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BurmaNet News October 31, 1996

"Appropriate Information Technologies, Practical Strategies" 

The BurmaNet News: October 31, 1996
Issue #555

Noted in passing:

		What we need is a government that has broad 
		support of all the people ....and that has international
		recognition. - UNOCAL rep on their pipeline project in Afghanistan


October 30, 1996

BRITAIN said yesterday that any decisions concerning the placing of economic
sanctions on Burma's military junta should be made by the United Nations,
not by a regional group like the EU.

British Foreign Minister Malcolm Rifkind said it is best that the UN
Security Council decide whether circumstances justify sanctions against Burma. 

"Our position is similar to that of Germany, France and number of other
countries - such a decision should be implemented by the Security Council,"
Rifkind said.

"We don't normally support a sanctions by a regional group. It should be
done on the global level," Rifkind said.

The EU agreed to impose new sanctions on Burma, which include a visa ban on
all military leaders and their families. The group has already imposed a
number of restrictions on the country, including an arms embargo and the
suspensions of non-humanitarian aid and development programs.

However, Britain, France and Germany have so far resisted a campaign led by
Denmark to get the 15 member organization to adopt economic sanctions
against Rangoon.

The EU's ban on Burma, like the one imposed earlier by the US, is aimed at
increasing pressure on Burma's military junta.

"It's necessary to send a clear signal to Rangoon that there is much concern
o n the international community (concerning the violation of human rights in
Burma). We hope that Rangoon will take this into account," Rifkind said.

The British minister, yesterday met his Thai counterpart, Amunay Viravan.

Amunay said that Burma is not ready for full membership in the ASEAN because
it did not enjoy political peace and had not completed a draft of its

"It was a Thai initiative supported by other ASEAN members, to see Burma
with its own constitution, which will lead to a national election and
political reform. The complete charter in needed so that one can know if
one's action is against the charter," the minister said.

Slorc rules the country without a constitution. The process of drafting a
constitution for Burma has been continuously postponed. One draft granted
the military junta the power to dissolve the National Assembly in case of an
emergency, Amunay said.

Amunay said that although it is the EU's right to impose sanctions, it is not
ASEAN policy to do so.

"ASEAN has to listen to what other countries say about Burma because they
are members of the world community. However this doesn't mean that a
non-ASEAN member can dictate to us," he said, adding that to do so would be

Amunay said that the EU sanctions could be effective, but only to an extent.


October 25, 1996   (abridged)
Nussara Sawatsawang and Agencies

Burma's hopes of early ASEAN membership were dashed yesterday
with Thailand saying the country was not ready and the
international community losing patience amid indication that Aung
San Suu Kyi is under house arrest in all but name. 

On the day after the arrest of Kyi Maung, 75, deputy chairman of
Mrs  Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy, Deputy Prime
Minister Kasem S. Kasemsri said Burma needed  two to three years
to prepare for full integration. 

The arrest of Kyi Maung prompted demands from the United States,
the European Union, France and Britain for the immediate and
unconditional release of the aide to Mrs Suu Kyi.

M.R. Kasem's statement is a serious blow to the junta, which had
relied on ASEAN for the legitimacy the international community
said it least deserved.
"Being simply an ASEAN member is of no benefit to either the
newcomer or the old members," said Mr. Kasem.
"The most important thing is how the new member can participate
in ASEAN effectively, and that is only possible for those who are
familiar with Asean's work, 'he said.
Since Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia were given two to three years to
prepare, Burma needed the same, he said. Vietnam was admitted in
1995 after being an observer for three years. Laos, an observer
since 1992, and  Cambodia, since 1994, are due to become full
members next year.

The former foreign minister made the comment after ASEAN
officials agreed last week on the technical criteria for Burma's
entry but left open the matter of time.

Mr. Kasem said ASEAN was "departing from traditional practices"
but he refused to say if the grouping should demand democracy in
Burma in return for admission.


October 30, 1996
Yindee Lertcharoenchoke

POLITICIANS, academics, Burmese citizens and human rights activists from 20
countries around the world pledged yesterday to from a solidarity movement
and a campaign network to lobby against the Rangoon junta, and block its
attempt to join ASEAN.

