Professor Emeritus, Rutgers University
A. Books, monographs and special
publications written or edited:
Self-study Guide to Burma's Geography, peoples and Culture, History, Social Issues, Economics, Politics
and Foreign Affairs. Washington, Department of State, 2001.
2. Ed. and Contributor, Political
Legacy of Aung San. Ithaca:
Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1972; revised and enlarged, 1993.
3. Ed. and Contributor, Independent
Burma at Forty Years: Six Assessments. Ithaca:
Southeast Asia Program, 1989.
4. Burmese Politics: The
Dilemma of National Unity. New Brunswick:
Military Rule and the Politics of Stagnation. Ithaca:
6. Two Papers on Burma. Canberra:
Department of Political Science and Social Change, Australian
7. Ed. and Contributor, The Future of Burma in Perspective: A Symposium. Athens:
Center for International Studies,
8. Ed. and Contributor, Southeast Asia
in World War II: Four Essays. New Haven:
Southeast Asia Studies, 1966.
B. Articles in Books, Monographs and
1. "Prospect for the Democratic Transition in Burma."
Legal Issues on Burma Journal. No. 12,
August, 2002. Pp. 3-16
and the World: A Decade of Foreign Policy Under the
State Law and Order Restoration Council," Robert Taylor (ed) Burma: Political Economy Under Military Rule.
London: Hurst & Co. 2001, pp.
3. "Some Thoughts on Burma-Thai Relations," Legal Issues on Burma Journal. No. 6, Sept. 2000, pp. 1-15.
Struggle for Democracy: The Army Against the
People." R.J. May & Viberto Selochan (eds),
The Military and Democracy in Asia and
the Pacific. Bathurst: Crawford
House Publishing, 1998. pp. 69-87.
5. "The Evolution and Salience of Burma's National
Culture," R. Rotberg (ed) Burma: Prospects for a Democratic Future. Washington:
Brookings Institution Press, 1998. pp. 11-32.
6. "East Asia: A Year of Uneven
Progress," New York: Freedom
House, Freedom in the World: 1997-1998.
1998. pp. 44-54.
7. "The Idea of Freedom in Burma
and the Political Thought of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi," David Kelly and Anthony
Reid (eds), Asian Freedoms: The Idea of Freedom in East and Southeast Asia. Cambridge:
Press, 1998. pp. 187-203. [revised, shortened and retitled, "The Idea of Freedom in Burma"
Richardo Blaug and John Schwarzmantel, Democracy:
A Reader. Edinburgh: Edinburgh
University Press, 2000. pp.
430-434. Published originally in a shortened form in Pacific Affairs, Summer 1996.]
8. "Fifty Years of Failure in Burma,"
Michael Brown & Sumit Ganguily
(eds) Government, Politics and Ethnic Relations in Asia and the Pacific. Cambridge:
The MIT Press, 1997. pp. 167-196.
9. "The Civil War, The
Minorities and Burma's
New Politics." Peter Carey (ed), Burma: The Challenge of Change in a Divided
Society. New York, St.
Martin's Press, 1997. pp. 129-156.
10. "Federalism as a Solution in the Ethnic Problem in Burma."
Gunther Bachler (ed) Federalism
Against Ethnicity. Zurich, Verlag Rugger, 1997. pp. 261-268.
Uneven Struggle," Journal of
Democracy, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1996. pp. 88-103.
12. "Change in Burma,"
Current History, Dec. 1995, 440-443
13. "Some Concluding Thoughts," Norma Mahmoud (ed) Rethinking Political Development in Southeast Asia. Kuala Lumpur,
University of Malaya
Press, 1994. pp. 147-155.
14. "Introduction," Government Printing Office,
NCGUB, Marc Weller, (ed) Democracy and Politics in Burma.
in International Perspective." Asian Survey. XXVII, 10, (1992) pp.
16."Minorities in Burma:
Civil War, Peace and a Responsible Role for the International Community."
