Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronyms

Abbreviations

Terms

Measurements

Spellings

Disputed Areas of Demarcation

 Acronyms

 

AAPP                               

Assistance Association for Political Prisoners

AAPPB                             

Assistance Association of Political Prisoners- Burma

AASYC

All Arakan Students and Youth Congress

ABFSU  

All Burma Federation of Student Unions

ABFSU-FAC 

All Burma Federation of Student Unions – Foreign Affairs Committee

ABMU                              

All Burma Muslim Union

ABRC

All Burma Refugees Committee

ABSDF                             

All Burma Students’ Democratic Front

ABFSU                             

All Burma Federation of Student Unions

ADPC

Asian Disaster Preparedness Center

ADSL                               

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

AFP

Agence France Presse

AFPLF

Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League

AHRC

Asian Human Rights Commission

AI

Amnesty International

AIDS   

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

AIR

All India Radio

ALA

Arakan Liberation Army

ALD

Arakan League for Democracy

ALP

Arakan Liberation Party

ALRC

Asian Legal Resource Center

AP

Associated Press

APFWLD

Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development

ARAC

Arakanese Refugees Affairs Committee

ARNO

Arakan Rohingya National Organization

ARV

Anti-retroviral treatment

ASEAN

Association of South-East Asian Nations

BAD

Border Area Development

BBC

Burma Border Consortium

BBC                                 

British Broadcasting Corporation

BC

Bagan Cybertech

BCN                                 

Burma Centrum Nederlands

BDR

Bangladesh Rifles

BERG                               

Burma Ethnic Research Group

BESU                               

Basic Education Student Union

BI

Burma Issues

BLC

Burma Lawyers' Council

BLSO

Burma Labor Solidarity Organization

BMA

Burma Media Alliance

BMA

Burmese Media Association

BNA

Burma News Association

BP

Bangkok Post

BSI

Bureau of Special Investigation

BSPP

Burmese Socialist Program Party

BWU

Burmese Women’s Union

CAD

Culture and Arts Developers

CAPS

Continuous Assessment and Progression System

CATW

Coalition against Trafficking in Women

CBC

Calvary Baptist Church 

CCSDPT

Committee for the Coordination of Services for Displaced Persons in Thailand

CCTV

China Central Television

CD

Compact Disk

CEC

Central Executive Committee

CEDAW

Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women

CEO

Chief Executive Officer

CESCR

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

CHRO

Chin Human Rights Organization

CIA

Central Intelligence Agency

CIA

Chin Integrated Army

CICC

Center for the International Cooperation for Computerization

CID

Criminal Investigations Department

CIDKP

Committee for Internally Displaced Karen Persons

CNA

Chin National Army

CNC

Chin National Confederation

CNF

Chin National Front

CNN

Cable News Network

COMMIT

Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative against Trafficking

CPB

Communist Party of Burma

CPJ

Committee to Protect Journalists

CRC

Convention on the Rights of the Child

CSW

Christian Solidarity Worldwide

CU

Cultural University

DAB

Democratic Alliance of Burma

DDSI

Directorate of Defense Services Intelligence

DHF

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

DKBA

Democratic Karen Buddhist Army

DKBO

Democratic Karen Buddhist Organization

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

DOTS

Directly Observed Treatment Short Course

DPA

Deutsche Presse Agence

DPDC

District Peace and Development Council

DPNS

Democratic Party for A New Society

DSA

Defense Services Academy

DSI

Defence Service Intelligence

DVB

Democratic Voice of Burma

ECS

Economic Cooperation Strategy

ENC

Ethnic Nationalities Council

ENSCC

Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Cooperation Committee

EP

Employee Pass

ERI

EarthRights International

ESCAP

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

EU

European Union

E-visa

Electronic Visa

EWEC

East-West Economic Corridor

FBR

Free Burma Rangers

FEC

Foreign Exchange Certificates

FOT

Field Observation Team

FRC

Foreign Resident Card

FTI

Federation of Thai Industries

FTUB

Federation of Trade Unions – Burma

FTUK

Federation of Trade Unions-Kawthoolei

GAIL

Gas Authority India Ltd.