Around 100 representatives from some 50 organizations also strongly
criticized ASEAN's controversial policy of constructive engagement with
Burma, arguing that the move was devised only to serve the grouping's
economic interests in the country and ignored the fate of the Burmese people.

The representatives were attending a two-day meeting on Burma in Bangkok
entitled, " Alternative ASEAN".

Human rights groups demanded the right to a say in ASEAN's engagements with
Burma, and that they be allowed to help develop an alternative to the
present policy.

It was also decided that public awareness on the plight of the Burmese
people under Slorc be increased within ASEAN. Slorc is a law unto itself and
countries to violate human rights and restrict freedom of expression and

While the United States and the European Union has already taken some steps
to pressure Slorc into ceding to popular demands for democracy and improved
human rights, ASEAN members have failed to render similar support to the
Burmese people, attendants at the meeting noted.

"The EU and the US have done their duty, it's time ASEAN and the UN do their
part. It (ASEAN's policy towards Burma) should be on our (solidarity
movement's) terms and not on ASEAN government's terms," said Gothom Arya,
and academic of Chulalongkorn University and chairman of the Promotion of
Nonviolence n Thai Society.

The seminar hopes from a regional and international network, as well as a
parallel forum to ASEAN, and will watch over policies and activities
undertaken with Slorc, Evelyn Balais-Serrano from Asia Forum said.

She added that participants were also expected to come up with a tactical
strategy and a plan of action against Slorc and the self-serving engagement
of interests between ASEAN and the Burmese rulers.

"Those attending the meeting should also work out "an alternative ASEAN
declaration on Burma', with an immediate resolution to be presented to ASEAN
governments," she said.

Ethnic representatives and exiled students, along with regional human rights
lobbyists, plan to target anti-Slorc campaigns at the upcoming summit of the
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation in the Philippines on Nov 25 in Manila and
the informal ASEAN summit on Nov 30 in Jakarta.

There was widespread concern yesterday that ASEAN heads of government at the
Jakarta summit would agree to SLORC's request to become a full member of
ASEAN next year, despite some strong opposition from the Philippines and

Kavi Chongkittavorn, executive editor of the Nation, said that Philippine
President Fidel Ramos could be the lone objector to the request as Thai
caretaker Prime Minster Banharn Silipa-archa, who has little interest in
foreign diplomacy and Burma affairs, will likely go along with the ASEAN

He added that as ASEAN practices a rule of consensus, it will probably be a
matter of who raises the issue first as the association's leaders will not
want any political splits or confrontations.

Kavi muses that ASEAN will most likely agree to SLORC's application in the
long run, as the group does not normally reject such requests.

He cited Vietnam's surprise entry last year, despite concerns that the
country was not ready. 


October 30, 1996

Manila - The Philippines expects to maintain normal ties with the West if
military-ruled Burma gains membership to ASEAN, President Fidel Ramos said

ASEAN has rejected Western pleas to isolate their Asian neighbors
diplomatically to force it to improve its human  rights record.

With respect to new applicants "our position has always been to help
facilitate.. their accession to membership" in ASEAN, Ramos said at a joint
news conference here with visiting German Chancellor Helmut Kohl.

He said he did not believe this would affect "business and other forms of
cooperation in the further" with other countries.

Ramos said ASEAN leaders would "review" the organization's collective
approach of "constructive engagement with Burma when they hold a summit in
Jakarta next month.

He said that as far as the Philippines was concerned, "because this is an
open, democratic, liberal, and free market system... we would like to see as
much liberalization, deregulation, privatization and other forms of free
market measures and policies to be put in place all over the world." 


October 30, 1996

THE European Union has set a new standard for adopting a package of
sanctions against Burma's Slorc for its uncompromising attitude towards the
pro-democracy movement there. But that is not enough. Other countries in the
West and ASEAN need to cooperate and apply greater pressure on SLORC's
leaders to remind them that they cannot get away with their harsh treatment
of the people in Burma.