(in German) Birma: Ringen Um Eine Demokratice Und Frieden Mit Den Minderheiten. Frankfort:
edp. DOKUMENTATION, 43/91 Oct. 1991, pp. 50-60.
Domestic Challenges in the 1990s." Rohana Mahmood & Hans-Joachim Esderts
(eds) Myanmar and the Wider World. Kuala Lumpur,
Institute of Strategic and International Studies, (1991) 11-22.
18."Aung San Suu Kyi: Is She Burma's
Woman of Destiny?" Asian Survey,
XXX, 10, (1990), pp. 1007-1019. [revised and published
in Aung San Suu Kyi, Freedom From Fear
and Other Writings. London:
Penguin, 1991.pp. 267-283.]
19. "Introduction," Bertil Lintner, Outrage: Burma's Struggle for Democracy. Hong
Kong: Review Publishing Company Ltd. 1989. pp.5-6.
20. "Civil War and Rebellion in Burma,"
Journal of Southeast Asian Studies,
XXI, 1, (1990) 114-135.
21. "Ethnic Protest in Burma:
Its Causes and Solutions. Rajeshwari Ghose (ed) Protest Movements in South and Southeast Asia. Hong Kong:
Centre of Asian studies, 1987. Pp. 81-84.
22. "From a Political to an Administrative State,
1948-1988. Whatever Happened to Democracy?" in Josef Silverstein (ed) Independent Burma at Forty Years. op.cit, pp. 7-18.
23. "National Unity in Burma:
Is it Possible? Kusuma Snitwongse
& Sukhumbhand Paribatra,
Durable Stability in Southeast Asia. Singapore:
Institute of Southeast
East Asian Studies, 1986. Pp. 75-95.
in 1985: A Nation on Hold." Southeast Asian Affairs. 1986. pp. 55-67.
25. "The Other Side of Burma's
Struggle for Independence," Pacific Affairs, Spring,
LVIII, 1, 1985. Pp. 98-108.
Through the Prism of Western Literature." Journal of Southeast Asian
Studies, XVI, 1985. pp. 129-140.
a Time for Decision. Current
History, 497, (1984) Pp.442-445.
28. "The Military and Foreign Policy in Burma
XXII, 3, 1982. 278-291.
in 1981: The Changing of the Guardians Begins." Asian Survey, XXII, 2, 1982, pp. 180-190.
in 1980: an Uncertain Balance Sheet." Asian
Survey, XXI, 2, 212-222.
31. "Minority Problems in Burma
Since 1962." F.K. Lehman (ed)
Military Rule in Burma Since 1962. Singapore:
Maruzen Asia, 1981, pp. 51-58.
32. "U Thant's Place in
History." Asia Supplement No. 3, Spring,
1977. pp. 1-16.
33. "Students in Southeast Asian Politics, Pacific Affairs, 1976, vol 49, pp. 189-212.
34. "Change or the Same: the New Constitution of Burma
in Action. Spectrum, 1974, III, 1,
51-57. [revised and republished under the new title,
"From Soldiers to Civilians: The New Constitution in Action." Josef
Silverstein (ed) The
Future of Burma in Perspective (op .cit.) pp. 80-92.]
R.M. Smith (ed.) Southeast
Political Development and Change. Ithaca:
Press, 1974. pp. 87- 163.
36. "Forward," Albert D. Moscotti,
Burma Policy and the Nationalist Movement in Burma, 1917-1937. Hawaii:
University of Hawaii
Press, l974, pp. vii-x.
37. "Introduction," Ma Mya Sein, The Administration of Burma. Kuala Lumpur,
Oxford University Press, 1973, pp. vii-xv.
38. "Forward," Lau and Lee, New Directions in the International Relations of Southeast Asia. Singapore:
Press, 1973. 2 vols. pp. v- x.
39. "The Federal Dilemma in Burma,"
John T. MacAllister Jr. (ed)
Southeast Asia: the Politics of National Integration.
New York: Random House, 1973, pp.