GBA

Gankaw Baptist Association

GDP

Gross Domestic Product

HQ

Headquarters

HRDU

Human Rights Documentation Unit

HREIB

Human Rights Education Institute of Burma

HRP

Hongsowatoi Restoration Party

HRW

Human Rights Watch

HURFOM

Human Rights Foundation of Monland

IB

Infantry Battalion

ICBL

International Campaign to Ban Landmines

ICFTU

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions

ICG

International Crisis Group

ICRC

International Committee of the Red Cross

ICT

Information and Communication Technology

ID

Identity

IDC

Immigration Detention Center

IDP

Internally Displaced Person

ILC

International Labor Conference

ILO

International Labour Organization

IMNA

Independent Mon News Agency

INGO

International Non Governmental Organization

INO

Inntha National Organization

IOM

International Organization for Migration

IRC

International Rescue Committee

IRD

Internal Revenue Department

ISG

Interim Shan Government

ISP

Internet Services Providers

IT

Information Technology

ITBMU

International Theravada Buddhist Missionary University

KB

Kanbawza Bank

KCBA

Kuki Chin Baptist Association

KDA

Kachin Defense Army

KDP

Kokang Democratic Party

KHRG

Karen Human Rights Group

KIA

Kachin Independence Army

KIC

Karen Information Committee

KIO

Kachin Independence Organization

KNA

Karen National Association

KnA

Karenni Army

KNAHR

Karenni News Agency for Human Rights

KNDA

Karenni National Defence Army

KNG

Karen National Guard

KNLA

Karen National Liberation Army

KNLP

Kayan New Land Party

KNPLF

Karenni National People’s Liberation Front

KNPP

Karenni National Progressive Party

KnSO

Karenni National Solidarity Organization

KNU

Karen National Union

KORD

Karen Office for Relief and Development

KRC

Karen Relief Committee

KSDP

Karenni Student Development Program

KSWC

Karenni Social Welfare Committee

KVTBA

Kabaw Valley Thadou Baptist Association

KWAT

Kachin Women’s Association of Thailand

KWO

Karen Women’s Organization

LDF

Lahu Democratic Front

LIB

Light Infantry Battalion

LID

Light Infantry Division

LNO

Lahu National Organization

LPO

Labor Protection Office

MAMD

Mon Army, Mergui District

MAN

Muslim Agency for News

MANA

Myanmar Anti-Narcotic Association

MAP

Migrant Assistance Program Foundation

MART

Myanmar Agricultural Produce Trade

MAS

Military Affairs Security

MCWA

Maternal and Child Welfare Association

MHD

Malteser Hilfdienst Deutschland

MI

Malteser International

MI

Military Intelligence

MICTDC

Myanmar Information Communications and Technology Development Corporation

MLCC

Mon Literature and Culture Committee

MMA

Myanmar Medical Association

MMCWA

Myanmar Maternal and Child Welfare Association

MNA

Myanmar Nurses Association

MNCWA

Myanmar National Working Committee for Women’s Affairs

MNDAA

Myanmar National Democracy Alliance Army (MNDAA-Kokang)

MNDF

Mon National Democratic Front

MNF

Mon National Front

MNLA

Mon National Liberation Army

MOB

Myanmar Oriental Bank

MOGE

Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise

MOI

Thai Ministry of the Interior

MOMC

Military Operation Management Command

MoU

Memorandum of Understanding

MP

Member of Parliament

MPF

Myanmar Pharmaceutical Factory

MPT

Ministry of Post and Telecommunications

MRA

Monland Restoration Army

MRC

Myanmar Red Cross

MRTLC

Myanmar Rice Trading Leading Committee

MSF

Medecins Sans Frontieres

MTA

Mong Thai Army

MUB

Myanmar Universal Bank

MWAF

Myanmar Women’s Affairs Federation

MWEA

Myanmar Women's Entrepreneurs Association

NC

National Convention

NCGUB

National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma

NCSM

Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland 

NCUB

National Council of the Union of Burma

NDAA

National Democratic Alliance Army (NDAA-east Shan State)

NDA-K

New Democratic Army-Kachin

NDD

Network for Democracy and Development

NDF

National Democratic Front

NDPHR

National Democratic Party for Human Rights

NGO

Non-Governmental Organization

NG-SS

New Generation- Shan State

NHEC

National Health and Education Committee

NHK

Japanese Broadcasting Corporation

NHPC

National Hydroelectric Power Corporation

NIB

National Intelligence Bureau

NLD

National League for Democracy

NLD-LA

National League for Democracy-Liberated Area

NLM

New Light Myanmar

NMG

Network Media Group

NMSP

New Mon State Party

NSC

National Security Council

NSCN

National Socialist Council of Nagaland

NTF

National Task Force

NUPA

National United Party of Arakan

NWCWA       

National Working Committee for Women's Affairs

OCMI 

Office of the Chief of Military Intelligence

OMAS

Office of the Military Affairs Security

ONGC

Oil and Natural Gas Corporation

OSI

Open Society Institute

OSS    

Office of Strategic Studies

PABs  

Provincial Admissions Boards

PDC   

Peace and Development Council

PDF

People’s Defense Front

PHR    

Physicians for Human Rights

PLF    

Palaung Liberation Front

PLO    

Pa-O Liberation Organization

PNO   

Pa-O National Organization

POC   

Persons of Concern

PPLO

Pa-O People’s Liberation Organization

PR      

Permanent Resident

PR      

Public Relations

PSB    

Press Scrutiny Board

PSLP  

Palaung State Liberation Party

PSO

People’s Strength Organization

PSRB                                 

Press Scrutiny and Registration Board

PSRD

Press Scrutiny and Registration Division

PTT-EP

Petroleum Authority of Thailand Exploration and Production Public Co. Ltd

PYAN

Palaung Youth Action Network.