Hours before the action, SLORC's leaders released the deputy leader of the
NLD, Kyi Maung, to demonstrate their political prowess. The underlying
message is easy to understand - Slorc is in control of the country and its
leaders have the arbitrary power to do anything they deem fit in the name of
national security. It has become. More or less, a game  of cat and mouse
because Burma has faced the so-called Western pressure before and is likely
to withstand it again.

What must be done now is to bring the sanctions to a new level. This can be
achieved at the UN were the member countries are scheduled to debate the
situation in Burma some time at the end of next month. At the moment, the
UN's special envoy, Alvares de Soto, is negotiating with Slorc leaders with
regard to his planned visited to Rangoon as a follow-up to the UN mandate
and the complete a long-delayed report to be presented before the UN General
Assembly (UNGA).

It will be at a UNGA where the West's commitment toward democratization in
Burma and their economic interests in that country will be discussed. For
years, the West has constantly mentioned the need to apply pressure on
Burma, although nobody  has called for the imposition of comprehensive
sanctions in the same manner as was done towards Iraq and other pariah
states. In reality, both the US and the EU have a halt-hearted attitude when
it comes to the imposition of sanctions. Slorc knows that these countries'
commercial interests far exceed the desire to see democracy flourish in
Burma. It is up to the international community, therefore, to prove that
Slorc is wrong in assuming this.

Having said that, any further sanctions need the cooperation of ASEAN, which
has been acting as Burma's guardian in the name of solidarity within the
regional grouping. ASEAN has made it clear that it does not want to vote on
the upcoming UN resolution on Burma for fear that it would jeopardize their
ambitious plan to integrate the military regime. ASEAN has made known its
preference that the matter be resolved discreetly. However, if the West
finds the courage to call for the imposition of comprehensive trade
sanctions, which will be sponsored by the UN, then ASEAN will have to show
its commitment and comply as well with it.

The dilemma is that all the top five major investors in Burma, who have
poured in more than US $5 billion (Bt 125 billion), are either from the EU or
ASEAN. US investments are also on the rise.

Finally, the ASEAN delegation visiting Burma next week must be prudent
enough to inform SLORC's leaders that joining ASEAN involves more than just
technical matter and the fulfillment of the long-standing desire of ASEAN's
founding fathers to have all 10 countries in the regional belonging to one
group. It also requires commitment at all levels. In addition, Burma's a
membership must add to the creditability of ASEAN because the grouping has a
very good reputation in the world arena.

The EU has provided the much needed impetus to impose further sanctions
against Slorc. It is not true that Burma, which has been self-reliant for
the past four decades, will eternally continue to stand up against
international pressure without considering its economic ramifications. It is
only when the international community loses its determination to fight that
such a repressive regime like Slorc will continues gathering strength.


October 22, 1996  (New York Times)     (excerpt)
By Elaine Sciolino

[BurmaNet Editor's Note: We have included this excerpt because of the 
UNOCAL representative's statement on seeing a government installed that
has the support of the people and international recognition, something 
UNOCAL has insisted they do not need to do in Burma.]

After a brief flirtation with the Muslim movement known as the Taliban as
the apparent victor of the civil war in Afghanistan, the Clinton Administration
has decided to keep the Taliban at arms' length.

The decision reflects the fluid military situation in Afghanistan and the 
Administration's desire to distance itself - particularly during the
campaign - from a movement that has barred women from working and girls
from going to school and has control of vast areas where the opium poppy 
is grown.

 ...the UNOCAL Corporation, an American oil company, which is working with 
Saudi Arabia's Delta Oil Company to build a gas pipeline and an oil pipeline
from Turkmenistan to Pakistan through parts of Afghanistan under the Taliban's

Soon after the Taliban's capture of Kabul, Chris Taggart, executive vice 
president of UNOCAL International Energy Ventures, was quoted by Reuters as 
calling it "very positive".  

"We are fanatically neutral when it comes to politics," said Marty Miller, the 
UNOCAL vice president in charge of the project.  "What we need is a government
that has broad support of all the people of Afghanistan and that has
international recognition.  Until we have that in place, it will be
difficult to do the pipeline."