432-449. Article reprinted from Far
Eastern Survey, XXVIII, 7 1959.
40. "A New Vehicle on Burma's
Road to Socialism," Asia, No. 29, Spring 1973.
Ne Win's Revolution Considered," S.N. Eisenstadt,
Political Sociology, New
York: Basic Books, 1971. pp, 609-613. reprinted from Asian
Survey, 1966. VI, 2.
42. "Burmese Students in a Changing Society, Seymour M.
Lipset and Philip G. Altbachs
in Revolt. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin Co. 1969. pp. 334-347. Reprinted from Daedalus, No 97,
I, 1968. Also reprinted in Philip G. Altbach (ed) The Student Revolution. Bombay:
Lalvani Publishing House, 1970.
43. "Burmese and Malaysian Student Politics: A
Preliminary Comparative Inquiry." Journal
of Southeast Asian Studies, 1970, I, l, 3-22.
44. "Political Dialogue in Burma:
A New Turn on the Road to Socialism," Asian
Survey, 1970, X, 2, pp. 133-142.
45. "The Burmese Socialist Program Party: A One-Plus
Party System." Journal
of Southeast Asian History, VIII, 1967, pp.8-18.
46. "Military Rule in Burma,"
Current History, No. 52, 1967, pp.
47. "Problems in Burma:
Economic, Political and Diplomatic." Asian
Survey, VII,2, 1967, pp. 117-125.
48. "The Importance of the Japanese Occupation in Southeast
Asia to the Political Scientist.," Josef Silverstein (ed) Southeast Asia in World War II, op.cit.
49. "The Minami Organ: A Bridgehead in Burmese-Japanese
Relations," United Asia, Sept-Oct. 1965, pp. 361-366.
50. "Politics and Railroads in Burma
Journal of Southeast Asian History,V,
1964; reprinted from the Journal of the
Burma Research Society, XLV. 1962. pp. 78-89.
G. McT. Kahin, (ed) Governments and Politics of Southeast Asia. Ithaca:
Cornell University Press, 1959; revised and enlarged, 1964. pp.
52. "First Steps on the Burma Road
to Socialism," Asian Survey,
IV, 1964. pp. 716-722.
53. " From Democracy to Dictatorship in Burma,"
Current History. No.
46, Feb. 1964 pp. 83-88.
54. "Politics in the Shan
State: The Question of Secession
from the Union of Burma., Journal of Asian Studies, XVIII,
(Nov.1958) pp. 43-57.
55. "Parties, Politics and the National Election in Burma."
Far Eastern Survey, XXV, 12, 1956,
56. "Transportation in Burma
During the Japanese Occupation. Journal of the Burma Research Society, XXXIX, 1956, pp. 1-17.
JOINTLY AUTHORED ARTICLES:
with Julian Wohl,
University of Toledo.
1. "The Burmese
University Student: An Approach to
Personality and Subculture," Public
Opinion Quarterly, XXX, 2, 1966, pp. 237-248.
2. "University Students and Politics in Burma,"
Pacific Affairs, XXX111, 1, 1964,
with Lynn Silverstein
1."David Marshall and Jewish Emigration from China.
China Quarterly, 75, Sept.1978, pp. 647-654.
ARTICLES IN REFERENCE WORKS:
Academic American Encyclopedia,
Encyclopaedia Americana, 1991, 1990.
Collier's Yearbook, 1990, 1989, 1988.
4. Southeast Asia, Political Handbook of the World, 1979.
Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th Ed.
6.. The Vietnam War, Junior Encyclopaedia
The Far East and Australasia. 1972 and onward through 1991 with annual updates.
ARTICLES IN NEWSPAPERS AND POPULAR JOURNALS.
1. "Its Time To Begin a True
Dialogue in Burma,"
Bangkok Post, March 10, 1994
(hereafter cited as BP).
2. "Some Thoughts About the
Political Changes in Burma,
BP, Feb. 1994.