PYNG

Palaung Youth Networking Group

RELA

Volunteer Corp (Ikatan Relawa Rakyat)

RFA    

Radio Free Asia

RI

Refugees International

RM

Ringgit

RNA

Rohingya National Alliance

RPDC

Electric Power Development Company

RPG

Rocket Propelled Grenade

RRRC

Refugee Relief and Repatriation Commission

RSANFSP

Rakhine State All National Races Solidarity Party

RSF

Reporters Sans Frontieres

SDA

Seventh Day Adventist

SDC

Special Detention Centre  

SEAPA

Southeast Asian Press Alliance

SEARC

Southeast Asia Research Centre

SEARIN

South East Asia Rivers Network

SHAN

Shan Herald Agency for News

SHRF

Shan Human Rights Foundation

SID

Special Investigations Department

SLORC

State Law and Order Restoration Council

SMNC

Sangha Maha Navaka Committee

SNLD

Shan Nationalities League for Democracy

SNPLG

Shan Nationality People’s Liberated Group

SPDC

State Peace and Development Council

SPIF

Special Police Information Force

SSA

Shan State Army 

SSA-N

Shan State Army- North

SSA-S

Shan State Army- South

SSKDP

Shan State Kokang Democratic Party

SSNA

Shan State National Army

SSNLO

Shan State Nationalities Liberation Organization

SSNPLO

Shan State Nationalities People’s Liberation Organization

SSPC

Shan State Peace Council

STD

Sexually Transmitted Disease

SUARAM

Suara Rakyat Malaysia

SWAN

Shan Women's Action Network

SYCB

Student Youth Congress of Burma

SYNG

Shan Youth Network Group

SYUF

Student and Youth Union Front 

TB

Tuberculosis

TBBC

Thailand Burma Border Consortium

THPP

Tamanthi Hydroelectric Power Project

TOC

Tactical Operation Command

TPDC

Township Peace and Development Council

TWU

Tavoy Women’s Union

U.S.

United States

UDHR

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

UK

United Kingdom

UMFCCI

Union of Myanmar Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry

UN

United Nations

UNA

United Nationals Alliance

UNAIDS

Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS

UNDP

United Nations Development Program

UNESCO

United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNFPA

United Nations Population Fund

UNHCR

United Nations High Commission on Refugees

UNICEF

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund

UNLD-LA

United Nationalities League for Democracy – Liberated Area

UPE

Universalization of Primary Education

USAID

United States Agency for International Development

USCRI

U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants

USDA

Union Solidarity and Development Association

UWSA

United Wa State Army

UXO

Un-Exploded Ordinance

VBSW

Vigorous Burmese Student Warriors

VOA

Voice of America

VPDC

Village Peace and Development Council

WCDRB

Working Committee for Demonstration Restoration in Burma

WFP

World Food Program

WHO

World Health Organization

WLB

Women's League of Burma

WNA

Wa National Army

WNO

Wa National Organisation

YCOWA

Yaung Chi Oo Workers’ Association

YMA

Young Mizo Association

ZNC

Zomi National Congress

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 Abbreviations

 

a.k.a

also known as

approx.           

approximately

Brig.

Brigadier

Capt.

Captain

Comdr. 

Commander

Col.

Colonel

Cpl.

Corporal

ft.                    

feet

Gen.                

General

Lt.                   

Lieutenant

kg.                  

kilogram

km.                 

kilometer

Maj.                

Major

m.                   

meter

mm.                 

millimeter

n.a.                  

not available

Sgt.                 

Sergeant

sq.                   

square

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Terms

 

baht

monetary unit of Thailand (see “Measurements”)

Bo

military commander

crore

monetary unit of India (see "Measurements")

Daw

an honorific used to address an adult female

furlong

(see “Measurements”)