October 30, 1996

EUROPEAN sanctions aimed at pressuring Burma on human rights and democracy
will not affect European investments in the country, a senior Burmese
minister said yesterday.

Reacting to European Union sanctions imposed on Monday restricting visa
applications for Burmese officials, Energy Minister Khin Maung Thein said
that European investors will not back out of their huge steaks in Burma at

"These sanctions have no bearing on our present relations with these Western
companies," he said.

Khin Maung Thein was in Bangkok to  sign a memorandum of understanding with
the Petroleum Authority of Thailand paving the way for gas sales from Burma.

The Burmese minister said that Western companies investing in Burma -
particularly in the energy sector - are committed to massive projects from
which it would be difficult and costly to withdraw.

"There projects take a tremendous amount of financing and one cannot stop
(them) just because of sanctions," he said.

Under the latest measures, EU governments will required to turn down visa
applications from members of Burma's ruling junta, their families or senior
military and security officials.

High-level governmental contacts were also banned, and EU minister in
Brussels reaffirmed measures already taken against Rangoon, including an
arms embargo and the suspension of most bilateral development cooperation.

The steps were taken to pressure Burma to clean up its human rights record
and express concern at its lack of commitment towards democratization.

However, analysts said that the measure are only symbolic in nature and will
have no real impact on the Burmese junta, which seized power following a
bloody crackdown on pro-democracy demonstration in 1988.

Although some European companies have bowed to pressure at home and
withdrawn their investment in Burma, European firms remain active in Burma's
developing economy - particularly in the energy sector.

France has the highest value of investment in Burma of European countries,
thanks mainly to the estimated US$1.2 billion (Bt30 billion) invested by oil
giant Total in exploiting oil reserves in the Adaman Sea. (TN)


October 30, 1996

THE Burmese government has confirmed a sharp rise in natural gas reserves at
its Yadana field from 5.7 trillion cubic feet to 9.6 trillion cubic feet, a
development that could slow Thailand's negotiations to buy gas from other
countries, according to a senior official of the Petroleum Authority of

Piti Yimprasert, president of PTT's natural gas unit, said Thailand is
currently the only user of Yadana gas with a comment to buy 525 million
cubic feet per day for 30 years starting 1998, so it is in a good position
to negotiate to buy more gas from this filed.

He said PTT should wield more bargaining power in negotiations with
developers of the Natural filed of Indonesia and sources in Vietnam now that
it holds the opportunity to buy more gas from the Yadana filed, for which a
669-kilometre pipeline will be built to transport the gas to Thailand.

"The Yadana filled alone now has more gas reserves than the entire reserves
discovered in the Gulf of Thailand," the official added.

PTT yesterday signed a memorandum of understanding with Rangoon for gas from
another filed, Yetagun. 

Development of the Yetagun filed will entail build a separate pipeline from
the one being constructed to connect the Yadana filed with Thailand, another
PTT source said yesterday.

A 170-kilometre pipeline will be built to pipeline the natural gas from the
Yetagun field to the Thai border at Ban I-Tong in Kanchanaburi province.
There it will meet up with the Yadana pipeline being built by Total.

The PTT source, who asked not be named, said two separate pipelines were
needed because the gas from the two fields has different qualities and
different heating values. Thai officials at the border will check to make
sure the gas being sent from both fields meets the proper specifications.

Once in Thailand the gas from the two fields will be combined and
transported to Ratchaburi through a single 42-inch pipeline, which will be
built by PTT.

The PTT source said that if Thailand decides to buy more gas from the Yadana
filed, a booster can be added to the Yadana pipeline.

Piti added that Burmese officials had confirmed the additional reserve at
the Yadana field so that both countries can start negotiations on the
additional 3.9 trillion cubic feet.

At this stage, PTT plans to buy all the additional gas, but the price will
have to be lower than the US$3 per million BTU in the contract for 525
million cubic feet per day since developers will invest only marginally to
achieve increased capacity.