3. "For the Minorities: A Reckoning." International Herald Tribune, Dec. 23,
1993.(hereafter cited as IHT)
Could Pressure SLORC to Change." The
Nation (Bangkok), Aug. 10, 1993.(hereafter cited as TN).
5. "Reshaping the Battle
IHT, Aug. 25, 1992.
6. "Recognizing Burma's
Democrats." Asian Wall Street
Journal, Aug. 24, 1992.
(hereafter cited as AWSJ)
7. "The Burmese junta Tried Cosmetics," IHT, May 18, 1992.
30 years Under an Iron Fist," IHT.
March 28, 1992.
9. "Die Achillesferse Der Diktatur ist
die Internationale Anerkennung,"
Oct. 24, 1991.
10. "The Outside World Can help Burmese to Break
Free," IHT, Oct. 18, 1991.
11. "Lies, Damn Lies and Burma's
Junta," AWSJ, May 27, 1991.
12. "Take up the Cause of a Free Burma," IHT, July 19, 1991.
Deny Legitimacy to the Discredited Junta," IHT. May 27(?), 1991.
14. "New Burmese Unity rekindles hope for
Democracy," Asia Wall Street
Journal Weekly. Feb. 11, 1991.(hereafter cited as AWSJW).
15. "Change may be Coming to Burma," IHT. Feb. 7, 1991.
16. "The People of Burma
Wait Impatiently for Change," World
and I, Vol 10, Oct.1990. 112-118.
17. "The Burmese People have Spoken, But
Does the Military Hear?” IHT, June 7 1990.
18. "Don"t Be Fooled by Burma's
Election." IHT, May 15, 1990.
19. "The Shadows in Burma
Aren't from Democracy, IHT January 26, 1990.
a Year after Crackdown; Hope Remains Dim," IHT, September 18, 1990.
Hasn't Worked." IHT, June 8, 1989.
Army Won't be Written Out of the Script," IHT, Oct. 8-9, 1988.
23. "Amid Unrest, Burma's
Economic Policy Shift Goes Unnoticed," AWSJW, Sept. 5, 1988.
24. "Foreign Mediation Could Help End Burma's
Civil War, Far Eastern Economic Review,
May 19, 1988, pp. 28-29.
25. "Clouds of Unrest Darken Over Burma,"
AWSJW, May 9, 1988.
26. "Is Burma
Serious About Reform? AWSJW.
Oct. 12, 1987.
27. "Facts and Fiction of Burma's
Economy," AWSJW, Apr. 20, 1987.
Dirties its Hands in Burma's
Wars." AWSJW, Aug. 11, 1988.
29. "An Opportunity for Peace in
Burma," AWSJW, May 27, 1988.
30. "Looking Past opium in Burma's
Battles," AWSJ, Nov. 20, 1984. Reprinted
in Wall Street Journal, August 6, 1984. Reprinted in AWSJW, Aug. 13, 1984.
31. "Burmese Politics: Tremors at the Top." AWSJ May 7, 1984. Reprinted in AWSJW, May 11, l984.
SELECTED NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL
1.Asian Institute Foundation, Bangkok,
Institute for Policy Research and Information and Resource
"Constructive Engagement in Asia: Economic and
Political Dimensions." Aug. 20-23, 1997, Grand Hyatt Erawan Hotel, Bangkok.
Presented paper: Constructive Engagement
with Burma: Has it Worked in
the Past? Will it Work in the Future?
2.International Convention for the Restoration of Democracy
in Burma, Speaker's Hall, Constitution Club, Rafi Marg, New Delhi, January 4- 6, 1996. I read a paper on Constitutional Issues in Burma.
3. World Peace Foundation, "Conference on the Political
and Economic Reconstruction of Burma,"
December 5-7, 1996. I read
a paper entitled, The Evolution and
Salience of Burma's National Political Culture.
4.Institute of Strategic and
International Studies, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,
Feb. 14, 1996. Lecture to
guests of the Institute. Burma: Play the Waiting Game.
