies and 
meetings and discussions on "Education for All", paved the way
for the preparation and formulation of the national programmes
of action in 1993.  The Basic Education Department and UNICEF
jointly conducted a workshop on "Education for All" (primary
education) in August 1992.  A workshop on "Education for All"
(non-formal education) was also held in September 1992.  A
national "Education for All" seminar was carried out in
November 1992.  The Myanmar Education Research Bureau and
NICEF made a joint effort to carry out a research on
functional non-formal education.  They also carried out a
project on the expansion of skill-based literacy programmes
for women and girls which resulted in the production of 
reading materials, charts, posters, teaching aids and 12 basic
level reading materials.  A series of non-formal education
workshops were carried out.  To assist in non-formal education
activities, UNESCO's appeals training materials for literacy
personnel were translated into the Myanmar language;
    (l)  In carrying out the national programmes of action,
project activities undertaken jointly with United Nations
agencies are also included. The Department of Basic Education
and UNICEF started a joint effort in 1991 on a continuous
assessment and progression system project with a view to
ncreasing the rate of completion of primary education through
a qualitative improvement in primary education.  The
continuous assessment and progression system has been
introduced in 272 townships covering 3,088 primary schools. 
Due to this system, there has been an increase in regular
school attendance and a decrease in the drop-out rate.  To
promote the quality of teachers, the Department and UNDP
jointly carried out a project to improve primary education
in rural areas which was implemented in seven townships on an
experimental basis. The joint efforts of the Department and
UNDP to increase access to primary education in rural areas
and the "All Children in School" project helped increase
access to primary education which will lead to the successful
implementation of national plans of action;
    (m)  Attempts are being made to increase access to primary
education  through monastic education and up to 6 February
1994, 1,019 monastic schools were opened in 179 townships in
various states and divisions. The aims of monastic education
are to make universal access to the basic elements of primary
education (reading, writing and basic arithmetic), to
facilitate learning and to reduce the cost of schooling, to
train good citizens with good moral conduct who can contribute
to the welfare of the State, who understand  Myanmar culture
and traditions and accept them with high appreciation, who 
lead their lives according to the teachings of Buddha, who can
maintain and flourish the future Buddhist sasana as good
Buddhists, who can preserve and develop their nationality,
language, culture and religion. 
 100.    Constraints:  As a developing country there is an
increase in population in the Union of Myanmar with a
corresponding population growth of children. There are a
considerable number of school-age children who are not
attending school. Only 75 out of 100 school-age children
attend school.  It has also become necessary to increase the
rate of primary school graduates since 30 per cent of primary
school children complete the primary cycle, and thus, the
school drop-out rate is very high.  There is a variation in
the rate of primary school completion in urban and rural
areas. According to the survey, 50 per cent in urban areas and
25 per cent in rural areas complete the primary cycles.  Thus,
the high drop-out rate and failure rate (repetition rate) at
the primary level represents a great waste in education.  The
repetition rate at every grade in primary level is 15 per cent
on average, while the drop-out rate is about 16 per cent. 
Thus, more schools are opened, more teachers are appointed,
more teachers are trained and curricula revised to improve
primary education.  Education projects jointly sponsored by
the Government, UNDP and UNICEF contribute to the qualitative
improvement of primary education. 
                   B.  Aims of education (art. 29)
 101.    Legal context:
    (a)  According to the 1973 Union of Myanmar Basic
Education Law, the main objectives of basic education are
mentioned in chapter 3, as follows: 
          (i) To enable every citizen of the Union of Myanmar
              to become a physical and mental worker well      
              equipped with a basic education, good health and 
              good moral character;
         (ii) To lay foundations for appropriate vocational
              education and training;
        (iii) To give precedence to the teaching of science
              capable of strengthening and developing the      
              productive forces;
         (iv) To give priority to the teaching of arts capable
              of preserving and developing the culture, fine
              arts and literature of the State; and
          (v) To build a firm base for the pursuance of
              university education.
    (b)  The 1973 Union of Myanmar Basic Education Law,
chapter 5 (c) relating to the duties of the Basic Education
Council, prescribes compulsory basic education of children at
an appropriate time and up to a suitable stage of learning as
one of its specific tasks. 
 102.    Implementation:
    (a)  The aim of education is to train students to become
physically, mentally and all-round developed citizens.
Necessary changes are therefore made in the education system
to meet the changing economic and administrative conditions of
the country.  The Government, teachers and the public in
general are working together to achieve better results in the
field of education;
    (b)  Moral education is introduced in the Basic Education
Curriculum for the moral development of schoolchildren.  Talks
and competitions on the danger and prevention of narcotic
drugs and AIDS are regularly conducted in schools for
    (c)  School health teams make regular checks on the health
conditions of students according to their age with the aim of
helping children to become healthy citizens and gain basic
good habits of personal cleanliness and hygiene.
     C.  Leisure, recreation and cultural activities (art. 31)  
 103.    Legal context:
    (a)  Section 23 of the Child Law states that every child
has the right to rest and recreation and to engage in play;
participate in sport activities appropriate to his age;
participate in cultural and artistic activities;
    (b) Under section 13 of the Myanmar National Olympic
Council Law, promulgated in 1993,the Myanmar National Olympic
Council can organize the Myanmar Athletics and Physical
Education Committee to effectively and successfully carry out
activities relating to sports and physical education of the
people.  Under the Committee, various sub-committees are
formed at state and divisional levels, district levels,
township levels and village tract levels.  The programmes of
these committees are geared towards the development of health
and fitness of all people through sports and physical
education activities, training of outstanding athletes,
opening of the modern Institute of Sports and Physical
Education and the University of Sports and Physical Education,
changing sports and physical fitness activities from those of
a group of interested persons to that of the masses;
    (c) Under the Culture University Law promulgated in 1993,
a Culture University was established. Under section 3 of the
Culture University Law, all existing cultural institutions at
the time of the opening of the Culture University are  treated
as affiliated institutions of the Culture University. Section
6 of the Culture University Law states that culture
institutions and schools affiliated with the Culture
University can be established as required. 
 104.    Implementation:
    (a)  Sports competitions are held for children who are
physically strong and fit, who love that country, nationality
and culture; and for the continuous emergence of outstanding
young athletes.  The Department of Basic Education carries out
instructor courses for physical education with the help of the
Myanmar Sports and Physical Education Committee. Sports and
physical education is a part of the school curriculum in
    (b)  In the same way, training is held to maintain and
develop culture and literature and physical fitness. 
Competitions on essay writing, singing, dancing, playing
musical instruments, painting and sculpture are held yearly
all over the country.