He hinted that the negotiation process may not be as speedy as the Burmese
would prefer. About two months ago, PTT signed a letter of intent with the
developer of the Natural filed in Indonesia to start negotiations to buy
gas. He said the increased reserve at Yadana should have an impact on the
negotiations with Indonesia. Tentatively, Thailand and Indonesia have agreed
that PTT will buy 1-2 billion cubic feet per day of gas for 30 years
starting in 2003.

Both sides have yet to agree on price. The Indonesia offer is higher than
US$3 per million BTU.

Meanwhile, Piti disclosed that PTT may propose the use of helicopters to
haul steel pipes to the deep forests of Kanchanaburi, through which part of
the Yadana 669-kilometer pipeline will pass. The Thai section of the
pipeline, for which PTT will take responsibility, is 270 kilometers long.
Only 6 kilometers of this section will pass through deep forests where
people are worried that the pipeline construction may damage the
environment. Piti said the use of helicopters to haul steel pipes to the
construction site will minimize the environmental damage but will cost an
additional US$25 million. PTT has a budget of Bt16 billion to build the
pipeline form the border to the Ratchaburi power plant.

The pipeline system is due to begin delivering gas on July 1, 1989.
Manessman of Germany has proposed the lowest price for the pipeline
construction and is expected to conclude negotiations with PTT next month. (TN)


October 30, 1996

1. Human rights abuses

1.1 Forced portering.

25.9.96: to accomplish the Ye-Tavoy railway and the gas pipeline, Lt.Gen Khin
Nyunt and regional SLORC commander Sit Maung came to check the work Progress.

At this time IB 104 had responsibility for security of Khin Nyunt's visit.
They forced porters to walk deep into the jungle, including one man suffering
from asthma (U Kha Shin). As they were climbing a mountain, this man slid
down and died. He was 27 years old and from Taungthonipn, Tavoy township.

27.9.96: at 9.00 am officers of LIB 273 together with officer of TOTAL held a
meeting at the TOTAL office at Ohnbinkwin, near Kanbauk, concerning pipeline
security. From the pipeline area they asked all the village headmen and 5 Ya
Wa Ta administrators to attend. At the meeting they explained that the
villages would have to take some responsibility for the security along the
pipeline, this would involve guard duty by day and night. They would have to
build small shelters along the pipe route for this guard duty and be on call
for the soldiers assigned to pipeline security.

1.2 Forced labor and torture

4.10.96: Ngar Mile village, Pelaw township, Mergui district, was ordered by
Major Lei Gyin of IB 101 to construct a road between Pelaw township and
Palauk township. Ngar Mile villages were forced to work on this road and had
to drag a heavy roller to level the earth. The roller was heavy enough to
require 6 persons to drag it. Six persons worked for shifts of one hour, if
they could not pull it they were beaten by the soldiers.

In October, SLORC troops of IB 433 demanded 2 rifles caught from Thie Ko
village and Sae Khao Hay village. The villagers faced a problem to come up
with the rifles at short notice. If they could not get them they were
threatened with relocation. SLORC troops took 24 persons and 2 elephants from
Thei Ko village for construction of a road between Kyoin Chaung and Thei Ko,
both in southern Mergui district. SLORC troops of IB 433 also took 5 persons
of Kaw Yo village and 3 from Kyein Chaung village. These people had to work
ten days, full-time. Since September the villagers from Kyein Chaung and Thei
Ko have been forced to build the road. Other villages located in the area had
to provide men also. Many from Thei Ko have fled to Thailand since the SLORC
have been regularly coming to take people to work on the road.

1.3 Extra-judicial killings.

26.10.96: from Shandot village, Pelaw township, Mergui district, one man Saw
Scree (35 years old), was killed by SLORC troops of IB 101, led by Major Lei
Kha Gyin. He was killed because he failed to come up with rifles as demanded
by the soldiers. It is hard for the villagers to get hold of automatic rifles
such as M16, and it would be dangerous for them to be found with such in
their possession. SLORC's tactic is to reduce the number of arms available to
the insurgent groups in the front line area.