5. Graduate Centre for South Asian Studies, University
of Toronto and Canadian Friends of Burma,
"Symposium on Politics and Economy of Burma
17-18, 1995, University College, Croft
Chapter House, University of Toronto. I read a paper, The
1994 UN Resolution on Burma: What the Secretary General Can Do.
6. Asian Studies Group, Canadian Friends of Burma, Ottawa, Tairex Exploration Ltd. Calgary
and Religious Studies
of Calgary, "Burma
Into the 21st Century," April 1, 1995. University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.
I gave the keynote address: Burma Into the 21st Century.
and the National Council of the Union of Burma, International Seminar on the Future Federal Constitution of Burma."
Bayview Park Hotel, Manila,
Philippines, Oct. 23-28, 1995.
I gave a paper on Draft
of the Federal Constitution of the Democratic Alliance of Burma.
8. The Australian-Burma Council and the Research Institute
for Asia and Pacific. University
of Sydney, Sydney,
Australia.. Seminar on "Burma's
Democracy Movement ," July 8, 1994. I gave keynote address, The Political Situation in Burma Today.
9. Humanities Resource Center, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. Conference on "Idea of freedom in Asia." July 4-6, 1994. I read paper, The Idea of Freedom in Burma and the Political Thought of Aung San Suu
Department of State, Meridian International Center,
Washington. "Conference on Narcotics
September 17, 1993. I read
a paper. Building on Brang Seng's Kachin Independence Army Initiative.
11 Carter Center, Atlanta,
GA. "Conference on Resolving
Intra-national Conflicts." Feb.
17-19, 1993. I was the commentator on the Burma
12. University of Windsor,
Conference on "The Political Economy of Southeast Asian
Foreign Policy in the 'New World Order." Oct. 29- Nov.2, 1992. I read a paper: Burmese Foreign Policy.
College, Ninth Annual Conference on
"Ethnic Conflict: Challenges to U.S.
Security? June 22-24, 1992.
I read paper, Ethnic Conflict in Southeast Asia.
International Conference on "Constitution Drafting for the future Union of
Burma. Chiang Mai, Thailand,
June 10-19, 1992. I lead
discussion and offered a country report at the outset of the conference.
15. Working Group for Indigenous Peoples and X Minus Y
Conference. "Toward a Democratic and Sustainable Burma."
May 30-31, 1992. I read
paper, Burma in an International Perspective.
16. Carter Center, Atlanta, GA, Conference
on Resolving Intranational Conflict, Jan. 15-17, 1992. I read a paper, Burma:
An Action Paper.
17. St. Anthony's College, Oxford
University, Conference on Burma
Challenges and Opportunities for the 1990s. Dec. 13-15, 1991. I read paper; Civil War, the Minorities and the New Politics of Burma.
18. Strategic and Security Studies, University
of Kabangsaan, Malaysia
Workshop on Rethinking Political Development in Southeast Asia.
East Malaysia, May
10-13, 1991. I critiqued paper on Burma
and summed up at the end of the conference.
19. Defense Intelligence
College and U.S.
Pacific Command Conference on "Changing East-West Relations; Implications
for East and Southeast Asia. Honolulu,
April 22-24, 1991. I
participated in panel on simmering insurgencies.
20. Evangelische Akademie Hofgeismar, Germany.
Conference on "Myanmar/Birma: Das Ringen um Demokratie
und Frieden mit dem Mindezheiten. March 22-24, 1991. I read paper, The Minorities in Burma: Civil War, Peace and a Responsible Role
for the International Community.
21. The Asia Society/Southern California
Center, UCLA International Students
and Overseas Program and the Burma
Forum. UCLA Faculty
Center, Feb. 23, 1991. Conference on
"Prospects for liberalization, Political Change and Human Rights in
Burma/Myanmar." I read paper on The Provisional Government, Civil War and International Involvement, or the
Lack of It.