Kawthoolei

Karen name for the Karen nation

Khun

polite form of address in the Thai language

Ko

Burmese form of address to a young male

kyat

monetary unit in Burma

longyi

Burmese word for sarong

Ma

Burmese form of address to a young female

Mahn

Burmese form of address to a Karen male

Maung

Burmese form of address to a young male

Mehm/Min

form of address to a young Mon male

Mi

form of address to a Mon female

Nai

Burmese form of address to an adult Mon male

Naw

Burmese form of address to a Karen female

plah

Karen measurement of distance, from elbow to fingertip (1 plah is under 2 feet)

pya

100 pyas = 1 kyats

pyi

eight-condensed-milk tins

Sai

Burmese form of address to a young Shan male

Sangha

Buddhist order of monks

Sao

male of Shan royal descent

Saw

form of address to a Karen male

Sayadaw

presiding monk of a Buddhist monastery

Shwedagon

The Great Pagoda in Rangoon

Tatmadaw

Burmese Armed Forces

Thakin

master; lord (used to address the British colonial rulers; later politicized by the Burmese independence movement in the 1930s)

tickle

(see “Measurements”)

tin

(see “Measurements”)

tract (village)

area consisting of 4-6 villages

U

an honorific used to address an adult male in Burma

viss

(see “Measurements”)

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Measurements

 

acre

1 acre = 4,840 sq. yards = 0.407 hectare

 

2.471 acres = 11,960 sq. yards =  1 hectare 

 

640 acres = 1 sq. mile = 2.590 sq. km.

baht

1 baht = 100 satang

1baht = US$0.02

crore

1 crore = 10 million

FEC

1 FEC = US$1 = kyat 6.5 (official)

 

1 FEC = kyat 750 (unofficial)

furlong

1 furlong = 220 yards (1/8) mile = 201 meters

lakh

1 lakh = 100,000

tin

1 tin = 16 pyi

1 pyi

(rice/condensed milk tin) = approx. 250 ml

viss

1 viss = 3.6 lbs = 1.633 kg

 

622.22 viss = 1 long ton (2,240 lbs) = 1.016 metric tons

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Spellings

 

Since there are no standardized transcriptions in the Roman alphabet for Burmese and other ethnic languages, words are spelt in a variety of ways, according to different spelling conventions or by how they sound. In addition, spellings have further been confused by the ruling junta’s official Burmanization of well-known English terminology (e.g. Myanmar for Burma). To avoid confusion and politicization, this report will restrict its use of language to the anglicized spellings.

 

A list of alternative spellings are provided as follows:

 

Ayeyarwady

Irrawaddy

Bagan

Pagan

Bago

Pegu

Bamar

Burman

Dawei

Tavoy

Hpa-an

Pa-an

Kayah

Karenni

Kayin

Karen

Magway

Magwe

Mawlamyine

Moulmein

Myeit

Mergui

Myanmar

Burma

Pathein

Bassein

Pyay

Prome

Sittoung

Sittaung

Sittwe

Akyab

Tanintharyi

Tenasserim

Thandwai

Sandoway

Thanlwin

Salween River

Taungyin

Moei River

Yangon

Rangoon

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Disputed Areas of Demarcation

 

Karen State

 

Dooplaya District

 

Dooplaya District is entirely demarcated by the KNU as Karen territory and patrolled by the 6th Brigade of the KNLA. The SPDC, however, designates Dooplaya District as falling mostly in Karen State with some portions in Mon State. 

 

Pa-an and Papun Districts

 

Pa-an and Papun Districts is under the patrol of the 7th Brigade and 5th Brigade respectively. The SPDC, however, does not officially recognize these districts. Instead, the SPDC has demarcated three districts (Kawkareik, Myawaddy, and Pa-an) and seven townships (Than Daung, Papun, Hlaing Bwe, Pa’an, Kawkareik, Myawaddy, and Kya In Seik Gyi). These townships do not correspond with the KNU demarcated districts and townships, even for those which share the same name.

 

Mon State

 

Thaton District

 

Thaton District is demarcated by the KNU as part of Karen territory and under the patrol of the 1st Brigade of the KNLA. Thaton District falls mostly in the SPDC demarcated area of Mon State, while the area to the east of the Donthami River lies within SPDC demarcated Karen State.

 

Pegu Division

 

Nyaunglebin District

 

Nyaunglebin District is demarcated by the KNU as Karen territory and under the patrol of the 3rd Brigade of the KNLA. The SPDC, however, does not officially recognize Nyaunglebin District. Rather the area of Nyaunglebin District falls in SPDC demarcated Pegu Division.

 

Toungoo District

 

Toungoo District is demarcated by the KNU as Karen territory and is under the patrol of the 2nd Brigade of the KNLA. The SPDC, however, does not officially recognize Toungoo District. Toungoo District falls partially in SPDC demarcated Pegu Division and partially in Karen State.

 

Tenasserim Division

 

Mergui-Tavoy District

 

Mergui-Tavoy District is an area demarcated by the KNU as part of Karen territory and is under the patrol of the 4th Brigade of the KNLA. The SPDC does not recognize Mergui-Tavoy as an official district. Rather, the area falls into SPDC demarcated Tenasserim Division.

 

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Facts on Human Rights Violations