1.4 Forced relocation.

8.10.96: SLORC troops of IB 17, led by Major Khin Maung Myint ordered Htee
Thee Day,Plaw Pa Ter, Tha Ya Ku, Chan Tha Oo, Wa Tha and Pit Tawn villages
to be relocated they were all in the Pawai area of Southern Mergui District.

They were given one day's notice to move. The Major said that if his soldiers
saw any villagers there after 9.10.96 they would be shot without
question. They were allow to go wherever they wished, no relocation place was
named for them. Some of them fled to other area, and some to the deep jungle,
they are without medicine, food or work. The majority of them are farmers
with small gardens, or some are daily laborers. The objective of SLORC is to
separate the villagers from the insurgent groups. It will become impossible
for the KNU to hide in the villages or for the villagers to supply them with
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October 29, 1996  (slightly abridged)

Luring clients to his industrial estate by promising cheap illegal workers from 
Myanmar brought Singh Tangcharoenchaichana to the attention of the Thai 

They praised him for forward thinking

"This is a case where the private sector has gone faster than the government so
we must play merely a supporting role," said the secretary-general of the
National Economic and Social Development Board, Sumeth Tantivejakul.

Fifteen minutes by rail from the famed "Bridge Over the River Kwai" and only 
66km from Myanmar, the one billion baht (US $40 million), 14-hectare
Kanchanaburi Industrial Zone has been built with the porous border in mind.

The Thai minimum wage in the province was recently raised to 128 baht (US$5)
per day, but Singh said workers coming in from Myanmar would work for less 
than half that.  Many of the low-wage workers in Kanchanaburi are ethnic 
Karen and Mon fleeing civil strife in Myanmar.

Singh's scheme has government approval.  In June, to ease a chronic labor 
shortage, the Thai government relaxed labor laws to allow more than 700,000
illegal workers - mostly from Myanmar - to work in more than half the country's 

In August, the Bangkok based construction giant Ital-Thai signed a
memorandum of understanding to develop a deep-sea port at Tavoy in Myanmar.
The port, 420 km south of Yangon but half that distance from Bangkok, would
give fast access to the Andaman Sea from Thailand, significantly cutting
shipping times to the Middle East and Europe.

When the shooting stops on the Myanmar side of the border, Singh said he 
would build a second industrial estate on the border near Bon Ti village.

The wedge of Myanmar between Thailand and the Andaman Sea is largely 
controlled by the Karen, one of the last ethnic rebel groups fighting the 
Yangon government.  

Numerous peace talks have failed but Singh said he was certain a settlement
ending the Karen's 48 year struggle for independence would be hammered 
out by the end of this year.

However, Saw Ler Lah, a Karen teacher and part-time soldier living in a 
village across the Myanmar border from Bon Ti, said peace with Yangon
was impossible.

"They may sign some paper in Yangon, but they will keep fighting us here
in the jungle," the Karen fighter said.

Singh, nevertheless, is supremely confident.  The flamboyant Thai-Chinese
businessman, whipping out a color snapshot of himself shaking hands with
Yangon's top brass, said his close connections would keep open his gateway
to Myanmar.

"This is Maung Maung Khin, Myanmar's Deputy Prime Minister," he said,
pointing to a ring-bejeweled finger."


October 22, 1996

Myanmar will increase crude oil and fuel imports to meet the growing local
fuel consumption, according to "The New Light of Myanmar" today.  The report
said that the Ministry of Energy is coordinating with foreign oil companies and
local enterprises to extend crude oil and fuel imports as local demand for fuel
is growing due to adoption of the market-oriented system in the country.  At
present, Myanmar imports 100 million US dollars worth of fuel annually.  The
daily consumption of petrol in the country is over 150,000 gallons and diesel
oil is over 400,000 gallons.


October 30, 1996

SINGAPORE - Singapore-listed Shangri-La Hotel Ltd plans to invest US$12.1
million (Bt302.5 million) in a project to construct a commercial complex in
Burma, Shangri-La said.