22. The Forum, Institute of Politics, J.F.Kennedy
School of Government, Harvard University, Harvard University Forum on "Why
is the World Ignoring Burma?: The Crisis in Amnesty International's Priority
Country in 1991." I spoke on The
Provisional Government of Burma's Challenge to the Military Dictatorship.
23. Institut Kajian strategik Dan Antarabangsa, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. "International Seminar on Asean and Wider Southeast
Asia." July 11-13, 1990. I read paper: Myanmar (Burma's) Six Domestic Challenges in the 1990s.
24. Association for Asian Studies, Chicago
7, 1990. I read paper, Aung
San Suu Kyi: Is She Burma's Woman of Destiny?
25. Albert Einstein Institution, Boston. "National Conference on Nonviolent Sanctions in Conflict and Defense."
Feb. 8-11, 1990. I
participated in panel on Strategic
Analysis of Nonviolent Struggle.
26. International Institute for Strategic Studies,
International Security in Southeast Asia. "Current Problems and Prospects for Resolution." July 3-6, 1989. I critiqued the Burma
College and U.S.
Pacific Command Conference on "Philippines
in a Changing Southeast Asia." Honolulu,
Feb.27-Mar. 1, 1989. I read a paper, Insurgency and Revolution in Burma.
28. International Seminar on the Current Situation in Burma.
July 22-24, 1988. I read a
paper, Burma: July 1988: an Overview.
29. Association for Asian Studies, San
25, 1988. I read a paper: From
a Political to an Administrative State: Whatever Happened to Democracy?
30. Aspen International Conference on Burma
Studies. Wye Plantation,
Maryland, June 23-25, 1986. I was a discussion leader.
31. Conference on Protest Movements in South and Southeast
Asia. "Traditional and Modern Idiom of
Expression." Centre for Asian Studies, University
of Hong Kong, Jan. 6-8, 1986. I read a paper, Protest in Burma: Its Causes and Solutions.
32. Conference on Contemporary state in Southeast Asia,
Center for Asian Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. April 25-26, 1986. I read a paper, The Military as Modernizer: A Report on the
33. Institute of Southeast
Asian Studies. Singapore,
"Conference on the View Beyond Armed
Instability." Dec. 11-13, 1985.
I read a paper, National Unity in Burma: Is it Possible?
34. Mid-Atlantic Association for Asian Studies Annual
Meeting, Washington. Oct. 25, 1985.
I read a paper, The Fifth Party Congress
35. Mid-Atlantic Association for Asian Studies Annual
Meeting, Princeton. Nov. 9, 1984. I read a paper on Problems of Political Succession in Burma.
36. Association for Asian Studies, Chicago.
April 2-4, 1982. I read a
paper: Burma Through the Prism
of Western Literature.
Institute of Asian Studies, Calcutta. Jan. 24-26., 1982. Read two
papers at its opening. Southeast Asia
Today and Southeast Asia between Three Powers, Why not Four?
38. East Asia Institute, Columbia
University. Mar. 2, 1982. Read paper: Where is Vietnam in U.S. Policy?
39. University of Connecticut History Department Colloquium.
April 30, 1981. Read paper:
The Military and Foreign Policy in Burma and Indonesia.
40. Association of Asian Studies, Washington,
March 21-23, 1980. Read
paper: Minority Problems in Burma Since 1962.
41. Association of Asian Studies, Los
Angeles, April 1, l979. Read paper: David Marshall and the Working of the Rendall Constitution.
42. Asia Society Symposium
Commemorating the 68th Birthday of U Thant. United Nations, January 21, 1977. Read paper: U Thant's Place in History.
43. Ohio university Center for
Southeast Asian Studies, "National Conference on an Emerging Center for
World Influence." Athens, Ohio,
May 7-8, 1976. Read paper, Burma and Malaysia: Two Approaches to National Integration.
44. International Studies Association, Washington. Feb. 20-23, 1975. Read paper; Students and Politics in Southeast Asia.