Shangri-La will take a 28 per cent stake in Burma-incorporated Trader Square
Company Ltd, which will develop the complex in Rangoon under a
build-operate-transfer (BOT) agreement with Burma's defense ministry,
Shangri-La said.


October 24, 1996 

The Myanmar government has launched a national greening project for nine
districts in central Myanmar, a Myanmar official said here today.  The remarks
were made by Minister for Forestry Chit Swe in his keynote address at a two-day
national awareness seminar during the convention on combating desertification,
which was commenced here today.  Myanmar has rich resources in forestry and
although there is no area in Myanmar that can be strictly called a sandy desert,
the central part of the country is hot and dry and is referred to as the dry
zone.  According to the latest data, a greening project was carried out for a
total area of over 13,749 hectares in central Myanmar in the 1995-96 fiscal year
ended March 31.  At the seminar, Myanmar Minister for Foreign Affairs U Ohn
Gyaw, who is also chairman of the National Commission for Environment
Affairs (NCEA), said that the NCEA always welcomes an opportunity to promote
environmental awareness in the country. 


October 24, 1996
By Michael Beer  mbeer@xxxxxxxxxxxxx

When President Clinton signed the Foreign Operations Appropriation, Fiscal
Year 1997, the enclosed Transparency of Budgets amendment became law. The
amendment calls for the U.S. Executive Director of each financial
institution to oppose loans to any government (ie. the SLORC) not conducting 
a civilian audit of its military budget. The law will begin three years
after the
enactment date of October 1996, to allow Treasury to develop a system for
implementation. This is a huge victory for the Year 2000 Campaign led by 
Oscar Arias. We encourage you to write thank you letters to Rep. Joseph 
Kennedy and Senator Patrick Leahy. 


SEC. 576. (a) LIMITATION. - Beginning three years after the date of the
enactment of this Act, the Secretary of the Treasury shall instruct the
United States Executive Director of each international financial
institution to use the voice and vote of the United States to oppose any
loan or other utilization of the funds of their respective institution,
other than to address basic human needs, for the government of any country
which the Secretary of the treasury determines -

	(1) does not have in place a functioning system for a civilian
audit of all receipts and expenditures that fund activities of the armed
forces and security forces;
	(2) has not provided a summary of a current audit to the

    (b) DEFINITION. - For purposes of this section, this term
"international financial institution" shall include the institutions
identified in section 532(b) of this Act. 

[examples of international money lending institutions include the International 
Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the Asian Development Bank]

Burma people...please send a note of thanks also to the campaign 2000 at 
pdd@clarknet or 202-319-0937.

Nonviolence International is an endorsing organization of Campaign 2000 
to Redirect World Military Spending to Human Development.


October 28, 1996
by Phil Robertson (probertson@xxxxxxxxxxxx)

Takoma Park, Maryland, last night (Oct 28) officially became the 8th city 
in the United States to pass selective purchasing legislation against 
companies doing business with Burma.  The vote of the Mayor and six 
council members was unanimous in favor of the ordinance which will 
prohibit business with equity ties to Burma from receiving municipal 
contracts from the City of Takoma Park.  The victory culminates a six 
month organizing campaign spearheaded by the Free Burma Campaign of 
Takoma Park with important assistance from local representatives of the 
National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB).  

Since the City will likely be purchasing police radios in the coming 
year, the ordinance will have an impact early, possibly steering a 
contract away from Ericsson, the Swedish telecommunications firm active 
in Burma.  The Free Burma Campaign of Takoma Park is looking for 
information from activists on alternative manufacturers of police radios 
(the type that are carried by the individual policeman, with a handheld 
mike that clips on to his/her shoulder) that we can provide to the City. 
 Since the City also has a selective purchasing ordinance against nuclear 
weapons manufacturers, it cannot purchase anything from Motorola.  Any 
information on this would be welcome, please send it to 

Snail mail contact address for the Free Burma Campaign of Takoma Park is 
6833-A Eastern Avenue, Apt. 34, Takoma Park, MD. 20912.  Phone: (301) 
270-1009, fax: c/o P. Robertson, (202) 785-4866.